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-

, 2009


(2007)

: (-8-) (-7-)
..
1. ( 1, 1, 1,
1) + (U.S.A. 2, 2, 1, 1, 1)
2. (Lafarge Group) ( 1, 1,
1)
3. (Italcementi Group) ( 1)

1.

2.

3. E (2006) : 16.117.000

4.
2006 16.1 .
. 35.8 % (5.77 . )
, ... . ,
64.2 % (10.35 . ) .
(...,
) 70% (7.25 . ) 30% (3.1 .
) . 80%
,
12-15% 5-8%
.

5.



1.
1 1,6-1,65
. 75%, .
0.75x1.65x16.1 . = 19.92 x 106 ,

4-4.5 x 106
( , , , .).
( )
6.

6. ( )
.

2. ()

, 90-95% . (0.90
x 10.35 . 9.32 . )
m3 300 kg
(0.3 t) , : (9.32/0.3) x 106 = 31.07 x 106 m3
m3 2
, 2 x 31.07 x 106 62.14 x 106
.
62.14 x 106 (,
-)
() . (
)
60-70% ,
:
(62.14 x 106 /0.70) 88.8 x 106
.

3.

:
(19.92 + 88.80) x106 108.72 x 106 .
( / ) = 1:5,
, 20% .
:
(108.72 x 106) x 1.2 130.5 x 106 49.2x106 m3
(. 2.65 / m3) .

, 4-4.5 x 106
(1.8-2.0 x 106 m3) .

4. (, .)
1.

100 /,
:
5.77x106 x 100 / = 577 0.577

2.

(
..) 90 /m3. 30.27x106
m3 :
31.07x106 m3 x 90 /m3 = 2796.3 x106 ( 2.8
)

3.
3.4
.
(, .)
,
4.0-5.0
.


... ,

,

.

1.


, 01/04/01
, C
, :
197-1: -1 : ,

197-2 : -2 :

( ).
197-1 197-2 2000,
( 917 / 17-07-01),

31/12/01

.
1.1.
, ,
CPD 89/106,
, ,
.
, ,

, .

,
, - .

1.2.

,
. , ,
.
Portland, ,
( ), ,
, .
' , (
4.1, . 63), , , '
. , ,
,
27 .
, 197-1 (-5-)
( 1).
1.

CEM I
CEM II
CEM III
CEM IV
CEM V

Portland
Portland

, 6 ,

, 196-1 (
- 1 : ).
.
(28 ) .

N R ( 2).

2:

32.5 N
32.5 R
42.5 N
42.5 R
52.5 N
52.5 R

, MPa (N/mm2)


()
2
7
28
16.0
52.5
32.5
10.0
10.0
62.5
42.5
20.0
20.0
52.5
30.0

()

min

mm

75
60

10

45


.
, EN 197-1,
197-1 ( 1.1), :

clinker ,

.
244/80,
, 197-1 3.
3. 244/80 197-1
244/80

MPa (N/mm2)
35
25-45
45
35-55
55
45

197-1

MPa (N/mm2)
32.5
32.5-52.5
42.5
42.5-62.5
52.5
52.5

1.1 .

,
EN 197-1
( 4.1, . 81),
:

S blastfurnace slag ( )

D silica fume ( )

P natural pozzolana ( )

Q natural calcined pozzolana ( )

V siliceous fly ash ( )

W calcareous fly ash ( )

L, LL limestone ()

T burnt shale ( )

M two or more of the above ( ).

% ( )
1.2. ,

10

(CEM II), (
CO2). CO2
: ()


.

1.2. % ( )
(: CEMBUREAU, 2006).

11

2.
2.1.

. ()
, .
() ,
Portland (OPC, Ordinary Portland Cement).
, .
()
.

( , ,
, , )
.
, ,
.

2.1. ,
.

2.2.

12

2.1. ( %) (1, 2 3)
, [3]

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO

(CaO)

91.58
2.83
2.53
0.92

1.0*

1.37

*
Bogue

(Raw
meal factor) = 1.50,
1.5
1
.

14.35
4.04
0.92
43.55
-

(
) %

4.83
1.85
0.64
50.5

65.0
24.0
2.5
4.0

%


(
)
21.5*
6.1*
1.4*
65.3*

, % ..


( ), %

85.02

13.61


,
. , 80% 1.65 ,
1 , ,

.
2.1.
( , ,
, , ) ,
.
(rotary kiln).

( , , )
1525 mm, ( 2.2).
2.1.

13

2.3.
,
( ),
(,
, , , ) (,
, ). 2.3 (
) 1 kg
.
,
. :
: D () 6 m, L () 180 m
1-4 (rpm).
,
()
(). 2
.

2.1.


2.2.

14

2.2. .

15

2.3. 1 kg .

:
1.

(,

)
2. (
)
3. () ( 2.2)

16

2.2. (pellets) 15-25 mm (


).

, ()
(, )


()
. ,
( )

().


.

,
,
(filter cake) ,
- (semi-wet) .

17

,
, (
2.4) () (Preheaterprecalciner).
:
A
( 1000 C)
B
( 1000-1200 C)
C ( 1200-1450
C)

2.4.

(Prehetater Precalciner).

18

, ,
,
() .
(preheater precalciner) %
() .
preheater 30-40% ,
precalciner 90% .
,
60% 35%
40% 65%, (Peray, 1986).

2.5. - (semi-dry) Lepol .


- (semi-dry) Lepol (
2.5) o
(pellets). ,
,
(grate preheater)
. ,
19

Lepol , ,
()
.

.
.
, 55% ,
45%.
( 2.6) :
1. ( )
2. ( )
( )
3. ()
4.

(C2S, C3S)

(C3)

(C4AF)

5. (clinker)
6. (95%) ( 5%)
7. ()

20

2.6. .



, , .

( 2.3 2.4).
,
,
. ,

( 2.4).

21

2.7.

2.8.

22

2.4.

,

, ,
,
.

()
. ()
, ,
.
C + O2 CO2

(-94.03 kcal/mol) -7836 kcal/kg

2 + O2 2

(-67.88 kcal/mol) -33940 kcal/kg

S + O2 SO2

(-70.81 kcal/mol) -2213 kcal/kg


, .
(% ) , ,



-

, 78%
.. (76% ..) 20.9% .. (23% ..),
5
.

23

,
:
C + O2 CO

( CO CO2)

, ,
1/3 ( 2500 kcal/kg)
.

. ,
. ,
,

( )
,
.
,
( )
, () .
,
,
.
,
2.2
2.2 ,
,
.

24

2.2.

, C

250

200

Fuel Oil No.1

210

Fuel Oil No.2

256

Fuel Oil No.4

262


Petcoke

550
620-670

2.5.

:
, .
, ( 95% CH4),
,

. :

,





,


,


,
25


.
,
, ,
( )
( )
. ,

, ( )


.
, ,

()

,
,
,

,
, ( )

26

0.5-10%
,

(, ,
) .

.

,
5-40%

,
() , ,
,

. ,

(Fixed carbon, FC)



FC
( +
+ ) 100 :
FC = 100 - ( + + )

2.3
.

27

2.2.

,
Fuel Oil

, Coal
()

,
Natural Gas

, Carbon

84

41.11

74

, Hydrogen

12

2.76

25

, Sulphur

0.41

, Oxygen

9.89

, Nitrogen

1.22

0.75

, Ash

38.63

, moisture

5.98

1050010700
kcal/kg

4000 kcal/kg
(
4000-6000 kcal/kg,

)

9350 kcal/Nm3
(
9000-11000
kcal/Nm3)


, GCV (Gross
calorific value),


, ,
,
. ,
,

.
% .
2.6.
(
)

,
.
28


.
,

.
%, ,
%
(kg) ,
(), (Peray, 1986):
(kg /kg ) = 10.478SCF, SCF (standard coal factor)
SCF :
SCF =

100 a
B
,

100
7000


kcal/kg
5%
.
,
( ), :

:
kg /kg
m% % ( 5%)
C% % C
H% %
O% %
S% % S

29

( ,
2.3) ,
:
5.63 kg /kg ,
( )
5.58 kg /kg . .

( 2.4), .
,
.

, p , R
287.05 J/(kgK) T
.
3.4. 760 mm Hg
, (oC)

, (kg/m3)

-50

1.534

1.293

20

1.205

40

1.127

60

1.067

80

1.000

100

0.946

30

, ,
(2, CO CO2)
. % 2
,
. 2
, CO

. ( 2.7) %
% 2
.

2.7. % % 2

(CO2)

, (2)

.
, (CO2)
.
CO2
31

(
), CO2 18.3% .
,
15.8% 12.2% , .
.
,
CO2 . CO2
22-28%,
.
CO2,
,
CO2
.
,
.
, , CO2

.
CO2


,
.
( 2.8) %
, % CO2
.

32

2.8. % % CO2

2.7.
1. 0.7-3.5%
O2 ( 1-1.5%)
2.
(CO). 100 ppm (0.01% CO)
3. % CO2

33

2.8. TOY
Portland (OPC, Ordinary Portland Cement, Type I)
,
(
). ( )
95-100% 0-5% .
ENV 197-1:1992, % (C3S+C2S)
2/3=67%, CaO/SiO2 2.0
MgO5.0 % .
2.8.1. Portland (OPC), Type I

(C3S+C2S) 67%
CaO/SiO2 2.0
MgO 5.0 %
( , 4.1
4.6- 4) .
( .. )
. (
, ),
(.. , )

(.. , .).

