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Operational Liaison Meeting Fly-By-Wire Aircraft

2004

Takeoff Thrust Setting

Customer Services

Contents
Introduction Rolling Takeoff Engine-Related Issues during Takeoff Power Check FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ and MEASTO)
AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Engine Thrust Loss ECAM Message on A340 CFM 56 Conclusion


Takeoff Thrust Setting
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Introduction
The Takeoff Thrust Setting Procedure

May differ, depending on engine type:


4This

is defined by Airbus and engine manufacturers

Is a certified procedure, contained in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM)


4And

is associated with specific certified performance

May differ, depending on wind conditions:


4To
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minimize the risk of engine stall/surge

Normally completed in two steps:


4To

avoid asymmetry due to different engine response

Takeoff Thrust Setting

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Contents
Introduction Rolling Takeoff Engine-Related Issues during Takeoff Power Check FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ and MEASTO)
AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Engine Thrust Loss ECAM Message on A340 CFM 56 Conclusion


Takeoff Thrust Setting
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Rolling Takeoff

Definition of a Rolling Takeoff


4Takeoff

for which the thrust setting sequence is initiated while the aircraft is moving. 4Thrust is not set under the brakes.

What is considered to be a Rolling Takeoff?


4The

aircraft does not stop, when it enters the runway 4When the aircraft is aligned, the brakes released and the thrust setting sequences are initiated.
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Takeoff Thrust Setting

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Rolling Takeoff

Advantages
4Less

risk of FOD (less risk of ingestion) 4Takeoff can be conducted earlier 4Less risk of high power setting at low speeds (stall prevention) 4Less brake wear 4Smoother for passengers

Disadvantages
4Engine
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response can differ (small dissymmetry) 4Alignment on the runway axis may be longer

Performance-wise, if the rolling takeoff technique is applied


correctly, there will be no difference between a rolling takeoff and static takeoff.
Takeoff Thrust Setting
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Rolling Takeoff

Airbus recommended Rolling Takeoff


4In

the Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) -FCOM 3.03.12 Rolling takeoff is recommended, when possible

However:
4This

recommendation was sometimes considered too strong. Some operators felt obliged to perform it systematically. 4Rolling takeoff requires crew familiarization with the rolling takeoff piloting technique 4In some situations, the rolling takeoff technique is not recommended (Engine Intermix operations).
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Therefore, the SOP (FCOM 3.03.12) will now reflect:


4Rolling

takeoff is permitted Left up to the crew to decide whether or not to perform a rolling takeoff

Takeoff Thrust Setting

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Contents
Introduction Rolling Takeoff Engine-Related Issues during Takeoff Power Check FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ and MEASTO)
AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Engine Thrust Loss ECAM Message on A340 CFM 56 Conclusion


Takeoff Thrust Setting
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Engine-Related Issues during Takeoff

Engine Instability Phenomenon


4 Stall/Surge

caused by:

Reduced margin due to wear Crosswind or tailwind


4 Flutter

caused by:

Resonance frequencies generated in under certain conditions (N1, EPR)

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Application of adequate procedure: Insufficiently accurate Increase crew workload


Takeoff Thrust Setting

FADEC Logis automatically: Respect certain parameters Avoid Resonance Zones


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Contents
Introduction Rolling Takeoff Engine-Related Issues during Takeoff Power Check FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ and MEASTO)
AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Engine Thrust Loss ECAM Message on A340 CFM 56 Conclusion


Takeoff Thrust Setting
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Power Check
Engines must reach the takeoff rating limit, established for the
takeoff conditions:
4Engines

N1 or EPR must be equal to the rating limit value: If one engine does not reach it, the takeoff should be rejected. In case of engine failure, takeoff performance is not guaranteed. of engine parameters is done during takeoff: N1/EPR, and EGT In particular, the power check callout is done before 80 knots. is the criteria/tolerance for aborting a takeoff: For performance reasons, all engines should reach the rating limit As a guideline, it is accepted that if a difference lower than:

4Monitoring

4What
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1% N1 0.01 EPR
It is the crews decision It is always the crews responsibility to check that the thrust is satisfactory for takeoff
Takeoff Thrust Setting
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Contents
Introduction Rolling Takeoff Engine-Related Issues during Takeoff Power Check FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ and MEASTO)
AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Engine Thrust Loss ECAM Message on A340 CFM 56 Conclusion


