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S. vivekanantha,
Faculty Member,
Department of Management Studies
Kodaikanal Christian College,
The big difference
between these terms



Human Resources

and human resource Development

Why Human Factor is More
• Human resources are unique in character
• HR alone can produce an output greater than its input
• HR is the only resource which are animate
• HR is most complex and unpredictable in its behavior
• This is the only resource which appreciates in its value
with the passage of time.
Meaning and Definition
• NIPM – CALCUTTA" Personnel
Management is that part of the
management function which is primarily
concerned with human relationships within
in organization. Its objective is the
maintenance of those relationships on a
basis which, by consideration of the well-
being of the individual, enables all those
engaged in the undertaking to make their
maximum personal contribution in the
effective working of the undertaking.”
Edwin B Flippo “The personnel function is
concerned with the procurement,
development, compensation, integration
and maintenance of the personnel of an
organization for the purpose of
contributing towards the accomplishment
of that organization’s major goals or
objectives. Therefore, personnel
management is the planning, organizing,
directing, and controlling of the
performance of those operatives
Difference between Personnel
Management and Human
Resource Management
• Take Home Compulsory Assignment.
Objectives and scope of HRM
• To effective utilization of the human resources
• To establish and maintain an organizational
• To secure integration to the individuals and
organization by reconciling individual group goals
• To generates maximum development of individuals
• To recognize and satisfy individual needs and group
• To maintain high morale and better human relations
• To develop and maintain a quality of work life
• To establish and maintain productive self-respecting
working relationships
Features of HRM
• Comprehensive • Interdisciplinary
Function • Nervous system.
• People-Oriented • Young discipline
• Action Oriented • Future-oriented
• Individual Oriented • Challenging
• Development Function
Oriented • Science as well an
• Pervasive Function Art
• Continuous Function • Staff function
Functions of HRM
• I. Managerial • II. Operative
Functions: Functions:
• a. Planning • a. Procurement
• b. Organizing • b. Development
• C. Directing • c. Compensation
• d. Controlling. • d. Integration
• e. Maintenance
What Is Strategic Management?
• Strategic Management
– The ongoing process companies use to
form a vision, analyze their external
environment and their internal
environment, and select one or more
strategies to use to create value for
customers and other stakeholders,
especially shareholders
• Vision
– Contains at least two components—a
mission that describes the firm’s DNA and
the “picture” of the firm as it hopes to
exist in a future time period.
Parts of Strategic
• Strategy
– An action plan designed to move an
organization toward achievement of its
• Mission
– Defines the firm’s core intent and the
business or businesses in which it intends to
The Strategic Environment