,
(LSF, Lime Saturation Factor).
0.66 1.02 :

34

LSF =

1.0(%CaO) 0.7(% SO3 )


2.8(% SiO2 ) + 1.2(% Al 2 O3 ) + 0.65(% Fe2 O3 )
0.66
LSF 1.02

% ( )
. LSF (1.02) ,
, (CaO, free
lime),
. LSF 0.66,
% C3S
. ,
,
(C3S, 3CaOSiO2 ).
(SR, Silica Ratio), :

SR =

% SiO2
% Al 2 O3 + % Fe2 O3

(C3S+C2S)
C3 C4F . 1.72.5 2.0 2.5. SR
C3
C4F,
, R (Alumina Ratio)
, C3 C4F.
1.0 3.0.

35

AR =

% Al 2 O3
% Fe2 O3

2.8.2.

(C3S) 55-65%
Portland (OPC, Ordinary Portland Cement). ,
C3S 65% ,
. (C2S) 20-25%
. C3S
C2S,
C2S C3S,
.
(C3, 3CaO.Al2O3)
(workability) , C3
. ,
% C3
C3.
(C4AF)
. C4AF ,
,
,
Fe2O3 .

Tricalcium silicate (C3S, Alite)

C3S
. ,
, C3S.
C3S :

36

clinker ,
50% ..
C3S C2S

( )
25%
C3S
: 500 kJ/kg
C3S
C3 . C3
C3S.
C3S.
C3S :
Ca3SiO5 + (y+z)H2O = zCa(OH)2 + Ca(3-z)SiO(5-z)yH2O
Bogue C3S :
C3S = 4.071CaO(%) (7.6SiO2 + 6.718Al2O3 + 1.43Fe2O3 + 2.852SO3)(%)
Dicalcium Silicate (C2S, Belite)
clinker,
10-60%

C2S C3S

C2S

.

20%
C2S

: 260 kJ/kg

37

C2S C3S,
.

Bogue C2S :
C2S = 2.87SiO2 (%) 0.7544C3S (%)

Tricalcium Aluminate (C3A)

C3A
. .
(CaSO4), ,
. , ()
C3A. , C3A
. C3A
.

3-10%

(early strength)

40-210%
C3

: 900 kJ/kg

C3S
:
2 C3 + 21 = C4AH13 + C2AH8

C3AH6,
.
C4AH13 ,
C3AH6,
C4AH13 .

38


(ettringite) :
C3 + 3CaSO42H2O + (25-26)H2O = Ca6Al2O6(SO4)(31-32) H2O
Bogue C3A :
C3A = 2.65(%)Al2O3 1.692(%)Fe2O3

Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite (C4AF, Ferrite)

5-10%

37-70 %

: 420 kJ/kg

: C4F + 13 = C4F13

Bogue C4AF :
C4F = 3.04Fe2O3

C4AF ()
.

.
C4AF .
2.1:

, (kJ/kg)

C3 S

502

C2 S

260 ()

C 3A

867 ()

C4AF

419

(Na2O + K2O)

39

(SiO2). ()
.

.
,
clinker ( ).

Bogue
:
%Na2O ()= %Na2O + 0.658(%K2O)

40

2.8.3. Bogue
1.
,

()

Bogue


. ,
Bogue, ,
() .

.

Bogue
.
(
, XRD) Rietveld
.

2. Bogue
SO3 Mn2O3
,
Bogue.
CaO, SO3
CaSO4, (free lime, CaO)
Mn2O3.
, Bogue
:

%Fe2O3 (Bogue) = %Fe2O3 + %Mn2O3

(1)

% CaO(Bogue) = %CaO CaO (CaO CaSO4)

(2)
41

CaO CaSO4,
SO3, (2, a2O) K2SO4
a2SO4, . .

1.
(%2/%SO3) < 1.176, SO3 2
K2SO4, :
%SO3( 2) = 0.85(%2)
2.
SO3 :
SO3() = %SO3- %SO3 ( 2) =%SO3 - 0.85(%2)
(%a2/%SO3()) < 0.774, SO3()
a2 a2SO4, :
%SO3 ( 2) = 1.292 (%2)
3.
CaO SO3 CaSO4
CaO ( SO3) = 0.7 [%SO3 -%SO3 ( 2)-%SO3 ( 2)]
= 0.7 [%SO3 - 0.85(%2) - 1.292 (%2)]

(3)

42

CaO,
CaSO4,
Bogue.
, Bogue, (2),
(1), () %Fe2O3 (Bogue) .
Bogue
( ) ,
:

, %
% (..
)


()
( ).

Bogue,
XRD XRF

(C3S, C2S, C3A, C4AF) Bogue
:
1. CaO, CaSO4,
. CaO SO3
CaSO4 :

(56/80)x (%SO3) = 0.7 x (%SO3)

(4)

(2) 2 a2O.
2. Fe2O3 Al2O3 CaO C4AF.
%Fe2O3 ( Mn2O3),
Fe2O3. :

43

Al2O3 = (102/160) x (%Fe2O3) = 0.64 x (%Fe2O3)


4 CaO = (4 x 56/160) = 1.4 x (%Fe2O3)
C4AF :

(1 + 0.64 + 1.4) (%Fe2O3) = 3.04 x (%Fe2O3)

% (C4AF) = 3.04 x (%Fe2O3),


Bogue
3. Al2O3 CaO C3A. CaO,
:

3 CaO = (3 x 56/102) = 1.65 x [(%Al2O3) 0.64 x (%Fe2O3)]


[1.65 x (%Al2O3) 1.056 x (%Fe2O3)] + [1 x (%Al2O3) 0.64 x


(%Fe2O3)]
% (C3A) = 2.65 x (%Al2O3) 1.696 x (%Fe2O3),
Bogue.
4.

CaO,
,
C2S ( )
C3S.

, Bogue,
:
I:
A/F >= 0.64, = % Al2O3 F = % Fe2O3

C4AF = 3.043 (%Fe2O3)

C3A = 2.650 (%Al2O3) - 1.692 (Fe2O3)

C2S = 2.867 (%SiO2) - 0.7544 (%C3S)


44

C3S = 4.071 (% CaO) - 7.6 (% SiO2) - 6.718 (% Al2O3) 1.43 (%


Fe2O3) - 2.852 (% SO3)

B. II:

A/F < 0.64

C4AF = 2.1 (% Al2O3) + 1.702 (%Fe2O3)


C3 A = 0
C2S = 2.867 (%SiO2) - 0.7544 (%C3S)
C3S = 4.071 (% CaO) - 7.6 (% SiO2) - 4.479 (% Al2O3) 2.859 (% Fe2O3) 2.852 (% SO3)
:
: Raw material oxide composition ,
( , % ..):
CaO = 63 (% ..)
SiO2 = 20
Al2O3 = 6
Fe2O3 = 3
MgO = 1.5
SO3 = 2
(2, a2O) = 1
A/F = 6/3 = 2 (> 0.64), .
: ""

C4AF = 3.043 3 = 9.13%

C3A = 2.656 - 1.6923 = 10.82%

C3S = 4.07 63 - 7.620 - 6.726 - 1.43 3 - 2.852 2 = 54.1%


( )

C2S = 2.86720 - 0.7544 54.1 = 16.52% (


)

45

3.



.
.
,

,

,
(
.).
,

.
(), ,
,
CaO, SiO2, Al2O3
Fe2O3 () C3S, C2S,
C3A C4AF. % ,
(Blaine fineness) ,

46


() .

(steady state conditions)
.
Mathcad,
.

3.1. ASTM
ASTM (American Standards
Testing Materials) I, II, III, IV V [4].
,
( , , , .)
.
I ASTM (OPC, ordinary
Portland cement) C3S 50-55%, C2S 18-25%
C3A, C4AF 1-17%.
II ASTM (
)
C3A 8%.
III
C3S ( I)
(Blaine fineness),
, ,
.
IV ASTM
( % C3S) C3A,
( .),

.

47

V ASTM ( 5% C3A)
(..
).
3.1
ASTM.

3.1. Portland
Table1. Composition of some American Portland Cements [4]

ASTM
I

II
III
IV
V

I1
2
I3
I4
II1
II2
III1
III2
IV1
IV2
V1
V2

%
CaO
63.8
63.1
65.8
62.8
61.4
64.9
65.6
63.3
59.6
63.6
64.3
63.3*

Al2O3 Fe2O3
5.6
4.7
4.7
6.7
4.8
4.0
5.2
5.1
4.6
3.7
3.1
3.3

2.4
3.0
2.1
2.5
4.8
2.1
2.5
2.0
5.0
3.1
3.3
4.7

, %

SiO2

SO3

Free
CaO

20.7
22.1
22.2
21.1
20.8
24.0
20.0
20.3
22.9
25.2
24.4
23.1

1.6
1.7
1.6
1.8
1.8
1.7
2.3
2.5
1.3
1.9
1.4
1.7

0.4
0.2
1.6
2.0
0.9
1.5
1.8
1.9
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.0

C3 S

C2S

C3 A

C4AF

55
47
54
33
44
41
63
51
25
31
45
49

18
28
23
35
26
38
10
19
47
49
36
30

11
7
9
14
5
7
10
10
4
5
3
1

7
9
6
8
15
6
8
6
15
9
10
14

* (Free CaO)

: C3S = 3CaOSiO2
C2S = 2CaOSiO2
C3A = 3CaOAl2O3
C4AF= 4CaO Al2O3 Fe2O3,

(Bogue, Rietveld, XRD, .).
3.2 SR ( ), AR
( ), Leq ( ) LSF ( )

3.1.

48

3.2. SR, AR Leq LSF


(ASTM)
3.1. [4].

