Cummings Latin learning vocabulary, page 1

Basic Latin Vocabulary
This list of approximately 1200 words contains what can be considered the core classical Latin vocabulary. Of course there is much overlap with the more than 900 words to be learned in Wheelock. The definitions offered are, by necessity, limited. The list is also somewhat shorter than it appears because it contains what are, in effect, some duplications: for example, some distinctive plural uses of nouns have separate entries (e.g. animus and animi). I have compiled this from various sources, and so there are some minor inconsistencies in formatting. A list of the learning vocabulary from Wheelock (6th ed.) is at: http://www.slu.edu/colleges/AS/languages/classical/latin/tchmat/grammar/vocabulary/whvoc.html For one list of the 300 most common Latin words, see http://www.inrebus.com/latinwords.php This breaks the vocabulary down by declension, etc., and has a frequency list so you can check on your knowledge of the most common words: http://www.rustymason.com/edu/lang/latin/an_essential_latin_vocabulary.pdf A list of the 3000 most common Latin word forms can be found at http://www.slu.edu/colleges/AS/languages/classical/latin/tchmat/grammar/vocabulary/hifed2.html . Going through the top 1000, for example, can be a very good exercise since it will test you on oblique forms (e.g., eius no. 27, quibus no. 51, omnes no. 70) and lots of little words such as conjunctions and adverbs. If you are very interested in Latin poetry, you might want to have a copy of the American AP vocabulary list for Vergil: home.montgomerybell.com/~deyound/2005Vergillist.doc Numbers: (A&G 133 has a thorough list, for reference). Only a few numbers are in this list. You should know: one through thirteen; the “tens” from twenty through ninety; the hundreds from one hundred through one thousand; the ordinals for one through twelve, and be ready to recognize that the rest end in -ensimus. There are also only a few proper names, mostly from myth and the Aeneid.

M.S. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary, page 2

a, ab (+ abl.; also used as prefix with verbs) abeo, abire, abii, abitum absens, absentis ac [atque] accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum accendo accendere, accendi, accensum accido, accidere, accidi accipio accipere, accepi, acceptus acer, acris, acre acerbus, a, um Achilles -is, m. ad (+ acc.; also used as prefix with verbs) adeo adire adivi/adii aditum ad o adfero [same as affero] adferre, attuli, allatum adfor [affor] adfari, adfatus sum adhuc (adv) adigo -igere -egi -actum adiuvo, adiuvare, adiuvi, adiutum adloquor [alloquor] alloqui, allocutus sum admitto, admittere, admisi, admissum adsum adess adfui adulescens, adulescentis, m. adulescentia, adulescentiae, f. advenio, advenire, adveni, adventum adversus, a, um aedificium, aedificii, n. aedifico aedificare, aedificavi, aedificatus aeger aegra aegrum Aeneas -ae Aeolus -i aequor aequoris, n. aequus, a, um aer, aeris, m.

from, away from, by to go away, depart; to die; to disappear absent, away and, and also to come to, approach; to agree set on fire; inflame; arouse; inspire to fall upon; happen; occur accept, take in, receive, let in sharp, keen, eager, severe, fierce (adjective harsh, bitter, grievous greatest of the Greek heroes at Troy to, towards, at, near to, by go to, approach, reach visit, encounter, meet to that degree, so to bring to address, speak to thus far, hitherto; still drive forth to help address, speak to to admit, receive, let in be present, be at hand, near youth; young man youth: adolescence to come; arrive, reach opposite, facing, adversary building, structure build sick, diseased, weary, weak hero of the Aeneid god of the winds the sea, surface of the sea, a level surface level, even; calm; equal, just air, breeze, mist, cloud

M.S. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary, page 3

aes, aeris, n. aestimo, aestimare, aestimavi, aestimatum aetas, aetatis, f. aeternus, a, um aether affero, afferre, attuli, allatus Africa -ae Africus -i ager, agri, m. aggredior, aggredi, aggressus sum agmen agminis, n. agnosco agnoscere agnovi agnitum ago, agere, egi, actum agricola, agricolae, m. ait / aiunt ala -ae, f. aliquis aliquid aliquot alius alia, aliud alo, alere, alui, altum alter altera, alterum altus -a -um [as noun altum -i ambulo, ambulare, ambulavi, ambulatum amica, amicae, f. amicitia, amicitiae, f. amicus amici, m amicus, a, um amitto amittere amisi amissum amo amare, amavi, amatus amor, amoris, m. amplector amplecti amplexus sum amplus -a -um

bronze to consider, esteem; to judge period, time of life, age eternal, everlasting upper air, ether; air; sky, heaven to bring to; carry; produce Northern Africa the southwest wind field: acre, agral approach, advance; attack; undertake army , column, train, formation, rank, line recognize to drive, lead, do, act; pursue, urge, conduct;.../ deliver (speech); pass, spend (time); imperative = “come!” farmer says, asserts wing, pinion; military formation (“wing”) someone, anyone several other, another, else to nourish, support, sustain the other, another, the second of two high, deep; lofty, profound; the sea, heaven] to walk friend, girlfriend friendship friend friendly lose, send away; let go; let slip love, like, cherish love; affection, fondness; as person = Cupid enfold, embrace, wind about big, large

M.S. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary, page 4

an (particle) Anchises -ae ancilla ancillae, f. anima, animae, f. animadverto, -tere, -ti, -sum animal, animalis, n. animi, animorum, m. animus animi, m annus anni, m ante (+ acc.) antiquus, a, um antrum -i, n. aperio, aperire, aperui, apertum Apollo -onis appareo, apparere, apparui, apparitum appello, appellare, appellavi, appellatum appropinquo -quare, -quavi apud (+ acc.) aqua, aquae, f. Aquilo -onis, m. ara arae, f. arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum arbor, arboris, f. ardeo Argivus -a -um argumentum, argumenti, n. arma, armorum, n. ars artis, f artus artus, m. pl. arvum -i, n. arx arcis, f. as, assis, m. Ascanius -i

whether, or Aeneas’s father slave-girl, slave-woman breath, breath of life; life, existence; shade, soul spirit pay attention to, attend to; notice, observe animal pride, high spirits, courage soul, mind, spirit, heart, courage, daring, feeling year before, in front of, previously ancient, of old, of olden times cave, cavern, grotto uncover, open, disclose, reveal god of music and prophecy appear, show up, occur to call, name (+ dat.) approach, come near to at the house of, at, by, near, with; .../ among; in; before; in the time of; in the works of water: aquatic, aquapark the north wind, wind altar to judge, think tree, trunk, shoot be on fire, burn, blaze Greek, Argive proof, evidence, argument: argument, argumentation arms, weapons: arms, armory, army; war art, skill joints, limbs, frame, body plowed land, cultivated field, field citadel, fortress, stronghold; hill, peak an as (ancient coin) Aeneas’s son

audere. handsome well. beneficiary to drink . dawn. rash to dare. basii. aspera. averti. bibo bibere. kindness. yet. wind. a. page 5 ascendo ascendere. bibi to climb Asia Minor rough.. um averto. courageous. quite (adverb) benefit. dark. m. harsh. avaricious : avarice. auric Ausonian. but. auri. atque attollo attollere auctor. belli. beneficii. beatus. auditus auditor. aurae aureus. bellus. venture. ascensus Asia -ae asper. auditoris. f. air. fighting pretty. or help greedy. aversum avis -is f. listen to listener. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. risk to hear.M. audacis audeo. behold. auxilii avarus. blessed war. hearer breeze. a. a. turn away bird god of wine.S. a. son of Jupiter and Semele kiss happy. Aurora -ae aurum. Athenarum. raise up. audivi. personified as goddess of morning gold. asperum aspicio (same as adspicio) at ater atra atrum Athenae. regard but. gloomy Athens: Athens and. auctoris. audax. aural morning. at least black. m. aut) auxilium. um bene beneficium. m. n. um auris. auris. um bellum. n. avaricious to avert. avertere. satisfactorily. Bacchus. dusky. Italian the south wind either. n. look upon. fortunate. aura. ausus sum audio audire. Bacchi basium. sable. f. favor: beneficial. originator. Ausonius -a -um Auster -stri.. n. beautiful ear: ear (cognate). daring. ascendi. gilded. vapor golden. riches: aureate. rear author. than lift up. and also. supporter bold. bitter look at. aut (aut .

