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Wazwan- Recipe Collection


Collected and Edited by
Subroto Ghosh

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Wazwan- Recipe Collection

Dear Friends,

At Essar Coil Club, we are organizing special theme dinner on every
Sunday. On 30/07/06, We had organized “WAZWAN- KASHIMIRI FOOD

For the same, we have collected and researched various recipes,
popular in Kashmir and specially known as Kashmiri dishes. The food
fest was a great success, appreciated by all guests.

So, at the end I have compiled all these recipes and made this
informative booklet, for reference. This may be used to organize an
authentic Kashmiri food festival at various sites.

I am very thankful to our client Mr. Sunil Ralph and Mr. Rajendra Bisht,
for providing us opportunity and perfect platform to do new
experiments and experiences.

I am also thankful to my senior Mr. T. M. Mohan, Manager-operation;
Mr. Suvir Krishnan- State Head, Gujarat, to extend all necessary
cooperation to organize these type of events.

I am also thankful to all my subordinates, especially Mr. Afroz Alam,
Mr. Abhilash, Mr. Bhupender Singh and Mr. Rajesh, for their
imaginations, creativity and their enthusiasm & energy to do
something different.

I wish a great success for RKHS team.

Subroto Ghosh
Unit Manager- Essar Coil Club

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Wazwan- Recipe Collection

Table of Contents

COLLECTED AND EDITED BY........................................................................................1

SUBROTO GHOSH...........................................................................................................1

'CHAMANI QALIYA'..........................................................................................................5

‘DAMA OLUV'....................................................................................................................7

'CHOEK VANGAN'............................................................................................................9

'MUJI CHETEIN'..............................................................................................................11

'MODUR POLAV'.............................................................................................................12

'NENI ROGAN JOSH'.....................................................................................................14


'KABARGAH TA TABAQ MAZ'......................................................................................18

'NENI QALIYA'................................................................................................................20

'NENI YAKHEAN'............................................................................................................22

PREPARATION OF MINCED MEAT ..............................................................................24

'ONION & SHALLOTS EMULSION'...............................................................................25

'GOASHTABA' ...............................................................................................................26

'RISTA' ............................................................................................................................28


TSCHUK WAANGUN......................................................................................................31

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HAAKH ...........................................................................................................................32

TSCCHUT GUGJI............................................................................................................34

BUZA WANGUN..............................................................................................................35

LEDAR CHAMAN ...........................................................................................................36

WUZIJ CHAMAN ............................................................................................................38


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'Chamani Qaliya'
('Qaliya' of Domestic Cheese) (Panir ka Qaliya')

• Ingredients

1. 'Panir' 1 Kg
2. Milk 1 Cup
3. Broken Dry Ginger, or Sliced Green Ginger 10 gm
4. Aniseeds, whole 10 gm
5. Salt to taste 1 to 2 tsps
6. Asafoetida a pinch
7. Turmeric 2 tsps
8. Curd 1 cup
9. Aniseed Powder 2 tsps
10. Ginger Powder 1 tsp
11. Mustard oil 1 tsp
12. Cumin Seeds 1 tsp
13. Cloves 3 nos
14. Caraway Seeds 1/2 tsp
15. 'Garam Masala' 1 tsp
16. Green Cardamom 6 nos
17. Black Cardamom, Cinnamon and Black Pepper Powders, each 1/2 tsp

• Preparation

Dice, with a sharp knife, the 'Panir' into about 3/4" cubes.

• Method of Cooking

In Kashmir, for preparing 'Qaliya', earthenware cooking vessels (a 'Deg' to cook 2
to 3 kg. 'Panir' and a 'Leij' for quantities upto 1 kg.), are usually used. The baked
clay imparts a special aroma to the 'Qaliya'. However, where an earthenware
vessel is not available, a steel or a tinned copper or brass 'Patila' is used.

1. In a 'Kadahi', deep fry, on medium heat, the diced 'Panir' in the Mustard oil, till
it turns golden yellow, and the edges of the pieces fry a little brown. While frying,
keep on turning the diced Cheese with a perforated ladle (H - 'Jharna'), so that it

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is fried uniformly. Take out the fried Cheese, after draining the oil by means of the
perforated ladle. Remove the 'Kadahi' from the stove.

2. Now, in a 'Patila', of about 3 litres capacity, boil for half an hour, the fried
Cheese, in a litre of water, after adding to it, the cup of Milk, broken Dry Ginger or
sliced Green Ginger, the Aniseeds, Turmeric, Salt and half a pinch of Asafoetida.

3. Strain the Soup through a colander or a cloth, and keep it in a bowl. Sort out
the Cheese pieces and keep in another bowl, and throw away the boiled Ginger,
Aniseeds and other sediments; left in the colander or the cloth.

4. To the strained Soup, add the Curd, Aniseed and Ginger Powders, after mixing
these with a spoon, or churning with a small churning stick (H - 'Biloni) into a
homogenous sauce. Pour this into the 'Patila' or an earthenware vessel, after
washing its inside. Resume heating it, and keep on stirring with a steel or wooden
ladle, so that the Curd does not crack and separate, till it comes to a boil. Add the
boiled Cheese pieces, and let boil for another 20 minutes.

5. Meanwhile alter straining the oil left over from frying of the Cheese, to remove
any sediments, heat it again in the 'Kadahi', and add to it Cloves, Cumin Seeds,
and the remaining half pinch of Asafoetida. Stir till the Cumin Seeds and Cloves
get a little fried, but not charred, and add this oil along with the Spices to the
boiling Cheese. Stir and let boil for five minutes more.

6. Add Caraway Seeds, somewhat crushed Green Cardamoms, the Black
Cardamom, Cinnamon and Black Pepper Powders, and also the 'Garam Masala'.
Mix gently with the steel or wooden ladle, and let the pot, after covering it with a
lid, simmer on very low heat for another 10 minutes. 'Chamani Qaliya' is ready.
Serve it piping hot, ladling directly on hot Plain Cooked Rice, as is usually done
in all Big Feasts and Dinners.

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‘Dama Oluv'
(Dam' Potatoes) (Dam Alu')

• Ingredients

1. Round Potatoes of uniform medium size 1 kg
2. Mustard oil 1 cup
3. Cumin Seeds 1 tsp
4. Cloves 3 nos
5. Asafoetida 1 pinch
6. Red Chili Powder 2 tsps
7. Turmeric 1/2 tsp
8. Ginger Powder 1 tsp
9. Aniseed Powder 1 tsp
10. Salt to taste 1 tsp
11. Curd 1/2 cup
12. 'Garam Masala' 1 tsp
13. Mixed Big Cardamom, Cinnamon and Black Pepper Powders 1 tsp

• Method of Cooking
1. Boil the Potatoes, in their jackets, in enough water to immerse these wholly, for
10 to 15 minutes, till these are done, and their skin can be peeled off easily.