• Internal Environment
– The set of conditions (such as
strengths, resources and capabilities,
and so forth) inside the firm affecting
the choice and use of strategies
• External Environment
– A set of conditions outside the firm that
affect the firm’s performance
Key Characteristics of Strategic
• Strategic management is:
• Performance oriented
• Ongoing in nature
• Dynamic rather than static
• Oriented to the present and the future
• Concerned with conditions both outside and
inside the firm
• Concerned with performing well and
satisfying stakeholders
The Three Parts of the Strategic
Management Process
1. Strategic leaders form a firm’s vision and
2. Firms analyze their external environment
and their internal environment.
3. Firms choose and implement a strategy that
to creates unique mix of value for
customers and satisfies other stakeholders.
– Strategy implementation—the set of
actions firms take to use a strategy after
it has been selected.
Vision and Mission Statements
• Vision Statements
• McDonald’s
To give each customer, every time, an experience that sets new
standards in value, service, friendliness, and quality.
To build the world’s first truly global securities market . . . A
worldwide market of markets built on a worldwide network of
networks . . . linking pools of liquidity and connecting investors
from all over the world . . . assuring the best possible price for
securities at the lowest possible cost.
• Petsmart
To be the premier organization in nurturing and enriching the
bond between people and animals.
• Wachovia
Wachovia’s vision is to be the best, most trusted and admired
financial services company.
Mission statements contd…
• Mission Statements
• Bristol-Myers Squibb
Our mission is to extend and enhance human life by
providing the highest-quality pharmaceuticals and
health care products.
• GlaxoSmithKline
GSK’s mission is to improve the quality of human life by
enabling people to do more, feel better and live longer.
• Merck
The mission of Merck is to provide society with superior
products and services by developing innovations and
solutions that improve the quality of life and satisfy
customer needs, and to provide employees with
meaningful work and advancement opportunities, and
investors with a superior rate of return.
• Wipro
The mission is to be a full-service, global outsourcing
• Definition: It is the process by which management
determines how an organisation should move from its
current manpower position to its desired manpower
position. Through it management strives to have the
right number and the right kind of people at the right
places, at the right time, doing things which result in
both the organisation, and the individual receiving,
maximum long-rang benefit”
Objectives of HRP
• To ensure optimum • To estimate cost of Hr
use of existing HR and Housing needs of
• To forecast future Employees
requirements for HR • To provide a basis for
• To provide control MDP
measures • To facilitate productivity
• To link HRP with Bargaining
Organisational • To meet the needs of
Planning Expansion and
• To determine levels Diversification
of Recruitment and programmes
Training • To assess shortage and
surplus of Hr
Need and Importance of HRP
• HRP is useful in
• To carry on its work anticipating Cost of
and to achieve its HR which facilitates
objectives budgeting easier
• HRP identifies gaps • HRP facilitates
• There is need to Career and
replace employees succession
• HRP facilitates planning
expansion and growth • HRP helps in
• HRP helpful in planning for
effective utilization of physical facilities
HR and Technology like canteen staff
quarters etc
Why HRP gained so much
focus in recent times…
• Employment • Lead time
situation • Hiring costs
• Technological
• Increased Mobility
• Organizational • Shortage of Skills
Changes • Legislative Controls
• Demographic • Pressure Groups
Changes • Systems Concepts
Process of HRP
• 1. Analyzing Organizational
• 2. Forecasting Demand for HR
• 3. Forecasting supply of HR
• 4. Estimating Manpower Gaps
• 5. Action Planning
• 6. Monitoring and Control
• 1.What are the challenges of HR
Executives in the present day business
• 2. State essential qualities of Successful HR
• 3. Draw an organizational chart of an MNC
known to you and state whether HR function
line or Staff function.
Further Readings
• 1. Human Resource Management –
Dr. C.B. Gupta – Sultan Chand & Sons
• 2. Human Resource Management – S.S.
Khanka – S. Chand Pub.
• Personnel Management & Industrial
Relations – P.C. Tripathi Himalaya Pub.

