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A Project Report On


Submitted in partial fulfillment for the Award of degree of Bachelor of Technology Under Suresh Gyan Vihar University 2010-2014

Department of Information Technology

Gyan Vihar School Of Engineering & Technology Mahal, Jagatpura Jaipur

Submitted By: Arpit Vijayvargiya Anika Hundawal Priyanvada Hundawal Umair Quais B.Tech(I.T) 7th sem, IVth Year

Submitted To:Mr. I.P. Singh Assistant professor


GyanVihar School of Engineering & Technology Mahal, Jagatpura Jaipur

This is to certify that the project entitled, Automatic Street Light Control, which is being submitted herewith for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology, is the result of the work completed by


guidance within the four walls of the institute and the same has not been submitted elsewhere for the award of any degree.

Mr. I.P. Singh Assistant Professor Project Guide

Candidates Declaration
I hereby declare that the work, which is being presented in the Project, entitled Automatic Street Light Controlin partial fulfillment for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Deptt. Of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Engineering and submitted to the Departmen of Gyan Vihar School Of Engineering And Technology, Suresh Gyan Vihar University is a record of my own investigations carried under the Guidance of Mr. I.P. Singh, Department of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Engineering, Gyan Vihar School Of Engineering And Technology. I have not submitted the matter presented in this Dissertation anywhere for the award of any other Degree.

(Arpit Vijayvargiya) B,Tech (INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY) 7thSem, IVth Year Gyan Vihar School of Engineering and Technology.



I express my sincere thanks to my project guide, Mr. I.P.Singh, Assistant Professor, Information Technology for guiding me right from the inception till the successful completion of the project. I sincerely acknowledge him/her/them for extending their valuable guidance, support for literature, critical reviews of project and the report and above all the moral support he/she/they had provided to me with all stages of this project. I would also like to thank the supporting staff Information Technology, for their help and cooperation throughout our project.

Name of the Student:

Arpit Vijayvargiya

ABSTRACT 1. CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION(1-2) Objective Of The Project Block Diagram Block Diagram Description 2. CHAPTER-2 HARDWARE DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT(3-21) I.C NE 555 with Base with data sheets LDR L.E.D (Light Emitting Diode) 3 to 6 pieces with data sheets Power Supply Variable Resistance of 47 Kilo ohms P.C.B (Printed Circuit Board of 555 or Vero board. 3. CHAPTER-3 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT.(22-23) Circuit Diagram Circuit Explanation 4. CHAPTER-4.(24-36) Research Papers Based On This Project 5. CHAPTER-5.(37) Conclusion 6. CHAPTER-6.(38) Future Enhancement Reference On The Web 7. ARTICLE..(39-40)














Abstract:This project aims at designing and executing the advanced development in embedded systems for energy saving of street lights with light depending resistor. Nowadays, human has become too busy and he is unable to find time even to switch the lights wherever not necessary. This can be seen more effectively in the case of street lights. The present system is like, the street lights will be switched on in the evening before the sun sets and they are switched off the next day morning after there is sufficient light on the roads. But the actual timings for these street lights to be switched on are when there is absolute darkness. With this, the power will be wasted up to some extent. This project gives the best solution for electrical power wastage. Also the manual operation of the lighting system is completely eliminated. In our project we are using LDR, which varies according to the amount of light falling on its surface, this give an indication for us whether it is a day/night time.

In the present project street lights are taken into consideration where the above discussed factors are rectified in them. This is achieved with the help of an embedded system. By using this as the basic principle we can design centralized intelligent system for the perfect usage of streetlights in any place (Viz Village, Town) can be developed.



OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT:The main consideration in the present field technologies are Automation, Power consumption and cost effectiveness. Automation is intended to reduce man power with the help of intelligent systems. Power saving is the main consideration forever as the source of the power(Thermal, Hydro etc.,)are getting diminished due to various reasons. The main aim of the project is Automatic street power saving system with LDR, this is to save the power. We want to save power automatically instead of doing manual. So its easy to make cost effectiveness. This saved power can be used in some other cases. So in villages, towns etc we can design intelligent systems for the usage of street lights. Needs no manual operation for switching ON and OFF. When there is need of light. It detects itself weather there is need for light or not. When darkness rises to a certain value then automatically street light is switched The sensitiveness of the street light can also be adjusted. In our project we have used four L.E.D for indication of bulb but for high power switching one can connect Relay (electromagnetic switch) at the output of pin 3 of I.C 555. Then it will be possible to turn ON/OFF any electrical appliances connected all the way through relay.

Block Diagram:-


Block Diagram Explanation:In this project, we are going to switch off the street lights automatically as the day starts. The duration of the day differs from season to season, accordingly our module works based upon the light intensity so as to when to start or stop. For this we are using Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) as the light sensor, which communicates with the required information to the 555 timer IC. Here we are using micro 555 time IC, LDR, and resistors. By using the LDR we can operate the lights, i.e when the light is available then it will be in the OFF state and when it is dark then the light will be in ON state, it means LDR is inversely proportional to light.



The block diagram of the system is as shown in the fig. The system basically a 1. 2. 3. 4. LDR 555 TIMER IC RESISTORS Power supply

consists of

LDR Architecture:The light dependent resistor, LDR, is known by many names including the photoresistor, photo resistor, photoconductor, photoconductive cell, or simply the photocell. It is probably the term photocell that is most widely used in data and instruction sheets for domestic equipment. The photo resistor, or light dependent resistor, LDR, finds many uses as a low cost photo sensitive element and was used for many years in photographic light meters as well as in other applications such as flame, smoke and burglar detectors, card readers and lighting controls for street lamps. Often within the literature the photoresistor is called the photocell as a more generic term.

Photoresistor discovery Photo-resistors, or light dependent resistors have been in use for very many years. Photoresistors have been seen in early forms since the nineteenth century when photoconductivity in selenium was discovered by Smith in 1873. Since then many variants of photoconductive devices have been made.