ASTM

LSF,
(

), %*
I1
2.6
2.3
2.2
95.43
2
2.9
1.6
2.1
90.04
I
I3
3.3
2.2
2.3
96.45
I4
2.3
2.7
2.1
92.69
II1
2.2
1.0
2.0
90.46
II
II2
3.9
1.9
2.2
90.46
III1
2.6
2.1
2.4
102.81
III
III2
2.9
2.6
2.3
98.00
IV1
2.4
0.9
1.8
80.30
IV
IV2
3.7
1.2
2.0
83.19
V1
3.8
0.9
2.1
87.34
V
V2
2.9
0.7
2.0
86.78
* O LSF Leq LSF, AR SR,

Leq ,
SR
AR
( ( (
)
)
)

LSF, SR, AR Leq


,
.

SR =

s
SiO2(%)
=
a + f ( Al 2O3 + Fe2O3)%

(1)

AR =

a Al 2O3(%)
=
f Fe2O3(%)

(2)

LSF =

100 c
(%)
2.8 s + 1.18 a + 0.65 f

(3)

Leq =

c(%)
CaO(%)
=
( s + a + f )(%) (SiO2 + Al 2O3 + Fe2O3)(%)

(4)

49

, , ,
, :

LSF =

100 Leq ( AR + 1) ( SR + 1)
2.8 SR ( AR + 1) + 1.18 AR + 0.65

(5)

(5) 3.2.
LSF.
% C3S, C2S, C3A C4AF (
Bogue), 1, I1, I3, III1 III2
(ordinary Portland cements),
( C2S).
LSF
:
0.66 LSF 1.02
LSF (1.02) ,
, (CaO, free lime),

. LSF 0.66,
() C3S
. ,
,
(C3S, 3CaOSiO2 ).
SR
(C3S+C2S) C3 C4F .
1.7-2.5 2.0 2.5.
SR
C3 C4F,
. R
C3 C4F.
1.0 3.0.
50

(C3S + C2S) %
C3S C2S 70-82% [2],
:

0-17 % C3A

1-17% C4AF

0.5-6% MgO

0.5-3% Na2SO4, K2SO4

0.2-4% (CaO)

3.2.
3.3, 3.4 3.5,
(4), (3) (2)
, (, , % )
(OPC)

.

,
, (2)
,
.

.

CaCO3 80-85% (44.8-47.6% CaO)
( , ,
, ..).


.

51

,
AR (a/f)
MgO (%)
,
[1,2] .

, ,
(, .)
,
.
,
(, , ),
,

(CaO, SiO2, Al2O3 Fe2O3).
( 150C)

, (
),
[2],
[1].
,
,
45 m (325 mesh)
125 m (80 mesh).

52

3.3. (OPC, Ordinary Portland Cement)


ASTM, [2]

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO

(CaO)
CaCO3
C3S (Bogue)
C2S (Bogue)
C3A (Bogue)
C4AF (Bogue)
(
) %

% ..

13.6
4.2
1.6
42.7

( ), %

%
(
)

1.4
0.5
0.2
53.7

37.9
16.5
5.1
15.4

95.0
1.4
1.3
1.0

2.7
6.6
84.0
2.7

20.3*
6.2*
2.4*
64.1*

1.0*

77.8
-

95.9
-

27.5
-

1.8
-

4.8
-

57.52
14.81
12.4
7.3

0.3

*
Bogue
(Raw meal
factor) = 1.50, 1.5
1
.

73

22.5

4.2

53

3.4. ( %) (1, 2 3) ,
[3]

4.83
1.85
0.64
50.5

65.0
24.0
2.5
4.0

91.58
2.83
2.53
0.92

%


(
)
21.5*
6.1*
1.4*
65.3*

1.0*

77.8
-

90.18
-

7.14
-

1.64
-

85.02

13.61

1.37

55.4
19.9
13.8
4.3
*

Bogue

(Raw
meal factor) = 1.50,
1.5
1
.

, % ..


14.35
4.04
0.92
43.55

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO

(CaO)
CaCO3
C3S (Bogue)
C2S (Bogue)
C3A (Bogue)
C4AF (Bogue)

(
) %

( ), %

3.5. ( %) (1 2) , [2]

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO

(CaO)
CaCO3
C3S (Bogue)
C2S (Bogue)
C3A (Bogue)
C4AF (Bogue)
(
) %

, % ..



13.7
4.0
1.6
43.5


( ), %
1

%
(
)

6.9
1.9
0.6
49.0

15.9
4.7
1.9
41.7

20.5*
6.0*
2.4*
65.5*

1.0*

77.8
-

87.5
-

74.5
-

25

75

63
11.0
11.8
7.3
*
Bogue
(Raw meal
factor) = 1.50, 1.5

1 .

54

, (,
) (),
,
(C3S C2S)
.
CaO SiO2,
C3S C2S .
C3A C4AF.
,

.
. MgO, Na2O, K2O,
.
MgO, ,
,
, , o Mg(OH)2
.
, ,

. ,
,
.
,
, (gel)
.
(Alkali silica reaction, ASR).
, ( ),
C2S C2S C3S, C3A
,
.
,
.
55

3.3.

3.3.1.


W1, W2, W3 , W4 , W5, ..., W,
,

- .
,
( )
- .

3.3.2.

,
, .
,
.
,
.

(Lime saturation factor, LSF), (Silica ratio, SR)
(Alumina ratio, AR), .

% c, s, a f ()
(CaO), (SiO2), (Al2O3) (Fe2O3), .

56

, W1, W2,
W3 , W4 , W5, ..., W, ,


. , ,
.

, :

c1

c2

c3

cN

s1

s2

s3

sN

a1

a2

a3

aN

f1

f2

f3

fN

W1, W2, W3 , W4 , ..., W .


c, s, a f ()
:
c1 W1 + c 2 W 2 + c 3 W3 + + c N W N = c WT

s1 W1 + s 2 W 2 + s 3 W3 + + s N W N = s WT

(6)

a1 W1 + a 2 W2 + a3 W3 + + a N W N = a WT

f 1 W1 + f 2W2 + f 3 W3 + + f N W N = f WT
WT = W1 + W2 + W3 + W4 + + W N

(7)

.
,
LSF, SR AR :

l 2 < LSF < h2 =

l 3 < SR < h3 =

100 c
2.8 s + 1.18 a + 0.65 f

s
a+ f

(8)

(9)
57


l4 < AR < h4 =

a
f

(10)

(constraints) ,
WT
W1, W2, W3

(l1 < WT

< h1 )

W4 , ..., W

( ).
, LSF, SR AR
,
, N
(-1-)
,
.
( 11) (W1, W2, W3

W4 , c, s, a f)

(8).
(c, s, a f) , (1)
(3)
(LSF, SR AR).
, ,
.

c1
s1

a1
f1

1
0
0

c2 c3 c4 Wtot

s2 s3 s4
0
Wtot
0
0

a2 a3 a4
0
0
Wtot
0

f2 f3 f4
0
0
0
Wtot

1 1 1
0
0
0
0

0 0 0 100 2.8xLSF 1.18xLSF 0.65xLSF


0 0 0
0
1
SR
SR

0 0 0
0
0
1
AR

WT = Wtot

W1
0
W2
0

W3
0
W4
0
x
=

c
Wtot
s
0
a
0

f
0

(11)

(12)

:
58

Bxb = C

(13)

()
.
= 4,
(8 x 8) () b
( 7).
b = B 1 xC ,

(14)

-1 .
, = 3 = 2,
(1) (2)
. AR (SR, AR), (7x7) (6x6)
.

(..

Wi (i = 1, 2, , N).
C (11) ,
W1, W2, W3 , W4 , ..., W. > 0. , C
AR
(.. W3) .
C (..
W3)

c1
s1

a1
f1

1
0
0

c2 c3 c4 Wtot

s2 s3 s4
0
Wtot
0
0

a2 a3 a4
0
0
Wtot
0

f2 f3 f4
0
0
0
Wtot

1 1 1
0
0
0
0

0 0 0 100 2.8xLSF 1.18xLSF 0.65xLSF


0 0 0
0
1
SR
SR

0 1 0
0
0
0
0

W1
0
W2
0

W3
0
W4

x
= 0
c

Wtot
s
0
a
0

f
W3min

(15)

59

,
LSF, SR AR,
, .

3.4.
3.4.1. Powell
Powell [3]

( LSF, SR AR)
(steady state) .

.

. ,
, (, initial
point) .
3.4.2. Powell
Powell, ,
,
W1, W2, W3 , W4 , ...,
W W, LSF, SR AR.. ,
(Helmy, 1975),
, Powell
.
, Powell,

Box [3]

x n = l1 + (h1 l1 ) sin 2 Yn

(16)

60

l1, h1 Xn
n .

3.4.3.
,
Powell ,

F ( x) = e j 2 = a LSF LSF j

)2 + b(SR SR j )2 + c(AR AR j )2 + (WT WT

)2

(17)

j = 1, 2, 3, , N,
LSFj, SRj ARj
.
(17) 0 , b, c 1,
LSF, SR AR
. ,
0, 1
.
= b = c = 1, LSF, SR AR
, LSF
AR .

,
.
Powell ,
.