S. vivekanantha,
Faculty Member,
Department of Management Studies
Kodaikanal Christian College,
Job Analysis
• Job analysis is a formal and detailed
study of jobs
• It refers to a scientific and systematic
analysis of a job in order to obtain all
pertinent facts about the job
• It is essentially a process of collecting
and analyzing all pertinent data relating
to a job
Objectives of Job Analysis
• Job Redesign
• Work Standards
• Recruitment
• Selection
• Training
• Performance appraisal
• Job evaluation
• Safety
Benefits of Job Analysis
• 1. Organizational • 6. Performance
Design Appraisal
• 2. Human Resource • 7. Career Path
Planning planning
• 8. Job Design
• 3. Recruitment and
• 9. Job Evaluation
• 10 Labour Relation
• 4. Placement and
• 11. Employee
• 5. Training and • 12. Health and
Development Safety
The process of Job Analysis
• 1. Organisational • 5. Understand Job
Analysis Design
• 2. Organising Job • 6. Collection of
Analysis Programme Data
• 3. Deciding the uses
• 7. Developing a Job
of Job Analysis
Information Description
• 4. Selecting • 8. Preparing a Job
Representative Jobs Specification
for analysis
Techniques of Job Analysis
• 1. Job Performance
• 2. Personal Observation
• 3. Interview
• 4. Questionnaire
• 5. Critical Incidents
• 6. Log Records
Differentiate between Job
Description and Job Specification
• Job Description is a • Job specification is a
functional description of statement of the
what the job entails. minimum acceptable
And define the purpose human qualities
and scope of a job. It is required for the proper
a written record it performance of a job.
contains title, location, • It includes physical,
duties, responsibilities, mental, social,
working conditions, psychological and
hazards and relationship behavioral
with other jobs. characteristics of a
Job Evaluation
• According to BIM, Job evaluation is “the
process of analysis and assessment of
jobs to ascertain reliably their relative
worth using the assessment as the basis
for a balanced wage structure”
• Job evaluation begins with job analysis
and ends up with the classification of jobs
according to their worth. A job cannot be
evaluated unless and until it is analyzed.
Objectives of Job evaluation
• 1. To Determine equitable wage differentials
between different jobs in the organization
• 2. To eliminate wage inequities
• 3.To develop a consistent wage policy
• 4. To provide a framework for periodic review
and revision of wages
• 5. To provide a basis for wage negotiations
• 6. To enable management to gauge and control
the payroll costs
• 7. To minimize wage descriptions on the basis of
age, sex, caste, region, religion , creed etc
Methods of Job Evaluation
• Job Evaluation can be classified in to
two categories
• 1. Non-quantitative methods:
– a. Ranking or Job Comparison
– b. Grading or Job Classification
• 2. Quantitative methods:
– a. Point Rating
– B. Factor Comparison
• What is Recruitment?
• What is Procurement?
• The Difference Between Recruitment and
Selection and Placement.
• Why Recruitment is more important for an
• How not to recruit employees in the
• General Factors affecting Recruitment:
The sources of Recruitment
• Internal • External Sources
Sources • 1. Press Advertisements
• 1. Transfers • 2. Educational Institutions
• 3.Placement Agencies
• 2. Promotions
• 4.Employment Exchanges
• 5.Labour Contractors
• 6.Unsolicited Applicants
• 7.Recommendations
• 8.Recruitment at Factory
• 9. Online
Recruitment Process
• Steps in Recruitment Process:
• 1. Requisitions for recruitment from other
• 2. Locating and Developing the sources of
Required number and type of employees
• 3. Identifying the prospective employees
with required characteristics
• 4. Communicating the information about the
organization, the job and the terms of
conditions of service.
• 5. Encourage the identified candidates to
apply for jobs
In the organization.
• 6. Evaluating the effectiveness of recruitment
What is Selection?
• Selection is the process of choosing the most
suitable persons out of all the applicants.
• Selection is a process of matching the
qualifications of applicants with the job
• It is the process of weeding out unsuitable
candidates and finally identify the most suitable
• The purpose of Selection is to pick up the right
person for every job.
• Selection is negative process as it rejects a large
number of unsuitable applicants from the pool.
Methods of Selection
• (a) Tests: • 3. Personality
• 1. Aptitude Tests: Tests:
– Mental or – Objective test
Intelligence test – Projective test
– Mechanical test
– Situation test
– Psycho-motor test
• 2. Achievement Tests:
• 4. Interest Tests:
- Job Knowledge test • Continued…
- Work sample test
Methods of Selection (continued)
(b) Interviews
2. Informal Interview
3. Formal Interview
4. Patterned or Structured Interview
5. Non-Directed or Unstructured Interview
6. Depth Interview
7. Group Interview
8. Stress Interview
9. Panel or Board Interview
Selection Process…
• 1. Preliminary Interview
• 2. Application Blank
• 3. Selection Test
• 4. Employment Interview
• 5.Medical Examination
• 6.Reference Checks
• 7. Final Approval
• Definition: “Orientation or
induction is the process of receiving
and welcoming an employee when he
first joins a company and giving in
the basic information he needs to
settle down quickly and happily and
start work”.
• Objectives and Advantages of an
Induction programme.
Advantages and Objectives of an
Orientation programme
• Objectives: • Advantages:
• 1. To help the new come to • It helps to build two way
overcome his shyness communication
• It facilitates informal relations
• To build new employee’s and team work
confidence • Induction is helpful in supplying
• To develop the new entrants a information about the
sense of belonging and loyalty organisation, job, and welfare of
• To foster a close and cordial • Proper Induction will reduce
relationship… employees grievances,
• To prevent false impression absenteeism and labour turnover
and negative attitude of the • Induction helps to develop good
new employees public relations and improve the
overall morale of employees
• To give the new comers • An Induction programme proves
necessary information like that the company is taking a
canteen, locker room. Rest sincere interest in getting him off
periods and leave rules etc… to a good start
Contents of an Induction programme:
• Brief history and operations of the company.
• Products and services of the company.
• The company’s organization structure.
• Location of departments and employee facilities.
• Policies and procedures of the company.
• Rules, regulations and daily work routines.
• Grievance procedures.
• Safety measures
• Standing orders and disciplinary procedures
• Terms and conditions of service including wages, working hours,
over time, holidays etc.
• Suggestion schemes
• Benefits and services for employees.
• Opportunities for training and promotions transfers etc.
Employer Investment on People
• A country can develop only when its human
resources are developed through health,
nutrition, education, training and research.
At the Organisational level, employee
training and executive development are
main areas of human resource development.

