Introduction To Microgrid

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Out li ne
Introduction to Microgrid. Microgrid Operating Modes. The Need of Microgrid. Interconnected Microgrids – Power Parks. Environmental Aspects. Conventional Grid versus Microgrid. Advantages & Disadvantages of Microgrid. Future Directions on Microgrid Research. References.
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Introductio n To Mic ro grid
What is Microgrid?
It is a small-scale power supply network that is

designed to provide power for a small community.

It enables local power generation for local loads. It comprises of various small power generating

sources that makes it highly flexible and efficient.

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Introductio n To Mic ro grid
What is Microgrid?
It is connected to both the local generating units

and the utility grid thus preventing power outages.

Excess power can be sold to the utility grid. Size of the Microgrid may range from housing

estate to municipal regions.

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Introductio n To Mic ro grid
Microgrid Components
Distributed Generation Loads Immediate storage Controller Point of Common Coupling

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Typical Microgrid is shown below:

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Pomelo, Indonesia - Village microgrid

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Micr ogrid Ope ra tin g Mod es
Grid Connected Mode:
 Utility grid is active.  Static switch is closed  All the feeders are being

supplied by utility grid.

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Micr ogrid Ope ra tin g Mod es
Island Mode:
 Utility grid is not supplying power  Static switch is open.  Feeder A, B, C are being supplied

by Microsources.
 Feeder D (not sensitive )

is dead.
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The Ne ed Of Mic rog ri d
Microgrid could be the answer to our energy

crisis.
Transmission losses gets highly reduced. Microgrid results in substantial savings and cuts

emissions without major changes to lifestyles.

Provide high quality and reliable energy supply

to critical loads
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Interco nn ected Mic rog ri ds
Interconnected Microgrids – Power Parks
Practical size of Microgrids is limited to a few

MVA.
For larger loads, it is desirable to interconnect

many Microgrids to form a larger Microgrid network called Power Parks.

insures greater stability and controllability for the 08/26/09 11 Power Parks.

The advantages of this Microgrid structure

En vir onm ent al Aspe cts
Microgrid encourages the use of the renewable

energy sources.
Large land use impacts are avoided. CO2 Emissions are reduced.

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Con vent ion al Grid v s. Micr ogrid
Efficiency of conventional grid is very low as

compared to Microgrid.
Large amount of energy in the form of heat is

wasted in conventional grid.

Power sources in case of Microgrid (often

referred to as Microsources) are small and are located in close proximity to load.
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Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Advantages
 A major advantage of a Microgrid, is its ability, during

a utility grid disturbance, to separate and isolate itself from the utility seamlessly with little or no disruption to the loads within the Microgrid. reducing the load on the grid.

 In peak load periods it prevents utility grid failure by

 Significant environmental benefits made possible by

the use of low or zero emission generators.

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Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Advantages
The use of both electricity and heat permitted by

the close proximity of the generator to the user, thereby increasing the overall energy efficiency.
Microgrid can act to mitigate the electricity costs

to its users by generating some or all of its electricity needs.

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Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Disadvantages
 Voltage, frequency and power quality are three main

parameters that must be considered and controlled to acceptable standards whilst the power and energy balance is maintained. thus requiring more space and maintenance.

 Electrical energy needs to be stored in battery banks

 Resynchronization with the utility grid is difficult.

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Ad van tage s & Disadvant age s
Microgrid Disadvantages
 Microgrid protection is one of the most important

challenges facing the implementation of Microgrids. may pose obstacles for Microgrid.

 Issues such as standby charges and net metering

 Interconnection standards needs to be developed to

ensure consistency. IEEE P1547, a standard proposed by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers may end up filling the void.

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Fut ure Dire ction s on Micr ogrid Re se arc h
 To investigate full-scale development, field demonstration,

experimental performance evaluation of frequency and voltage control methods under various operation modes.

 Transition between grid connected and islanded modes on

interaction phenomena between distribution generation and high penetration of distributed generation.

Transformation of Microgrid system today into the

intelligent, robust energy delivery system in the future by providing significant reliability and security benefits.
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Re fere nces
 A. A. Salam, A. Mohamed and M. A. Hannan. "TECHNICAL

CHALLENGES ON MICROGRIDS" (DECEMBER 2008)

http://www.arpnjournals.com/jeas/research_papers/rp_2008/jeas_1208_146.pdf

 S. Abu-Sharkha, R.J. Arnolde, J. Kohlerd, R. Lia, T. Markvarta, J.N.
http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/11276/1/Microgrids.pdf

Rossb, K. Steemersc, P. Wilsonb, R. Yaoc. "Can microgrids make a major contribution to UK energy supply?" (September 2004)

 John Stevens. "Characterization of Microgrids in the United States",

Sandia National Laboratories (January 2005)

http://www.electricdistribution.ctc.com/pdfs/RDC_Microgrid_Whitepaper_1-705.pdf

University 08/26/09

 Robert H. Lasseter, Paolo Piagi. "Microgrid: A Conceptual Solution",

of Wisconsin-Madison (June 2004)

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Re fere nces
 "Integration of Distributed Energy Resources - The CERTS MicroGrid

Concept", Consultant Report (October 2003)

http://www.pserc.org/cgipserc/getbig/researchdo/certsdocum0/certspubli/certsmicrogridwhitepaper.pd f

 "Why the Microgrid Could Be the Answer to Our Energy Crisis"
http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/137/beyond-the-grid.html

 "How a Microgrid Works"
http://science.howstuffworks.com/microgrid.htm

 “The Rise of MicroGrid Power Networks"
http://www.sustainablefacility.com/Articles/Feature_Article/58905d08bd62901 0VgnVCM100000f932a8c0____
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Thank You

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Queries?
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