4 Much useful work was conducted by T. W. Case in 1920 when he published a paper entitled "Thalofide Cell - a new photo-electric cell". Other substances including PbS, PbSe and PbTe were studied in the 1930s and 1940s, and then in 1952, Rollin and Simmons developed their photoconductors using silicon and germanium.

Light dependent resistor symbol

The circuit symbol used for the light dependent resistor or photoresistor combines its resistor action while indicating that it is sensitive to light. The basic light dependent resistor symbol has the rectangle used to indicate its resistor action, and then has two incoming arrows - the same as those used for photodiodes and phototransistors to indicate its light sensitivity.


Light dependent resistor symbol used in circuit diagrams

For most applications, the light dependent resistor symbol used will be that with the resistor with arrows, but in some instances those drawing circuit diagrams prefer to encase the resistor in a circle. The more commonly used photoresistor symbol is the resistor without the circle around it.

Photoresistor mechanism A photoresistor or photocell is a component that uses a photconductor between two contacts. When this is exposed to light a change in resistance is noted. Photoconductivity - the mechanism behind the photoresistor - results from the generation of mobile carriers when photons are absorbed by the semiconductor material used for the photoconductor. While the different types of material used for light dependent resistors are semiconductors, when used as a photo-resistor, they are used only as a resistive element and there are no PN junctions. Accordingly the device is purely passive. There are two types of photoconductor and hence photoresistor:

Intrinsic photoresistor: This type of photoresistor uses a photoconductive material

5 that involves excitation of charge carriers from the valence bands to the conduction band.

Extrinsic photoresistor: This type of photoresistor uses a photoconductive material

that involves excitation of charge carriers between an impurity and the valence band or conduction band. It requires shallow impurity dopants that are not ionised in the presence of light. Extrinisc photoresistors or photocells are generally designed for long wavelength radiation - often infra-red, but to avoid thermal generation they need to be operated at low temperatures.

Basic photoresistor structure

Although there are many ways in which light dependent resistors, or photo resistors can be manufactured, there are naturally a few more common methods that are seen. Essentially the photoresisitor or photocell consists of a resistive material sensitive to light that is exposed to light. The photo resistive element comprises section of the material with contacts at either end. A typical structure for a light dependent or photo resistor uses an active semiconductor layer that is deposited on an insulating substrate. The semiconductor is normally lightly doped to enable it to have the required level of conductivity. Contacts are then placed either side of the exposed area.


One form of photoresistor structure

Within the basic photoresistor or photocell structure, the resistance of the material itself is a key issue. To ensure the resistance changes resulting from the light dominate, contact resistance is minimised. To achieve this, the area around the contacts is normally heavily doped to reduce the resistance in this region. In many instances the area between the contacts is in the form of a zig zag, or interdigital pattern. This maximises the exposed area and by keeping the distance between the contacts small it reduces the spurious resistance levels and enhances the gain.


Photoresistor or photocell with interdigital contact pattern

It is also possible to use a polycrystalline semiconductor that is deposited onto a substrate such as ceramic. This makes for a very low cost light dependent resistor

Photoresistor applications
The photoresistor or light dependent resistor is attractive in many electronic circuit designs because of its low cost, simple structure and rugged features. While it may not have some of the

features of the photo-diode and photo-transistor, it is ideal for many applications. As a result the photo-resistor is widely used in circuits such as photographic meters, flame or smoke detectors, burglar alarms, card readers, controls for street lighting and many others. The properties of photoresistors can vary quite widely dependent upon the type of material used. Some have very long time constants, for example. It is therefore necessary to carefully choose the type of photoresistor for any given circuit or application.


1. Introduction to 555 Timer IC 2. 555 Timer IC Pin Configuration 3. Basics of 555 Timer 4. Block Diagram 5. Working Principle

One of the most versatile linear ICs is the 555 timer which was first introduced in early 1970 by Signetic Corporation giving the name as SE/NE 555 timer. This IC is a monolithic timing circuit that can produce accurate and highly stable time delays or oscillation. Like other commonly used op-amps, this IC is also very much reliable, easy to use and cheaper in cost. It has a variety of applications including monostable and astable multivibrators, dc-dc converters, digital logic probes, waveform generators, analog frequency meters and tachometers, temperature measurement and control devices, voltage regulators etc. The timer basically operates in one of

the two modes either as a monostable (one-shot) multivibrator or as an astable (free-running) multivibrator.The SE 555 is designed for the operating temperature range from 55C to 125 while the NE 555 operates over a temperature range of 0 to 70C.

The important features of the 555 timer are :

It operates from a wide range of power supplies ranging from + 5 Volts to + 18 Volts supply voltage. Sinking or sourcing 200 mA of load current. The external components should be selected properly so that the timing intervals can be made into several minutes Proper selection of only a few external components allows timing intervals of several minutes along with the frequencies exceeding several hundred kilo hertz. It has a high current output; the output can drive TTL. It has a temperature stability of 50 parts per million (ppm) per degree Celsius change in temperature, or equivalently 0.005 %/ C.

The duty cycle of the timer is adjustable with the maximum power dissipation per package is 600 mW and its trigger and reset inputs are logic compatible.

IC Pin Configuration


The 555 Timer IC is available as an 8-pin metal can, an 8-pin mini DIP (dual-in-package) or a 14-pin DIP. This IC consists of 23 transistors, 2 diodes and 16 resistors. The explanation of terminals coming out of the 555 timer IC is as follows. The pin number used in the following discussion refers to the 8-pin DIP and 8-pin metal can packages. The 555 Timer IC is available as an 8-pin metal can, an 8-pin mini DIP (dual-in-package) or a 14-pin DIP. This IC consists of 23 transistors, 2 diodes and 16 resistors. The explanation of terminals coming out of the 555 timer IC is as follows. The pin number used in the following discussion refers to the 8-pin DIP and 8-pin metal can packages.



