Name: Syafiqah Lyana binti

Shamsuri
Form: 2 Jujur (2007)
Chapter: Sun and Galaxies (9)

Mass:
1.99 x 1030
kg

Diameter:
about
1 400 00 km =
100 x the
Earth diameter

Density:
about
1500 kg/m3
Produces a strong
gravitational forces =
about 28 times greater
than the gravitational
force produces by the
Earth

Temperature:
Surface-6000C
Centre of the
Sun-

•Surface of the Sun
•About 500km thick
•Consists of dense
gases
•The temperature is
about 6000C

•Outermost layer
•Extends hundreds of
kilometers from the
centre of the Sun
•The temperature can
reach
2 000 000C

•Middle layer
•Can only be
seen during an
eclipse
•The
temperature
about 15 000C

Prominences
Throw out matter from the Sun into space at
speeds from 600km/s to more than 1000km/s
Last for a few days or even for a few month

Sunspots
Dark areas on the Suns
Cooler than the surrounding areas
May last for more than a week

Solar Flares
 violent and spectaculars gas explosion
that often occurs near sunspots
 made up of numerous charged gaseous
particles from the Sun shooting outward at high
speed into outer space
 interact with Earth’s magnetic field producing
dazzling light display called aurora

Aurora
Borealis,
(northern light)

Aurora
Australis,
(southern
light)

 Composition of Sun is

 Temperature reach

helium and hydrogen
 Because of the
temperature, thermonuclear
reactions occur in the Sun’s
core
@ Release large amount
of heat and light energy

15 000 000 C
 Energy from the core is
distributed by the
processes of radiation and
convection
 Sun energy is emitted as
electromagnetic waves

Star with
mass
<1.4 x
Sun’s
mass

Star with mass 1.4
to 3.0 x Sun’s mass

Star with
mass
>3 x
Sun’s
mass

 The diagram above shows the formation and death of stars
 Stars begin as a large cloud of gas and dust called nebula
 After ten thousands of year collapse, a hot core will be formed
 When the supply of gas in a star runs out, the star dies
 When a star with a mass of up to 1.4 times the Sun’s mass,
it’s will become a red giant
 The red giants then contracts, releasing its gas and turns into
white dwarf

When a star with mass of between 1.4 and 3.0 times the Sun’s
mass, it will become red giant then continues swell even more to
become supergiant
 The supergiant then explodes producing supernova
 As the supernova collapse, a neutron star is formed

When a star with mass of more than 3.0 times the Sun’s
mass, it swell up become red giant then become supergiant
 The supergiant then explodes producing supernova
 As the supernova collapse, its core becomes so massive that
its gravity sucks everything including light into it
 The core is called a black hole

 Stars are grouped together in vast collections
called galaxies
 Our Solar System with only one star, the Sun,
forms a tiny part of galaxy called the Milky Way
 Galaxy are classified into various type based on
the shaped.
 Three common types of galaxies are spiral,
elliptical and irregular shaped

 Large galaxy with 20 000
to 100 000 light years of
Diameter
 Disc-shaped with
@ centre : older stars
@ spiral arms : new stars,
gases and dust
 30% of galaxies are
spiral

 Diameter of galaxy is
3 000 to 10 000 light years
 Smooth and rounded or
oval in shape
 Brightest at the centre
and fades towards the
edge
 Consists of mainly old
Star
 60% of galaxies are
elliptical

 Diameter of this galaxy is
25 000 to 32 000 light
years
 No definite shape and
exists in various forms
 Consists of bluish-white
stars (young star) and
nebulae
 10% of galaxies are
irregular

 A spiral-shaped galaxy with a diameter of 100 000 light
years and is about 10 000 light years thick
 Consists of old stars at the centre at the center and nebulae
(dust and gases) at spiral arms
 Stars in Milky Way galaxy are so close together and
observed as hazy patches
 The Sun is 30 000 light years from the center of Milky Way
 The Sun takes 200 million years to orbit the centre of the
Milky Way

Sunlight is essential for
photosynthesis

Main Source
of Energy

Causes water to
evaporate
• produces rain

Encourage the development
of technologies based
on the Moon travelling

Affect the occurance of
ocean tidal

Calendars based on
phases of the Moon

Nobody knows exactly how the
Universe began or how it will
end.
 Among the various scientific
theories about the formation of
the Universe, the most widely
accepted scientific theory is the
Big Bang theory
 According to the Big Bang
theory, about 12 billion to 15
billion years ago, our
Universe began with
enormous explosion. Since
then, the Universe has
forever been expanding
everywhere at the same
time