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TABLE OF CONTENTS
OBJECTIVES.........................................................................................................2 ABSTRACT............................................................................................................2 7.1 FREDERICK HERZBERG ...............................................................................3 7.2 MAX WEBER....................................................................................................4 7.3 HAROLD KOONTZ..........................................................................................5 7.4 JOHN P. KOTTER............................................................................................6 7.5 WARREN BENNIS ..........................................................................................8 7.6 CHARLES C. MANZ .....................................................................................10 ADDITIONAL MATERIALS..................................................................................11
At the end of this topic, you will be able to: • Enable learners to understand the lives, philosophies, ideas and contributions of Other Management Gurus • Enable learners to assess and evaluate the importance and impact of those ideas in organizations and society • Enable learners to relate the ideas to other management gurus from other disciplines of knowledge • Enable learners to apply the best and the most relevant concepts formulated by management gurus and thinkers in behaviors and practices in daily lives.
Other management gurus that contributed their ideas on management and basically interrelated to each other.
7.1 FREDERICK HERZBERG
Frederick Herzberg, psychology by training and a university professor, studied motivation at work that affecting a worker's performance. He found that certain factors tended to cause a worker to feel unsatisfied with his or her job. He also developed a theory based on this observation, naming it the "Hygiene Theory." Frederick Herzberg Herzberg was born in Lynn, Massachusetts on April 18, 1923. He did his undergraduate work at CCNY and then obtained graduate degrees at the University of Pittsburgh. Prior to his move to Utah, Herzberg was professor of management at Case Western Reserve University where he established the Department of Industrial Mental Health. In The Virginian-Pilot it was noted that "The Father of Job Enrichment" and the originator of the "Motivation-Hygiene Theory" "became both an icon and a legend among post-war visionaries such as Abraham Maslow, Peter Drucker and Douglas McGregor. In academic, management and scholarly circles, the mention of the surname 'Herzberg' alone was sufficient to indicate an awareness and knowledge of his concepts and contributions. In 1995, the International Press announced that his book, ''Work and the Nature of Man'', was listed as one of the ten most important books imparting management theory and practice in the 20th century. Motivation at Work Herzberg's theory of motivation at work, also called ''actualization-atmosphere'' factors, is based on the hierarchical human needs approach, as well as on study of the great biblical myths of Adam Smith and Abraham Maslow. The actualization factors are work and all forms of gratitude achieved through work. Acting upon these factors allows one to modify individual behavior at work in a deep and long-lasting manner. The atmosphere factors are remuneration, job security, and management policy in the company and relations between colleagues. Acting on these factors only gives temporary satisfaction and does not modify behavior on a long-term basis. The implicit hypothesis in Herberg's work - that a person should grow through their work - and its applications in the organization of companies had considerable success in the 1970s. The management of companies put in place policies of job enrichment and enlargement of tasks, polyvalency and job rotation. Hygiene Theory According to Herzberg theory, for a worker to be happy and therefore productive, these environmental factors must not cause discomfort. Although the elimination of the environmental problems may make a worker productive, it will not necessarily motivate him. The question remains, "How can managers motivate employees?" Many managers believe that motivating employees requires giving rewards. Herzberg, however, believed that the workers get motivated through feeling responsible for and connected to their work. In this case, the work itself is rewarding. Managers can help the employees connect to their work by giving them more authority over the job, as well as offering direct and individual feedback.
7.2 MAX WEBER
Max Weber, known as the Father of Modern Sociology and has been best known for his work on bureaucracy. He believed that bureaucracy as the most logical and rational structure for large organizations. Bureaucracies are founded on legal or rational authority, which is based on law, procedures, rules, and so on. Positional authority of a superior over a subordinate stems from legal authority. Charismatic authority stems from the personal qualities of an individual. All have in common the fact that they are formally rational structures that constrain the individuals within them to act in a rational manner by pursuing ends through the choice of the most direct and efficient means. Max Weber Weber was born in Germany in 1864. He studied law and went on to do graduate work with a dissertation on medieval trading companies in Italy and Spain. He was appointed to a chair in political economy at Freiburg in 1894 and to another chair in political economy at Heidelberg in 1896. He suffered a nervous breakdown in 1898 and did not continue his scholarly work until 1904. From 1904 on he was a private scholar, mostly in Heidelberg. He died in 1920. Rational Structures The structures, as well as the process of formal rationalization in general, can be seen as being defined by several dimensions. • First, formally rational structures emphasize calculability, or those things that can be counted or quantified. The focus on quantity tends to lead to a de-emphasis on quality. • Second, there is a focus on efficiency, or finding the best means available to an end. • Third, there is great emphasis on predictability, or being sure that thing operates in the same way from one time to place to another. • Fourth, they're an emphasis on the control over, and ultimately replacement of, humans by non-human technologies. • Finally, and reflective of Weber's profound ambivalence about the rationalization process, is the tendency of formally rational systems to have irrational consequences, in other words, the irrationality of rationality. Efficient Efficiency in bureaucracies comes from: • clearly defined and specialized functions • use of legal authority • hierarchical form • written rules and procedures • technically trained bureaucrats • appointment to positions based on technical expertise • promotions based on competence • clearly defined career paths