Pin 1: Grounded Terminal: All the voltages are measured with respect to this terminal. Pin 2: Trigger Terminal: This pin is an inverting input to a comparator that is responsible
for transition offlip-flop from set to reset. The output of the timer depends on the amplitude of the external trigger pulse applied to this pin.

Pin 3: Output Terminal: Output of the timer is available at this pin. There are two ways in
which a load can be connected to the output terminal either between pin 3 and ground pin (pin 1) or between pin 3 and supply pin (pin 8). The load connected between pin 3 and ground supply pin is called the normally on loadand that connected between pin 3 and ground pin is called the normally off load.

Pin 4: Reset Terminal: To disable or reset the timer a negative pulse is applied to this pin
due to which it is referred to as reset terminal. When this pin is not to be used for reset purpose, it should be connected to + VCCto avoid any possibility of false triggering.

Pin 5: Control Voltage Terminal: The function of this terminal is to control the threshold
and trigger levels. Thus either the external voltage or a pot connected to this pin determines the pulse width of the output waveform. The external voltage applied to this pin can also be used to modulate the output waveform. When this pin is not used, it should be connected to ground through a 0.01 micro Farad to avoid any noise problem.

Pin 6: Threshold Terminal: This is the non-inverting input terminal of comparator 1,

which compares the voltage applied to the terminal with a reference voltage of 2/3 VCC. The amplitude of voltage applied to this terminal is responsible for the set state of flip-flop.

Pin 7 : Discharge Terminal: This pin is connected internally to the collector of transistor
and mostly a capacitor is connected between this terminal and ground. It is called discharge terminal because when transistor saturates, capacitor discharges through the transistor. When the transistor is cut-off, the capacitor charges at a rate determined by the external resistor and capacitor.


Pin 8: Supply Terminal: A supply voltage of + 5 V to + 18 V is applied to this terminal

with respect to ground (pin 1).

Block Diagram:-

Fig-7 The block diagram of a 555 timer is shown in the above figure. A 555 timer has two comparators, which are basically 2 op-amps), an R-S flip-flop, two transistors and a resistive network. Resistive network consists of three equal resistors and acts as a voltage divider. Comparator 1 compares threshold voltage with a reference voltage + 2/3 VCC volts. Comparator 2 compares the trigger voltage with a reference voltage + 1/3 V CC volts.


Output of both the comparators is supplied to the flip-flop. Flip-flop assumes its state according to the output of the two comparators. One of the two transistors is a discharge transistor of which collector is connected to pin 7. This transistor saturates or cuts-off according to the output state of the flip-flop. The saturated transistor provides a discharge path to a capacitor connected externally. Base of another transistor is connected to a reset terminal. A pulse applied to this terminal resets the whole timer irrespective of any input.

Working Principle:Refer Block Diagram of 555 timer IC given above:

Comparator 1 has a threshold input (pin 6) and a control input (pin 5). In most applications, the control input is not used, so that the control voltage equals +2/3 VCC. Output of this comparator is applied to set (S) input of the flip-flop. Whenever the threshold voltage exceeds the control voltage, comparator 1 will set the flip-flop and its output is high. A high output from the flip-flop saturates the discharge transistor and discharge the capacitor connected externally to pin 7. The complementary signal out of the flip-flop goes to pin 3, the output. The output available at pin 3 is low. These conditions will prevail until comparator 2 triggers the flip-flop. Even if the voltage at the threshold input falls below 2/3 VCC, that is comparator 1 cannot cause the flip-flop to change again. It means that the comparator 1 can only force the flip-flops output high. To change the output of flip-flop to low, the voltage at the trigger input must fall below + 1/3 Vcc. When this occurs, comparator 2 triggers the flip-flop, forcing its output low. The low output from the flip-flop turns the discharge transistor off and forces the power amplifier to output a high. These conditions will continue independent of the voltage on the trigger input. Comparator 2 can only cause the flip-flop to output low. From the above discussion it is concluded that for the having low output from the timer 555, the voltage on the threshold input must exceed the control voltage or + 2/3 VCC. They also turn the discharge transistor on. To force the output from the timer high, the voltage on the trigger input must drop below +1/3 VCC. This also turns the discharge transistor off. A voltage may be applied to the control input to change the levels at which the switching occurs. When not in use, a 0.01 nano Farad capacitor should be connected between pin 5 and ground to prevent noise coupled onto this pin from causing false triggering. Connecting the reset (pin 4) to a logic low will place a high on the output of flip-flop. The discharge transistor will go on and the power amplifier will output a low. This condition will continue until reset is taken


high. This allows synchronization or resetting of the circuits operation. When not in use, reset should be tied to +VCC.








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Resistors are one of the most common electronic components. A resistor is a device that limits, or resists current. The current limiting ability or resistance is measured in ohms, represented by the Greek symbol Omega. Variable resistors (also called potentiometers or just pots) are resistors that have a variable resistance. You adjust the resistance by turning a shaft. This shaft moves a wiper across the actual resistor element. By changing the amounts of resistor between the wiper connection and the connection (s) to the resistor element, you can change the resistance. You will often see the resistance of resistors written with K (kilohms) after the number value. This means that there are that many thousands of ohms. For example, 1K is 1000 ohm,2K is 2000 ohm, 3.3K is 3300 ohm, etc. You may also see the suffix M (mega ohms). This simply means million. Resistors are also rated by their power handling capability. This is the amount of heat the resistor can take before it is destroyed. The power capability is measured in W (watts) Common wattages for variable resistors are 1/8W, 1/4W, 1/2W and 1W. Anything of a higher wattage is referred to as a rheostat.