brief : breve. bright. case. a. um caedes -is. keep in the dark dinner. be deprived from poem. carus. haste: celerity room. cavus -a -um cedo. cecidi.) good. causae. campi m. breve cado. carui. withdraw. casual for the sake of. castrum -i n. surface shining. f. um casa. Carthaginian dear. celebrate. Caesar. f. Caesaris. reason. ruin. cecini. causa + gen. casae. level field. yield to. celo. slaughter. grant. caelum caeli. excerpt Carthage: Carthage. fall down. candidus. white. carminis. cadere. -a. song: charm to harvest. f. cantum capio. descend blind killing. capere. take. cedere. um canis canis. brief. meal . -um Boreas -ae brevis. chant. f twice.M. cellar conceal. the summit. cepi. disguise.S. cellae f. a. heaven Augustus Caesar. precious.. kind the north wind.. fast speed. carpere. quickness. submit quick. celere celeritas. carnage sky. casum caecus. excavated to go. pluck. perception head. celeritatis f. cessum celer celeris. (usually castra -orum n pl) casus. celavi. canere. celare. captum caput capitis. seize: carp. lack. speed of action. storeroom: cell. calamity plain. casus f. carpsi. valued : caress. carptum Carthago. beautiful dog sing. on account of cause. caesar disaster. campus. chance. f. celatum cena cenae. Carthaginis. cella. n careo. overthrow. n. double (adv. a. hut military camp fall. cariturum carmen. person to be without. the North short. carere. n.. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary./ accident: case. Julius Caesar. recite to capture. calamitas. cessi. m and f cano. page 6 bis bonus. failure. brevity to fall. charity house. m. get: capture. calamitatis f. causa. carpo. situation hollow.

cenacle hundred : centenial. clementiae.. famous. close. declare. claudo claudere clausi clausum clementia. talk over hair. assemble.) circumdo -dare -dedi -datum civis civis. force. clipeus -i. recognize. place around. cervicis. cenatum centum Ceres -eris cerno. colloquor. ceteri ceterae.. civitatis. citizenship: civity.. collocutus sum coma -ae. certain : certain neck. cinxi. cenare./ get to know. colloqui. at. bring together. m and f civitas. centipede goddess of agriculture. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. reckon [note that there is also colligo -are] conference to speak with. shout out shout. noise clear. shouting.m. a.. cognitum cogo. conclude. nape the rest. companion . cogere. precinct around. equip: ceinture. a.. colligo -igere -egi -ectum colloquium -ii n. bright. f. coactum cohors -tis f. foliage comrade. um cervix. precogitate to learn. know (perf. compel a troop of soldiers gather. illustrious fleet. cinctum circum (+ acc. comes. division shut. crevi. coepi* coepere coepi coeptum cogito. cernere. clemency: clemency. find out to drive together. f. um classis -is. civilian. pick up. cingo. about. cent. page 7 ceno. f. the others food M. clamatum clamor clamoris./ infer. sure. m clarus. cetera cibus cibi. percent. grain to distinguish. clamavi. wheat. clement round shield to begin to think: cogitation. collect. cognoscere.. f. near surround. cognovi. tenses). enclose. cingere.S. cogitatum cognosco. cogitavi. clamare. clam clamo. perceive definite. cogitare. mildness. finish mercy. coegi. among. m. cogitable. cretum certus. comitis to dine: cenation. encompass citizen state. cenavi. m Cicero –onis.M. discern. civilization silently secretly to proclaim. besiege. f. Tullius Cicero to surround. gird.

-tempsi. f. attempt: conation. commisi. condemn to strive. convenio convenire. -ensi. -tendi. arrest. -avi. -sumpsi. compare. forces . contrary to. found. -atum consilium consilii. maintain plan. -endere. conari. contend. accomplish. coniurati. -tendere. n. condidi. condere. purpose to catch sight of. notice to set up.i . attend. consumo. lay. to go (+reflex. -temptum contendo. -sumptum contemno. conferre. acknowledge. m. contudi. -sumere. consulate to consume. copiae. commissum commoveo -movere -movi -motum communis. locate. prepare embrace grasp to fill up. confessus sum coniunx. conatus to preserve. general to buy. conor. advice. n conspicio -icere. conatus sum conservo. contentum contra + acc. establish to stand still (i. follow to entrust. -temnere. opposite to. continere. -exi. -ensum concedo cedere cessi cessum condo. confeci. f. contundere. copiarum. page 8 comitor comitari comitatus committo. store. husband. establish: condition to bring together. use up to despise. -ectus constituo. conditum confero. supply troops.M. -uere. committere.comprehend. yield to put together. seize. quiet to grasp. conveni copia. -utum consto -stare -stiti -statum consuesco -suescere -suevi -suetum consul. conficere. idea. disturb common. -are. face to face to beat. consulis. collatum conficio. accompany. resolve. coniugis c. contuli. admit. m. confiteri. understand to withdraw. put to rest. commit. copiae. commune comparo -are complector . -tentum contineo. continui. decide. conserve. stop) to become used to consul: consul. coniuratus.S. crush.) to make.complete collect.e. wife: conjugal conspirator: conjurate (obsolete) to try. complete. meet abundance. destroy marriage to come together. confectum confiteor. -ui. hasten to contain against. struggle. bruise. contundo.plexus compleo -plere -plevi -pletum compono -ponere -posui -positum comprehendo. do thoroughly to confess. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. reveal spouse. contusum conubium -bii. gather. join to arouse.

cupiditatis. lay hold of. a. + subj. -reptum heart face to face horn.. heal. culpavi. severe. rush. a run. wing of an army crown. corripio -ripere. currere.M. f. m. curatum curro. creare. creatum cresco. passion desirous. car.. passion desire. cupidinis.. flow chariot. course..) cunctor. seize unlawfully. hesitate desire. rebuke. culpae. bloody. f. custoditus daily tomorrow (adverb)te to believe (in). corpus. culpatum cum (prep. coram (adv) cornu. chastise.. n. cunctatus sum cucupiditas. cupivi. f. corporal. + abl. f. m.S. credidi. attack. against when. confide (in) to create: create. cursus. linger. attention. garland./ strife. fond.eager for (+gen. crudele cruentus -a -um culpa. with words expressing. corporis. blame to blame. crudelis. amid. corporation. wish. f. along with. etc. page 9 cor cordis. journey protection.. curo. cupitum cur? cura. long for why? (indeclinable adverb) care. recreate. crescere. custodio custodire. custodivi. censure with. contention. cunctori. bitter: crude. cornus. um cupio. culpare. attend to. since. curare. anxiety to care for. curae. attack cotidie cras credo credere. m. trust. guards to guard . cursus. n. although (conjunction) delay. custodiae. coronae f./ hasten. cretum crinis -is. cupido.) to desire. custodia. curavi. tail of a comet cruel.) cum (conj. n. wealth body: corpse. love. creditus + dative creo. crevi. cruel spotted with blood. desirous of. incorporate snatch up. . eager. race. custody. cursum currus -i. pl. corona.trumpet horn. culpo. creature to increase hair. cure.. wagon running. harsh. cupidus. -ripui. creavi. longing. take care to run. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. stained fault. shorten. cucurri. cupere.

long for. let fall. must ten to decree. page 10 custos. delatum deinde (indeclinable adverb) delectatio. decrevi. delevi. f. watch. -atum desino. protect to carry off. dementia let down. right-handed. -ere. right-hand. defend. dedicare. m dexter. -are. deletum deligo. wipe out. -atum descendo descendere. deferre. delere. abandon. adorned. Trojan from. -sinere. noble to dedicate lead away to ward off. miss to give up.S. debitus decem decerno. should. transfer. um dedico. frighten away. enjoyment to delight. down from. the Greeks Trojan. reduce. delecto. dementis demitto demonstro. -ui. charm. custodis c. jailer: custodian to condemn. concerning. -are. forsake. descensus desero desidero. -avi. a. goddess of the moon and hunt to say. fail to deter. desist be lacking. offer then delight. -atum Danaus -a -um Dardanius -a -um Dardanus -a -um de (+ ablative) dea deae. defendere. detuli. delegi. demonstrate to go down. foolish : demented. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. dixi. ought. describe. come down leave. about. delectationis. drop. to separate beautiful. delectum Delius -a -um demens. abandon. show. f debeo debere. name . -atum deleo. -are. skilfull sister of Apollo. enrol: delectus of Delos. of Dardanus of Dardanus. -are. speak. defensum defero. erase to choose. dedicatum deduco -ducere -duxi -ductum defendo. deligere. dictus to guard. according to goddess to owe. damno. keeper. harm. -avi. -situm desum -esse -fui deterreo. -avi. debui. cease. please to destroy. dextra. shed to point out. decernere. discourage god right. defendi. sing. -sivi. select. dedicavi. find fault of Danaus (famous Greek king). decretum decorus. -avi. desert to desire. dextrum Diana -ae dico dicere. -itum deus dei. pleasure. pl. mad. of Apollo demented. proper.M. descendi.