2. Cool the boiled Potatoes in cold water, and peel these by using thumb and the
fore finger nails. Prick through the peeled Potatoes on all sides, with a sharpened
match stick or a thin twig.

3. In a 'Kadahi', deep fry the peeled and pricked Potatoes, in the Mustard oil, on
medium heat, turning these frequently with a perforated ladle (H- Jharna) till these
are uniformly fried to a golden yellow colour and lose almost all mois-ture and
become light. Take out of the oil with the perforated ladle, draining all oil, and
keep aside. Remove the 'Kadahi' from the stove.

4. Transfer the left over oil to a steel 'Patila', of about 2 litres capacity. Add Cloves,
Cumin seeds and Asafoetida, to the still hot oil. Stir with a ladle, and resume
heating, while adding Red Chili Powder and Turmeric, along with a tablespoon of
water. Stir again with a ladle, till oil takes colour of Chilies and Turmeric and
begins to separate. Now add, well beaten Curd to which a little water has been
added, along with Aniseed and Ginger Powders. Continue stirring till the Curd
and Spices blend together, with the oil.

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5. Add the fried Potatoes, and turn these with a broad steel spatula (H- 'Palta'), so
that the spiced sauce covers these all over, and the Potatoes get soaked in it. Add
enough water to immerse the Potatoes wholly, and cook on low heat, for half an
hour after covering the 'Patila' with a lid.

6. When the Spiced Gravy and oil, soaks to the very core of the Potatoes, and
these turn brown, also the gravy thickens, and oil begins to separate, add 'Garam
Masala', and the mixture of Cardamom, Cinnamon and Black Pepper Powders.
Turn gently with the spatula to let the Spices get mixed. 'Dama Olav' are ready.

In big Dinners, usually one 'Dam Alu', with a little thick gravy, is served to each
person. In Kashmir a Potato is called 'Oluv' (Singular), and Potatoes are called
'Olav' (Plural).

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'Choek Vangan'
(E-Sour Brinjals) (H- 'Khate Baingan')

It is a Dish generally served in Wedding Vegetarian Dinners and Feasts, a piece or
two to each guest. It is also prepared in small quantities for Domestic Meals,
usually as a Side Dish like a pickle.

'Vangun' is one Brinjal, and 'Vangan' more than one.

• Ingredients

1. Brinjals, preferably of long varieties 1/2 kg

2. Mustard oil 1 cup

3. Tamarind 100 gm

4. Sugar 2 tsp

5. Cumin Seeds 1/2 tsp

6. Cloves 2 nos

7. Asafoetida a pinch

8. Red Chili Powder 1 tsp

9.Turmeric 1 tsp

10. Ginger Powder 1/2 tsp

11. Aniseed Powder 1/2 tsp

12. 'Garam Masala' 1/2 tsp

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• Preparation

1. After cutting tips of the stems and the sepals, slice lengthwise the Brinjals
along with the stems, through the middle, into four or 8 sec-tions, each piece
about an inch across. If Black or White Round Brinjals are used, these have to be
sliced into more sections. Wash and keep aside in a colander to drain water.

2. Meanwhile, in a cup of boiling water, in a steel bowl, soak the Tamarind. When it
gets soft, mash it with the fingers, in the water in which it was soaked. Remove
from the Pulp the hull pieces, stones and strings by fingers or by strain-ing it
through a colander into another steel or glass bowl.

• Method of Cooking

1. In a steel 'Kadahi', on medium heat, deep fry the Brinjal Slices, turning these
often with a perforated ladle (H- 'Jharna'), so that these fry uniformly on all sides,
to a golden brown colour. Take these out with the help of the perforated ladle,
draining all oil.

2. After removing the 'Kadahi', for a minute or two, from the stove, in order to
bring down the temperature of the oil a bit, add Cumin Seeds, Cloves and
Asafoetida. Stir with a broad steel spatula (H- 'Palta'), while adding the Red Chili
Powder and Turmeric, along with a tablespoon of water. Resume heating while
stirring the Oil and the Spices till oil takes colour and begins to separate.

3. Add a cup of water and the Tamarind pulp, Sugar, Salt and Aniseed and Ginger
Powders. Mix with the spatula, and add the fried Brinjal Slices. Let boil for 15 to
20 minutes, turning the Brinjal Slices frequently with the spatula. When the gravy
thickens and oil begins to separate, add 'Garam Masala' and mix it with the
spatula. Stop heating and transfer to a steel bowl for service.

When fresh Brinjals are not available, even Dried Brinjal Slices (K- 'Vangan
Hachi'), after soaking these in hot water for about 15 minutes, are used.

Note: Radish Slices are also cooked as above, and the Dish is called 'Choeki
Muji'. (E- Sour Radish) (H - 'Khatti Muli').

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'Muji Chetein'
(E-Raw grated Radishes with Curd etc / Muli ka

This is a Side Dish and serves as an appetizer. It is served in Big Dinners, and
also used in Domestic Meals. White Round Radishes are generally used.
Sometimes Long or Red varieties are also used.

• Ingredients

1. Radishes without leaves 1/4 kg
2. Curd 1 cup
3. Red Chili Powder 1/2 tsp
4. Salt 1/2 tsp
5. Sugar 1/2 tsp
6. Caraway Seeds a pinch
7. Green Chilies 3 nos

• Preparation

1. Wash the Radishes. Cut off their Green tops, thin roots and side rootlets. Then
wash these with a light solution of Potassium Permanganate. Grate these by
means of a Grater (H--'Kadu Kash').

2. With a spoon mix the grated Radishes with the Curd, Red Chilies, Salt, Sugar
and Caraway Seeds, in a steel or glass Service Bowl, and garnish with washed
and finely chopped Green Chilies after slitting these and removing seeds. Usually
a tablespoon of this 'Rayita' is served to each person in a Dinner.

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'Modur Polav'
(Sweet Condimented 'Pulav' of 'Basmati Rice)
('Basmati' Chaval ka Mitha Pulav')

• Ingredients

1. Rice Basmati 1/2 kg
2. Sugar 3/4 kg
3. Pure 'Ghi' 250 gm
4. Almond Kernels 25 gm
5. Raisins 25 gm
6. Dry Dates 50 gm
7. Dry Coconuts 50gm
8. Shelled Musk Melon Seeds 25 gm
9. Black Cardamom 25 gm
10. Black Pepper Corns 10 gm
11. Cinnamon 5 gm
12. Green Cardamom 5 gm
13. Cassia Leaves 6 nos
14. Cloves 2 nos
15. Green Ginger 20 gm
16. Sugar Candy Crystals 25 gm
17. 'Kewra' Essence 5 drops
18. 'Saffron' (a pinch), or Lemon Yellow Edible Colour (a little)
19. Salt 1/4 tsp

• Preparation

1. Wash in several waters, and soak the 'Basmati' Rice, in 3/4 litre of water, for 2
hours before cooking.
2. Blanch the Almond Kernels and stem and wash the Raisins.