3.4.4. [3]

61


3.1
.
3.6, 3.7, 3.8 3.9, (1, 2, 3 4)
(1, 2, 3). ()
(LSF, SR AR) ..
3.2
ASTM 3.1.
3.6.
( ), %

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaCO3

CaO,
SO3

50.5
4.83
1.85
0.64
90.2

2.7
2.7
6.6
84.0
4.8

1.0
95.0
1.4
1.3
1.8

4

4.0
65.0
24.0
2.5
7.14

1 ( ASTM)

3.7.
( ), %

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaCO3

CaO,
SO3

50.5
4.83
1.85
0.64
90.2

2.7
2.7
6.6
84.0
4.8

1.0
95.0
1.4
1.3
1.8

4

15.4
37.9
16.5
5.1
27.5

1 ( ASTM)

62

3.8.
( ), %

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaCO3

(CaO), SO3

2
3

50.5
15.4
1.0
4.83
37.9
95.0
1.85
16.5
1.4
0.64
5.1
1.3
90.2
27.5
1.8
1 ( ASTM)

3.9.
( ), %

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaCO3

(CaO), SO3

2
3

50.5
2.7
1.0
4.83
2.7
95.0
1.85
6.6
1.4
0.64
84.0
1.3
90.2
4.8
1.8
1 ( ASTM)

63

3.5. ,
( Bogue)
, 3.2, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8 3.9

Mathcad Excel, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16
3.17.
3.10 3.11
(I1, I3, III1 III2 1)
(-4-) 3.6 3.7 LSF, SR
AR ( 3.2).
3.12
(I1, I3, III1 III2 3.1) (-3-)
3.8 LSF, SR 3.2.
3.13
( Bogue) , (-4-)
3.6 (LSF, AR) I2, I4,
II1, II2, IV1, IV2, V1 V2 3.2.
3.14 4
( 3.6) LSF.
3.15 3.16
(-3-)
3.8 3.9, 3.17
3.16 , .,
(W2 = 0) 3.9 ()

64

3.10. 4 ( 3.6)

LSF
1

0.9543

0.9645

0.98

1.0281

SR
2.60

3.3

2.90

2.6

% t/h
AR
2.3

2.2

2.60

2.1

1
80.90

83.66

82.40

82.99

2
0.455

0.386

0.19

0.582

3
5.453

7.787

6.051

5.384


, %

4
13.19

8.17

11.364

11.049

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3

42.953
14.1
3.78
1.643
43.593
14.545
3.03
1.377
43.426
14.04
3.497
1.345
43.679
13.326
3.472
1.653

BOGUE %
CaO
1
C3S
C2S
C3A
C4AF

()

OPC
53.75

20.09

10.86

7.50
ASTM Type I

OPC
55.82

20.44

8.55

6.29
ASTM Type I

OPC
52.14

62.39

21.05

10.24

10.49

9.61

6.14

7.55

ASTM
Type I III

,
ASTM Type III

65

3.11. 4 ( 3.7)

()
LSF
SR
AR
0.9543

0.9645

0.98

1.0281

2.60

3.3

2.90

2.6

2.3

2.2

2.60

2.1

% t/h
1
85.51

86.52

86.38

86.86

2
1

0.721

0.655

1.039

3
4.636

7.306

5.356

4.7


, %

4
8.854

5.451

7.61

7.396

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3

43.61
14.316
3.838
1.669
44.004
14.682
3.059
1.39
43.997
14.225
3.543
1.363
44.237
13.497
3.516
1.675

BOGUE %
CaO
1
C3S
C2S
C3 A
C4AF

()

OPC
54.65

20.33

11.02

7.62
ASTM Type I

OPC
56.45

20.55

8.63

6.34
ASTM Type I

OPC
53.01

63.36

21.18

10.25

10.62

9.72

6.22

7.65

ASTM
Type I III

,
ASTM Type III

66

3.12. 3 3.8 ( LSF, SR)

( LSF, SR)
LSF

SR

AR
(.)

%
t/h
1

0.9543

2.60

3.006

80.201

15.155

4.644

0.9645

3.30

2.897

83.053

9.858

7.09

0.98

2.90

2.96

82.102

12.187

5.711

1.0281

2.60

2.996

82.088

13.563


, %

4.349

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3

42.882
14.029
4.049
1.349
43.531
14.483
3.262
1.126
43.395
14.01
3.61
5.711
43.587
13.237
3.817
1.274

BOGUE %
CaO
1
C3S

C2S

C3A

C4AF

52.05

21.07

12.68

6.15

54.35

21.28

10.11

5.14

51.42

21.46

11.25

5.57

60.18

11.53

11.94

5.82

67

3.13. 4 ( 3.6)

LSF

SR

% t/h
AR


, %

I2

0.9004

2.90

1.60

74.54

15.99

8.37

1.104

I4

0.9269

2.30

2.70

78.26

0.229

3.686

17.822

II1

0.9046

2.20

1.0

73.63

16.01

7.704

2.654

II2

0.9046

3.9

1.9

74.64

12.495

10.32

0.544

IV1

0.8030

2.4

0.90

72.069

15.122

9.832

2.977

IV2

0.8319

3.70

1.20

75.53

11.05

12.02

1.40

V1

0.8734

3.80

0.90

77.47

8.10

12.63

1.80

V2

0.8678

2.90

0.70

76.18

9.13

11.79

2.90

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3

42.602
15.085
3.201
42.602
42.311
14.042
4.455
1.65
42.154
14.49
3.293
3.293
43.198
15.628
2.625
1.382
41.208
16.161
3.19
3.544
42.42
16.698
2.462
2.051
43.027
16.198
2.019
2.243
42.511
15.805
2.244
3.206

BOGUE %
CaO
1
C3S
C2S
C3A
C4AF
45.97

30.19

7.65

9.13

36.84

32.60

13.53

7.51

()




,
ASTM Type II

ASTM Type I

43.18

29.74

4.73

15.03

45.26

33.07

6.93

6.31

22.32

52.66

3.69

16.18

32.42

47.35

4.58

9.36

46.90

34.28

2.33

10.24

45.08

33.96

0.78

14.63




,
ASTM Type IV



,
ASTM Type II



,
ASTM Type IV



,
ASTM Type IV



,
ASTM Type V



,
ASTM Type V

68

3.14. 4 ( 3.6)


(LSF, SR, AR)
LSF

SR

AR

% t/h
1


, %

0.76

2.4

0.90

70.76

15.88

10.25

3.10

0.78

2.4

0.90

71.382

15.521

10.054

3.044

IV1

0.803

2.4

0.90

72.069

15.122

9.832

2.977

0.82

2.4

0.90

72.56

14.838

9.674

2.93

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO

0.84

2.4

0.90

73.11

14.515

9.494

2.876

SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3

40.63
16.836
3.323
3.692
40.905
16.515
3.26
3.622
41.208
16.161
3.19
3.544
41.424
15.909
3.14
3.489
41.67
15.622
3.083
3.426

BOGUE %
CaO
1
C3S
C2S
C3A
C4AF

()

9.44

65.29

3.84

16.85

15.56

59.28

3.77

16.53

22.32

52.66

3.69

16.18

27.13

47.95

3.63

15.93

32.61

42.58

3.56

15.64




,
ASTM Type IV



,
ASTM Type IV



,
ASTM Type IV

69

3.15. 3 ( 3.8)


(LSF, SR)
LSF

I2

I4

II1

II2

0.9004

0.9269

0.9046

0.9046

SR

2.90

2.30

2.20

3.9

AR
(.)

2.968

3.06

3.079

2.816

% t/h
1
79.961

77.916

76.659

83.123

2
13.901

18.802

20.562

7.796

3
6.138

3.282

2.779

9.08

IV1

0.803

2.4

3.058

74.453

21.238

4.308

IV2

0.8319

3.70

2.858

80.558

10.231

9.211

V1

V2

0.8734

0.8678

3.80

2.90

2.838

2.972

82.032

78.997

8.863

14.672


, %

9.105

6.331

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3

42.582
14.962
3.859
1.30
42.276
14.007
4.59
1.50
41.907
14.136
4.85
1.575
43.269
15.596
2.951
1.048
40.913
15.739
4.942
1.616
42.35
16.519
3.307
1.157
42.882
15.971
3.108
1.095
42.216
15.391
3.971
1.336

BOGUE %
CaO
1
C3S

C2S

C3A

C4AF

42.12

32.57

12.04

5.93

()

ASTM Type I

35.73

33.28

14.44

6.85
ASTM Type I

45.65

32.64

9.07

4.78
ASTM Type I

31.55

36.99

15.28

7.19
ASTM Type I

11.81

58.78

15.54

7.38

27.44

50.34

10.21

5.28

ASTM Type I

40.09

38.44

9.58

5.00
ASTM Type I

34.60

40.08

12.39

6.10
ASTM Type I

70

3.16. 3 ( 3.9)
BOGUE %

% t/h
CaO

(LSF, AR)
1
, %
LSF

I2

I4

II1

II2

IV1

IV2

V1

V2

0.9004

0.9269

0.9046

0.9046

0.803

0.8319

0.8734

0.8678

SR

(.)

5.55

6.59

4.31

5.94

4.50

5.18

4.17

3.52

AR
1.60

2.70

1.0

1.9

0.90

1.20

0.90

0.70

1
86.677

87.502

86.182

86.895

84.085

85.092

85.456

84.489

2
0.492

-0.072

1.363

0.27

1.6

0.954

1.621

2.399

3
12.831

12.57

12.455

12.835

14.315

13.954

12.923

12.752

C3S
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3

C2S

C3 A

()

C4AF

43.913
16.39
1.816
1.135

54.91

29.06

4.34

5.18

OPC,

,
Type V

44.312
16.166
1.79
0.663

53.56

29.11

5.43

3.03

8.49

OPC,

,
Type V

4.34

OPC,

,
Type V

9.44


,
Type V

6.97


,
Type V

9.48


,
Type V

12.43


,
Type V

43.683
16.032
1.859
1.859
44.018
16.397
1.805
0.95
42.649
17.704
1.862
2.068
43.137
17.392
1.833
1.527
43.328
16.448
1.869
2.076
43.041
16.278
1.907
2.724

52.47

50.69

30.08

36.35

47.76

47.35

29.36

32.28

53.45

47.37

34.70

34.28

2.67

4.76

2.15

3.41

2.16

0.67

71

3.17. 3 ( 3.9)


(LSF, AR)
LSF

I2

0.9269

SR
(.)