• The subtle differences between Training,

Development and Education
Why Training is needed?
• To familiarize the employee with the company’s
• To increase the employee’s quantity and quality
of output
• To enable the employee to do new jobs and
prevent of his old skills become obsolete
• To prepare the employee for promotion to higher
• To reduce supervision, wastage and accidents
• To build second line workers
Importance of Training
• 1. Higher productivity
• 2. Better quality of work
• 3. Less learning period
• 4. Cost Reduction
• 5. Reduced supervision
• 6. Low accident rate
• 7. High morale
• 8. Personal Growth
• 9. Organizational Climate
Steps in Training Programme
• 1. Identifying Training Needs- Present
Performance – Desired Performance
(Accepted Level of Performance)
• 2. Setting Training Objectives and Policy
• 3.Designing Training Programme
• 4. Conducting the Training
• 5. Follow up and Evaluation
• 1. State essential qualities of Successful
Recruitment Advertisement. And also state how
will you spell out Job specification and job
description briefly in the AD itself.
2. How will you carry out training need analysis
for a medium sized organization?
3. If you are HR Executive of an MNC, How will
you retain employees in your organization?
Further Readings
• 1. Human Resource Management –
Dr. C.B. Gupta – Sultan Chand & Sons Pub
• 2. Human Resource Management – S.S.
Khanka – S. Chand Pub
• 3.Personnel Management & Industrial
Relations – P.C. Tripathi Himalaya Pub
• 4. Personnel Management – C.B Mamoria
Vikas Pub.

S. vivekanantha,
Faculty Member,
Department of Management Studies
Kodaikanal Christian College,
• Promotion refers to advancement of an
employee to a higher post carrying
greater responsibilities, higher status and
better salary. It is the upward movement
of an employee in the organization's
hierarchy, to another job commanding
greater authority, higher status and better
working standards.
A transfer refers to a horizontal or lateral
movement of an employee from one job to
another in the same organization without any
significant changes status and pay. It has been
defined as “ lateral shift causing movement of
individuals from one position to another usually
without involving any marked change in duties,
responsibilities, skills needed or compensation”
Need and purpose of Transfers

• 1. To meet organizational needs

• 2. To satisfy employee Needs
• 3. To better utilization of Employees
• 4. To make the Employee More versatile
• 5. To adjust the work force
• 6. To provide Relief
• 7. To Punish Employees
Types of Transfers

• 1. Production Transfer
• 2. Replacement Transfer
• 3. Versatility Transfer
• 4. Remedial Transfer
• 5. Shift Transfer
• Demotion implies the assignment of an
employee to a job of lower rank with lower
pay. It refers to downward movement pf
an employee in the organizational
hierarchy with lower status and lower
• It is downgrading process and a serious
type of Punishment, hence it should be
used tactfully and only when it is absolutely
Need for Demotion:
Why and When
• 1. Adverse Business Conditions
• 2. Incompetence
• 3. Technological Change
• 4. Disciplinary Measure.
• Separation of an employee takes place when
his service agreement with the organisation
come to an end and the employee the
organisation. It may occur due to
resignation, death, dismissal and layoff.
Following are various forms of separations.
• Resignation
Retirement Layoff
Wage and Salary Administration
• Objectives of WASA:
• 1. To establish a fair and equitable
• 2. To attract competent personnel
• 3. To retain the present employees
• 4. To improve productivity
• 5. To control Costs
• 6. To improve union management relations
• 7. To improve the public image of the
Essentials of sound wage
and Salary structure
• 1. Internal Equity
• 2.External Competitiveness
• 3. Built in incentive
• 4. Link with productivity
• 5. Maintain Real Wages
• 6. Increments
General and Individual
Factors affecting Wages
• General Factors • Individual Factors
• 1. Demand for and • 1. Employee’s Age and
Supply of labour work Experience
• 2. Ability to pay of the • 2. Educational
Organization Qualification
• 3. Labour Unions • 3. Promotion possibilities
• 4. Cost of Living • 4.Hazards involved in the
• 5. Prevailing wage rates job
• 6. Job Requirements • 5. Stability of Employment
• 7. Productivity • 6.Demand for the product
• 8. State Regulation • 7.Industry’s role in the
• 8.Potentials of an employee
Methods of Wage Payment