3. After soaking the Dates in water for an hour, rinse these in more water. Cut
each date lengthwise into 5 or 6 slices, discarding the stones and the horny tops.

4. Pare the Dry Coconut, and whittle it into thin shavings, of an inch in length.

5. Clean the shelled Musk Melon Seeds, by discarding any Seeds with shells,
shell pieces and also bad Seeds. Wash these.

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6. Take out Seeds of Black Cardamoms and clean these of the chaff. Crush these
Seeds, along with Pepper Corns into small granules.

7. Wash, scrape and chop the Green Ginger.

Keep together the above prepared Condiments (2 to 7) in a bowl.

• Method of Cooking

1. In a thick bottomed 'Patila', of about 3 litres and with a fitting lid, boil the
Basmati Rice in the very water in which it was kept soaking, till it is almost
cooked and all water is absorbed. Stir gently once or twice while boiling, so that
the Rice cooks uniformly. Remove 'Patila' from the stove.
2. Meanwhile in a Pan, put the Sugar and add a little more than a quarter of a litre
water, and the prepared Condiments, along with the Cinnamon pieces and Cassia
Leaves. Add also the Saffron, ore little Lemon Yellow Edible Colour. Stir, and boil
on a low flame till Sugar gets dissolved, and the Condiments also cook a little in
the Syrup.

3. Now transfer the somewhat cooked Rice to a basin, and add the Condimented
Syrup, along with the Green Cardamoms, after crushing these a bit. Add 'Ghi',
after heating it in a pan and adding the two cloves. Now, with a broad flat spatula
(H-'Palta'), gently mix the Rice, and the Condimented Syrup along with the 'Ghi'
and Cassica Leaves etc., and transfer all the things back to the 'Patila'. Cover its
mouth with the fitting lid. Put a 'rope' of kneaded wheat flour dough, between the
rims of the 'Patila' and the lid, and press it, to make the vessel almost air tight.

4. Resume heating the 'Patila', on a very low heat, and put a weight on the lid, so
that the kneaded flour packing sets as a gasket to stop the steam from escaping
easily. After 20 to 30 minutes of slow steam cooking remove the weight and the
lid, and see that the Rice is done to the very core, and all its grains, are separate
and become somewhat translucent. The very special aroma will denote that the
'Polav' is ready. Sometimes a little more heating, after sprinkling of little water,
may be necessary, if the Rice is not done properly. Just before serving, the
'Kewra' Essence and Sugar Candy Crystals are mixed with the 'Pulav'. Serve
piping hot.

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'Neni Rogan Josh'
( Rogan Josh of Mutton, /Gosht ka Rogan Josh')

• Ingredients

1.Mutton 1 kg 8. Turmeric 1/2 tsp
2. Mustard oil 1 tea cup 9. Dry Ginger Powder 2 tsps
3. Curd 1 tea cup 10. Aniseed Powder 2 tsps
4. Cloves 5 nos 11. Cumin Seeds 1 tsp
5. Salt 2 tsps 12. Garam Masala 1 tsp
6. Sugar 1 tsp 13. Ghi 1 tsp
7. Red Chili Powder 1 tbsp 14. Asafoetida Powder 1 pinch

• Method of Cooking
Take a heavy round bottomed 'Patila' of tinned brass or copper, of about 3 litres
capacity. If it is not available, then a thick steel or aluminium 'Patila' may be used.
Pour the Mustard Oil in it and heat it on moderate flame. Meanwhile anoint the
Meat pieces with the Curd nicely, so that all pieces get evenly covered by it. When
the foam disappears from the oil, add the Meat pieces covered with Curd, and
also any surplus Curd. Go on turning the Meat by means of a ladle or a broad
steel spatula, after adding the Cloves, Cumin Seeds, Salt and a pinch of
Asafoetida. When the liquid coming out of both the Meat and the Curd dries up,
and the Meat begins to get fried in the oil, continue turning it till Meat pieces turn
golden-brown. Now add half a cup of water, the Red Chili Powder, Turmeric and
the Sugar. Go on turning the Meat till it acquires a brownish red colour and
almost all water evaporates. Be careful that the Meat pieces do not stick to the
bottom of the 'Patila' and get charred.

Add again 2 cups of water, Dry Ginger and Aniseed Powders. Stir and mix well
and let simmer on low heat, till the Meat becomes tender and the gravy is red,
thick and oily. Now add the pure 'Ghi' and 'Garam Masala'. Cook for 2 or 3 minutes
more. 'Rogan Josh' is ready for serving. If this is not to be served immediately, or
is kept in a Refrigerator for later use, then before serving heat the 'Patila' on
medium heat again, after adding a tablespoon or two of water, while turning the
Meat till it boils again and no caking takes place at the bottom of the 'Patila'

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(Minced Mutton 'Kofta / 'Gosht ke Kofte')

There are several Dishes made out of Minced Meat. The mode of mincing, and
pounding into different textures etc., and spices used, varies according to
different varieties of Dishes to be cooked. 'Machh', also called 'Ganda Machh' or
'Kofta', is a popular preparation made for serving in big Dinners and Feasts, and
is also a welcome change in Daily Domestic Menus.

The lean Meat of Leg, Shank or Shoulder, is generally used for mincing, which is
done with a Chopping Knife on a Wooden Crosscut Block, usually of Mulberry or
Apricot wood. This mode of mincing makes the 'Machh' fine and granular.

If mincing is done by means of a machine, then such Minced Meat is
subsequently pounded, with Spices etc., in a Mortar with a Pestle (K-'Havan
Dasta'). This 'Machh' becomes fine but compact like dough.

• Ingredients


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1. Minced Meat Chopped Granular, or 6. Red Chilli Powder 1 tsp
Machine Minced and Pounded 1 kg 7. Asafoetida Solution 1 tsp
2. 'Ghi' or Mustard oil 1 tbsp 8. Curd 1 tbsp
3. Dry Ginger Powder 1 tsp 9. 'Garam Masala' 1 tsp
4. Aniseed Powder 1 tsp 10. Some extra oil for greasing the
5. Salt 1 tsp hands.