suffer. trouble. Ditis discedo. lady master. toe merit. diligere. give pain pain. doctus doctus. god of the underworld to go away. learned. f. -dere. awful. dedi. dignitatis. skilled to grieve. didici dissimilis. careful diligencee. divitis (ditis) divido -videre -visi -visum divitiae. um doleo. godlike. f dominus. different. distuli. anguish at home (adverb): domestic mistress. a. domi domina dominae. digiti. dolui. doliturum dolororis. diligentiae f. m.) differo. disco. differre. um (+ abl. prestige. f. dies. (f. dignity: dignity worthy. diei. home . dilectum dirus -a -um Dis.) diligens. a. saying queen of Carthage day. delay. domus. discipuli. horrible Pluto. grant. dignus. riches of a deity. domo domum domus. -ssum discipula. hurt. m. love ominous. datus doceo docere. divus -a -um do dare. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. dissimilar : dissimilar for a long time rich. f. remark. utter to teach taught. discipulae. diligo. opulent. dreadful. m. assertion. docui. f. n Dido -onis. m. dolere. discere.S. m. bestow.M. lord from home to home house. dilexi. depart student (female) student to teach unlike. f. emit. page 11 dictum -i. worthy of diligent. grief. divine to give. dissimile diu (indeclinable adverb) dives. wealthy. discipulus.) divide distribute separate wealth. appoint. diligentis diligentia. a rich man (subst. disperse difficult finger. care. -ssi. dilatum difficilis difficile digitus. domini. daylight to differ. fearful. dignitas. frugality to esteem. suffering. divitiarum.

um duco. dubitare. m ergo eripio. duae. m. produce utter. agreeable : dulcify while. bring out to carry out. bear. me to go out distinguished.. out. uncertain to lead. dormitum dubito. ductum dulcis. emi. n dormio dormire. e. thus far. ereptum gift.. rough. stern. harsh. effugitum egeo. sail. choose. a. want I. ducere. commander. dormivi. efferre. namely. elephanti.. eo (adv) eo ire. since. duo durus. emo. guide sweet. extuli. dulce dum duo. take. tell. (with subjunctive) until two hard. that is to say sword to this point. educare. educavi. consider. consequently. a. f equidem equus equi. accordingly to snatch away. conduct. m. truly horse therefore. ride. regard. gain. despatch indeed. unfeeling leader. dubii n dubius. so far. dubitavi. eripere. egere. produce to bring up. educate. page 12 donum doni. raise. emere. egredi. egui + abl. egressus sum egregius -a -um elephantus. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. elatum effor effari effatus sum effugio effugere. obtain for. according to look! behold! lo! put forth. present to sleep to doubt. take away. therefore to go (walk.M. rescue . um dux. m. eripui. hesitate doubt. i(v)i. ex (+ abl. bring out./ prolong. dubious. general from. dubitatum dubium.. ducis. move) letter. also used as prefix with verbs) ecce! edo -dere -didi -ditum educo. itum epistula epistulae. guide.S. educatum effero. question doubtful. excellent. eminent elephant to buy. speak out to escape to need. ego mei (pronoun) egredior. pleasant. effugi. bring forth. out of. duxi. emptum enim ensis -is. lack.

exitii. complete to unfold. utmost. capture. take. withdraw model. experiri. exitum exercitus. exemplaris n. test. facti. fill up. explain. facere. model to go out. dead go away. -ceptum exemplar. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. experience to fill. exemplum. erravi. facile facio. facile) to make. to wander. exempli n. pattern. even. exercitus. ruin to come out. exire. too. still Europe. go astray. err. explevi. be in error and. banish: expell to try. expositum exsilium. tip spoils. expletum explico. explere. exspecto. -atum extremus -a -um exuviae -arum. exeo. relics. n. specimen. feci. except. reputation. deploy to set forth. escape notice rumor.escape see “e” lifeless. tradition . page 13 erro. mistake. erratum et etiam Europa -ae Eurus -i evado -vadere -vasi -vasum ex exanimus -a -um excedo -cedere -cessi -cessum excipio. agreeable (adv. accomplish deed. -are. example. withdraw to take out. -cepi. expel. f. even also. perfect small. exortus sum expedio -ire -ivi and -ii. await outermost. explicare. complete. skin story. n. fable easy. um exitium. exigo. exsilii. banishment to look for. tale. facilis. representative. also. poor destruction.M. -avi. remotest. rise to free from fetters. m. factum factum. fall. fabula. -itum expello. explicatum expono. exegi. f. fame. do. act trip. explain. appear. expuli. err. Europa (mother of Minos by Zeus) southeast or east wind go out. expose exile. exigere. exact. pl. f. n. expertus sum expleo. expellere. report. expulsum experior. come away. copy sample. receive. meager. expect. deceive oneself. exposui. exponere. fabulae. explicavi. fallo fallere fefelli falsum fama. -cipere. exorior. farthest. exactum exiguus. errare. famae. force out. spread out. bring. exit: exit army to drive out. let loose to drive out. a.S. exoriri. exii.

/ report: refer. confess . fatigare. f. surge river. establish. death. fautum felix. territory end. fio. finis. ardor. fidelity. agreement. m. fateri. factus sum firmus. happy woman window to bear. back up lucky. festino festinare. fidele fides. a. fatigatum fatum. contract.trustworthiness. fluxum foedo -are -avi -atum foedus.. flumen.. faithful. pierce shape. page 14 familia. n. n... f filius filii. felicis femina feminae. defile. sword: ferreous hurry faithful. n. bring. strong. fidei. cry. fasten. ferre. festinavi fidelis. loyal faith. befriend. talk. league to speak. m fines. blaze. reliable flame. be made. fluo. suffer. familiae. carry. ferri. image. foederis n. admit to weary. object of love weep. prediction to favor. figurae f. death to occur. (pl. f. fleo flere flevi fletum: intransit fluctus -us. for. fortunate. it is permitted to confess. fatigavi. household divine law. fluminis. fidus -a -um figo figere fixi fixum figura./ promise. um flamma. trust. limit. flammae f. fatus sum family. filia filiae. favi. become. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. endure. favere. fero.) fateor. m. m. flood to flow make foul. form. fluere.wail wave. credible fix.S. fas (indecl. fenestrae. fassus sum fatigo. support.M. figure. tire out fate. pollute treaty. f fenestra.. faveo. finium. tide. tuli. beauty daughter son boundaries. defer. say. purpose. billow. happen. boundary. confer fierce. fieri. ferocious iron. foretell. guarantee loyal. f. fluxi. latum ferox ferocis ferrum. with est = it is lawful. fati. of finis) finis.. be done firm. fari.

gerere./ clamour. bear. rave. strong. n. page 15 foris forma. f. glory pour. fulgoris n. funus -eris.. rage. luck forum. fugae f. hurry away to flash. funeral rites. fortunae. m. gladii m. complaint father clan. fulgere. exile to flee. spread. fovi. fremitum frigidus. furo. rejoice joy: gaudy twin groan. secretly to be glad. genus. growl. murmur. lifeless fruit. fusum funis -is. a.g. genitor -oris. fortis forte fortuna. f. f. pour out. fors fortis. fremui. resound. fugi. formae. produce. race.S. glow. n foveo. beauty chance. f. birth. fotum frater -tris. fulsi fulgor. fugiturum fulgeo. n. frustra (adv) fuga. fortune brave. class. people knee origin. fugere. shape. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. um gemitus -us. fury. m. kind. gavisus sum gaudium. conduct (e. market place to cherish. cable funeral procession. furere. furui furor -oris. m. furtim gaudeo. rapid motion. fovere. gessi. murder rage. generis. produce in vain. courageous fortune.M. rage. scatter (note that there is also fundo fundare) rope. um fructus. forum fori. burial.. fondle. fremere. accomplish sword . a. fundere. geminus. brightness. death. war). luck. escape. fudi. fugio./ route. shine. gentis. gero. outdoors. gleam lightening. fructus. frigid. passion stealthily. caress brother. gaudii n. chilly. shed.. m. manage. sighing. fremo... m. nation. stock to carry. m. cool. applaud.. grumble cold. n. gaudere. gens. gestum gladius. sort. genu.. be out of one’s mind raving. madness. flash. companion roar. fundo. outside (adverb) form. for nothing flight. genus. family.