•1. Time Wage system

•2. Piece Wage system
• 1.What are the Precautions a manager
should have while go for Demotion of an
• 2. Determining Wage structure is a
cumbersome process and it requires lot more
knowledge and thinking- discuss
• 3. If you are an owner of the production unit
of a retail product which method would you
adopt for payment of wages?
Further Readings
• 1. Human Resource Management –
Saiyadin - TMH Pub.
• 2. Human Resource Management – Dr.
C.B. Gupta Sultan Chand and sons Pub.
• Personnel Management & Industrial
Relations – P.C. Tripathi Himalaya Pub.
• Unit – IV
• Bachelor of Business Administration
• V Semester
• Non – CBCS Syllabus of Madurai Kamaraj
• S. Vivekanantha,
• Faculty Member, School of Business Studies and Application,
Kodaikanal Christian College,
• Kodaikanal
Industrial Relations
• Industrial Relations are exercises in
organizational relations between functional
interest groups.
• According to ILO, IR comprise relationships
between the State on the one hand and the
employers’ and organizations on the other and
the occupational organizations themselves.
• It means Collective relationship between
management, employees and government in
any industrial or non-industrial organization
Objectives and Importance of IR
• To Develop and maintain harmonious relationship
between management and labour
• To safeguard the interests of labour
• To establish and maintain industrial Democracy
• To avoid all form of industrial conflict so as to
ensure industrial peace
• To raise productivity and reduce high labour
• To bring about Government control over such
industrial units
• To ensure a healthy and balanced social order
through recognition of human rights by way of
trade unionism
Causes and Effects of
poor Industrial Relations

• Multiplier Effects
Economic Causes
• Fall in normal
• Organizational
Causes • Resistance to Change
• Psychological Causes • Frustration and
• Social Causes Social cost
• Political Causes
Remedies to Improve
Industrial Relations
• General Guidelines:
• 1. Sound personnel polices
• 2.Constructive Attitudes
• 3. Collective Bargaining
• 4. Participative Management
• 5. Responsible Unions
• 6. Employee Welfare
• 7. Effective Grievance Procedure
Remedies to Improve
Industrial Relations
• Specific Guidelines:
• Both Management and Union should Develop trust and
positive attitude towards each other.
• All basic policies and procedures Relating to Industrial
Relations should be clear to every body in the
organization and the Union Leaders
• The personnel manager should remove any distrust by
convincing the union of the company’s integrity and his
own sincerity and Honesty.
• Management should encourage right kind of Union
• After the settlement is reached should be properly
Meaning and Definition
of Grievances
• Broadly speaking Grievance means any real or
imaginary feeling of dissatisfaction and
injustice which an employee has about his
employment relationship.
• According to Michael J Jucious, “ a grievance
is any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether
expressed or not, whether valid or not, arising
out of anything connected with the company
that an employee thinks, believes or even
feels, is unfair,unjust or inequitable”
Causes of Grievances
• 1. Grievances arising out of Working
• 2. Grievances arising from
Management policy
• 3. Grievances arising from Alleged
violation of certain statutes…
• 4. Grievances arising out of Personal
Understanding Employee
• 1. Exit Interview • Effects of Grievances
• 1. Indiscipline
• 2. Opinion Surveys • Low morale and decreased
• 3. Gripe Boxes • High Absenteeism and
• 4. Open Door turnover
• Loss of faith in management
Policy • Increase in accidents
• Formation of cliques
• Lowering of public image of
the organization
Standard Grievance Procedure
• Follow only standard procedure ( a
voluntary Grievance procedure) in
pursuance to the Code of Discipline
adopted in the 16th session Indian Labour
Conference in 1958. It contains Five
successive time bound steps each leading
to the next in case the aggrieved
employee prefers an appeal.
Essentials of Sound Grievance Procedure
• 1. Legal Sanctity
• 2. Acceptability
• 3. Promptness
• 4. Simplicity
• 5. Training
• 6.Follow-up
• How Political parties influence industrial
relations Sean in India? How will you
alleviate political influence in the Industry?
• 2. Rust is the worst foe of Iron similarly
Frustration is the worst opponent of human
being. Do you agree. Highlight the evil effects
of Grievances on ordinary Industrial worker.
• 3. Draw a suitable grievance redress procedure
for a medium sized manufacturing
Further Readings
• 1. Human Resource Management –
Dr. C.B. Gupta – Sultan Chand & Sons
• 2. Industrial Relations by Arun Monappa
TMH- pub.
• 3. Personnel Management & Industrial
Relations – P.C. Tripathi Himalaya Pub.
• Unit – V
• Bachelor of Business Administration
• V Semester
• Non – CBCS Syllabus of Madurai Kamaraj