PCB (PrintedCircuitBoard):With the help of P.C.B it is easy to assemble circuit with neat and clean end products. P.C.B is made of Bakelite with surface pasted with copper track-layout. For each components leg, hole is made. Connection pin is passed through the hole and is soldered.






This circuit uses a popular timer I.C 555. I.C 555 is connected as comparator with pin-6 connected with positive rail, the output goes high(1) when the trigger pin 2 is at lower then 1/3rd level of the supply voltage. Conversely the output goes low (0) when it is above 1/3rd level. So


small change in the voltage of pin-2 is enough to change the level of output (pin-3) from 1 to 0 and 0 to 1. The output has only two states high and low and can not remain in any intermediate stage. It is powered by a 6V battery for portable use. The circuit is economic in power consumption. Pin 4, 6 and 8 is connected to the positive supply and pin 1 is grounded. To detect the present of an object we have used LDR and a source of light. LDR is a special type of resistance whose value depends on the brightness of the light which is falling on it. It has resistance of about 1 mega ohm when in total darkness, but a resistance of only about 5k ohms when brightness illuminated. It responds to a large part of light spectrum. We have made a potential divider circuit with LDR and 100K variable resistance connected in series. We know that voltage is directly proportional to conductance so more voltage we will get from this divider when LDR is getting light and low voltage in darkness. This divided voltage is given to pin 2 of IC 555. Variable resistance is so adjusted that it crosses potential of 1/3rd in brightness and fall below 1/3rd in darkness. Sensitiveness can be adjusted by this variable resistance. As soon as LDR gets dark the voltage of pin 2 drops 1/3rd of the supply voltage and pin 3 gets high and LED or buzzer which is connected to the output gets activated.




International Conference on Computing and Control Engineering (ICCCE 2012), 12 & 13 April, 2012 ISBN 978-1-4675-2248-9 2012 Published by Coimbatore Institute of Information Technology Automatic Street Light Intensity Control and Road Safety Module Using Embedded System Radhi Priyasree1; Rafiya Kauser.H2; Vinitha.E3; Gangatharan.N4 Department of ECE, RMK College of Engineering and Technology R.S.M Nagar, Puduvoyal-601206 radhipriyasree@gmail.com1; riyakulz@gmail.com2; vinithamaran@gmail.com3; n.gangatharan@yahoo.com4

Abstract This paper is aimed at creating

safer roadways with intelligent light system to reduce power consumption. This system has automatic street light intensity control based on the vehicular movement and switching ON and OFF of street lights depending on the light ambiance. This will help in reducing the power consumption during hours of major road usage. The streetlight module is installed consequently for every certain distance. This paper also aims at reducing road accidents by detecting consumption of alcohol by the driver. This can be implemented using alcohol sensor module which

contains skin sensor, breath alcohol sensor and proximity sensor. The skin sensor and breadth alcohol sensor detects the presence of alcohol content and the proximity sensor helps in detecting any kind of malpractice. The novelty of this paper is to effectively reduce the energy consumption of the street lights by controlling the street lights intensity, sensing both human as well as vehicular movement and injury and death caused by drunk driving can be prevented by prior sensing of the alcohol contentin driver by a simple and economical way.


Key words

Street light intensity control; PIR sensors; LDR; alcohol detection; alcohol sensors; skin sensors;proximity sensors; reduced power consumption saferroadways. ____________________________________ ____ I INTRODUCTION Street lighting provide a safe night time environment for all road users including pedestrians. Research indicates that night-time vehicular accidents are significantly reduced by the provision of street lighting. It also helps to reduce the fear of Crime , and encourages social inclusion by providing an environment in which people feel they can walk in hours of darkness. Providing street lighting is one of the most important and expensive responsibilities of a city. Lighting can account for 10 38% of the total energy bill in typical cities worldwide. Street lighting is a particularly critical concern for public authorities in developing countries because of its strategic importance for economic and social stability. Inefficient lighting wastes significant financial resources each year, and poor lighting creates unsafe conditions. Energy efficient technologies and desgn can cut street lighting costs dramatically (often by 25-60%). The implementation of street light intensity control using LUX meter,

traffic sensor and complex subcontrol machines are in process in the Norway. (Oslo street light control)[6]. But the power consumption is reduced only by nearly 30%. There also exists a project in progress where in the street light power consumption is Reduced using a remote controlled system [1], but the disadvantage is that it is not cost efficient and that the initial investment is not economical. This paper is aimed at designing and implementing an automatic system to control and reduce energy consumption of a towns public lighting system up to 60%. This can be done using PIR sensor which senses the movement and passes the information to the PIC (peripheral interface control) microcontroller. The pattern in which the lights have to be turned ON can also be programmed, as in dimming of lights etc. Additionally LDR (Light dependent resistors) can be used. The ambiance of light is checked and lights are turned ON when it is dark and are turned OFF during day time. The advantage of using the PIR is that it can sense the human movement and also that of the vehicle. Thus this paper once implemented on a large scale can bring in significant reductions in the power consumption caused by street lights. Impairment by alcohol is an important factor in causing accidents


and in increasing the consequences of the same. From various studies conducted, it has been found that alcohol consumption was present up to 33% -69% among fatally injured drivers, and in between 8%- 29% of drivers involved in crashes who are not fatally injured. Although the proportion of crashes that are alcohol-related has dropped in recent decades, there are still far too many such preventable accidents. In spite of great progress, drunken driving remains a serious national problem that tragically affects many victims annually. The disadvantage of the already existing alcohol detecting wrist band which uses similar technology of transdermal sensor [3][5] is that it is not certain that every driver will be wearing it, so a separate module should be added to assure that the person who drives should wear it each time which would make the circuitry more complex. Another proposed technology is Alcokey [7] but it can be malpracticed by someone else other than the drunk driver. This paper is aimed at detecting consumption of alcohol by the driver and if it exceeds certain level (0.08mg/100ml), access and movement of vehicle will be impaired. This prevents occurrence of accidents or any fatal crashes. This is done using skin sensors and breadth alcohol sensors for the detection of alcohol consumption. This paper is organized as follows. Section II discusses about

implementation of new road safety and street modules.