1. Mustard oil 1/2 cup 8. Sugar 1 tsp
2. Cloves 3 nos 9. Dry Ginger Powder 1 tsp
3. Cumin Seeds 1 tsp 10. Aniseed Powder 2 tsp
4. Asafoetida 1 tsp 11. Salt 1 tsp
5. Chilli Powder l/2 to 1 tbsp 12. 'Garam Masala' 1 tsp
6. Turmeric 1 tsp 13. 'Ghi' (Optional) 1 tbsp
7. Curd 1/2 tea cup

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• Preparation

1. For Making Granular 'Machh', in which case the fine mincing of meat is done
with a chopping knife, mix and knead all the ingredients (2 to 9). mentioned above
in Ingredients part A, with the Minced Meat. Divide into 30 to 40 portions, each
about the size of a small egg. After anointing a little oil on the right hand palm and
the front of its fingers, take each portion of the Minced Meat into the hand, one by
one, and by alternate-ly opening and half closing the fist, work each mass into a
'Kofta', about 3" long cylindrical piece, ovoid at the ends. The oiling of the palms
makes the 'Koftas' smooth and compact.
2. In case the mincing is done by a Machine, mix with the Minced Meat, items 2 to
9 of part A of Ingredients, and then pound nicely, by means of a Pestle and Mortar,
preferably a wooden Pestle and a stone Mortar, called 'Havan Dasta' or 'Chhota Ta
Niyam' in Kashmir, and 'Okhli' and 'Musal' in Hindi. Thus the ingredients will get
mixed uniformly and all turn into a finely beaten Mince. In this case also, 'Koftas'
are prepared as already described. Sometimes instead of mincing by a chopper
or a machine, lean pieces of Meat are pounded on a flat stone by a wooden
mallet, as in case of making 'Goashtaba', 'Rista' etc.

• Method of Cooking

Take a 'Patila' or 'Kadahi' of about 2 litres capacity. Now ingredients mentioned in
part B are used.. Pour the oil in the 'Patila' or 'Kadahi', and heat it till the froth
disappears and the oil begins to smoke. Remove the cooking vessel from the fire
for a minute or two, to lower a little the temperature of the oil. Add Cloves, Cumin
Seeds, and Asafoetida. Stir well. Then again, while stirring, add Chilli Powder,
Turmeric and a quarter cup of water. Again place the 'Patila' on the stove and
resume heating on medium flame. Go on stirring with a ladle till oil acquires a
reddish brown colour and begins to separate.
Add half a cup of well beaten Curd, and continue stirring till the Curd also gets a
little fried and all blends into thick reddish brown sauce. Now add half a litre of
water, Ginger Powder, Aniseed Powder and Salt. Stir and mix well. Place all the
'Koftas', one by one, gently in the vessel and let the whole boil slowly for 15
minutes to half an hour, till most of the water disappears and the gravy thickens
and oil begins to separate again. Add Pure 'Ghi' and the 'Garam Masala' and mix
it, by lifting the pot with a cloth or tongs and shaking it gently so that 'Koftas' do
not split. 'Machh' is now ready to be served.

If it is not to be served immediately, then in that case add 'Garam Masala' and
'Ghi' at the time of serving, while heating again the cooking pot on a low flame.
Sometimes an extra pinch, each of ground Big Cardamom Seeds and Cinnamon,
are also added at the end for additional aroma and flavour.

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'Kabargah Ta Tabaq Maz'
(Fried Pre-cooked Mutton Pieces) ( Kabargah ya Tabaq Maz')

It is a gravy-less Fried Meat preparation, generally served as a last Meat Course
by Kashmiri Pandits, and is very delicious.

• Ingredients

1. About 2" x 4" oblong pieces of Mutton from Ribs with fatty layer and skin
intact, and each piece with 2 or 3 Rib Bones. (25 to 30 pieces per kg.) 1 kg
2. 'Ghi' 250 gm
3. Curd 1 Cup
4. Red Kashrniri Chili Powder 2 tsps
5. Ginger Powder 1 tsp
6. Aniseed Powder 1 tsp
7. Turmeric 1 tsp
8. Asafoetida a pinch
9. 'Garam Masala' 1 tsp
10. Salt 2 tsps
11. Milk 1/2 tea cup
12. Cloves 2 nos

• Method of Cooking

1. In a 'Patila', of about 3 litres capacity, pour 1/2 litre of water, and the l/2 cup of
Milk. Add Turmeric, Ginger and Aniseed Powders along with Cloves, a tsp salt
and the Asafoetida. Stir and place the Meat pieces in the 'Patila', and boil on a
medium flame. After l/2 hour or so, when the Meat becomes tender, and almost all
water gets absorbed and evaporated, remove the 'Patila' from the stove and let it
cool down to some exetent.

2. In a bowl, add to the Curd, the Chili Powder, 'Garam Masala', and a tea spoon of
Salt, and make a batter of these by beating with a spoon, or by means of a hand
churner (H-'Biloni').

3. Take out the cooked Meat pieces from the little gravy left, which, after straining,
can be used for some soup or mixed with the above batter. Keep aside the Meat

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4. Heat the 'Ghi', in a 'Kadahi', on slow fire and deep fry the Meat pieces on by
one, after dipping each in the prepared batter. Fried brown, these 'Kabargah'
pieces are ready to be served piping hot.

'Tabaq Maz' varies from 'Kabargah', because of its last process of cooking.
Instead of deep trying in 'Ghi', as in case of 'Kabargah', in this case, the cooked
and battered pieces of cooked Meat, are placed in baked clay plates, called
'Tabaqs' or 'Tabchi' in Kashmiri, after smearing 'Ghi' inside the plates. Covering,
each plate with another 'Tabaq', the rims are sealed with kneaded wheat flour
dough. These 'Tabaqs' are then placed on a slow fire of live charcoals or
smokeless burning cow-dung cakes to that the Meat pieces get sauteed, in an
hour or so, to a deep brown colour. Some live coals are also placed on the top of
these 'Tabaqs'. This slow steam cooking of Meat getting grilled in earthenware
plates, imparts a special flavour and aroma to the Dish.

Remember that this Dish should always be served steaming hot.

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'Neni Qaliya'
(Mutton 'Qaliya / Gosht ka Qaliya )

• Ingredients

1. Meat 1 kg.
2. Suet and Fatty portions of Intestines (cut into pieces) 100 gm.
3. Milk 1 tea cup
4. Curd 1 tea cup
5. Green or Dry Ginger 2 pcs about 10 gm.
6. Aniseed unground 1 tbsp.
7. Cardamoms Big 2 nos.
8. Chili Powder 1/2 tsp.
9. Turmeric 1/2 tbsp.
10. Aniseed Powder 2 tsp.
11. Dry Ginger Powder 1 tsp.
12. 'Garam Masala' 1 tsp.
13. Green Cardamoms 10 nos.
14. Cloves 3 nos.
15. Caraway Seeds 1/2 tsp.
16. Asafoetida Powder 2 pinches.
17. Mustard Oil 1/2 tea cup.
18. Cumin Seeds 1 tsp.
19. Salt to taste about 2 tsps.

