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Politic i retoric n cultura romn Discursul politic se constituie, alturi de pres i public, n organizatorul vieii politice.

Unii cercettori l consider un discurs de influen, supunndu-se regulilor i principiilor unei teorii a comunicrii; pentru alii, discursul politic este singura form de construcie i propagand a doctrinelor unei societi care refuz violena n scopul obinerii supunerii. Chomsky !"#$, Cunoaterea limbii, trad.rom. !""$, %ucureti, &d.tiinific, p."' ncadreaz discursul puterii sub incidena principiului lui Orwell, conform cruia (gnorana este )utere. *ec+ile tratate de retoric ofer o paradigm a discursului politic identificat n genul deliberativ' n care persuasiunea este domeniul aciunii verbale. ,ratoria politic se revendic din aceste norme, reactualizate prin propaganda religioas, dar mecanismele ei sunt mult mai subtile i mai comple-e, ntr-o punere n scen logico-sintactic. .ubiect al istoriilor literare George Clinescu, Eugen Lovinescu, Tudor ianu etc.', discursul politic romnesc nu poate fi scos de sub influena factorilor instituionali i din conte-tul istoric specific. Dificultatea de a surprinde mecanismele i resorturile care produc adeziunea la opinia politic const n faptul c discursul se rostete, este un act verbal ce acioneaz n prezena unui auditoriu cu care oratorul interacioneaz, iar efectele produse de acesta se afl la intersecia lingvisticii cu psi+ologia cognitiv, tiinele politice i sociologia. )eisa/ul politic din 0omnia ultimilor !1 ani propune un discurs de re-facere a unei tradiii brutal ntrerupte de dictaturile care s-au succedat ncepnd cu anul !"2#. Din ce n ce mai mult, discursul actual devine doar prete-tul unei retorici bine definite3 cea a produsului politic, n acest caz' destinat unui public larg electoratul', iar figura oratorului las locul speac+-ma4er-ilor profesioniti. .cos de la tribun, discursul politic actual acioneaz prin efecte vizuale i slogane, iar eficacitatea lui se concretizeaz n procesul electoral i mai puin n cel deliberativ. 5n cultura noastr interesul pentru retoric a aprut n momentul revirimentului politic. 6stfel, cel cruia i se atribuie primul tratat de retoric n limba romn este (.7olnar-)iuaru, !etorica adec "nv#tura i "ntocmirea $rumoasei cuv%ntri& 'cum "nt%iu i(vodit pe limba rom%neasc& )mpodobit i "ntemeiat cu pildele vechilor $iloso$i i dascli bisericeti& *+au tiprit "n criasca tipogra$ie Orientaliceasc a ,niversit#ii -etii, !1"#. 5n !#89, D.:usti public la (ai !itorica pentru tinerimea studioas, completat n ediia din !#18 cu e-emple de mari oratori. Titu .aiorescu, !";9, semnaleaz ns apariia termenului de orator n dicionarul lui <aurian-7assim, n locul celui de ritor, care se gsete la Dimitrie =antemir n /storia hierogli$ic de la !1;>. *olumul !etorica rom%neasc !"#;'! cuprinde, pe lng numele citate, manuale i tratate de retoric aparinnd lui .imeon 7arcovici, =ristu ?egoescu, *.6.Urec+i, 6le-andru 6man, 6l.:.Drg+icescu, :+eorg+e 6damescu. Unele lucrri de istorie literar George Clinescu, Eugen Lovinescu, Tudor ianu' au capitole dedicate elocinei romneti, iar interesul pentru arta oratoric se va
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!etorica rom%neasc, ed. ngri/it, prefa i note de 7ircea @rnculescu, %ucureti, &d.7inerva, !"#;.

