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Benzene Benzene has an empirical formula of C6H6.

Because of this 1:1 ratio scientist at the time had difficulty in determining its structural formula. August Kekule was the first scientist to ha e an idea a!out its structure. He proposed that Benzene is a "ring# structure made up of 6 car!on atoms. $hese atoms would form a he%agon with alternating dou!le and single !onds. &ach car!on would !e !onded to 1 hydrogen atom.

Although Kekule's model is incorrect he was the first scientist to ha e the idea that hydrocar!ons could !ond in rings. $he main pro!lems with Kekule's model are that Benzene does not act like an alkene. (t does not decolourise !romine water meaning that it can't ha e the car!on car!on dou!le !ond) which is key to Kekule's model. Also when Benzene is hydrogenated it only has an enthalpy change *+,-k./mol) as it has 0 car!on car!on dou!le !onds it should ha e three times the enthalpy change of a single C1C !ond which is *1+,k./mol. As *+,- is considera!ly smaller then *06, we can conclude that Benzene does not ha e three C1C !onds. 2ew chemical techni3ues ha e allowed scientists to create a new model for Benzene. $he new model is called "resonance hy!rid.# 4e now know that Benzene is a planar molecule. 2ow instead of ha ing 0 dou!le !onds and 0 single !onds) Benzene has 6 !onds that ha e characteristics of !oth dou!le and single !onds. $he new structure of !enzene is drawn as5

$he circle in the middle of the he%agon represents a !ond formed from 6 delocalised pie electrons spread around the ring. $he pie or!ital's are at 6,o to the plane meaning that the ellipses from the dum!!ells are a!o e and !elow the plane.

& en though the electrons are delocalised they are still forced to stay "or!it# 7occupy the space8 round the !enzene molecule. $his means that Benzene cannot conduct electricity. Benzene is an aromatic hydrocar!on. $his name was original deri ed from its sweet smell !ut is defined as a hydrocar!on with dou!le and single !onds.