• Method of Cooking

1. In a steel or tinned brass or copper 'Patila' of about three to four litres capacity,
pour a litre of water and put in it the Meat, along with the Suet and Fatty Intestine
pieces. Add Green or Dry Ginger pieces, after crushing these a little by pounding.
Also add 2 tsps. each of Turmeric and whole Aniseeds, along with half a tea
spoon of Chili Powder, 2 crushed Big Cardamoms, 2 tsps of Salt and a pinch of
Asafoetida. Stir well and put the 'Patila', after covering it with a lid, on medium
heat to boil slowly for half an hour. Generally in Kashmir, to prepare this dish
earthenware vessels, a 'Leij' for a kg. and a 'Deg' for 3 to 5 kgs. of Meat, are used.
These give a special aroma to this cherished Dish, which is a must in all big

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2. Remove the vessel from the fire, and by straining through a colander or a
strainer or a coarse cloth, collect all the Soup in a bowl. Sort out all the semi-
cooked Meat pieces from the strained mass and discard all the boiled Ginger
pieces, Aniseed, Cardamoms, bone pieces etc. Wash the vessel and pour in it the
Soup. Add the Milk and Curd, after thoroughly churning these together along with
powdered Aniseed, remaining Turmeric and powdered Dry Ginger. Bring it to boil
again, while the contents of the 'Patila' are constantly being stirred by a wooden
or a steel ladle, so that the Curd and Milk do not crack, and separate from the
Soup. When a homogeneously blended gravy is formed, add the sorted and half
cooked Meat, Fatty Intestines and Suet. Occasionally stir the contents gently. Let
it simmer on low heat.

3. Meanwhile in a pan or a 'Kadahi' heat the Mustard Oil, till the foam disappears,
and after removing the pan from the fire, let the oil cool a bit. Add a pinch of
Asafoetida, Cloves and the Cumin Seeds. Stir till the Cloves, Cumin Seeds and
the Asafoetida gets fried but not charred. This imparts an aroma to the oil. Add
this oil along with fried Spices to the Meat, while it is simmering. Stir with a ladle
and let cook on low heat, till the Meat is tender. Now add 'Garam Masala' and
Caraway Seeds, and a bit crushed Green Cardamoms. Stir and remove the 'Patila'
from the fire for serving the Dish.

If the Dish is not to be served immediately, then the 'Garam Masala', Caraway
Seeds and Green Cardamoms, are added a little time before serving, while the
Dish is again brought to boil. 'Qaliya' should be piping hot while being served. In
feasts it is always served as a first course, directly ladling it on the 'Bata' (Plain
Cooked Rice).

Sometimes Saffron, some blanched Almond Kernels and a tablespoon of 'Ghi',
are also added, while the Meat is simmering. Then this Dish is called 'Dara Shahi
Qaliya'. The quantity of Green Cardamoms added, is also increased in that case.

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'Neni Yakhean'
(Mutton cooked with Curd / Gosht ki Yakhni')

Both Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian 'Yakhni' have a thick whitish and curdy
gravy. Curd is an integeral part in their preparation. No Chillies or Turmeric is
used. Plain Cooked Rice and 'Yakhni' form a very good combination. It is
especially liked by those who do not relish hot spicy dishes.

• Ingredients

1. Fatty Mutton cuts preferably from 3. Green Ginger (15 gm) or Dry
Breast, Neck, Tail piece and Loin, cut Ginger (7gm)
into 15 to 20 pieces 1 kg 4. Salt 2 tsp
2. Aniseed whole 2 tsp 5. Asafoetida a pinch

1. Mustard oil half tea cup 9. Aniseed Powder 2 tsps
2. Cumin Seeds 1 tsp 10. 'Garam Masala' 1 tsp
3. Cloves 5 nos 11. Caraway Seeds half tsp
4. Asafoetida a pinch 12. Green Cardamoms 10 nos
5. Curd half kg 13. Black Pepper Corns 1 tsp
6. Milk 1 tea cup 14. Black Cardamom Seeds 1 tsp
7. Sugar 1 tsp 15. Pure 'Ghi' (Optional) 1 tbsp
8. Dry Ginger Powder 1 tsp

• Preparation

1. From ingredient list 'A' shred timely the Green Ginger after scraping. If Dry
Ginger is used, pound it into small pieces.
2. From ingredients of list 'B', in a bowl, mix and churn together, with a churning
stick (H -'Biloni'), the Curd, Milk, Sugar, Ginger and Aniseed Powders. Keep it

3. Pound the Black Pepper Corns and Black Car-damom Seeds into a coarse
powder, and keep ready for use.

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• Method of Cooking

Take a tinned copper or brass or a stainless steel 'Patila' of about 3 litres
capacity. Put in it the Meat and add a litre of water, the whole Aniseeds, shredded
Green Ginger or broken Dry Ginger, Salt and Asafoetida powder. Place the 'Patila'
on the stove and let it boil on a medium flame for 1/2 hour or so till the Meat
become somewhat tender.
Remove, the 'Patila' from fire and let it cool a bit. Strain through a colander or a
cloth, collecting the Soup in a separate bowl. Sort out the Meat pieces, discarding
the boiled Aniseeds, Ginger and bone pieces etc. Add the soup to the churned
Curd, Milk, Ginger and Aniseed mixture and again mix it well with a ladle.

After cleaning the 'Patila', used for boiling the Meat, pour the Mustard oil in it and
heat it till the froth disappears and the oil begins to smoke a little. Remove the
'Patila' from the heat for a few minutes, to let the temperature of the oil come
down a bit. Add Cloves, Cumin Seeds and a pinch of Asafoetida and stir with a
steel or wooden ladle, till the Cloves and Cumin Seeds fry a bit, but do not get

Now add the mixture of Curd and Soup etc., and resume heating the 'Patila', while
continuing to stir the contents so that the Curd does not crack and separate.
Bring to a boil. When Curd, Soup etc. blend nicely, and the boiled Meat pieces. Let
boil for a little while stirring the contents with a ladle now and then. Now let the
Meat etc. simmer on low heat, till the gravy thickens, oil begins to show and the
Meat gets soft.