6.59

AR
2.70

% t/h
1
87.502

2
-0.072

3
12.57

I2

88.31

0.9269

6.11

2.51


, %

11.69

CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
Fe2O3

44.312
16.166
1.79
0.663
44.713
15.371
1.797
0.717

BOGUE %
CaO
1

()

C3S

C2S

C3A

C4AF

53.56

29.11

5.43

3.03

3.27


,

,
ASTM Type III

65.13

16.97

5.32

72

3.6. -
3.10 3.11,
3.6 3.7 LSF, SR AR ( 3.2),
(4 ),
, ,
.
3.13 , (-4-)
6 ASTM , , IV V
(LSF, SR AR). 3.14
LSF 0.80
(ASTM Type IV) .
LSF .
(4)

( ).
,
, (.. LSF),
3.14.
(-3-) , 3.8 3.9,
( 3.15 3.16).
, , (LSF SR)
(LSF AR) . ,
() LSF, SR AR
.

.
, (-3-) ,
,
. ,
, ,
( 3.17).

73

,
.

1. . . & ., 2000, ,
, ..., .
2. Leas Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, 1998, 4th Edition, Edited by P.C. Hewlett,
Arnold, London.
3. Schofield G. C., 1980, Homogenisation/Blending Systems Design and Control for
Mineral Processing, Series on Bulk Materials Handling Vol. 2, Trans Tech Publications.
4. SME, 1985, Mineral Processing Handbook, Edited by N.L. Weiss, S.W. MUDD SERIES,
New York.

74

4.
4.1.
() :

(), %

3 CaO SiO2

C3S

50

2 CaO SiO2

C2S

25

3 CaO Al2O3

C3A

10

4 CaOAl2O3Fe2O3 C3AF

10

CaSO4


.
(C3S, C2S) .
.
C3S 7
( ), C2S
.
C3S :
2 C3S + 7 2 + + ()
2 [3CaO SiO2 ] + 7 2 3CaO 2SiO2 42 + 3 Ca(OH)2 + 173 kJ
C3S , Ca+ (OH)-
.
pH , (OH)- 12.
.

. Ca+ (OH)- ()
.
.
. Ca+ (OH)-

75

, Le
Chatelier, .


.

.
.

. ( a,b,c d 4.1 )

4.1.

(a,b,c d)
. (a)
.
(b) . (c) ,
(d) .
. ,
,
.
:
1. C3S Ca+ (OH)2. Ca+ (OH)- Ca(OH)2
3. C3S (Ca3Si2O7 4H2O)
76

4. Ca(OH)2 (Ca3Si2O7 4 H2O) ,


Ca3Si2O7 4 2O
5. ( ) Ca3Si2O7 4H2O ,

C3S
6.
() Ca3Si2O74
H2O. ,
C3S.
C2S :
2 [2CaO SiO2 ] + 5 2 3CaO2SiO242 + Ca(OH)2 + 58.6 kJ
C3 C4AF,
.
:
C3 > C3S > C4AF > C2S

15 min
12

20

4.2. Portland

77

4.2 ,
. 1
( Ca+
(OH)-),
. 2
(dormancy period), 2-3
.
, .
2 ,

C3S. 3 4. 5
36
,
.
4.3

.

78


: (W/C)


: (W/C)

4.3. ( W/C)
.

4.2.
,
(prEN 197-1), (6) (4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5
4.6), , %
,
,
. , 4.7 4.8
(ASTM C 150), .
, ,
(, ) ( ,
), ,
,
.
CaO-SiO2 -Al2O3 ( 4.4).

79

4.1. (prEN 197-1)

80

4.2. (prEN 197-1)

4.4. .

81

4.3. (prEN 197-1)

4.4. (prEN 197-1)

82

4.5. (prEN 197-1)

83

4.6. (prEN 197-1)

4.7. (ASTM)

1
2

IV3
V4
IA4
IIA4
IIIA4

1 .
2 ( < 0.6 Na2O)
- (Alkali Silica Reaction, ASR).
3. IV .
4. .

84

4.8.
ASTM C 150

, %

(L.O.I.),

Portland

SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

CaO

MgO

SO3

Type I

20.9

5.2

2.3

64.4

2.8

2.9

Type II

21.7

4.7

3.6

63.6

2.9

Type III

21.3

5.1

2.3

64.9

Type IV

24.3

4.3

4.1

Type V

25.0

3.4

White

24.5

5.9


Bogue, %*

Blaine
fineness,
m2/kg

,%

C3S

C2S

C3A

C4AF

1.0

0.2

55

19

10

370

2.4

0.8

0.4

51

24

11

370

3.0

3.1

0.8

0.2

56

19

10

540

62.3

1.8

1.9

0.9

0.2

28

49

12

380

2.8

64.4

1.9

1.6

0.9

0.2

38

43

380

0.6

65.0

1.1

1.8

0.9

0.2

33

46

14

490

* ASTM C 150.

4.3.

(.. ),
, .

4.3.1.

(Fineness)


() .
( 4.5 4.6) Blaine (
) m2/kg cm2/g
1 kg 1 g ( 4.6). ,


(
, ).
,
, ,
7 .

85

:
) Wagner turbidimeter ASTM C 115
) Blaine air-permeability test ( ASTM C 204)
) 45m (325 mesh) [
ASTM C 430].

4.5. .

86

4.6.
Blaine (cm2/g).

4.3.2.

(Soundness)


. ,
, (expansion)
.
( , CaO , MgO)

.
:
) Le-Chatelier (BS 4550 : Part 3)
) (ASTM C 151)
4.3.3.

(Consistency)

87

. Vicat
%
(), 10 mm 1 mm.

4.3.4.

Setting time ( )


( )
(setting time period).
,
2 10 .
ASTM C 150
. Vicat
Gillmore (ASTM C 266).
5 mm
60 min,

10 ( -)
Portland.

. : ()
, W/C (/)
(admixtures).

4.3.5. (compressive strength)



ASTM C 109 2 inch (50.8 mm),
.

C3S, C2S, C3A C4AF (Blaine fineness).

88

,
,
,
.

4.7 . 28
PCA (Portland
Cement Association).
4.7 () 28
.

4.3.6.

(Heat of Hydration)


.
C3S C3A .
W/C,
. .
( )
,
89

, . ,


.
,
,
(
. ).
ASTM C 186.
7
, (100%) Portland
(Type I) :

Type I

(OPC)

100%

Type II

80-85%

Type III

150%

Type IV

40-60%

Type V

60-75%

90

5.
5.1.

,
.
5.1.

5.1. .
. ,

( +). ,
( ),
.
70-80% ,
,

91

, .
..
. , ,
.
,

.
( )
.
, (
) ,
( ).
, ,
( ), .

.
:
8 mm 3/8= -9.5 mm (100%) -4 mm (95%),
( ) 5-12,5 mm
12,5-38 mm .

5.2.
,
,

.
,
,
() . ..
,
. ...
92

-
5.2, 5.3, 5.4 5.5, .

5.2. ( Svedala Arbra)

93

5.3. - (
).
94

2
3
32
16
-16 mm

10

4
+32 mm

-4 mm

9
+32

16-32

8-16

4-8

0-4

11


/
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11


(scalp screen)

(32 mm 16 mm)
(8 mm 4 mm)
(silos)


3 ( )

5.4. ( Svedala
Arbra).

95

5.5.

96

5.3.
1.

(.. , , )
(.. ).
,
:
1.
2. ( )
3.
4.
5.
6. ()
7.
8. ..
, ,
mm 1/10 mm.

. ( )
,
(grading)
( 5.6, 5.7. 5.8.):
1.
2. ()
3. ( )
4.

97

.5.6. .

5.7. (3) (4)


.

98

.5.8.
.

2. (bulk specific gravity)


,
, (-2-) :

1.

ASTM C 127 .
A
BC

(I) =

(II) ( ) =

B
, :
BC

( 5.6., 1)

99

( ) ( 5.7.,
4), ( )
C ( ) ( 5.7.,
4), .
, (-C)
.
:
:
= 3168.5 g
B = 3190.0 g
C = 1972.0 g
:
3168.5
= 2.60 g/cm3
3190.0 1972.0
3190.0
=
= 2.62 g/cm3
3190.0 1972.0

2.
ASTM
C 128 .
A
B+C D

I () =

II ( ) =

B
B+C D

:
( 5.5., 1)
( ) ( 5.7.,
4), ( )

100

C ( )

D
, (B+C-D)
.
:
:
= 490.7 g ( )
B = 501.4 g ( )
C = 647.2 g ( )
D = 953.5 g ( )
=

490.7
= 2.51 g/cm3
501.4 + 647.2 953.5

( )
=

501.4
= 2.57 g/cm3
501.4 + 647.2 953.5

3. (Moisture content)

, .
,

. , (
), .
,
, .
1. (Oven-dry OD);

101

2. (Air-dry AD);
, .
3. (Saturated-surface-dry SSD);
.
4. (Damp Wet);
() .
3 (
5.7.),
.
.