by no means goddess of the underworld Troy’s champion. gressus sum Graius -a -um gratia -ae f. the latter here winter storm. m honestus. stranger stranger. gracilis. worthy honor. burdened to have. grievous. gloriae. an enemy. honoris. hortatus sum hortus horti.M. on either side today (adverb) man. poor to walk. grateful heavy. stormy weather. -ui. linger. hostis. m hospes. hortari. visitor. pause spear not. goodwill pleasing. Hesperian. Hesperia -ae Hesperius -a -um heu hic haec. m. -itum habito -are. reputable. he. -a. to this point. gracile gradior. regard live cling. possess.) hiems (hiemps) -emis f hinc hodie homo hominis. not at all. she. unkempt to encourage. Italian alas ! this. respected. fame slender. a. pl. foreigner. hold. hora horae. um honor. advance Greek grace.S. rough. hoc hic (adv. serious. thin. huc glory. gratus. um hortor. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. hence. -um gravis. f. favor. f horridus. haud Hecate -es Hector -oris heri heros heroos. go. human being distinguished. -ere. Italy western. guest. f. be fastened. hither. gradi. the enemy to this place. stick. public office hour wild. support. frightful. hastae. hospitis m. demigod Western Land. urge garden host. m. winter quarters from this place. esteem.. -atus haereo -ere haesi haesum hasta. son of Priam yesterday hero. important. it. m. a. -avi. hostis. agreeable. consider. so far . page 16 gloria. grave habeo.

finish appeal for aid. push. frightful immortal to impede. ghost. satisfy. in. iacere. command wicked. identical suitable. last highly. a. eadem. -vi. idem idoneus. imperium. at this time. f. ignis. -scere. f ibi idem. among . illud pronoun illic (adv) illuc (adv) imago imaginis. forgive of Ilium. consider. human lowly. pronounce. Ilium that. lie dead to throw. um humilis. set in motion general. already. a. um igitur ignis. m. within. to that place image. immanis -e immortalis. iacere. it there. not. vision. he. speak now. identify. f. ignosco. with a neg. hurl: eject throw out.S.) Iliacus -a -um Ilium -i ille illa. m. iactum iacto -are -avi -atum iam ianua ianuae. implore put on top of lowest. authority. n. earth. -tum (+ dat. immortale impedio.) impius. at that place thither. she. and so fire to grant pardon to. strike.(joined intensifying or negativing prefix) in + abl. imperii. -avi. lie prostrate. -are. irreverent to fill up. humble ground. implevi. impero. ieci. utter. imperatoris. control to give orders to. -ivi. commander-in-chief power to command. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. -atum (+ dat. Trojan Troy. reminder huge. a. hinder. deepest. command. humi. monstrous. longer. prevent strike against. soil to lie. more and more. iaceo. iacui iacio. impletum imploro -are impono -ere -sui -situm imus in. on.M. implere. humile humus. -itum impello -pellere -puli -pulsum imperator. -ire. more door there the same : identity. unat. appropriate : idoneity therefore. um impleo. page 17 humanus. fit. discuss. impious..

against. f intellego intellegere. establish. incipere. wrong he/she says. (mil. bend to. begin unfriendliness. -ferre. feeble nature. enter. um initium. incolo. hostile. intendi. realise to hold out. import. until useless. shameful lead in. lead on. infelicis infero. among meanwhile. initum infelix. advance not strong. into. weak. go on ambush. pursue island. come next. press. inire. induce to go in. wretched.M. barren bring in. insidiarum. unhappy. from that place unworthy. inanis -e incendo -ndere -ndi -nsum incertus. ingressus sum inimicitia. iniuriae. strain. ingens ingentis ingredior. make. institui. inquit insequor -i -cutus insidiae. insignis -e instituo. institutum insto -are -stiti insula insulae. take a stand. incolui incumbo -cumbere -cubui -cubitum inde (adv) indignus. interea (adv) to. incite uncertain. undeserving. proceed. ingredi.) press forward. innate talent huge advance. damaging beginning. inimicable enemy. block of flats to understand. inflict. hence. a. plot. press. n. ingenii. um ingenium. foe. burn. pursue. commencement injustice. -latum infirmus. inimicus. empty. to inhabit lean on. incolere. instituere. intellexi. f. um induco -ere -xi -ctum ineo. dwell. prominent to set up. a. apply oneself to thence. -tuli. stretch. n. inii. inceptum incola. he/she said (irregular verb) follow after. um incipio. intentum inter + acc. a. rouse. for. f. page 18 in + acc. go into. hostility: enmity. build stand forth. injury. enmity. doubtful to begin inhabitant to live. walk. institute. meaningless set fire to. a. exert between.S. initii. iniuria. in the meantime . intellectus intendo. incolae m. incepi. step forward. miserable. intendere. treachery distinguished. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. remarkable. inimicitiae f. oppress. enter unfortunate. towards.

murder meanwhile. opinion. iussi. jealousy. iunxi. f.M. promise . invitavi. iratum is ea. envy. iratus irata. invadere. Iovis iuro -are -avi -atum it concerns.. interfeci. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. interfuit interficio. Gaius Iulius. delightful. invito. intravi. find to look at with envy.S. n. invitare. iussum iucundus. decision. she. page 19 interest. invidiae. intratus verb invado.. agreeable judge./ Caesar. of Italy and so. route. itself anger. he. the Julians) another name for Ascanius to join: join. ire angry this. once more to bid. it interests: interest to kill. interficere. order. f. invenire. way likewise road. trial a Roman nomen. summon Jupiter. that. take an oath. iunctum Iuno -onis Iuppiter. herself. hatred to invite. junction. command pleasant. inveni. um iudex. a second time. herself. iterum iubeo. invasi. iudicis. invidi. invisum invidia. a. in the "interim" enter enter. itineris. yes Italy Italian. judicial judgement. irae. journey again. id iste ista istud ita (indeclinable adverb) Italia -ae Italus -a -um itaque (indeclinable adverb) item iter. juror: judge. yoke goddess of marriage. attempt. interfectum interim (adv) intro intrare. itself. Iulius -i Iulus -i iungo. ipsum ipse ipsa ipsud ira. n. to such an extent. inventum invideo. therefore in the same. iudicii. king of the gods swear. invitatum Iuppiter Iovis ipse ipsa. it. wife of Jupiter Jupiter. iungere. be jealous of envy. so. invasum invenio. invade to come upon. them that (of yours) in this way. interesse. iubere. or clan name (cf. invidere. m. iudicium. thus? Really?. themselves himself. Jove himself.

m liber. laudare. a. annihilation smooth (long "e" in stem) light. envoy a Legion of Roman army. um largus -a -um Latini -orum Latinus. legio -onis f lego. m. slight. leve lex. legis. lacrimavi verb laetus. iussi n. n. laborare. iuvare. exertion. cheerful. legati m. toil. lectum lentus lenta. liber -i ( m. lapsus sum laboro. um Latium -i latus -eris n latus -a -um laudo. laboravi. youthful. laudatum laus. justice. m iuvo. f. choose. libelli. order just.M. libera. levis -e levis. wide. an ancient city in N.an army in general to pick out. slip and fall. labi. legi. a. collapse to labor. iussum. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. n.) liber libri. read slow lion death. a. right young. lavish the people of Latium Latin district in Italy south of the Tiber side. suffering. liberum right.is long) book free. hardship slip. principle little book children (the -i. lacrimo lacrimare. liberal. n. laudis. joyous. f. iuvi.S. honest. lectoris. trivial (short “e” in stem) law. iustus. grateful generous. "gentlemanly" . statute. page 20 ius. a wall broad. Africa labor. iutum Karthago -ginis f. as a noun: young person to help. cry happy. m. lacrimae. extensive to praise praise reader legate. be in distress tear weep. um iuvenis iuvenis. lector. laboratum lacrima. legere. f. slide: lapse. survey. m letum -i. labor. laudavi. iuris. easy. gather. assist Carthage. aid. libellus. labor -oris. lentum leo leonis. law command. legatus. pl. side in general.