Remove from heat if the 'Yakhni' has to be served later. In that case, before
serving, heat the 'Patila' again on low flame and add the 'Garam Masala' ,
pounded Black Cardamom Seeds and Black Pepper Corns. Caraway Seeds and
the Green Cardamoms after crushing these a little . Pure 'Ghi' , if desired, may
also be added. After stirring gently and boiling for a minute serve hot . If the Dish
is to be served immediately after the gravy thickens, then these Condiments are
added that very time.

For cooking 'Yakhni' and 'Qaliya', both Non- vegetarian or Vegetarian, generally
an earthenware pot, a 'Leij' a 'Deg' or a 'Degul' is used in Kashmir.

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Preparation of Minced Meat
For 'Goashtaba' and 'Rista'

The following is a Recipe for only one kilogram of Minced Meat prepared for a
small Dinner or a Domestic Meal. The Ingredients are increased proportionally, for
larger quantities to be cooked for Big Dinners.

• Ingredients

1. Mutton or Goat's Meat, of Leg without bones, preferably freshly slaughtered
animal 1 kg
2. Suet (Fat around kidneys and from loins). Sometimes Clarified Butter ('Ghi') is
added partly in place of Suet. 250 gm
3. Ginger Powder 1 tsp
4. Aniseed Powder 1 tsp
5. Black Cardamom Seeds Crushed 1 tsp
6. 'Garam Masala' 2 tsps
7. Salt 1 tsp
8. Arrowroot Powder 1 tbsp
4Process of Mincing
For mincing, a Wooden Mallet (K-'Goshpar') and a Flat hard Stone is used.
1. Cut the Meat into about 1" cubic pieces, by a chopping knife, on a Wooden
2. Put the Suet in a bowl of hot water to warm it and make it soft.

3. Pound on the Flat Stone the Meat pieces, one at a time, alongwith a piece of
warm Suet, added at regular intervals, so that it goes with all the Meat and mixes
evenly. To begin, place one piece of Meat on the stone, and pound it by striking
with the Mallet two or three times. When it is well minced, add another piece of
Meat and pound as before. After three or four pieces get minced together, add a
piece of warm Suet, and again pound together to mix it evenly. Continue this
process till all the Meat and the Suet is pounded. Make a paste of Arrowroot,
Spice, 'Garam Masala' and Salt with a little water, and knead it into the Minced
4. Again, pound the mass on the Stone, to convert it into a homogeneous dough
like mass. This prepared Minced Meat, is then pressed by hands and rolled
between palms, into compact balls of 2" to 3" diameter, for making 'Goashtaba',
or rolled into smaller, a little flattened balls, for making 'Rista' or 'Palak-Rista'.

Nowadays, mincing of smaller quantities of Meat and Suet, is done by as Electric
Food Processor or an Electric Grinder, using a Chopping Blade.

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'Onion & Shallots Emulsion'

An Emulsion of Onions and Shallots, is used in most of the Mulsim Dishes, and is
prepared at the very start of a 'Vazavan' Dinner. In fact, this very skillfully
prepared seasoning imparts a special aroma and a distinct flavour to most of the
'Vazavan' Dishes, so much so that preparation of this Emulsion alongwith the
right method of using Garlic, is believed to be the secret of 'Vazavan' specialities.
Apart from a 'Vazavan', even in home cooking, one can find most women of
Kashmir, adept at cooking various delicious Dishes. The skill has been handed
over from mother to her daughters, and daughters-in-law or the younger sisters,
for genera-tions. Here also, Spices, Condiments and Seasoning play an important
part, in addition to their methods of Traditional Cooking.

• Ingredients
1. Onions 1 kg
2. Shallots (K-'Pran') 1 kg
3. Mustard Oil 1/2 kg
4. Clarified Butter 100 gm
Sometimes Suet is partly or wholly used in place of oil.

• Method of Preparation
1. Peel and cut off the hairy roots and green tops of Onions and Shallots. Chop
these, lengthwise, into uniform pieces.
2. In a 'Kadahi', heat the oil till foam disappears, and then add butter and Suet (if
used). Deep fry the chopped Onions and Shallots on medium heat, turning these
regularly by means of a per-forated ladle (H- 'Jharna'). When these turn golden-
brown and become crisp, strain oil, etc., thoroughly thorough a colander, or a
strainer. This oil can be used for cooking, or for future frying of Onions and

3. Grind these fried Onions and Shallots in a Stone Mortar by means of a Wooden
Pestle (H-'Havan Dasta'). Then, while adding enough hot water slowly, continue
grinding till it turns into a Milky Emulsion, which is now ready for use in various
Dishes as a seasoning. This Emulsion replaces Asafoetida used by Kashmiri

In daily Domestic Preparation of various Dishes, Onions, Shallots and also Garlic,
in smaller quantities, are fried and ground and made into an emulsion etc.,
according to the need, side by side, during cooking.

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Big Minced Meat Ball in White gravey

Goashtaba' is called by Muslims as 'The King of Dishes' or 'Dish of Kings'. It is
famous for its flavour and taste. It is served as the last Meat Dish in a 'Vazavan'
Feast, before the Dessert.

• Ingredients

1. Spiced and Condimented Minced Meat Sometimes Clarified Butter (H-'Ghi') is
substituted partly in place of Suet alone, to add to the flavour of the Mince. 1 kg
2. Curd 1.5 kg
3. Green Mint or Green Coriander sprigs 50 gm
4. 'Emulsion' of Shallots and Onions 4 tbsp
5. Mustard oil, or any other Edible Oil 2 tbsps
6. 'Ghi' 2 tbsps
7. Aniseed Powder 1/2 tsp
8. Ginger Powder 1/2 tsp
9. Cumin Seeds and Black Cardamom Seeds Powder 1/2 tsp
10. Caraway Seeds 1/4 tsp
11. Cloves 3 nos
12. Garlic Cloves 5 nos
13. 'Garam Masala' 1 tsp
14. Salt 1 tsp or to taste
15. Green Cardamom 10 nos

• Preparation

1. After moistening the palms with a little water and oil, take enough quantity of
the prepared Minced Meat, to make into a 2" to 3" diameter compact Ball. First
press the Minced Meat in the right hand palm by fingers and thumb, and then roll
between palms of both hands. Repeat the process. By dividing in the very
beginning, the whole Minced Meat approximately into equal portions, Balls of
uniform size will be made.

2. For making a Seasoning of Shallots and Onions, cut the roots and tops of
enough Onions and Shallots, to obtain half a cup of each, after peeling and
chopping. For frying and making the Emulsion, (see Above Prepration.) Keep it
aside in a bowl for use.

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3. Wash thoroughly the Green Mint or Green Coriander sprigs, after discarding
coarse stems and bad leaves. Chop finely and keep aside in a plate also.