The main objective of this paper was to reduce the power consumption of street lights by avoiding inefficient lighting which wastes significant financial resources each year. This is done by dimming the lights during less traffic hours. For this purpose PIR sensor which detects any movement. This paper also aims at reducing the fatal crashes and road accidents caused due to alcohol consumption. This is done using skin sensors placed in vehicle doors and also using breadth sensors inside the vehicle. By implementing this death rates due to drunk driving can be reduced to a great extent. The prototype has been implemented and works as expected and will prove to be very useful and will fulfill all the present constraints if implemented on a large scale. CONCLUSIONS This paper is aimed at designing and implementation of an automatic system where in the street lights that are not required through the night can be dimmed. Additionally, the ambiance of light is checked and lights are turned ON when it is dark and turned OFF during the day. Our government is striving hard to provide electricity to customers. Thus this paper once implemented on a large scale can bring in significant reductions in the power consumption caused by street lights. This


initiative will help the government to save this energy and meet the domestic and industrial needs. Alcohol-impaired driving remains a serious national problem that tragically affects many victims annually. The proportion of crashes that are alcoholrelated is still a point of consideration. This paper also aims at detecting consumption of alcohol by the driver and if it exceeds certain level it impairs the driver from entering into the vehicle. This prevents occurrence of accidents or any fatal crashes.

[1]Caponetto, R., Dongola, G.,Fortuna, L., Riscica, N. and Zufacchi, D. (2008), Power consumptionreduction in a remote controlled street lighting system, International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM 2008), Ischia,une, pp. 428-33. [2] Costa, M.A.D., Costa, G.H., dos Santos, A.S., Schuch, L. and Pinheiro, J.R. (2009), A high efficiency autonomous street lighting system based on solar energy and LEDsBrazilianPowerElectronics Conference (COBEP 2009), Bonito, 27 September-1 October, pp. 265-73. [3] Paul

R. Marques and A. Scott McKnight Evaluating Transdermal Alcohol Measuring DevicesDTNH22-02-D- 95121, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation 11720 Beltsville Drive, Suite 900, Calverton, MD 20705 [4]Farmer C. M. 2005. Relationships of Frontal Offset Crash Test Results to Real-World Driver Fatality Rates. Traffic Injury Prevention, 6, 31-37. [5] R. Swift, C. Martin, L. Swette, A. LaConti and N. Kackley, Studies on a Wearable, Electronic, Transdermal Alcohol Sensor, 16 Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 721 (July/Aug. 1992) [6] Homepage/Estreet% 20Project%20Report%2005_157.pdf [7] John K. Pollard, Eric D. Nadler, Mary D. Stearns, Review of Technology to Prevent Alcohol-Impaired Crashes (TOPIC).



1R.RUBANANTH, 2T.KAVITHA 1 M.Tech Embedded Systems, School of Computing, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India 2Asst. Prof., School of Computing, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India E-mail: ,

In todays world, power saving is very important and difficult. Though there are many power generation methods, it has become very difficult due to insufficient resources. So, saving of power is the need for our society. This paper discusses about how power can be saved in street lights. The main objective is to control the street lights (dim during dawn and dusk time as well as bright during night time) using DualTone Multi Frequency (DTMF). The engineer at Electricity Board (EB) can control the street lights of various areas. If any over load occurs, the connection will be disconnected and the information istransferred through Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) to EB. In case of any detachment ofjumper (EB line) then also the information is sent. Also, if there is any complaint by the consumers, theycan send the information to EB through Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Reader, which will be fixed in one of the street light posts and the tag is given to all consumers. The message will be sent to EB serverthrough GSM.

Keywords: GSM, PIC Microcontroller, RFID, DTMF.

1. INTRODUCTION Now-a-days electricity problem in India is themajor issue. Then and there the wastage ofelectricity should be avoided. This paperexplainshow to save the power in the street lights, overloadissues as well as power cut off. RFID reader isfixed in the street lights and the tags are given toindividual houses from EB. So if any problem occurs in the house, the user has to show his tag tothe reader and the information will be intimated to the server (EB) through GSM. The engineer mayrespond to the issue immediately. GSM is used totransmit the data to the server like

29 maintained in the street light [2], where master board is mounted on the electrical panel and slave board is mounted in the street lamp. But here the load is maintained for the transformer in the particular street [3]. Current transformer is used to send the load details continuously. The present values are compared with the predefined values and will automatically send a message through GSM and also inform the particular line failure in the area. The RFID is interfaced with PIC microcontroller and it should be kept in lamp post. 3. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE The system comprises of six devices: a PIC16F877A, LCD, Current Transformer, GSM, DTMF, and RFID. The components are interfaced with PIC microcontroller. PIC microcontroller is a RISC based Architecture. It is low cost and is used for real time application. Current transformer is connected to the PIC microcontroller to ADC pin. The predefined value is set in the controller and the current value is compared with it. If the value doesnt match, message is sent through GSM. The DTMF is connected to the transmitter in the PIC microcontroller. Wireless communication is used to transmit the data through personal area network to particular area [4]. Data cannot be sent through wide range in personal area network. To overcome this, GSM is used for wide range of transmission. The LCD is used to display the status set for the street lights, which provide a convenient

load balancing,disconnection of power andcomplaints. Regardingpower in the houses, balancing a load is the majorissue in the electricity. To overcome this problemcurrent transformer is used. The function of currenttransformer is used to send the load detailscontinuously to controller. Already the load valuesare predefined in the microcontroller are compared with the present value. If the values are more thanthe predefined values, it will automatically send amessage through GSM. If there is a line failure inparticular area it will send a message through GSMto the Server. Usually the buck converter is used to dim the street light and the boost converteris usedto brighten the light. But DTMF are used for dimming and brightening the street light. With the help of DTMF, particular time will be set to ON/OFF condition and also set the dimming and brightening of the entire street light system. Design of new street light control system does not only achieve power-saving but also extend the life span of lighting equipment. On other hand, if any fault occurs in houses, the user sends information to EB through RFID via GSM. 2. DESIGN PROCESS With the help of DTMF, the user can set time according to their clarity of light. For example according to the climatic condition the user can set the time for the brightness[1]. According to the predefined time the light will be shut down. DTMF is interfaced with PIC 16F877A. Load is