7.3 HAROLD KOONTZ
Harold Koontz had a remarkable career in working with top managers in business and government and in teaching and writing in the field of the management of organizations. His first book, Men, Groups and the Community was produced in 1939 with T. H. Robinson and others. At the time of his death he had written and revised, with other authors, twenty-five books. A number of his books were milestones in management literature but the most outstanding, written with Prof. Cyril O'Donnell and later Prof. Hans Weihrich, was Principles of Management. The book, first published in 1955, is now in its eighth edition and has been translated into fifteen foreign languages. Prof. Koontz was a keynote speaker and invited lecturer both in the United States and abroad at numerous universities, scholarly meetings, executive seminars and business conventions. His speaking and writing were based on earlier full-time employment in many companies, service on the boards of directors of several business organizations, and international management consulting. Harold Koontz Professor Emeritus Harold Koontz was born in 1908. Prof. Koontz started as a professor of Management in the UCLA School of Business (now the Graduate School of Management) in 1950, after extensive business experience and government service. He retired in July 1979. He died on February 11, 1984, at the age of 75. Books A number of his other books broke new paths in management thought. Two are particularly noteworthy. In 1964, with other authors, Prof. Koontz sought to build a unified management discipline from the many different approaches to management with the publication of ''Towards a Unified Theory of Management''. In 1975, with Prof. Robert Fulmer, he published ''A Practical Introduction to Business'', now in its fourth edition, which was an instant success in universities and colleges. He consistently contributed to the analysis and study of management through the publication of ninety articles in professional and scholarly journals. Prof. Koontz's scholarship and professional contributions were recognized with many personal honors of which the most noteworthy was his association with the Academy of Management. In 1957, he was named a fellow of the Academy of Management, and in 1962, a fellow of the International Academy of Management. During his tenure as President of the Academy of Management (1963) he began the work which led to the establishment of regional divisions of the Academy which are now the major organizational strength of the Academy. From 1975 to 1982 he served as Chancellor of the International Academy of Management.
7.4 JOHN P. KOTTER
John P. Kotter is widely regarded as one of the best speakers in the world on the topics of leadership and change. When Kotter began studying managers, he noted that effective managers behaved in a typical ways. He concluded that the differences were related to the individual's capacity for leadership, and particularly to the individual's ability to create change. Kotter summarizes his thirty years of research in a set of ten observations. In the past twenty-five years, Kotter has written seven business books that have received awards or honors. More than a half dozen of his books have also been business best sellers, including Leading Change, Corporate Culture and Performance, and A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management. He has also created two highly acclaimed executive videos and a CDROM. His educational articles in the Harvard Business Review over the past twenty years have sold more reprints than any of the hundreds of distinguished authors who have written for that publication during the same time period. John P. Kotter John P. Kotter is Konosuke Matsushita Professor of Leadership at the Harvard Business School. He is a graduate of MIT and Harvard and has been on the Harvard Business School faculty since 1972. In 1980, at the age of 33, he was given tenure and a full professorship at the Business School, making him one of the youngest people in the history of the University to be so honored. Kotter won many honors include an Exxon Award for Innovation in Graduate Business School Curriculum Design, a Johnson, Smith & Knisely Award for New Perspectives in Business Leadership, a McKinsey Award for best Harvard Business Review article, and a Financial Times Global Business Book Award for Matsushita Leadership. Effective Managers According to Kotter, daily activities of effective managers rarely resemble stereotypes of managers, leaders or executives. However, their seemingly disjointed conversations, interruptions and joking around make a lot of sense in the context of the complex, difficult and diverse agendas they must implement in order to be effective. Ten Observations 1. Successful change requires a complex and time-consuming, multi-stage process. Managers must create urgency, build a strong team, create and communicate a vision, empower individuals, deliver short-term results, build momentum, and ensure that new behaviors become part of the culture. 2. Some of the ingredients to successful change vary with the situation, and good leaders are able to distinguish what is required in a particular situation and resist the "one-sizefits-all" approach. 3. Even effective managers with good intentions make predictable errors in attempting to create change. 4. Frequently the problems associated with creating change are a result of applying management skills to creating a change rather than the required leadership skills. For example, structure and systems may be over-emphasized and communicating and networking under-emphasized. 5. The increasing pace of change means that all managers are being called upon to do the work of leadership. 6. Managers are therefore required to create budgets and visions, develop formal organizations and informal networks, and motivate others using both management controls and inspiration. 7. Managers are now required to work in and through a complex web of relationships in addition to the formal organizational structure.
8. Rather than exercising formal power over others, managers must increasingly recognize and manage their informal dependence on others. 9. Networks, dependence and leadership place a renewed emphasis on traditionally nonmanagerial tasks such as managing the boss or building organizational capacity outside your own domain. 10. There is a dramatic shortage of effective leaders in organizations, a problem exacerbated by the increasing pace of change, competitive forces, technology and globalization. Leadership is poorly understood, too often confused with management, and rarely, if ever, effectively taught.