4. Beat with a spoon, or chum with a small Churning Stick the Curd, in a steel or
glass bowl, after adding the Caraway Seeds.

5. Peel the Garlic cloves and chop these too.

• Method of Cooking

1. In a round bottomed, tinned copper or a heavy steel 'Patila' or 'Degchi' of about
3 litres capacity, boil the prepared Minced Meat Balls, in sufficient water to
immerse these wholly. Before boiling starts, add to the water the Salt and the
Aniseed and Ginger Powders. After half an hour remove the pot from heat and
strain the Soup in a bowl, and keep the boiled Meat Balls separately in a plate.
Discard the residue left after straining and clean the cooking vessel.
2. Heat the Oil in the vessel till foam disappears. Add 'Ghi', Cloves and chopped
Garlic. Stir again and add the prepared Curd and the Soup thoroughly mixed
together. Go on stirring with a steel or wooden ladle, so that the Curd does not
crack. When the Oil, 'Ghi', Curd and Soup boil and blend nicely, add the boiled
Minced Meat Balls, and the Onion and Shallot Seasoning. Let cook on a low heat
till the Gravy becomes somewhat thick and oil and 'Ghi' begins to show.

3. Now add the 'Garam Masala', Cinnamon and Black Cardamom Powder, the
slightly crushed Green Cardamoms and the finely chopped Green Mint or Green
Coriander Leaves. Turn the Balls with a broad steel spatula and the 'Goashtaba' is
ready to be served hot, along with a ladleful of it delicious Gravy.

In case Green Mint or Green Coriander Leaves are not available Dried crushed,
and preserved Mint Leaves, may be used.

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Small Minced Meat Ball in red chilly gravey

It is a delicious Dish, and usually a couple of 'Rista', along with a ladleful of its
Gravy, are served per 'Traem', for 4 guests. It is also a good Dish for Domestic

• Ingredients

1. Minced Spiced Meat of Sheep or Goat 1 kg

2. Mustard Oil 1/2 cup

3. Aniseed Powder 1/2 tsp

4. Ginger Powder 1/2 tsp

5. Cumin Seeds 1/2 tsp

6. Garlic 5 cloves

7. Cloves 2 nos

8. Turmeric 1/2 tsp

9. Red Chili Powder 1/2 tsp

10. Red Decoction of Cockscomb Flowers (K-'Moaval') 1/2 cup

11. 'Garam Masala' 1/2 tsp

12. Black Cardamom and Cinnamon Powder 1/2 tsp

13. Onion and Shallot Seasoning 2 tbsps

14. Salt 1 tsp. or to taste

15. Saffron a pinch (optional)

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• Preparation

1. For preparation of the Minced Meat for 'Rista', see (ABOVE prepration).
Sometimes a table-spoon of Clarified Butter (H-'Shuddh Ghi'), is added to the
Mince, while pounding, to enhance its taste and flavour.

2. To prepare the Onion and Shallot Seasoning, see (ABOVE prepration).

3. Boil Cockscomb Flower in a cup of water, and strain to prepare the Red

4. Make somewhat flattened Balls, of about 1" diameter, out of the prepared
Spiced Minced Meat, first by pressing the required quantity in the right hand
palm, and then by rolling it between both palms. Greasing and moistening the
palm with a little oil and water, facilitates this work.

5. Peel and chop timely the Garlic Cloves.

• Method of Cooking

1. Heat the oil in a tinned copper or steel 'Patila', of about 3 litres capacity. When
foam disap-pears, add chopped Garlic and the Cumin Seeds. Stir till Garlic turns
light brown. Add a ladleful of water alongwith Red Chili Powder and Turmeric. Stir
again, and add a litre of water, along with Aniseed and Ginger Powders, Red
Cockscomb Decoction, Onion and Shallot Seasoning, and Salt to taste.

2. Now add the Minced Meat balls gently one by one. After boiling, on medium
heat, for half an hour or more, till the Meat Balls cook well and the Gravy
thickens, add Cardamom and Cin-namon Powder, 'Garam Masala' and Saffron. Let
simmer on low heat for another 5 minutes. 'Rista' is ready. Serve hot, alongwith

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/Mugil Chai (Kashmiri Green Tea)

• Ingredients :

1. 4 cups water,
2. a pinch of dalchini/cinnamon,
3. 1/2 tsp fresh green tea (crushed),
4. 2 choti elaichi/cardamom,
5. 3 or 4 badams/almond (crushed),
6. sugar to taste.

• Method:

1. Take water in a vessel or kettle.

2. Add crushed tea leaves and allow it to one boil.

3. Add sugar to taste.

4. Add crushed elaichi, dalchini and shredded badam while tea is
boiling and cover.

5. The tea is now ready to drink.

6. If you don't like tea leaves with tea. Put elaichi, badam in a cup and
pour tea through sieve into the cup, and serve.

Mugil chai is usually made in samovar but if samovar is not available make in pan
or vessel.

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Tschuk Waangun
Sour eggplant/Brinjal

• Ingredients:

1. 3 long cylindrical wangun /brinjal/eggplant,
2. heeng/asafetida,
3. soaked tamarind pulp/tamber or lemon juice,
4. salt to taste,
5. 1 tsp chili powder/marchwangan,
6. 1tsp shonth /ginger powder,
7. zeera /cumin seed/zeur,
8. ½ cup of water,
9. Oil,

• Method:
1. Cut eggplant/ baingan/ waangun into long pieces.

2. Deep fry wangun pieces till golden brown and put aside.

3. Take 2 tbsp. of oil in a karaahi /pan.

4. Add chili powder and heeng to oil and sauté at low flame.

5. Add little water and let it boil.

6. Add shonth, zeera, and tamarind pulp or lemon juice to masala/chili
mixture in pan.

7. Add ½ cup of water.

8. Let the whole mixture boil.

9. Add fried waangun to masala and boil for 2- minutes.

10. Stir carefully, do not cover pan.

11. Turn off the stove and tschuk Waangun is ready

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(Saag / Collard Green)

• Ingredients:

1. 1 lb.or ½ kg haakh/collard green;
2. Salt to taste,
3. 2 whole green chilies or red dry chilies;
4. Pinch of heeng/asafetida;
5. Pinch of baking powder/soda/full;
6. 3 tbsp. of oil;
7. 2 cups of water,
8. Kashmiri masala/vari if available..

• Method:

1. Clean haakh/ collard green by checking for any white lines on leaves
or any bugs;

2. Make sure to wash haakh two times in water-filled sink to get rid of
any sand or dirt. Salt may be added to water in the sink to kill any
bugs attached to the leaves of haakh.