30 with the line carrying current to be measured and therefore the primary current is depended on the load connected to the system whose current is to be measured. As the secondary voltage of current transformer is higher than the primary voltage, the secondary winding has more number of turns compared to the primary winding. In case of current transformer the secondary current is less than the primary current. 4.4 LCD and DTMF LCD is used for displaying the load value, and DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency) is used for dimming and brightening of the street light. With the help of DTMF, a particular time will be set to on and off the entire street light system. 4.5 RFID Radio Frequency Identification Device is a technology which works on the principles of radio waves. If there is any complaint in any of the houses, the user needs to send the information through RFID reader [5], which will be fixed in the street lamp and tag which will be send to individual houses.

channel to enable human and machine interconnect. The LCD display indicates the current operating status. 4. SYSTEM BLOCK The Fig. 1 shows the full block diagram of the automatic street lighting system. 4.1 PIC Microcontroller PIC 16F877A is a 40-pin 8-Bit microcontroller. It is family of Harvard architecture and manufactured by Microchip technology. PIC stands for Peripheral Interface Controller, used by industrial developers due to wide availability space and serial programming for flash memory. 4.2 GSM Module GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a technology for communication and it works based on AT command. GSM offers wide range of services like voice, data and internet access. GSM is a low cost mobile communication used by the user to activate ON/OFF control remotely[5]. The GSM device is fixed in lamp post and if any problem arises, it will send the information to EB. 4.3 Current Transformer Current transformer is a device used to decrease the current level by stepping up the voltage and keeping the energy as constant. Hence the current transformers are basically step up transformer. The primary winding of the current transformer is connected in series


overall setup of system prototype. In case of any overload, the GSM kept on street light post intimates the server about the overload condition. If there are any complaints from houses, the user can send the information to EB through RFID.


This system proposes a new way of reduced power consumption. With this system, recovering from power failure period can be reduced. Street light maintenance, load maintenance and if there is any complaints regarding power it can be intimated through GSM. In future the Electricity department can adopt this system in order to save power as well as time. This system can be extended in such a way that time taken for processing any new power connection request can be minimized by using RFID.

Environment and Electrical Engineering pp396-399 2010. [2]. Chunguo Jing, Dongmei Shu and Deying Gu, Design of Streetlight Monitoring and Control System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks Second IEEE conference on industrial Electronics and Applications pp1-7 2007. [3]. R. Caponetto, G. Dongola, L. Fortuna, N. Riscica and D. Zufacchi , Power consumption reduction in a remote controlled street lighting International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion(SPEEDAM).pp.428-433. 2008. [4]. Ransom.S., Pfisterer,.D., Fischer.S, Comprehensible Security Synthesis for Wireless sensor Networks, Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop on Meddleware for sensor Networks,Leuven, Belgium, pp.19- 24,2008.

[1]. D. Menniti, A.Burgio, G. Fedele A cost effective ac voltage regulator to mitigate voltage sags and dim lamps in street-lighting applications 9th IEEE conference on


Organic Light Emitting Diodes operation and application in displays

J. mija a,*, M.J. Maachowski b a Institute of Technical Physics, Military University of Technology, ul. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warszawa, Poland b Education Department, The K. Pulaski Technical University of Radom, ul. J. Malczewski 20A, 26-600 Radom, Poland * Corresponding author: E-mail address:

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this work is to perform the review of the recent most
important results of experimental and theoretical investigations connected with the organic light emitting devices (OLEDs).

Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of

designing, fabricating and clarification of the OLEDs operation have been presented. The possibilities of numerous, present and future applications of these devices have been pointed out.

Findings: We show that fundamental differences among organic and inorganic

devices result from differences between inorganic and molecular semiconductor materials. No charges are present in OLED devices without charge injection. Emission is due to radiative transitions from the neutral excited states to the ground states. We pointed out the important role that the OLEDs play in display design (even the flexible ones).

Research limitations/implications: The main disadvantage of OLEDs is

reported to be short their lives (particularly the blue OLED) and weak resistivity to moist but improvements are advancing.

Originality/value: Our review concerns the most recent experimental and

theoretical publications in the OLED investigation. We also show some recent examples of OLEDs application.

Keywords: LED, OLED; Displays; Organic materials; Optoelectronics


Reference to this paper should be given in the following way: J. mija, M.J. Maachowski, Organic Light Emitting Diodes operation and application in displays, Archives of Material Science and Engineering 40/1 (2009) 512.