depart from. eyes moon review. f. maestus -a -um magis magister. older ancestors: majority (as in 'join the majority'. dwelling tongue. linquo. abandon letter (of alphabet) letter. despondent more teacher (male) great-hearted. locorum. lumen -inis. lustro -are -avi -atum lux lucis. speak. m. region place. libavi. maius maiores. put. magistri. magnanimus. loco -are locus -i. lingua. school light. expanse. lay. litterarum. volume big. daylight brightness. one may (cf. um magnitudo -inis f magnus magna. pl. house. Africa of Libya it is permitted. licere. coast places. door. f. licuit limen. liberavi. n. a long period of time . Libycus -a -um licet. m. ludi. illuminate light. to die) badly . maiorum male relating to a free person. pl. passage (in literature) long. literature shore. n. great. decent. libatum Libya -ae. lunae. locutus sum lucus -i ludus. loqui. libare. liberate liberty. scilicet) threshold. liberatum libertas. to pour ritually. m. freedom freedman. mighty. a. litterae. heavenly bodies sorrowful. important greater. luna. magnanimous size. sport.M.S. litterae. position. videlicet. n. large. liminis. linquere. spot. page 21 liberalis. liqui littera. examine. language go away. f. f. libertus liberti. dejected. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. liberare. tell. liberale libero. m libo. linguae. f. establish place. n. to sip region of N. huge. longus. magnum maior. former slave to pour a libation. f. observe. a. often a sacred grove game. generous to free. libertatis. litoris. extended to say. litus. f. brave. leave. um loquor. loca. talk grove.

f. anyting one eats on merchant Mercury. undiluted (merum = neat wine) turning post. memoriae. memoro -are mens. thought. son of Jupiter and Maia pure. Martis mater matris. meum miles militis. tell mind. mensa. stay departed spirit. a. goddess of household crafts very little. minus mirabilis. mine soldier thousand Roman name for Athena. m. meminisse memor. least smaller. less amazing. intention. band. no smallest. recollect remembering. um mando -are maneo manere. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. remarkable to marvel at. metus. wondrous. a. feeling. mature. medici. page 22 malus. meus mea. m mille. n Mars. manus -us. um minor. memoris memoria. handiwork sea god of war mother. mare maris. mirabile miror. a. heart table.S. milia Minerva -ae minime minimus. mercator mercatoris. intellect. goal. the dead hand. commission. memory. wicked. f. mentis. um meta. memorial mention. wonder. recount. be astonished . order to remain. miratus sum bad. f. mensae. mediocris. limit fear. metus. mediocre medius media. mindful memory: memory. mirari. admire. f. the middle of better to remember. moderate middle. dread. metae. melius memini. medium melior. -a. messenger of the gods. m. evil . troop. speak of. hostile entrust (to someone) . f. mansi manes -ium. native land ripe. ghost. f maturus -a -um maximus. m. at the right time greatest doctor ordinary.M. apprehension my. least. gods of the lower world. -um medicus. team of soldiers. m Mercurius -i merus.

feel sorry for. misi. commiserate. manner. exhibit./ mass. mass. high. molitus sum mollio. m. morari.). abundant world.. rouse to soften. mortuus sum moror. moenium. miscui. let go. munire. plan. miserum misereor. earth. build . wretched to pity. strengthen. point out. devote attention to death mortal. moliri. f mortalis -e mortuus. miserit miseror -ari -atus sum mitto. mundi. mingle. stay. many (pl. warn mountain.. shake. agitate soon woman. protect. pl. obstruction. mittere. institution. procrastination. morbus. movere. soft. moratus sum mors mortis. throw. -are. miscere. defend. manner. labor. n. character move. wife multitude. weight. mollitum mollis -e moneo -ere -ui -itum mons montis. f. hill. mulieris. universe to fortify. walled city a large rock.S. mori. boulder. make calm yielding. transient dead habit. custom. munivi. undertake. movi. morior.M. build. decay. mora -ae f. missum modus. the population much (adverb) much. illness: morbid to die. mollire. miseritus sum miseret. ramparts. n. m monstro.. m. lump of stone. urge monument delay. hindrance disease. multum mundus. multitudo -inis f multum multus multa. -avi. munitum wonderful extraordinary to mix. m. m.. dismiss measure. excite. -atum monumentum. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. motum mox (indeclinable adverb) mulier. trouble to work at. view with compassion it distresses/grieves me lament. moles -is f molior. misera. method city walls. expire. feel sorrow for to send. tender. stay behind. gentle advise. pity. modi. mixtum miser. miserere. moveo. a. monumenti. um mos. great. intermingle miserable. advise. reveal. morbi. moris. heap to show. page 23 mirus -a -um misceo. mollivi. wither to delay. arouse. misereri. munio. bound. difficulty. greatness. moenia. limit. remove.

official responsibility. narrare. negavi. nata. nauta nautae. m.S. f. neglegere. nobody wood.M. made. nepotis. funerary rites. ne -ne ne nec necesse neco. crash wall. exchange for for get get possession of acquire to tell. page 24 munus (moenus) -eris n murmur murmuris.nor necessary. or and not. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. navis. mutare. nasci. also not. nescivi. intended son. f. neither. navigare. without reason not to know. neglectum nego..) not. m navigo. arise nose daughter: native nature born. f. destined. grumbling. Musa -ae muto. navigatum navis. navy (+ subj. n. narravi. natus -a -um natus. fortification a muse.nor in vain. nescitum neuter. forest grandson. mutavi. necavi. alter. nepos. boat: navigation. necare. inevitable to murder. narratum nascor. necatum neglego. lest indeclinable particle (introduces question) whether. growling. naturae. gifts murmur. nemoris n. in order that…not. report to be born. descendant Neptune. be ignorant neither . also not.. natura. one of the Muses to change. that…not. say not no one. mutatum nam namque nanciscor nancisci na(n)ctus dep narro. naval. child sailor to sail ship. god of the sea same as nec: and not. spring forth. natae. m. negare. nati m. Neptunus -i neque nequiquam nescio. neither. nescire.. neglexi. kill to neglect to deny. navigavi. roar. natus sum nasus. neutra. murus -i n. negatum nemo neminis (irregular) nemus. nasi.. neutrum duty.

f. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. injury cloud. marry (+ dat. rely on worth knowing. Noti novem novus -a -um nox noctis. a. m. maiden . be unwilling name. unless lean. to be married to. nostrum nosco. the winds nine new. nimis nimium nisi nitor niti nisus or nixus dep nobilis -e noceo. numeri. customary south wind. numinis n. novel night. nothing nothing too. esteemed. nullum num … ? numen. god or goddess number Numidians. noxae f. nocui. nubes. no one.S. a people of N. n. nubis. nupsi.M. injure not want. Africa never now to announce. nubo. young. nominis. refuse. non (indeclinable adverb) nonne … ? nos. remarkable notable to do harm to. familiar. young wife.) not any. mist. us to get to know. veil. nubere. nocere. learn. find out. page 25 nihil nihilum. death harm. nocitum + dat. report. nutricis f. too much if … not. m nutrix. too much too. nympha -ae. worthless (indeclinable particle) surely … not? divinity. f. Numidae -arum. vapor to cover. numquam (indeclinable adverb) nunc nuntio. nuntiavi. news nurse nymph. relate messenger. nihili n. nuptum nullus nulla. fresh. rest on. um Notus. nolo nolle./f. noscere noster nostra. nostrum notus. nolui nomen. divine power. by no means surely … ? we. no. divine will. message. nuntiatum nuntius nuntii. f noxa. harm. title not. recognize our well known. nuntiare. m. numerus.

occidi. obtuli. stay remain occasion. osurum odium. oblectavi. oportere. -primere. obstiti. opinor. + acc.S. obstatum obtineo -tinere -tinui -tentum occasio. resources. some time ago Mt. f. altogether. offero. die downfall. omnipotent every. pass time pleasantly to forget dark. oblectare. opinio. obstare. -pressi. shady. occidere. take over eight eye to hate hatred to offer duty. officii. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. take possession of. opinari. attack. obscure. home of the gods all in all. occasum occulte occupo -are octo oculus. weighty load work. whole a burden. opinionis f. power. check: oppress to fight against. oblatum officium. death. a. -pressum oppugno. wealth best . service once. f. omne onus -eris. odisse. m. oculi. pl. a job opinion to suppose it is proper. oblitus sum obscurus -a -um obsto. obii. opportunity to fall down. oportuit oppidum. oppugnare. odi.. oblectatum obliviscor. oppugnatum ops. setting (of the sun) to please.) obeo.g. obire.. opprimo. aid. delight. set (e. olim (indeclinable adverb) Olympus -i omnino (adv) omnipotens omnis. opera -ae. assault. oppugnavi. all. for the sake of. offerre. amuse. n. odii. right. necessary town to suppress. oppidi n.M. occido. occasionis. n. um O! oh! on account of. page 26 o ob (prep. assail help. n. f. optimus. unknown to oppose. die. hinder hold on. overpower. in general almighty. for to go up against. Olympus. opinatus sum oportet. the sun) secretly occupy. obitus m oblecto. obitum obitus. opis. meet. oblivisci.