manifesta n apariia unor antologii cuprinznd discursurile politice ale unor personaliti politice marcante. 5n ultimii ani se configureaz un interes tot mai mare pentru proza oratoric .a(ilu, !"#$-!"#1', ale crei nceputuri se situeaz n literatura noastr vec+e, printre primii autori de Adiscursuri politice i diplomaticeB .a(ilu, !"#$, (, p.!8' fiind citai C tefan cel 7are i oratorii de la curtea sa, <uca =r/ orator i ambasador al lui Ctefni, domnitorul 7oldovei', ?eagoe %asarab iar de Adiscursuri protocolareB /dem, p.!"' 7iron =ostin i Ctefan *crescu. De-a lungul ntregii istorii a culturii romneti se va e-ercita, la nivele de intensitate variabile, o aciune a retoricii, pn la instituionalizarea discursului politic. )rivit prin aceast prism, paradigma discursului politic se ncadreaz ntre obligaia de a te supune i dreptul de a te supune.

D+e political discourse is constituted, Eit+ t+e press and public, t+e organizer of political life. .ome researc+ers consider it a discourse of influence, sub/ect to t+e rules and principles of a t+eorF of communication, for ot+ers, is t+e onlF form of political discourse and propaganda building a societF t+at refuses doctrines violence to obtain obedience. =+oms4F !"#$, GnoEledge, trad.rom. !""$, %uc+arest, &d.tiinific, p."' Eit+in t+e discourse of poEer under ,rEellHs principle according to E+ic+ ignorance is strengt+. Dreated old r+etoric provides a paradigm of political discourse identified in suc+ deliberative' E+ere t+e action is verbal persuasion. )olitical oratorF is claimed in t+ese rules, updated bF religious propaganda, but its mec+anisms are more subtle and comple-, a logical-sFntactic staging. .ub/ect of literarF +istorF :eorge =alinescu, &ugen <ovinescu, Dudor *ianu, etc..' 0omanian political discourse can not be removed from under t+e influence of specific institutional and +istorical conte-t. DifficultF and resorts to capture mec+anisms t+at cause ad+erence to political opinion is t+at speec+ is pronounced, is a verbal act t+at acts in t+e presence of an audience Eit+ t+e spea4er interacts and effects of t+is is at t+e intersection of linguistics to cognitive psFc+ologF, political science and sociologF.

)olitical landscape in 0omania last !1 Fears suggests a discourse of re-ma4ing of a tradition interrupted bF brutal dictators+ips t+at +ave succeeded since !"2#. (ncreasinglF more current discourse is onlF a prete-t r+etoric defined3 t+e product political, in t+is case' for t+e general public voters' and instead lets figure spea4erma4er-s speac+ professionals. 0emoved from t+e stands, t+e current political discourse and slogans Eor4s bF visual effects and its effectiveness is reflected in t+e electoral process and less in t+e deliberative
(n our culture t+ere Eas interest in r+etoric E+en political revival. D+us, t+e first treatF t+at is assigned to r+etoric in 0omanian is (.7olnar-)iuaru, adeIuate teac+ing and preparation beautiful r+etoric speec+es. ?oE t+e 0omanian language ntiu izvodit. )arables based adorned Eit+ ancient p+ilosop+ers and religious teac+ers. Jere printed in printing =raiasca @is+ ,rientaliceasc UniversitF, !1"#. (n !#89, D. public taste for Kout+ in .cience 0itorica studied, completed edition of !#18 e-amples of great orators. 7aiorescu, !";9, but t+e appearance of t+e term indicates t+e spea4erHs dictionarF <aurian-7ass, instead of ritor, found in t+e +istorF of +ieroglFp+ic =antemir in !1;>. 0omanian r+etoric *olume !"#;' includes, in addition to t+e name mentioned, manuals and treatises of r+etoric belonging to .imeon 7arcovici, =ristu ?egoescu, *6Urec+ia 6le-ander 6man, 6l.:.Drg+icescu, :eorge 6damescu. .ome Eor4s of literarF +istorF :eorge =alinescu, &ugen <ovinescu, Dudor *ianu' are c+apters dedicated to 0omanian eloIuence and oratorical art of interest Eill be manifested in t+e appearance of ant+ologies including political speec+es of prominent political figures.