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,

, 2013

(2 1869 - 30 1948)
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1915 [1]

( )
6 1944

[2]


1915
,

1921

, ,


1930 1942





-

1876 7

2 1869
()
[3]
[4]





, ,


1883 13 14

1885 15

1888
, 1892 , 1897 1900

(1902 )
19 4 1888





1875

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1893
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, (Zulu)

(July 21),

(Indian Opinion) [5]


[6]

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(Satyagraha), " (Kaffir)s " .
, "

[7]

( - )
,
,

,

(Gopal Krishna Gokhale),


.


(Champaran) ,

(indigo)

( )


(unhygienic); ,


(Kheda),

(ashram)

, ( )



[8]

(Sabarmati Ashram),

.


[9]



(honours)

(Chauri Chaura),

, [10]

, ,

,
(appendicitis)



(Chitta Ranjan Das)

,


[11]

( )

, , , (Salt March).

, ,

[12]

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.



( ) ,


,
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,
(Lord Edward Irwin)
(GandhiIrwin Pact)
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, . ,

(B. R. Ambedkar),
:

(8 May)
[13]
(B. R.

Ambedkar)



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[14]

[15]


[16] ,

[17]

[18]

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(British Cabinet Mission)

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)

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Bengal).

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(Indo-Pakistani War of 1947)-


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[19]

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(Hindu Mahasabha)
[20]

(Raj Ghat): ( , ) .
, , ,
, , (New Delhi).

( (Birla House))
(Nathuram Godse) (Hindu

Mahasabha) [21]


(Narayan Apte) .
) (Rj Ght), (New Delhi), (

" : " , ( ( IAST | ) )) , " "


.
[22]

-
(Sangam at Allahabad)

[23] ,
(Tushar Gandhi) -

, (Sangam at Allahabad).[23][24]

- [23] (Girgaum Chowpatty)


(Aga Khan)
[23] , ( )

[25]

(Self-Realization Fellowship Lake Shrine) .



.[23]


, " " .

[26]

(nonviolence), (ahimsa)
(nonresistance) , , ,

"(The Story of My Experiments with Truth)


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,






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[28]


[29]






(Khudai Khidmatgar)

(Badshah Khan)
[30]

,
,

(vegetarian)

[31]

(Henry Stephens Salt)




,
,
.
, (fasting)


(Brahmacharya)
,
.

(frutarian),[32]

. -

[33]

(cow blowing),


- . ,


.


[34]
(celibate) ,
.

(Brahmacharya)

(asceticism) .


(Kasturba)

, " ,
".[35]

(simple
life) . (simplicity)
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" ,
.[36]
.[37]

(inner peace) . , (: - )

(: -)
37


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(Harijan), ,
(Tagore)
, .[40]

(Harijan), (Indian Opinion), (

) (Young India) ,

. .[41]

, (An
Autobiography or My Experiments with Truth), , ,

(Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule), ,


(John Ruskin) (Unto This Last) .[42]
,

, , .
.

. .

.[43]

.
(Pyarelal) (Sushila Nayar) .
: (Gandhi:

Behind the Mask of Divinity) [44]

''


: ( : )


[45]

30 , 2011


''


50

, [46]


1.28
( 6.88 ) 2012

,
[47]

(civil rights movement) (Martin Luther King)


(James Lawson)

.[48] -
,
[50]
.[49]

(Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan),

(Steve Biko), (Aung San Suu Kyi) .[51]


. ,

(anarchist) (Maria Lacerda de Moura)


. ,
" " .[52] (Lanza
del Vasto) ;
(Community of the
Ark) .( ) (Madeleine Slade) ()

.
, (John Lennon)
.[53]

(Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival),


.[54]

(Pietermaritzburg),
.

(2 October) (Gandhi Jayanti)

(national holiday in India)


" (United Nations General Assembly)" ,

(2 October) " (International Day of Non-Violence)"


.[55]

(Mahatma)

:
.[56]

(Nautamlal Bhagavanji Mehta) .[57]

.[58]
, .[59]

(Time) (Man of the Year) I

(Person of the Century)

. (The Dalai Lama) ,

(Lech Wasa) , , (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.) , (Cesar

Chavez), (Aung San Suu Kyi) , (Benigno Aquino, Jr.),


(Desmond Tutu)

.[60] ,

(Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize)


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(rupee) , , ,, ,
, .
.

.

(New Delhi)
.


(Tavistock Square) , (University College London)
.

. , (Union Square)
(Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site)



..
(Washington, D. C.),
(Pietermaritzburg) , ,
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(Nobel Peace Prize) ,


,
(American Friends Service Committee).[61]
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, .

.[62]
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."[63]

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.
,

(School Day of Non-violence and Peace) ( DENIP (DENIP) )


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(Jzef Gosawski, 1932)


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(partition)
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.[65]

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).[67] ,

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(Hindu nationalist) (Pravin Togadia)


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(partition of Palestine to create Israel).


(26 October) :

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.[74]


.[77] (Martin Buber), ,
.

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.[78]

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:


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. .

-
.


[79][80]

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(Indian Opinion) "

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usage).
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.


..

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.[89] , :

;
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(anti statist)
.[91] (self rule)
[92][93]

(philosophical anarchist).[94]

(

)

.

.[95]

(direct democracy) [96]


.[97]

- - ,