Takeoff Thrust Setting
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FADEC Logics during Takeoff (MEASTO)


MEASTO A330 Rolls Royce (Trent 700)
4

Modified Engine Acceleration Schedule for TakeOff


High crosswind, tailwind or intake turbulence: Increase risk of fan stall The Fan stall risk zone is more significant at low speed. Engines automatically react against fan stall. If a stall occurs: Engine power is reduced. Automatic and progressive thrust setting during takeoff: Engine acceleration is controlled by a predefined EPR/second rate. Function only active during the low speed phase of takeoff (speed < 50 knots). For RR T700 engines not fitted with this function, this acceleration law had to be reproduced by the crew. It takes about 10 additional seconds to reach takeoff power. For all flight conditions, takeoff thrust is achieved before 80 knots. This function is only available on ground, and with forward thrust: Also available for ground maintenance tasks.
Takeoff Thrust Setting
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FADEC Logics during Takeoff (MEASTO)


The engine acceleration rate for the fan stall margin, compared
to the engine acceleration rate with the MEASTO function.
EPR 1.6 Increased risk of fan stall

1.4 -

Acceleration Rate of 0.04 EPR/second 1.2 AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

1.0 I 0 I 5 I 10

Acceleration Rate of 0.02 EPR/second I 15 I 20 I 25 I 30 Time

Normal Acceleration With the MEASTO Function


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FADEC Logics during Takeoff (MEASTO)


The thrust achieved progressively...
Full takeoff thrust is reached:
4Within 4Before

approximately 15 seconds reaching 80 knots


12500ft and above

4Reduced

acceleration rate with altitude, to compensate for the stall margin loss.
4000ft 0 feet -2000 feet

EPR 1.7 1.6


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1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 2


Takeoff Thrust Setting

Time from thrust lever movement 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18


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FADEC Logics during Takeoff (MEASTO)


MEASTO is:
4Basically installed 4Retrofit worldwide

in production, an

Simplification of the Takeoff Procedure, in the event of high


crosswind or tailwind: 4Rolling Takeoff no longer required 4Step at 1.1 EPR is not required

Reduced engine stall risk during takeoff


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Specific performance has been developed

for aircraft fitted with the MEASTO function

Crew task reduction and simplification with this logic


Takeoff Thrust Setting
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FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ)

The KOZ (Keep Out Zone) implemented on:


4A330 Rolls Royce (Trent 700) 4A320/A319/A321 IAE (V2500 A5 series) 4A340-500/600 Rolls Royce (Trent 500)

To avoid fan flutter, the FADEC prevents stabilization in a


certain EPR (N1) zone, depending on the engine type.
4For example, the KOZ for RR Trent 700 is between: 1.16 to 1.28 EPR The N1 interval changes, based on the temperature of the day. The max upper and min lower limit are: 51.4% and 73.6% 4The KOZ is active when: Aircraft on ground, and Low aircraft speed (M<0.15 or <80 knots), and Forward thrust.
Takeoff Thrust Setting
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FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ)

During Engine Acceleration.


4When 4The

the thrust lever is advanced through the KOZ , there is a pause in the EPR command at the lower EPR command limit. EPR command will remain at the lower command limit, until the thrust lever is advanced such that the corresponding EPR command exceeds the upper EPR command limit. engine power will continue to increase with the thrust lever position.

4Then,

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KOZ is fully automatic for the crew

STABILIZATION

Takeoff Thrust Setting

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FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ IAE V2500 A5)


To avoid cracking the fan blade root due to fan flutter, the
FADEC prevents stabilization in a certain EPR (N1) zone.

This automatic KOZ replaces the manual KOZ, applied by


crews, to avoid operation in a specific fan speed range.

In EPR mode, KOZ changes are based on the daily temperature. In N1, the Keep Out Zone is between
61% to approx. 74%
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KOZ is transparent to the crew:


4Not

felt in the takeoff procedure 4Low probability to reach this value during taxi With the exception of the Ice Shedding Procedure
Takeoff Thrust Setting
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FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ IAE V2500 A5)

Modification of the Takeoff Procedure for tailwind,


or high crosswind:
4Deletion 4If

of the 70% N1 step, which falls within the KOZ.