7.5 WARREN BENNIS
Warren Bennis most recent books, "Organizing genius: the secrets of creative collaboration" (1997) and "Co-leaders" (1999), focus on his major interests of leadership, change, great groups and powerful partnerships. He had studied the concept of leadership in big business for decades. Bennis's work showed that leaders need a clear vision and purpose, and a powerful point of view that drives their organization. But they also need to recognize their own limitations and pare their list of objectives to the bare essentials. Most recently, Bennis has switched his attention to the dynamics of group working. The relationship between groups and their leaders is clearly a fundamental interest to Bennis. The leader is the one who recruits the others; by making the vision so palpable and seductive that they see it, too, and eagerly sign up. Inevitably, the leader has to invent a leadership style that suits the group. The heads of groups have to act decisively, but never arbitrarily. They have to make decisions without limiting the perceived autonomy of the other participants. Devising and maintaining an atmosphere in which others can put a dent in the universe is the leader's creative act. Warren Bennis Bennis is a Ph.D. is University Professor and Distinguished Professor of Business Administration at the University of Southern California and the founding chairman of USC's Leadership Institute, one of the world's foremost authorities on business culture and leadership. He has written 18 books including: ''On Becoming a Leader'' (which was translated into 19 languages), ''Why Leaders Can't Lead'', and ''The Unreality Industry'', co-authored with Ian Mitroff. He has published over 900 articles and two of his books have earned the coveted McKinsey Award for the Best Book on Management. He has served in an advisory capacity to the past four U.S. presidents (for better or worse) and consulted to many corporations and agencies and to the United Nations. Bennis was successor to Douglas McGregor as chairman of the organization studies department at M.I.T. He also taught at Harvard and Boston Universities. Later, he was Provost and Executive Vice President of the State University of New York-Buffalo and President of the University of Cincinnati. Awarded 11 honorary degrees, Bennis has also received numerous awards including the Distinguished Service Award of the American Board of Professional Psychologists and the Perry L. Rohrer Consulting Practice Award of the American Psychological Association. Leadership Bennis argued that leadership: • is not a rare skill; leaders are made rather than born; leaders are usually ordinary people or apparently ordinary rather than charismatic • leadership is not solely the preserve of those at the top of the organization it is relevant at all levels • finally, that leadership is not about control, direction and manipulation. From the leaders, four common abilities were identified: management of attention; of meaning; of trust; and of self. • Management of attention is, says Bennis, a question of vision. Indeed, he uses a definition of leadership as: 'The capacity to create a compelling vision and translate it into action and sustain it.' Successful leaders have a vision that other people believe in and treat as their own. Having a vision is one thing, converting it into successful action is another.
• • •
The second skill shared by Bennis' selection of leaders is management of meaning communications. Bennis believes effective communication relies on the use of analogy, metaphor and vivid illustration as well as emotion, trust, optimism and hope. The third aspect of leadership identified by Bennis is trust, which he describes as 'the emotional glue that binds followers and leaders together'. Leaders have to be seen to be consistent. The final common bond between the 90 leaders studied by Bennis is 'deployment of self'. The leaders do not glibly present charisma or time management as the essence of their success. Instead, the emphasis is on persistence and self-knowledge, taking risks, commitment and challenge but, above all, learning. 'The learning person looks forward to failure or mistakes,' says Bennis. 'The worst problem in leadership is basically early success. There's no opportunity to learn from adversity and problems.' Finally, the leaders have a positive self-regard, that Bennis labels 'emotional wisdom'. This is characterized by an ability to accept people as they are; a capacity to approach things in terms of only the present; an ability to treat everyone, even close contacts, with courteous attention; an ability to trust others even when this seems risky; and an ability to do without constant approval and recognition.
Dynamics of Group Working Bennis says that "Greatness starts with superb people. Great groups don't exist without great leaders, but they give the lie to the persistent notion that successful institutions are the lengthened shadow of a great woman or man.
7.6 CHARLES C. MANZ
Charles Manz, a management professor, author, speaker and consultant has been working for many years to enhance the effectiveness of people in their lives and work. He has written numerous books and articles on self-leadership, leadership, work teams and employee empowerment to help organizations and their members to prepare for the 21st century and beyond. Most of his research works are related to leadership and empowerment. His teaching interest also focusing on leadership and empowerment, work teams and organizational behavior. Research His research interests: • Self-leadership and empowering leadership • Empowered work teams and spirituality work • Executive fitness • Knowledge management
ADDITIONAL MATERIALS • • • •
http://ollie.dcccd.edu/mgmt1374/book_contents/1overview/management_history/mgmt_hi story.htm http://sunsite.berkeley.edu:2020/dynaweb/teiproj/uchist/inmemoriam/inmemoriam1985/@ Generic__BookTextView/4611 http://www.som.umass.edu/som/academic/dept/management/faculty/manz.html http://www.ceoreview.com/books/kotteronleadership.htm
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