4.
,
, (-3-)
:
(Absorption capacity AC).

.

(ASTM C 127 C 128).
1 2.5% :

AC =

WSSD WOD
100(%)
WOD

:
( , SSD)

(WSSD = 501.4 g)

(OD)

(WOD = 490.7 g)

102

(AC) =

501.4 490.7
100 = 2.18%
490.7

(%) ASTM C 566


:
(%)=

W WOD
100 ,
WOD

W = ( )
WOD = (OD)
(Effective Absorption EA)
() ,
, (AD)
(SSD), 0-

8%.
:

EA =

WSSD W AD
100(%)
WSSD

(Wabs), Wagg
(AD), :

Wabs = ( EA) Wagg

(Surface Moisture SM)

, ,
(SSD).

SM =

Wwet WSSD
100(%)
WSSD

103


(Wadd), ,
Wagg.

Wadd = ( SM ) W agg
(Moisture content MC) :

MC =

WStock WSSD
100(%)
WSSD

MC > 0, , MC < 0,
. ,

.

W MC = ( MC ) W agg
,
0-10%, 0-2%.

, , .
( )
,
.
:
(AC) 1.2% 847.3 g,
(damp wet). (OD)
792.7 g. %
.

(%)=

W WOD
100 = 847.3 792.7 100 = 6.9%
WOD
792.7
104

1.2%, %
:
(%) = 6.9 - 1.2 = 5.7%

.
( )
(). (
), .
, ( )
, ,
.
(.. m3), , ,
.
,
,
.

,
.

105

. 5.9.
.

( ) .
, ,
,
.
.. , ,
. ,
, ,

. ,
,
,
.

106

5.4.


BS 812: Part 1:1975
ASTM C 294-69



(.. )


(, .)

5.10. BS ASTM
(British Standards, B.S.)
,
.
ASTM , ,
. (ASTM)
,
.
, ,

.
, .. SiO2 ,
.
, (
, ) (.. ).

107

5.5.

.

( ) 5.1.
5.1. BS 812 Part 102:1989
.

, mm

, kg

28 mm

50

5-28 mm

25

5 mm

13

(scoop)
(), (segregation) .
, 10
.
(.. ),
, .
, ,
,
( ),
,
(.. , ).

:
1. (quartering),
2. (riffling)

108


,

.
5.6.
,
( ) .

().

, .

, (
).
BS 812 : Part
1:1975 :


(workability) .
:

109


(sphericity) (roundness).
5.7.

, ,
:
B.S. 882: 1992
B.S. 882 Section 105.1: 1989

, ,
,
, ,

.
BS 882: 1992 BS 882 : S 105.1Q 1989
50% 40%
.
.
(packing) ,
, (, voids)
, ()
, BS 812 : Part 1:1975.
, 67%

.
,
( ) :

110

-20 + 14 mm
-14 + 10 mm
-10 + 6.3 mm
-6.3 + 5.0 mm
,
.
/ ,
.
.

.
, 10-15%
,
.

.

.
1.8
,
0.6 .
o
.
()
, , .
,


.
, , ,
, .

111

. ..
.
5.2.
.
5.2.

, (%)

31

26

43

22

44

34


. , (cm2/g
m2/kg) ,
.
,
.

(packing) .. ,
.
.
5.11 A ,
, .
(A
) . (
), ( C),
.

112

5.11. .

5.8.

408 ( -301, -305 306),
(ASTM) :
1. ASTM C 33
2. ASTM C 29/ C 29M .

3. ASTM C 40

4. ASTM C 87

5. ASTM C 88

113

6. ASTM C 117 200 mesh (-75 m) (


)
7.

ASTM C 127-88 128-97


( , )

8. ASTM C 131 ( Los


Angeles)
9. ASTM C 136

10. ASTM C 289
11. ASTM C 295
12. ASTM C 125 ( ).
(BS 812)
(CEN/TC 154), 5.3 5.4,
.

5.3. (BS) (ASTM)


( )
Tests / Services

Standard Methods / Techniques


()

Sampling

BS 821 : Pt 102 : 1989

SS 73 : 1974

Clay, silt & dust content (field settling)


BS 812: Pt 1 : 1975
SS 73 : 1974

Clay, silt & dust content (decantation)

BS 812 : Pt 1 : 1975

SS 73 : 1974

Materials finer then 75 m

ASTM C 117-90

< 75 m
Particle size distribution by sieving
()

BS 812: Sect 103.1 : 1985


ASTM C 136-84a & SS 73 : 1974

Moisture content

BS 812 : Pt 109 : 1990

ASTM C 566-89 & SS 73 : 1974

Organic impurities (colour test)

SS 73 : 1974

( )

ASTM C 40-84

114

Bulk density, voids & bulking

BS 812 : Pt 2 : 1975

SS 73 : 1974

Relative densities & water absorption

BS 812 : Pt 2 : 1975 & SS 73 : 1974


Aggregate crushing value (ACV)
(ACV)

BS 812 : Pt 110 : 1990 & SS 73 : 1974

10% fines value (TFV)

BS 812 : Pt 111 : 1990 & SS 73 : 1974

10% ..
Angularity number

BS 812 : Pt 1 : 1975 & SS 73 : 1974


Flakiness index

BS 812 : Pt 105.1 : 1989 & SS 73 : 1974

Elongation index

BS 812 : Pt 105.2 : 1990

SS 73 : 1974

Soundness

BS 812 : Pt 121 : 1989

SS 73 : 1974

Impact value

BS 812 : Pt 121 : 1990


SS 73 : 1974

Los Angeles Abrasion

ASTM C 131-89

Los Angeles

ASTM C 535-89 & SS 73 : 1974

Chloride content

BS 812: Pt 117 : 1988

SS 73 : Pt 17 : 1992

Sulphate content

BS 812 : Pt 118 : 1988


SS 73 : Pt 18 : 1992

115

5.4. (Aggregates)
( 31 January 2002 )
CEN/TC 154
EN 932-1:1996

Tests for general properties of aggregates - Part 1: Methods for sampling

EN 932-2:1999

Tests for general properties of aggregates - Part 2: Methods for reducing laboratory
samples

EN 932-3:1996

Tests for general properties of aggregates - Part 3: Procedure and terminology for
simplified petrographic description

EN 932-5: 1999

Tests for general properties of aggregates - Part 5: Common equipment and


calibration

EN 932-6: 1999

Tests for general properties of aggregates - Part 6: Definitions of repeatability and


reproducibility

EN 933-1:1997

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 1: Determination of particle size


distribution - Sieving method

EN 933-2:1995

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 2: Determination of particle size


distribution - Test sieves, nominal size of apterures

EN 933-3:1997

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 3: Determination of particle


shape - Flakiness index

EN 933-4: 1999

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 4: Determination of particle


shape - Shape index

EN 933-5:1998

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 5: Determination of percentage


of crushed and broken surfaces in coarse aggregate particles

EN 933-6:2001

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 6: Assessment of surface


characteristics - Flow coefficient of aggregates

EN 933-7: 1999

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 7: Determination of shell


content - Percentage of shells in coarse aggregates

EN 933-8: 1999

Test for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 8: Assessment of fines - Sand


equivalent test

EN 933-9:1998

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 9: Assessment of fines Methylene blue test

EN 933-10:2001

Tests for geometrical properties of aggregates - Part 10: Assessment of fines Grading of fillers (air jet sieving)

EN 1097-1:1996

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 1: Determination of


the resistance to water (micro-Deval)

EN 1097-2:1998

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 2: Methods for the
determination of resistance to fragmentation

EN 1097-3:1998

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 3: Determination of


loose bulk density and voids

EN 1097- 4: 1999

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 4: Determination of


the voids of dry compacted filler

EN 1097- 5: 1999

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 5: Determination of


the water content by drying in a ventilated oven

116

EN 1097-6: 2000

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 6: Determination of


particle density and water absorption

EN 1097-7: 1999

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 7: Determination of


the particle density of filler - Pyknometer method

EN 1097-8: 1999

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 8: Determination of


the polished stone value

EN 1097-9:1998

Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 9: Determination of


the resistance to wear by abrasion from studded tyres - Nordic test

EN 1367-1: 1999

Tests for thermal and weathering properties of aggregates - Part 1: Determination of


resistance to freezing and thawing

EN 1367-2:1998

Tests for thermal and weathering properties of aggregates - Part 2: Magnesium


sulfate test

EN 1367-3:2001

Tests for thermal and weathering properties of aggregates - Part 3: Boiling test for
"Sonnenbrand basalt"

EN 1367-4:1998

Tests for thermal and weathering properties of aggregates - Part 4: Determination of


drying shrinkage

EN 1744-1:1998

Tests for chemical properties of aggregates - Part 1: Chemical analysis

EN 13179-1:2000

Tests for filler aggregate used in bituminous mixtures - Part 1: Delta ring and ball
test

EN 13179-2:2000 Tests for filler aggregate used in bituminous mixtures - Part 2: Bitumen number

117

6.
, /, .
PCA (Portland Cement Association),
6.1.

6.1. .

6.1.
(-2-) :

(batch)

,
( , , )
( 6.2 & 6.3).
, (ready mixed concrete)

118

() .
.
,
(.. )
. ,

. ( 6.3).

6.2.
.
6.4.
(ready mixed concrete)
,
.
()
,

,
.

119



.

.

6.3. (-) .

120

6.4. .

121

6.2.

()


,
(workability), , (durability),
,
.
,

.
1.

:
(trial-batch method)


,
, (compressive strength),

.