Simplified Takeoff Procedure

tailwind or high crosswind: The performance impact is 25 meters in the takeoff distances
STEP SUPPRESSED

PRE-SCN17
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SCN17

IDLE 1.05 EPR 1.15 EPR TO power


Takeoff Thrust Setting

IDLE

1.05 EPR TO power


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FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ IAE V2500 A5)


IAE has considered the risk of fan flutter (for the pre-SCN17
procedure) to be acceptable, since the aircraft is already moving and there is no stabilization.
4The

main risk occurs during stabilization at low, or zero, aircraft speed: For the Ice Shedding Procedure For maintenance run-ups 4It is covered in the Airbus SOP.

The engines are automatically protected, and the crew


workload is reduced.
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This feature is available with the SCN 17 Software


4Airbus

recommends embodiment of the SCN17 FADEC Software 4This software is basically installed on the production line.

Takeoff Thrust Setting

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Contents
Introduction Rolling Takeoff Engine-Related Issues during Takeoff Power Check FADEC Logics during Takeoff (KOZ and MEASTO)
AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.

Engine Thrust Loss ECAM Message on A340 CFM 56 Conclusion


Takeoff Thrust Setting
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Engine Thrust Loss ECAM Message on A340 CFM 56-5C A. ICE ENG X VALVE OPEN is triggered when:
4There

is a disagreement between the anti-ice valve, and the pushbutton position:


The engine anti-ice has not been selected open, and The anti-ice valve is open.

COMPARISON
ENG ANTI-ICE VALVE POSITION
EE R AG DIS

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PUSHBUTTON POSITION

FWC

IF

A.ICE ENG X VALVE OPEN


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Engine Thrust Loss ECAM Message on A340 CFM 56-5C

Also, the current FADEC does not provide adequate thrust for
takeoff:
4Because

takeoff thrust is computed by taking into account the position of engine anti-ice valve (N1 decrement applied).

Therefore, ENG THRUST LOSS triggers during takeoff.


COMPARISON
PUSHBUTTON POSITION
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F A D E C

ENG ANTI-ICE VALVE POSITION

If DISAGREE
Takeoff Thrust Setting

ENG THRUST LOSS


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Engine Thrust Loss ECAM Message on A340 CFM 56-5C

To avoid this scenario, the FADEC C3J will compute takeoff


thrust, based on the engine anti-ice pushbutton position.

Therefore, ENG THRUST LOSS will not trigger during takeoff.

PUSH BUTTON POSITION


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ENG ANTI-ICE VALVE POSITION F A D E C

IF DISAGREE
Takeoff Thrust Setting

No N1 decrement applied
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Engine Thrust Loss ECAM Message on A340 CFM 56-5C

With the FADEC C3J Standard -- If the crew selection disagrees


with the actual position of the valve:
4The

FADEC provides adequate thrust, and increases the EGT to compensate for the effect of engine anti-ice extraction. for engines with a low EGT margin, and for temperatures higher than the corner-point, will it lead to an EGT overlimit.

4Only

Airbus recommends retrofitting the FADEC C3J Software


on A340 aircraft with CFM 56-5C Engines:
4To
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avoid rejected takeoffs

FADEC C3J Software


Takeoff Thrust Setting
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Conclusion
Rolling takeoffs may be advantageous in certain circumstances.
4 However, it is up to the crew to apply this technique.

The Takeoff Thrust Setting Procedure is standard for Airbus


aircraft.
4However,

it may vary slightly from one engine to another, and depends on wind conditions.

Airbus is actively working on reducing crew workload during the


Takeoff Setting Procedure:
4MEASTO 4KOZ 4Avoidance

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of ECAM messages that lead to aborting a takeoff.

Airbus recommends retrofitting the latest FADEC Software


Standards in order to:
4Further ensure safety 4Ease the crew workload 4Reduce maintenance costs.
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Takeoff Thrust Setting


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This document and all information contained herein is the sole property of AIRBUS S.A.S. No intellectual property rights are granted by the delivery of this document or the disclosure of its content. This document shall not be reproduced or disclosed to a third party without the express written consent of AIRBUS S.A.S. This document and its content shall not be used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied. The statements made herein do not constitute an offer. They are based on the mentioned assumptions and are expressed in good faith. Where the supporting grounds for these statements are not shown, AIRBUS S.A.S. will be pleased to explain the basis thereof.

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Takeoff Thrust Setting

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