oratum ortus. patefacere. oratoris. otium. n. rim speech: oration orator. n. short. optatum opus. osculi. be evident father suffering. f. otii. a few . beseech. f. lay open. patefeci. ora -ae f. side small. be accessible. partis. endure. arise. ornatum oro. speaker circle. shield god of the underworld. oriri. well-balanced. wish. paenitere. makes sorry another name for Athena/Minerva ally of Aeneas. ortus sum orno. son of Evander spread out. accomplishment shore. birth. get. oravi. orbis n. optavi. paris parens. pauca to choose. nearly it displeases. optare. ostendo. osculum. patefactum pateo. m. open. parvum patefacio.M. patrius -a -um pauci paucae. open. ostentum ostium -i. labour. territory. patientiae. coast. origin. native land fatherly. patere. page 27 opto. provide. region. orationis. obtain part. even. country. bear. peace almost. orator. mouth. edge. expression kiss to exhibit. direction. n. brief to make open. patior. like parent to prepare. os. m. task. expose to be open. entrance leisure. m patientia./f. parentis. disclose. passus sum patria. toil. oris. paenituit Pallas -adis/-ados Pallas -antis pando pandere pandi pansum/passum par. patui pater patris. ostendi. plead. paene paenitet. parvus parva. n. lie open. ornavi. display door. spring from. ortus m. face. patriae. patience. select. n. deed. adorn to speak. orbis. Orcus -i orior. paravi. ornare. share. endurance to suffer. parare. world. beg. entreat rise. pati. paro. f. appear to equip. source mouth. border. show. extend. paratum pars. prefer. operis. oratio. traditional few. permit fatherland. orare. furnish. ostendere. desire work.S. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. makes angry. f. the underworld to rise. reveal equal.

m. by means of bring through conduct.. m. paupertatis. pello. petivi. scan philosophy philosopher Apollo . leg. pernoctare. pernoctatum perpetuus. be suspended. execute. be destroyed. a foot (measurement) worst to make for. complete to finish.M. push. deeply. during. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. peritum perfero -ferre -tuli -latum perficio. um peto petere. along. peius pelagus -i.) perterritus -a. pejorative sea to strike. a.. thoroughly through.) perduco -ducere -duxi -ductum peregrinor. a poor man. -suadere. a. aim at. philosophiae. poverty peace breast. n. drive out. hasten danger to spend the night eternal. pax pacis. beg/ask for. pulsum Penates -ium pendeo pendere pependi penitus per (+ acc. perpetual. repell. petitus philosophia. perii. go on. -suasum (+ dat. persuade terrified reach. humble circumstances: pauper. pauperis paupertas. little poor. pepuli. f peior. peregrinari. pertain to arrive (come through). Phoebus -i small. n pernocto. as subst. banish: pulse. -suasi. perfectum Pergama -orum (Pergamon -i) n. chest. pauper poverty. loiter inwardly. f. wander to pass away. perire. peregrinatus sum pereo. bring about. page 28 paulus. f pectus. continuous to make sweet to. um persuadeo. perfeci. -um pertineo -tinere -tinui pervenio -venire -veni -ventum pes pedis. um pauper. perish carry through. f. philosophi. extend. to travel abroad. pectoris.S. m./ penetrate (= get through) foot. pergo perrexi perrectum periculum periculi. philosophus. pellere. gods of the state hang. a. seek. through).. pessimus. bring to the end. perficere. pecunia pecuniae. throughout. accomplish Troy proceed. expell household gods. heart money worse : impair. attack. pernoctavi.

lay down sea people. later. posui. m.) ostea (adv) postquam potens. request. further on after. pluris poena. able. a. when powerful. plebis. harbor.mass load put. slow loyal. f. placui. Trojan devotion. rule in front of. placere. poetae. porta -ae. populace. porto. positum pontus -i. portatum portus -us. pious. plebeians full most. inferior to afterwards. poenae. + abl.) praebeo. ponere. plebs. praebere. um placeo.S. f. beg can. f. provide head-first.M. m. f. piger. a weight. placitum + dat. dutiful. potui post (older poste) (adv) post (prep. pono. strong power. pollicitus sum pondus -eris n. populus -i. please the common people. next after. be able after. love lazy. headlong. m. gate. afterwards. pigrum pius. a. sense of duty. establish. punishment Carthaginians poet promise weight. avenue. a. outlet to carry. portare. religously observant to be pleasing to. pigra. um plurimum plurimus. Phrygians Phrygian. entrance. potentis potestas -tatis f prae (prep. very much most more penalty. m. posco poscere poposci possum posse. praebui. before to offer. bring port. polliceor. plenus. behind. nation door. haven ask for strongly demand. dutiful conduct. polliceri. um plus. Poeni -orum poeta. rushing onwards . Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. portavi. + acc. praebitum praeceps -cipitis Phoenicians Trojans. place. page 29 Phoenices -um Phryges -um Phrygius -a -um pietastatis.

chief. race to send forth. march forward to prevent. foremost beginning former. restrain. offer. prius pristinus. page 30 praeda -ae f praefero. restrain price. request press. go on. be present before. Priamus -i primo primum primus prima. n. -mittere. wish. show. praelatum praeficio. a. value: price. f. pursue. recommend go ahead. pressum pretium. praetuli. -fectus sum progredior. supply. foremost. -gredi. instead of.) to carry in front of. + acc. furnish be in charge. children. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. praefui praeter (prep. praefeci. progeny. pressi. before. praeesse. praefectus praemium. principii. loot (mil. prior. former. conceal. from afar (sometimes prep. forth. earlier than in front of. -itum proles -is. f. go forward. offer. previous before. proceed in the distance. praestiti. praemii. probare. um priusquam (adv) pro (prep. praestitum praesum. promise . probatum procedo -cedere -cessi -cessum procul prodeo -ire -ii -itum produco -ducere -duxi -ductum proelium -i n. -misi. excellent chief. hinder. first ancient. come forth. previous. probavi. praeferre. n. primum princeps. -ui. in comparison with. precari. praeficere. give preference to to put in charge reward ready at hand. praestare. go forth bring forward. promitto. precious Priam. descendants. -gressus sum prohibeo. pretii n. king of Troy at first. praesto (adv/adj) praesto. at the beginning at first. -ficisci. in return for uprightness. probo. principis principium. approve. precatus sum premo premere.) come forward..M.. entreat. bring into view battle. in the first place first. -missum booty plunder. + abl. start to go. fight to set out. prohibit offspring.) precor. proficiscor. + gen.S. -ere. probitatis. honesty to test. bury. pray. under the pressure of beg. ask. prior. overpower.) probitas. far. in front of . on behalf of./ in the face of. ready on the spot to excel..

perceive in advance province.) propero -are -avi -atum propono -ponere -posui -positum propter (prep. -atum pronus -a -um prope (+ acc. children fight any fight. look for. um quare quasi quattuor -que to pronounce. how much wherefore. inquire what sort?. um publicus. -are.) prosum. pudere. fine. battle (mil) to fight beautiful. f. a. such as how. pulchra. as it were four and (enclitic) . because of which as if. quaesivi. m. how much. than how … ? how … ! although when?. + acc. exhibit on account of. suppose. a. putare. quaerere. at any time. since. pugnavi. -avi. proclaim bending forward. puditus est pudicus.. because how large. think. (with dat. imagine Achilles’ son where? how? in any way to seek.) see ahead. ship to reckon. pulchrum punio punire. puduit. pugno. announce. leaning forward. quaesitum qualis quale quam quam? quam! (indeclinable adverb) quamquam quando (adv) quantus. qua quaero. because to be useful. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. f. chaste girl boy. um puella. rush to (do something) set forth. make ashamed modest. ask. ever. puer. a. why. pugnare. um pudet. next public it shames. poop. pueri. noble to punish stern. how great. putatum Pyrrhus -i. puellae. provinciae proximus. puto.S. handsome. benefit. expose. of such a kind. punitus puppis -is. hurry be in haste. territory nearest. prone near rush. punivi. prodesse. suppose. a. page 31 pronuntio. profui provideo -videre -vidi -visum provincia. pugna -ae f. putavi. pl.M. pugnatum pulcher. strive for.