Introduction Organic materials are of

great interest for electronics applications, as they have many advantages over their inorganic counterparts.They may often be solution-processed, allowing the fabrication of devices such as circuits,displays,and radio-frequency identification deviceson plastic substrates, and deposition by unconventional means, such as screen and inkjet printing.The most attractive prospect, however, is the incorporation of functionality by design. The versatility of organic synthetic techniques and the wide spectrum of commercially available building blocks allow seemingly infinite flexibility in tuning molecular structure, and therefore the corresponding molecular packing and macroscopic properties. Already, organic solids such as pentaceneand rubrenehave surpassed amorphous Si in performance, of thin film transistors (TFT) and light emitting devices creating organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) which are used by the former. An OLED is a thin-film solid state device, which makes it easier to apply to flexible displays because of its relatively simple fabrication process and reduced distortion according to the geometric form of display. The purpose of this article is to review the recent most important papers concerning

investigations on OLEDs and AMOLEDs. Recently, some reviews have appeared on this subject, just to mention the papers [1-9]. History of fundamental investigations in the field of electroluminescence organic materials, OLEDs and display is presented in Table 1 [10-17]. As it can be seen since over 50 years, researchers are interested in study of this subjects. Additionally, the metal-free transparent OLEDs should be mentioned. Theirs original fabrication and interesting properties have been reported by Parthasarathy et al. [18]. Furthermore, importance of the quasi-monochromatic colour and white light emitting devices should be indicated. For example, quasimonochromatic OLEDs based on rare earth ion emission, particularly on Eu and Tb organic complexes, emitting in pure red and green and also the highly efficient whitelight emitting devices based on single dopant emitters of a mixture of molecular, excimer and exciplex phosphorescence have been reported by Kalinowski et al. OLED displays may be operated in two basic architectures: passive matrix (PM) and active matrix (AM) displays. The AM architecture is expected to be the main technology on which advanced OLED displays will be based (steering them by TFT which could be the organic or

34 monolithic, thin-film, semi conductive device that emits light when a voltage is applied to it. Various ways of light are generated by applying an electric eld to organic materials, without involving any intermediate energy forms the phenomenon known as organic OLEDs, and operation OLEDs electroluminescence (EL). EL is the result of the electric eld imposed formation of emissive states without recourse of any intermediate energy forms, such as heat. In its most basic form, an OLED consists of a series of vacuumdeposited, small-molecule organic thin films that are sandwiched between two thin-film conductors. The following figures show most often met constructions of this device. In Fig. 1 is presented one of the possible simple structures of OLED. Here emission of EL occurs in the electron and hole transmission layers. However, in more complicated but also more efficient OLED is shown in Fig. 2, the emission takes place in a separate layer. In its most common structure, known as a "single heterostructure," an OLED device consists of a hole transporting layer (HTL) and an electron transporting and light emitting layer (ETL/EL) sandwiched between two transparent electrodes. Transparent OLEDs (TOLEDs) enable new features: transparency, directed top emission, enhanced contrast ratio, and multistacked devices. Transparency paves the way for displays to be used in new places in the automobile. In applications where maintaining vision area is important,

inorganic). Now the used displays are CRT (Cathode Ray Tube), PDP (Plasma Display Panel) ELD (Electro Luminescent Display), LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode). These two architectures are concurring OLED technology that resembles LCD technology and uses such procedures as vacuum evaporation of thin films (including shadow mask processes), lithography and etc. The others are described in paper [20]. Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) are required for fabrication of plastic-based AMOLEDs, as conventional Si-based TFTs cannot be directly fabricated on plastic substrates. The display market of the future demands ubiquitous devices that are more portable, fashionable, and environmentally friendly [24]. Display manufacturers need to advance their technologies to build lighter, slimmer, more rugged devices that consume low amounts of power while at the same time improve the picture quality. The emerging technology of flexible active-matrix displays is being developed in order to fulfil these needs. Currently, there are active research projects in reflective-type flexible liquidcrystal displays (LCDs) [25], flexible electrophoretic displays (EPDs) [26], and emissive type flexible OLED displays [17]. Today, EPD technology is considered as the most desirable flexible-display technology because of its simple fabrication process and very low power consumption. 2. OLEDs, theirs structure and

operation 2.1. Structures of OLEDs

OLED (organic light emitting diode) is a

35 a signi cant if not major role in the area of at panel displays. They may eventually dominate the market in just a few years. Small, passive, and active matrix organic light-emitting displays that are relatively inexpensive already have penetrated the commercial market in a signi cant way. Organic electroluminescent displays can be small, such as hand-held or head-mounted devices, or large, such as at panel screens that can be rolled up or hung at on a wall. OLED devices offer many advantages for at panel display applications: 1.Very thin solid-state device (less than 300 nm thick), 2.Light weight, 3.High luminous power efficiency, 4.Fast response time that makes animations and motion crisp and entertaining, 5.Wide viewing angle without brightness or image loss (170+ degrees), 6.Self-emitting, which eliminates the need for a back-light illumination source, 7.Colour tuning throughout the entire visible spectrum for full-colour displays, 8.Flexibility. OLEDs that have these merits in addition to their temporal stability are expected to have many applications. Devices that are very thin and lightweight and have low power consumption are especially suitable for portable equipment (e.g., wireless phones, PDAs, view nders for digital cameras) and other portable imaging devices. Monochrome, multiple-colour, and full-colour display technologies using OLEDs, as are future directions relating to applications based on the needs in the multimedia era.

TOLEDs have the potential to be integrated with the windshield for navigation and warning systems, and with the other windows for entertainment and telecommunication. TOLEDs can also be designed into a novel rear-view mirror and head-up information systems, and also be used as transmitters with the other display systems or backgrounds. In addition, because TOLEDs are transparent, they may be built on opaque as well as transparent surfaces. This means that a display may be built on metal roll stock, for example, for potential use in exterior automotive parts. Moreover, it also creates a number of new, and as yet, unimagined product opportunities. 3. Application The tremendous strides have been made in the science and technology of organic electroluminescence (EL). Most of this progress has been applied in developing at panel displays. If this rate of progress can be sustained into the next decade, organic EL technology has the potential to exert an impact not only on displays, but also on general lighting applications. In particular, a large-area white-light-producing organic light-emitting device could potentially provide a solid state diffuse light source that could compete with conventional lighting technologies in performance and cost. The vision of solid state lighting has largely been driven by the desire to reduce energy consumption. Organic electroluminescent displays on rigid or exible substrates are envisioned to play