3. Put 2-3 tablespoons of oil in pressure cooker.

4. Add heeng/asafetida

5. Add 2 cups of water and boil.

6. Now add haakh and stir well.

7. Add salt to taste, green or red whole chilies.( Dry whole chilies can
be also used, if green chilies are not available.)

8. Add pinch of baking powder to haakh.

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9. Boil till haakh is completely dipped in water.

10. Pressure cook haakh for 3-4 whistles

11. Turn off the stove.

12. Open the lid immediately to retain green color; or else, it will change
its color.

13. Add pinch of var. (If available)

14. Serve with white rice and green marchwangan chetni/chili relish.

15. Note: Pressure in cooker should be released slowly by lifting weight
with ladle or by cooling pressure under running water. If cooking in a
pan cook until haakh is tender.

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Tscchut Gugji

• Ingredients:

1. ½ or 1kg gugji/turnip;
2. 2-3 tbsp. of oil;
3. 2 whole red or green chilies;
4. Pinch of heeng/ asafetida;
5. Salt to taste;
6. ½ cup of water;
7. Kashmiri masala/var if available;

• Method:

1. Wash and cut thin slices of gugji/turnip.

2. Take oil in pressure cooker and add heeng.

3. Add gugji to oil and stir well.

4. Add salt, whole chili, water and boil. (if you want to make wuzji
gugji/red color turnip, you may add ¼ chili powder.)

5. Boil and pressure cook for 5 minutes.

6. Turn off stove, leave pressure lid on and open only when pressure in
cooker drops.

7. Add pinch of var (optional).

8. Serve with white rice

9. The recipe is ready to enjoy with white rice and plan yogurt.

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Buza Wangun
(Baingan/Brinjal raita or Egg plant dip)

• Ingredients :

1. 1 big baingan/ wangun ,
2. 2 -3 cups of yogurt,
3. salt to taste,
4. black zeera/cumin seed/zeur
5. Cilantro/dahnia,
6. 2 chopped green chili.

• Method:

1. Prick wangun all over and back in oven at 350 degrees or microwave
for 10 minutes.

2. Peel the skin of wangun.

3. Mush it in a big bowl and let the wangun cool down.

4. When cool, add yogurt, salt, green chili and zeera to it and mix well.

5. Refrigerate till ready to eat.

6. Garnish with cilantro.

Buz Wangun is usually cooked as a side dish. However, this dish too has a
cultural background. It is cooked on the occasion of 'Pan', a religious function
held in the month of September to propitiate Lord Ganesha during Ganapati
festival in Maharashtra. On this day, 'Raoth' (sweet puri type) is prepared and
offered to God. A folk tale on the significance of the Puja is often recited on the
occasion by the elderly lady of the house and prayers held for prosperity of the

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With 'Roath, people make regular roti or 'duwari phulka'. Buza Wangun is served
with 'duwari phulka'

Ledar chaman
(yellow paneer/frying cheese)

• Ingredients :
1. 1 lbs paneer/ chaman,
2. 1 tsp turmeric powder/ haldi/ lider,
3. 1tsp shonth/ginger powder,
4. ½ tsp of badiyan/fennel pwder,
5. Pinch of heeng/asafetida,
6. Salt to taste,
7. 1 tbsp. of milk,
8. 2 green crushed eliachi/cardamom,
9. 2 cloves/laung,
10. 1big eliachi / cardamom,
11. sticks of cinnamon/dalchini,
12. Oil for deep frying.
• Method:
1. Make cubical pieces of chaman / paneer.
2. Take oil in a pan and fry paneer by 2 or 3 pieces at a time.
3. Fry till paneer is golden brown.
4. Fry all the pieces same way.
5. Take 11/2 cups of water in a separate pan.(not in a pan with oil in it).
6. Add all the spices given above and one crushed green elaichi to
water except milk.
7. Add paneer to water mixture and boil for 20 minutes.
8. Add crushed green eliachi and milk and boil for 2 minutes.
9. Add 1 tbsp of warm oil to chaman or paneer.

Paneer is ready and serve with white boiled rice.

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Chaman/paneer is a very important dish to cook in a vegetarian cuisine,
especially on birthdays .Paneer is replacement of meat dish for vegetarian people

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Wuzij Chaman
(Red paneer/frying cheese)

• Ingredients :
1. 1 lbs cheese/ paneer /chaman,
2. pinch of haldi/turmeric,
3. 1tsp shonth/ginger powder,
4. 11/2 tsp badiyan/fennel powder,
5. salt to taste,
6. 1 tbsp. of yogurt,
7. green eliachi/cardamom,
8. cloves, 1big elaichi,
9. 2 sticks of cinnamon,
10. oil for deep frying,
11. 1 cup of water.

• Method:
1. Make thick square pieces of chaman/ paneer.
2. Take oil in a pan and fry paneer by 2 or 3 pieces at a time.
3. Fry till paneer is golden brown.
4. Fry all the pieces same way.
5. Take 1tbsp of oil in a separate pan and add heeng to oil.
6. And chili powder and stir.
7. Add yogurt to chili powder in oil and stir till white color of yogurt is
not visible.(tomato puree may be used instead of yogurt)
8. Add all the above spices to chili mixture and water.
9. Add chaman to mixture of spices.
10. Boil for 15-20 minutes till most of water is absorbed and oil is
floating on top.
11. And serve hot with white rice.

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English Kashmiri Hindi

Salt nun namak

Oil teel tail

Ginger powder shonth sund

Fennel powder badiyan sonf

Aseofoeedit yeng or heeng

Cumin seed zeur zeer

Clove roung loung

Cinnamon dalchini dalchini

Cardamom aal elaichi

Black cardamom buda aal badi elaichi

Cilantro daaniwal dhaniya

kashmiri masala ware

chili powder martschwaangan laal-mirich

turmeric ledar haldi

kashmiri tea muguel chai kehwa

milk cream malai malai

baking soda phul soda

bread tschot roti

brinjal wangun baingan

potato oolu aloo

cabbage bundh gobi

collard green haakh saag

kohlrabi munj hakh ganthgobi

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English Kashmiri Hindi

fish gaad macheli

meat neini mas

radish muji mooli

turnip gogji shalgam

yogurt zamut dud dahi

milk dud doodh

spinach palakh palakh

cauliflower phool phoolgobi

lentils/beans daal daal

lotus root nadur bain

tamarind ttamber imlli

ground meat mutschh keema

chicken kokur murga

black beans warimuth

rice flour tomul oat chawal ka atta

flour oat atta

corn flour makai oat makki atta

tea chai chai

sugar mudrer cheeni

ground meat muchh keema

red beans razamah ragamah

poppy seed kush kash khuskhus

pan taow tawa

dip chetin chetine

spice masala masala

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