as far as. something who? what? whoever. anything. -novi. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. judgment. regain. seeing that. rationis. restore. quaedam. swift to seize. because also. recepi. revive. -are. raptum ratio. recollect to restore. reply. radii m. questus sum qui quae quod qui? quae? quod? quia (adv) quid quidam. what. someone. snatch. -are. at some time. drive reckoning. at one time. cheer to refuse: recuse hand over. someone. reason. quoddity since what? (pronoun) a certain one. give back. -noscere. something indeed not even why not?. at which time to where? as long as. thing. queri. rapui. return. page 32 queror. whatever. refresh. rod fierce. rushing.M.(prefix used with verbs) recipio. -avi. lament who.) quis? quid? quisquis quodquod/quicquid/quidquid quo quo? (indeclinable adverb) quoad quod quomodo? quondam quoniam quoque quot radius. sometimes since. answer . which. as many as ray. -atum reddo -dere -didi -ditum to complain. but. rapidus -a -um rapio. account. recitatum recognosco. -atum recuso.S. quoad hoc (to this extent) because how? once. -nitum recreo. f. recitare. manner back to take back. carry away:tear. rapere. receptum recito. that what? which? what kind? : quiddity. too how many. indeed five : quintuplets Romans anyone. everyone who where. -avi. quid (indef. pluck. quiddam quidem nequidem quin quinque Quirites -ium/-um quis. re. receive to recite to recognize. admit. recipere. recitavi.

lay aside. n. desert the rest.. f. revisit king . remotum Remus -i reperio. require state. referre. release. rei publicae.. removere. revertere.M. requietum requiro. m. requirere. hurl. page 33 redeo redire. commonwealth.. incident. reject to leave behind. repperi. res. check restrain. area. store to rest to seek. repeat. world stop.again renew restore to uncover. recall to mind to carry back.S. return. relictum reliquus (relicus) -a -um remaneo. come back. redii reduco -ducere -duxi -ductum refero. think back upon to answer. remove Romulus’s brother to find.. regio -onis f regius -a -um regnum -i. reginae. abandon. business. removi. retegere. republic thing./ push back. look around for gaze at. loosen. ask for. retain in mind to turn back: revert look back. f. reply set up. reperire. reveal hold back. remitto -mittere -misi -missum removeo./ pl. answer. speak. matter. exploits. return bring back. rego. go back. relaxation send back. bring back. rectum reicio -icere -ieci -iectum relinquo. reverti. hold fast. f. royalty to rule. get put back. give up move back. rettuli. guide. learn. put away. retectum retineo -tinere -tinui -tentum reverto. retexi. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. oppose look back. remedy letting go. repertum repono -ponere -posui -positum requiesco. leave. requiescere. guide throw. stretch out. resisto -sistere -stiti respicio -spicere -spexi -spectum respondeo. reliqui. drive back. -nsum restituo -uere -ui -utum retego. remansum remedium. rexi. say queen direction. need. requievi. direct. -ndere. relinquere. regere. remissionis. miss. requisitum res publica.. reversum reviso revisere rex. remissio. rei. affair. state. regal. shove. restore.. stay still. requisivi. withdraw. take a stand. region royal. relax. discover. the remainder to remain. remanere. relatum regina. regis. -ndi. n. f. remedii. remansi. stay cure. kingly kingdom.

be wise to satisfy. boulder . hallow. rusticor. ruris. slaughter sound. sapientiae. again the country. judicious wise man. saxum. to laugh. race. sound blood. sufficient sower. rumoris. hardwood timber.M. destruction rumor. salutis. sacroare -avi -atum saepe (indeclinable adverb) saevus -a -um sal. a. rush. rogavi. bloodshed. healthy. saluto salutare. gossip to fall. Romanum Romulus -i ruina. satiare. saturae. lumber. m. a. satiatum satis sator. sapientia. ruinae f. um robur (robor) -oris n rogo. satiavi. safety. page 34 rideo. sapui satio. rutus rursus / rursum rus. fall down. on the other hand. m. devote. planter. fierce. philosopher wisdom. countryside: rustic. ruere. um sapiens. salutavi. n. satura. force (mil. risi. sane wise. rogare. risum ridiculus. f. rusticatus sum sacer sacra sacrum sacerdos. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. wit health. saxi. family. sate enough. f. founder satire rock. have good sense. knowledge to have good taste.) to ask Rome Roman first king and founder of Rome ruin. terrible salt. a. sacred priest consecrate. laugh at. dedicate. greeting greet to be well safe. m. sapientis. satoris. sacerdotis.S. stone. ruo. ridiculous oak. father. salis. f (Romae: at/in Rome) Romanus Romana. sapientis sapiens. m. tumble backward. rural to live in the country holy. f. begetter. rui. sapio. ridere. salvere salvus. salus. ferocious. m. back. rusticari. sanus. um sanguis -inis. smile laughable. sanctify often savage. rumor. sapere. rogatum Roma Romae. n. m. strength. salutatus salveo.

a single time always senator old age old (man) sense. divide second. m senectus. senex.M. f. herself. um sed sedeo. sentio. or if six if. f. sensus. reap. servitum servitus. sedere. accompany to make clear. senis. m. scitum scopulus -i. sensum septem sequor. operate. se sui seco -are -ui -tum secundus. serenavi. f. scriptus scriptor. a. ledge to write writer pronoun himself. dwelling-place. cheer up. sententia. carve. f. serenatum sermonis. think seven to follow. m. m. serenare. servae. when Sibyl. scire. perceive. serve slavery. sedis. sentire. cliff. following (wind. f. pursue. scientiae. servitude to preserve. scivi. crime knowledge: science to know rock. scribo scribere. thought. m sese seu / sive sex si (indeclinable conjunction) Sibylla -ae. sequi. sceleris. themselves whether. f. sedi. rumor slave (female) (+ dat. servare. keep. save slave (same as se) himself. soothe speech. servo. scriptoris. feeling feeling. report. page 35 scelus. talk. m. n. scripsi. servire. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. crag. servivi. themselves cut. sessum sedes. conversation. foundation once. sensus. evil deed.) to be a slave to.) but to sit: hold court seat.S. sentence to feel. itself. servio. herself. servitutis. sententiae. f. scientia. semel semper senator senatoris. itself. secutus sum sereno. sensi. senectutis. serva. prophetess . etc. opinion. servatum servus servi. brighten. favorable. scio. servavi. m.

lot. pay. unbind. n. sideris. soleo. sol. sinistrum sino sinere sivi/sii situm sinus -i. speculi. n. the sky. silva silvae. socius. destiny. spargere. acquit sleep. group of stars. at the same time (as) without single separate one at a time left. somni. left-hand. unfavourable let./ melt. m. seal. indication wood. single. speratum spes -ei f. speravi. sororis. sono sonere sonui sonitum soror. relief: solace to be accustomed skilled. dream resound. bosom associate. solere. signum. spontaneously (sua sponte) . m. sparsum species. spectavi. forest similar. see mirror to hope for. companion. base.. expect. Hope = (Deity) breath. express sister fate. separate. sponte thus. foundation alone. ally sun comfort. Sicilian constellation. f similis. solus sola. on one's own loosen.M. solum solvo solvere solui solutum somnus. star. f. sollertis m. fortune to scatter. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. fulfil. deliver. prophecy. resembling all together. friend. m.. open. solacium. spirit. soul arms stripped from an enemy. simile simul sine (+ abl. n. dissolve. speciei f. solis. leave. watch. solitus sum sollers. sinistra. only. wrong. sprinkle appearance look at. specto spectare. n. sperare. despair hope. lonely. disengage. signi. pl. sparsi. leave alone bay. solumi. heaven sign. speak.) singuli -ae -a sinister. sole.as one. solacii. perverse. fold. spiritus. hope. page 36 sic (indeclinable adverb) Siculus -a -um sidus. socii m. look for. spectatus speculum. booty of one’s own free will. m. allow.S. strew. expert. sors sortis. perform. spargo. release. spero. spolia -orum n. cunning ground.. n. signal. in this way of Sicily. spiritus. make a noise. permit. f.