References [1] J. Kalinowski, Electroluminescence in organics, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 32 (1999) 179250. [2] J. Kalinowski, Organic Light Emitting Diodes: Principles, Characteristics and Processes, Marcel Dekker, New York 2005. [3] S. Miyata, H.S. Nalwa, Organic Electroluminescent Materials and Devices, Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1997. [4] J. Shinar, Organic Light-emitting Devices, Springer, Berlin 2004. [5] J. Kalinowski, Emission Mechanisms in Organic LightEmitting Diodes, Organic Electroluminescence, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, 2005. [6] J. Godlewski, M. Obarowska, Organic light emitting devices, Opto-Electronics 15/4 (2007) 179-183. [7] J. mija, M.J. Maachowski, J. Zieliski, M. Wacawek, K. cieka, Organic materials for electronics, Chemistry- DidacticsEcology-Metrology 11/1-2 (2006) 69-80 (in Polish). [8] M.J. Maachowski, J. mija, Organic field effect transistors, Opto-

Electronics Review (in print). [9] T. Urabe, The outstanding potential of OLED displays for TV applications, SID Society for Information Display 24/9 (2008) 14-17. [10] A.B. Bernanose, M. Comte, P. Vouaux, Blue emission from light-emitting diodes based on lithium complex, Journal of Chemical Physicsique 50 (1953) 64-69 (in French). [11] M. Pope, H. Kallmann, P. Magnate, Electroluminescence in organic crystals, Journal of Chemical Physics 38 (1963) 2042-2043. [12] J. Kalinowski, J. Godlewski, R. Signerski, Electroluminescence in tetracene crystals, Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals 33 (1976) 247-259. [13] R.H. Partrige, Electroluminescence from polyvinylcarbazole films, Polymer 24 (1983) 733-762.



The project AUTOMATIC STREET LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM WITH LDR has been successfully designed and tested. Here we are saving lot of power without any wastage, by these advanced technologies we can design many more systems which can be done by solar lights and through these solar lights we have a vast usage at the same time we can do automatic systems instead of doing it manually like with ldrs. Secondly, using highly advanced ICs and with the help of growing technology the project has been successfully implemented.




The project Automatic Street Light Controlling System has been designed and tested. The future Enhancement based on this project could be

Alcohol Sensor
The Alcohol Detection Systems for Safety would keep impaired drivers off the road by detecting their alcohol content. If alcohol is consumed, it is metabolized and diffuses throughout the body. This alcohol is present in various bodily substances such as breath, blood, and perspiration. Some percentage of consumed alcohol is metabolized through the skin. The sensor measures the specific characteristics that are chemically emitted transversally from the body. By using the alcohol sensor the probability of accidents are reduced because using the alcohol sensor will eliminate the people who generally mix drink and drives. So the main purpose of using the alcohol sensor is to reduce the accidents.

Human effort will be reduced. Less power consumption. Easily reproducibility.

References on the Web:


DATE- 5/04/2103 SUBMITTED BY:- SHIVAM VERMA Keywords- LCD, OLED, LED, AMOLED, PMOLED ANALYSIS OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) is a new display technology that promises to deliver thin, power efficient and bright displays. OLEDs (already popular in MP3 players and cell phones) have amazing potential - thin TVs, flexible displays, transparent monitors, white-bulb replacement, and more. LCD works by having a backlight (white light) source, and then filtering this source to make colors. OLEDs however work by emitting color light. This has several advantages. It allows to make simpler and thus thinner and cheaper displays. It also means that OLEDs require less power. Think that when you have a screen that is completely black (but turned on), LCD will still require the whole white backlight to be emitted. With OLEDs, no energy is consumed in this stage! It is also possible to make flexible OLED displays, and even transparent ones, but this is obviously more challenging than a simple LCD-like display. While OLEDs are heralded as the display technology of the future, they are already produced and used today. While making large panels is still a great challenge, smaller screens (up to 2") are already produced in commercial quantities today. There are many MP3 players and cellular phones that use OLED displays. Companies such as Sony and Samsung use OLED displays in their leading models. The OLED market reached 500$ million in sales in 2005, and is expected to grow quickly in the coming years. There are two main types of OLED screens Passive Matrix (PMOLED) and Active Matrix (AMOLED). PMOLED displays are cheaper and easier to manufacture, but they have a limitation in resolution, size and refresh rate. Most OLEDs that are being made today are PMOLED. However several companies (including Samsung SDI and LG.Philips) have announced plans to begin producing AMOLED panels in 2007. The future for large OLED panels is not so certain. The major limitation of OLED technology today is the lifetime, especially for the blue color. Progress is being made all the time, but the technology is not ready yet. Scaling the OLED screens is not an easy thing to do, either. Making a large panel (for TV or computer screen) is far from simple. While prototypes have been showed, it will take several years before we'll be able to buy an OLED television.

OLEDs actually make it possible to create screens that are flexible and/or transparent. The possibilities of this kind of displays are almost endless. Think about car windshield-embedded transparent displays, or rollable mobile TV. This technology is still at an early stage, but already companies are showing prototype and design sketches.

One of the areas that seem most promising for OLEDs is white lighting. Many companies are hoping that OLEDs will enable very efficient light sources. With today's high energy costs, and the drive for efficiency, there is a lot of money in white-light research, and OLEDs are seen as one of the best future technologies. OLEDs will also enable unimaginable designs, because of their thin and flexible nature. OLED TECHNOLOGY TODAY Today OLED displays are used mainly in small (2" to 5") displays for mobile devices such as phones, cameras and MP3 players. OLED displays carry a price premium over LCDs, but offer brighter pictures and better power efficiency - making it ideal for battery powered gadgets. FUTURE TECHNOLOGY BASED ON OLED

Curved OLED displays, placed on non-flat surfaces Rollable OLED TV screens Wearable OLEDs Transparent OLEDs embedded in windows OLEDs in car windshields Exciting new OLED lamp designs And many more we cannot even imagine today...