:
/ (W/C)
, %

(slump)
, ,
(W/C), :
(W/C , Water-Cement ratio) = /
122

, , (workable),
,
() .
(hydration)
.
.
( )
.
(W/C)
,

. (W/C)
(.. 6.1.), .
:
(W/C), ,
, ,
( ).
(W/C)
( ). ,
( ) ,
( )
. ,
,
.

123

6.1. (W/C)

(
W/C )
W/C
(freezing ,
and thawing)

*
0.50

0.45


0.45

5 cm

0.50


*
0.50

0.45



386 kg/m3
W/C




( ? )
* ,

124

6.3.


1.


:
1. 9.5 mm (3/8 in.)
2. 2.36 9.5 mm mm (8 mesh-3/8 in.)
3. 2.36 mm (8 mesh)
(-5+0,075) mm
(sand), 0.075 mm (200 mesh) .

6.5.

125

(2) (3) 6.5. FINE,


(1), , COARSE.

.
, ,
(.. 5 mm
5 mm), 6.6.

6.6. .

( )


( ) ,

. ,
, , ,
.

126

, 1/3

.
( ) ,
1/3 .

, (fine aggregates)
(coarse aggregates),

,
.

6.2.
6.2.

,
,
,
%
g
%
18.4
1.85
1.85
135.2
13.59
15.44
202.4
20.35
35.79
204.4
20.55
56.34
241.0
24.23
80.57
184.2
18.52
99.09

No

mm

4
8
16
30
50
100

4.75
2.36
1.18
0.60
0.30
0.15

0.0

9.0

0.91

0.91

994.6

100

100


(Fineness modulus)

(1.85+15.44+35.79+56.341+80.57+99.09)/100

= 289.08/100 2.89


, 6.3.

127

6.3.
.

(Fineness modulus)

2.3 to 2.59


Fine Sand

2.6 to 2.89


Medium Sand

2.9 to 3.10


Coarse Sand

,
()
( 6.7 6.8).

6.7. (grading)
12.7 mm (1/2-inch)

128

6.8. (grading)
25.4 mm (1-inch)
, ,
, 12.7 mm ( 6.7), 19 25.4
mm ( 6.8),
, .

6.9, ,
.

6.9.
.

129

(kg/m3 )
32% ( 6.10).
32%, ,
,
. ,
(>32%), ,
( 6.10).

6.10.
.

,
( ),
( W/C, ),
,
130

.

(durability).
,
(gap graded aggregate combination),
, (
)
() (shrinkage effect).
()
. ,
/
( 6.11),
.

, , ,
.

1. /
(coarseness factor) :

% A o 9.5mm (3 / 8in )
% A o 2.36 mm (8mesh)

100 ,

% 2.36 mm
. :

% A 9.5 mm (3 / 8 in)
100

100 ,

100-% 2.36 mm = % 2.36


mm.
131

6.11.

Shilstone 60 35
( ). ,
25 mm 37.5 mm, 52
34 38,
68 32 36.
II ( 6.11).

, ,
V,
( ).
.

, IV , ,

132

* (segregation)
. , (
75),
,
, .

3/4" (19 mm).
*( , ,
, , 1).

1. (
)
2. 0.45 (0.45 Power Curve)
6.12 Gates-Gaudin-Schuhmann (G-G-S)
25.0 mm m = 0.45, %
P :

x
P = 100
25

0.45

133

P % () x.
,

37.5 mm (1 1/2 in.).
( )
90%
( 6.12 19 mm).
.
1.18 mm (16 mesh),
,
,
( 6.12).
7 %
. . ,
S,
( 6.13).

3. % (Percent Retained Chart)


%
( 6.14).
, ,
.
, Shilstone,
% 13%.
% 8 18%,
6.14.
6.15 ,
, .
(gap graded aggregate combination).

134

6.12. ( 0.45) 25 mm.

135

6.13. ( 0.45) 25 mm.

136

6.14.

6.15.
137

(Optimum Aggregate Blend)

, , ,
,
(
) ,
().
,
,
,
()
.
, ,
ASTM C33,
,
.
,


4.75-9.5 mm, Shilstone
15-30%
4.75-9.5 mm.


(-3-)
.
/

.
( 0.45
138

%) ()

/
.
6.16., ()
(a),
(b) . (b), ,
-4.75+2.36 mm, -2.36+1.18 mm -1.18+0.6
mm ( ), -1+3/8 in.(-25.4+9.5 mm)
.
,
,
.

6.16. %
( %
).

139


, (97), 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20 ,
% ( mm)
(DIN 4187 4188)
ASTM E 11 ( 97
-97).

, mm

0.25

0.5

16

6.17.
8 mm ( ) 9.5 mm (3/8)

140

6.18.
16 mm ( ) 12.5 mm (1/2)

6.19.
31.5 mm ( ) 25.4 mm (1)

141

6.20.
37.5 mm (1 ) .

142

2. ()
-
,
,
.
(-2-) :

2.1.

(durability) (workability), ,
. (1)

),

(2)

( ), (3)
(4) /
.
(accelerating admixture)



.

. (
2% )
,
,
( 6.22), ,

(durability) ASTM C 494 (Types B D).
143

, ,
:
1. III ( )
2. /
m3
3. .
(Retarding admixture).
( 1 )
,
.
,
,
.
,
C3A
C3S, . ,

,
..
.
,
- .


, ,
(
ASTM C 494 Types B D).

144

6.22.
.

(air-entraining admixtures or agents).


()
,

(freeze and thawing)
(de-icers).
,
,
( 6.23 2).
, 1%
5% . ,
(1) ., (2)
(
145

) , (3)
(bleeding) (4)
,
(durability).

6.23.

9.
.

146

Water reducing admixtures ( )



, (1)
(2)
() (
/).

.
5-10% ASTM C 494 (Type ).
(High range water reducers, HRWR)
12-30%
,

.

(superplasicizers)

ASTM C 494 (Types F G) ASTM C 1017 (Types 1 2).


75-100 mm
30-60 min.

(waterproofing admixtures)

2.2.

(, , ),

15-35% .
,
[Ca(OH)2]
.
:

147

1.
2. ()
3.
4. 25-50%
, .

148

7.

7.1.
( .. 28 ,

),
, ,
:
1. ( 7.1),
()

2. ( ),
:

(Fineness modulus)

% ( )

% () ,

3.
, % , .
4. H ( ) %
(fully compacted aggregates)

,
,
( ) ,
.

149

7.1. (kg/m3 l/ m3) % (


ACI, American Concrete Institute)
, mm


, mm

9.5

12.5

19

25

37.5

50

75

150

( )
25-50

207

199

190

179

166

154

130

113

75-100

228

216

205

193

181

169

145

124

150-175

242

228

216

202

190

178

160


, %

2.5

1.5

0.5

0.3

0.2

( )
25-50

181

175

168

160

150

142

122

107

75-100

202

193

184

175

165

157

133

119

150-175

216

205

197

184

174

166

154

, %

1

2

3

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

6.0

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

7.5

7.0

6.0

6.0

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

( )

( )

( )

150

7.1. (slump) .

7.2. /
28 ( ACI, American Concrete Institute)

28
MPa
(psi)

/
(W/C, Water-cement
ratio)

41.4 (6000)

0.41

34.5 (5000)

0.48

0.40

27.6 (4000)

0.57

0.48

20.7 (3000)

0.68

0.59

13.8 (2000)

0.82

0.74

28
/ / 7.2
7.3,
.

151

7.2. / (W/cm)
28 ( American Concrete
Institute, ACI).

7.3. 28
( Cement Association of Canada, 2006).

152

7.3.
( 6.2., .
111), (: American Concrete Institute, ACI 211-1-91).

, mm
9.5
12.5
19.0
25.0
37.5
50.0
75.0
150.0

(Fineness modulus)
2.40
2.60
2.80
3.00

0.50
0.48
0.46
0.44
0.59
0.57
0.55
0.53
0.66
0.64
0.62
0.60
0.71
0.69
0.67
0.65
0.75
0.73
0.71
0.69
0.78
0.76
0.74
0.72
0.82
0.80
0.78
0.76
0.87
0.85
0.83
0.81

7.4 7.4
( ) ,

.
7.4.

kg / m3
,
(%)
in
mm
kg
1

37.5

278.9

5 1/2

25.0

308.7

3/4

19.0

320

1/2

12.7

350

3/8

9.5

362

7 1/2

153

7.4. () (kg/m3) MPa.

154

7.2.
7.2.1.
(fcr
), :
f c r = f c + 1.4 , fc
( ) 3.5 MPa
f c r = f c + 2.4 3.5 , fc
( )
3.5 MPa
fc ( 28 ),

.
,
(, .)

, ( .. 28 ,

), , ,
:
7.2.2. (
)
,

( ),
,
(Fineness modulus), % (

155

) % () ,


, % , .
H ( ) %
(fully compacted aggregates)

,
,
( ) ,
.

7.3.
1. ( 7.1.)
(kg l / m3 ), :

( mm),

( mm)

2. m3 ,
(kg / m3 )
( 7.2.) 7.2, (W/cm,
),
28 (fcr).
3. , ( 7.3.) (
) , :

( mm)

(
)

: ( kg)
( )

156


( )
4. ,
( )
(1 m3 ), .

% (fine
aggregate content)
,
,
,
:
(Unit volume of concrete), .. 1 m3)
- ()
- ()
- Portland ()
- ()
()
(, , ,
) ( m3 )
(kg t)
.
7.4.