surpass. futurum summus summa. whistle (+ dat.. supreme. creak. concerning. directly after go under../ . in addition to proud. -risi. hiss.) subeo -ire -ivi/ii -itum subito sublimis. summum super (+ acc. follow up on. loftiest. beyond. superfui superus. se sum. about. overbearing. under the power of to. stand still star. survive above.) to direct one's zeal to. a. study eagerness.. often Styga) suavis. foolish river of the underworld sweet under. level. on top of. froth. come up.) superbus -a -um superior. studui studium. enter. se. overcome. zeal. superatum supersum. entreating (adv. -ridere. Stygis/Stygos (acc. upper suppliant. over. um supplex -icis supra foam. stultus stulta. statuae f. haughty higher. over. support. insolent. follow suddenly elevated. studii. noble. follow along -self to be highest. on. below. be foamy at once. permit. page 37 spumo spumare spumavi spumatum statim statua. to a position under. hold up hands (in prayer). sterno sternere stravi stratum sto stare steti statum strideo stridere stridi studeo. fui. flatten stand.) sub (+ acc. lofty. besides about. sibi. overthrow. beneath. to smile down upon follow after. studere.M. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. top (of) above. arrogant. greatest.) above on top.) super (+ abl. stellae. higher. f.. conquer to be left over. superare. linger. remain make a harsh noise. immediately statue set down place locate. pursuit stupid. sublime submitto -ere subrideo. n. esse. the gods above to be above. beseeching. stultum Styx./ up to. a little before. superius supero.S. advance. -risum subsequor -sequi -secutus sui. on high let grow. superesse. heroic. be built. statuo -uere -ui -utum stella. superavi.. planet spread out. suave sub (+ abl.. be eager for.

tentum ter tergum -i. n. present. tacui. n tempto. put off (pronoun) his. cover over. arise. javelin. tempest. telum -i highest. -uris. surrexi. so much. dwelling. land. tenui. urge: tempt time. strive hold. have. terrae. tactum tantum tantus. shaft. tacere. weapon rashly. rear. f taceo. their (own) shop. hide. her. of such a kind so however. m. check. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. tendo tendere tetendi tensum/tentum teneo. support to hang up. quantus taurus -i. f.) above on top. its.M. um tantus . surgere. terra. reach three times back. season. temptatum tempus -oris. finally. suspendere.S. inn to be silent. tetigi. texi. n. exert. last to get up. suscepi. blindly storm. nevertheless. tense stretch. attempt. suspensum sustineo. page 38 (prep + acc. so great. stand up. temptavi. soil . sustentum suus sua. surrectum suscipio. ground spear. roof. suum taberna tabernae. multitude temple. shrine to test. dissemble./ time. sustinere. leave unmentioned such. bullock you (pronoun) house. cover. leather earth. keep. globe.. ascend to undertake. shelter. occasion. so greatly so large. upper. temptare. a. extend. susceptum suspendo. f. opportunity. tego tegere. aim. suspendi. tenere. of such a size just as much…as bull. sustinui. hide. te tectum -i. n. templum templi. f. keep secret earth. a. land. tangere. tectum tellus temere tempestas -tatis. interrupt to support. pray now to touch only. still at last. try. higher supremus.. occupy.. suscipere. so much. sanctuary. suspend. tacitum talis -e tam tamen tandem tango. period of. hold back. disturbance. um surgo.

exalt. severe Troy Trojan Trojan (Troas = female Trojan) you (singular) then. be afraid fear to bear. grim. Phoenician. Troes. all to give over. tyranni. at that time. um trado. page 39 terreo.S.. tolerare. toleravi. transii. Tyrius -a -um ubi to terrify. Troum) tu tui tum / tunc turba. Carthaginian when. tradidi.. chamber. sorrowful. pl. disturbance disturb. toleratum tollo. through to go across. turpe tutus -a -um tuus tua. m. make an uproar ugly. torment sofa. lead. where. turbae. extol. surrender. traditum traho trahere traxi tractum trans (+ acc.M. timeo timere. disgraceful safe. triste Troiaae. frighten Trojans inner room. terrere.teach draw. pl. tuum tyrannus. pass over. marriage bed to fear. take.. tremo tremere tremui tremitum tres. destroy: twist. yours tyrant Tyrian. remove. of Tyre.. a. m. transitum transitus. crowd. tria tristis. m. cross. base. bend. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. sustuli.) transeo. gen. shameful. turbo turbare turbavi turbatum turpis. transitus. drag. hand down./ transmit. ignore passing over. secure your (singular). erect. sublatum torqueo torquere torsi tortum torus -i m. tradere. tot totus. where? (conjunction) . quake three sad. lift up. beyond. such a number of whole. tollere. joyless. shake. bring across. transition tremble. f. turn. in those times. over. timui timor. transire./ away. further mob. bed so many. Troianus -a -um Tros (n. f. transit. torture. entire. tolero. endure to raise. couch. terrui. territum Teucri -orum thalamus -i. timoris.. m.

utile utor. um urbs. f. shade shoulder. in order that how?. water (esp. enjoyment. advantageous (+ abl. -ve vehementer vel velox -ocis velum -i n. variegated. urban city. beyond shadow. vast. say goodbye strong. undae f. be well. urge on. the City of Rome press urge. um ultra + acc. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. extreme on the other side. healthy various. usus sum uxor uxoris. pl. utra. urnae f. any. a. as./f. urbis. um urbanus. urgeo -ere ursi (urgueo) urna. uti. experience wife a ford on a river. shallows hoals. a. have power. immense.S. page 40 ullus -a -um ultimus. utilis. single. vale! valete! valeo. or indeed. so that. alone of the city. a. any one farthest. which (of two) womb. umerus -i. unde (adv) undique (adv) unus. loudly or. m. m. or if you will violently. changing. possession that. utrum uterus -i m. press on hard (mil). at the same time wave. usus. vadum -i n. fickle unoccupied. ut (uti) (+ subjunctive) ut uter. valiturum validus. prophet (enclitic) or.M. um varius -a -um vastus -a -um vatesis. the sea seas goodbye. umbra -ae f. cloth covering .) to use. sailcloth. when either. huge seer. usus m. belly useful. valui. variable. una unda. enjoy. certainly ("vel vel " = "either or") fast speedy quick sail. only. valere.) from where whence from all sides one. upper arm at once. crowd around urn use. farewell! to be strong. a. together. f. advantage.

aged street. fetter. way. in truth. vinum vini. n. vidi. direct. attire. verto vertere verti versum verusa -um Vesper -ris /-ri. veritatis. to be sure. Aeneas’s mother word to show reverence for. venditus venia. vestis -is. vicinus/a. insomnia. victus vinculum -i. violo. virgo -ginis. activity house. virgin . country villa to conquer. veniae f. observe. poetry (pl. actual.S. twist. vertex/vortex -icis. m. husband young woman. vero versus. kindness to come. f. videri. be up for sale. page 41 velut / veluti (adv / conj) vendo vendere. veni ventus. m. vereor./f. bond wine to violate. venti. f. f. like. vigor. trace. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. vendidi. indeed. f. n. as if to sell. villa villae. real. vestige (esp. seem being awake.) whirlpool. Vesta -ae vestigium -i. path. f. even as. perceive to be seen. m. venio venire. visus videor. footprint. genuine the evening star goddess of the hearth step. road. vinco vincere. as if just. violare./ vigilance carefulness liveliness. be victorious chain.M. dishonor. m. vortex turn. a "watch" (mil). understand. visus sum vigilia -iae f. verbi. vigoris m. video videre. just as. outrage man. method. n. win. vetus. versus. mode neighbor victory to see.. go wind goddess of Love.. victoriae.. f. veritus sum veritas. destroy true. garments old.) clothing. common in pl. however verse. violavi. verbum. f. rope. respect truth but. m. Venus -eris. hireable favor. change. track. victoria. vigor. violatum vir viri. veteris via viae. vereri. vicini/ae. vici. n. m.

volui voluntas -tatis f. living hardly. Zephyrus -i m. virtue. f. name. invoke wish. vitium.M. excellence. crime. barely. voluptatis. manliness. mob. rabble to wound. roll. vixi vivus.S. call. want. vulgi. vim) vita vitae. decree. distress wound.wish. f. injury face. forces life fault. strength force. will will. m. n.): strength. um vix (adv) voco vocare. be willing. vulnero. shun to live. be alive (vixi often = “I am dead”) alive. vitatum vivo vivere. vulneratum vulnus. vocis. volvo volvere volvi volutum vos vestrum vox. vitii. f. desire. vires -ium (pl. Cummings Latin learning vocabulary. saying the common people. invite. virtutis. f. vitavi. harm. courage. vis vis (acc. vulneris. vulneravi. preference pleasure turn. n. vulnerare. voluptas. appearance. vulgus. want. word. vitare. cry. scarcely call. glide you (plural) voice. a. vultus -us m. vocavi. desire fly to wish. velle. page 42 virtus. vito. expression west wind . violence. vice to avoid. ordain. vocatus volo velle volo -are -avi -atum volo.

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