• S. Vivekanantha,
• Faculty Member, School of Business Studies and Application,
• Kodaikanal Christian College,
• Kodaikanal
Meaning and Definition of
Performance Appraisal
• Performance appraisal or performance evaluation is
the process of assessing the performance and progress
of an employee or of a group of employees on a given
job and his potential for future development.
• According to Flippo, “ Performance appraisal is the
systematic, periodic and an impartial rating of an
employee’s excellence in matters pertaining to his
present job and his potential for a better job”
• Difference between Merit-rating and Performance
• Present appraisal systems in practice- 360 degree…
The process of Performance Appraisal
• 1. Establishing Performance Standards
• 2. Communicating the Standards
• 3. Measuring Performance
• 4. Comparing the actual standards with
the Standards
• 5. Discussing the Appraisal
• 6. Taking Corrective Actions
Methods of Performance Appraisal
• Traditional Methods: • Modern Methods:
• 1. Confidential Report • 1. Assessment
• 2. Free Form or Essay Centre
• 3. Straight Ranking • 2. Human Resource
• 4. Paired Comparisons Accounting
• 5. Forced Distribution • 3. Behaviorally
• 6. Graphic Rating Scales Anchored Rating
• 7. Checklist Method
• 4. Appraisal through
• 8. Critical Incidents
• 9. Group Appraisal
• 10. Field Review
Essentials of an Effective Appraisal System

1. Mutual Trust 6.Documentation

7. Feedback and
2.Clear Objectives Participation
3.Standardisation 8. Individual differences
9. Post appraisal
4.Training Interview
5.Job Relatedness 10. Review and Appeal
Workers’ Participation in Management
• According Keith Davis Participation refers to
“the mental and emotional involvement of a
person in a group situation which encourages
him to contribute to group goals and share
in the responsibility of achieving them”
• It is a process by which authority and
responsibility of managing industry are shared
with workers
• In Yugoslavia it is called self-management
• In Germany it is known as Co-determination
In the words of Mehtras, “ the concept
of participation as a principle of
democratic administration in an
industry implies a share by rank and
file in the decision-making process of
an industrial organization through their
representatives at all the appropriate
levels of management in the entire
range of managerial action”
Objectives of Workers
participation in management
• 1. Democratic right to
1. Economic influence the
objective managerial decisions
• 2. Raise worker’ level of
2. Social motivation and
Objective commitment
• 3.Cross-fertilisation and
3. Psychological speedy communication
Objective of ideas
• Foster better co-
operation between
labour and
Importance of Workers’
Participation in Management
1. Mutual Understanding
2. Higher Productivity
3. Industrial Harmony
4. Industrial Democracy
5. Less Resistance to change
6. Creativity and Innovation
Levels/Degrees of Participation
1. Communication
2. Consultation
3. Codetermination
4. Self-Management
Forms of Workers’ Participation in
1. Suggestion Scheme
2. Works committees
3. Joint Management Councils
4. Worker Directors
5. Co-Partnership
• 1. Why Workers Participation in
management is a desperate failure in
India? Suggest some measures for making
participation successful.
• 2. Write an essay on 360 degree Performance
appraisal system which prevails in the most
successful Organizations.
• 3. “Performance appraisals are mere paper
tigers, if you wish to grab incentive please
your boss” – Pass a Critical comment on it.
Further Readings
• 1. Human Resource Management –
Saiyadin - TMH Pub.
• 2. Human Resource Management – Dr.
C.B. Gupta Sultan Chand and sons Pub.
• Personnel Management & Industrial
Relations – P.C. Tripathi Himalaya Pub.