( ). ,
,
,
,
.
, (
, , .),

157

, , ,
.
7.5.
1. :
()

:
( )

: ( ,
)

: 1 in. ( 37.5 mm)

: 3-4 in. ( 75-100 mm)

: 24 MPa ( 2 MPa)

( )
4.

3.15

2.60

2.70

1602

2.80

+2.5

+0.5

()

kg/m ( )
,
Fineness modulus


, (%)

158

7.5.

2. (
)
:
1.

fcr = 24 + 1.42 = 26.8 MPa

2.

7.1 ( 37.5
mm) 75-100 mm 181 kg / m3

3.

( 7.2) 7.2 ( )
fcr = 26.8 MPa, W/C = 0.58,
: C = 181/0.58 = 312 kg /m3

4.


7.3, 37.5
mm 2.80,
0.71,
: 0.711602 = 1137.42 kg
/m3 , : 1137.42/2600 =
0.4375 m3 / m3

1.

: 312/3150 = 0.099 m3 / m3

2.

: 0.181 m3 / m3

159

3.

: 0.01 m3 / m3

4.

:
1-(0.4375+0.099+0.181+0.01) = 0.2725 m3 / m3
, : 0.27252700 = 736 kg /
m3

1 m3 :
1. 181 kg
2. 312 kg
3. 1137.42 kg
4. 736 kg
5. 2366.42 kg / m3
, (0.5%)
(2.5%), ,

.
1. 312 kg
2. 736 + 0.025736 = 754.4 kg ( )
3. 1137.42 + 0.0051137.42 =1143.1 kg (
)
4. 156.92 kg ( )
5. 2366.42 kg / m3
,
,
, .

160

8. (%)

8.1.
(W/C).

W/C

, %

, %

, %

12

12

13

34

34.56

33.85

48

48.60

47.3

6
100
0.5

4.84
100
0.4

5.85
100
0.45

2.
1 m3
( 1 2), W/C ( )
1/(1 + 2) = ( m3 ).
( 8.1)
W/C.

B1
B2
W
C
+
+
+
= 1 m3
1000 1000 c 1000 1 1000 2

(1)

:
W kg ( lt) /m3 ,
C kg /m3 ,
B1 kg /m3
B2 kg /m3

c = 3,10 t/m3
1= ( ) 2,69 t/m3

161

2= 2,69 t/m3,
, (1) (2)

C + W + B1 + B 2 = 2478.3 kg

(2)

, W/C = 0.5 1/(1 + 2) = 41.6% ( m3 )


2478.3 kg/ m3, (1) (2) :

C = 297.4 kg
W = 148.7 kg ,
B1 = 842.6 kg ( )
B2 = 1189.6 kg .

4 4
.
2.48 t/m3,
(3-6%)
.
: (1)
kg ( t/m3),
t () (1) :

W C B1 B2
+
+
+
= 1 m3
1 c 1 2

(1)

162

9. -
1.

E:

A: .
(),
.

2.

E:
;;
: , , ( ),
. % ( )
8.1:
8.1.
(W/C).


( )

W/C (/)
3.

,
%
12
34
48
6
100
0.5

,
%
12
34.56
48.60
4.84
100
0.4

,
%
13
33.85
47.3
5.85
100
0.45

E: ;;
: ().
,
/ (W/C).

(compressive strength), (durable)

.

163

4. E: ,
;
: ,
.
(slump test), .
( ) .
.

.
, 50-75% ,
.

5. E: (
) .
;
A:
,
- . 1-3
,
.
,
.

164

6. E:

() ;;
(curing) ;;
A: ,
( ) 10-25
C.

. , ,
, (),


.

.
,
,

.
, ( )

. (..
)
. (
10-25 C),
.

.

.

, ()

165

. ()
5-7
,

( ).

7.
;;
, 10 C 25 C,
. ,
, .
, ,
. ,
()
.
,
,

.

.
8. ;;

.
...
(6s rule).
I. 6 / = 6 (42.64 kg)/(0.9144
m)3 = 334.6 kg/m3 .
II. 6 (6 x 4.55 = 27.27 liters)

166

III. 6 ()

IV. 6% . (
).
9.
;; ;;

.
.
10.
;; ;;
(CaCl2)

.

.
11.
;;
()
. ,

.

12. /
.
/ .
(
. ),
.

167

13. (superplasticizers)
.

( ) .
.
.
14. ;;
:.
1.

(slump test)

2. (compressive strength)
3. (air content)
4.
(
flowability), -309
. ,

. (
) ,

( ,

segregation) .
.
(%)
,
.

.
()

168

(. ).
3.5 MPa 500 psi

, .

169

10. (
)
.

.
,
(), .
,
( ),
( ).

, .
,
.
.

1.
() ,
() ( ), () , () () .

1.

.
95% .
, :
1. ( ),

170

2. (. ) (
),
3. ( )
4. ( )
.
1. %


( )

,
%
12
34
48
6

100

,
(),
( 250.000 t ), 150.000 t [35].

( ) [3],
.
1. , ,
:
1. ,
2. (, )
:
1. ,
2. ( ) .
,
,

171


.

, ,


.

1: [1].
Figure1: Flowsheet for the cement production [1].

2.

172

(1998)
() ,
1997 14,8 . [6]. 52% (7,7 . )
48% (7,1 . )
. ,
68% 32% . 80%
,
1215% 58%
.
2.1.
1,6
. , 75%, . 0,75 1,6 14,8 . = 17,8 .
,
.

2.2.
75% ( 0,75
7,1 . = 5,3 . ) , ,
m3 300 kg ,
(5,3/0,3) 106 = 17,8 106 m3 . 2
/m3 , 35,6 .
.
35,6 .
( ) 75%
, 35,6 106/0,75 = 47,4
. .

2.3.

173

:
(17,8 + 47,4)106 = 65,2 . . 1:5,
, 20% .
(65,2 106) 1,2 = 78,2 . 30 106
m3 ( 2,65 /m3)

, 25%
18 106 . 7-7,5 106 m3 .

3. (, )
3.1.
70$/ .
28.000 ./,
: 7,7 106 28.000 ./ = 215,6 . . (632,7 . ).
3.2.
(
) 17.000 ./m3. 17,8
106 m3 : 17,8 106 m3 17.000 ./m3 = 302,3
. . (887,2 . ).

3.3.

518 . . 1,52 . .
,
550 . .
1,61 . .

( 4045%)
, ( 2000) 100 . . 293 .
[7].

.

174

,

.
4.
4.1.
2%
5%
(World Energy Council, 1995).
2030%
. ,
, 2 [8].
2. (%) [8].

Petcoke

% ..
36
39
6
7
2
10
100

100 kWh/t (
58% ), [9]:

27,5% ,

27,7% ( ),

39,8% ( ..), 5%
.

,
, 1975 6,5
. BTU , 1870 kWh/t [10].
t o Neville [11],
1,8 MWh/t (dry process).

175

25 25%
7,2 5,5 GJ/t . 5,5 GJ/t 1528 kWh/t
. kWh/t
( 3 4).

.

[8, 9, 12].
,
.
3 t [1]. o
4 m3 ,
.
m3 , 91,5%
( , ,
, , , ..) 8,5%
.
4.2.
, 5%
[1, 2].
,
.

. :
1. ,
2. ,
3. ,
4. ,
5. ,
6. ,
7. ,
8. ( , ..)

176

3.
Portland Cement Association (PCA) [1].


1
2

(%)

/t
kWh
BTU 103



(diesel, ..)

69,5

20,4

1,2

524,8
3885,3
315,3
840,2

153,8
1138,4
92,4
246,2

9,3
69,0
5,6
14,9

5215 + 420,1

1527,9 + 123,1

100,0

(, ,

..).
2

( )

.
(2 420,1
103 BTU = 2 123,1 kWh, . 50%).

4. .

(%)

kWh/t


kWh/m3

3
(t/m )

(%)

12

1651

162,8

539,4

0,297

91,6

34

1,6

12,0

11,4

0,843

1,9

48

15,1

17,1

38,3

1,190

6,5

0.149

2,479

100,0

100

1859,6

589,1

177

, .
.
,

, .
(> 1870C)
.
(US EPA) 99,99%
( )
,
.

(.. )
, ()
, .
.. ,
. 100
o (calorific value) 1 t ( 5000 kcal/kg
).
H


(, , )
.
(..
) .



,
.

178

2 . .
2 . .
,
2 106/1000 = 20.000 t . 1 kg
5000 kcal, 20.000 t 20.000 t (5 106 kcal
/1000 kg ) = 1011 kcal. 50%
5 1010 kcal.
58.106.000 kWh 58.106 MWh.
7,33 MW .
(300 kWh/) 65.000 .
, 14.8 . t
100 kWh/t .
14,8 108 kWh .
2 . (%): (58,106 106/14,8 108) 100 =
3,93%.
() . ,

,

(.. ).
5.


[1, 2, 12, 13].


.
.
5.1. CO2

179


(CO2, , , x, , ..)

1,9 5,3C. o
.

CO2 1990.
1,6 . t CO2,
8% CO2 .
CO2 .

CO2/t

.
:
1. (, )
CaCO3, . (), Ca CO2
,
2. (, , )
.

0,63 t CO2 t , 0,53 t CO2 t
. 1,16 t CO2 t .

5.2. CO2
CaCO3 :

CaCO3(s)
CaO(s) + CO2(g)
100
56
44

(1)

180

1 t 1,21 t CaCO3,
: (44/100) 1,21 0,532 t CO2.
60%
(, ),
:

(2)
C(s) +O2(g) CO2(g) 94.052 cal/mol
12
32
44
94052/12 = 7837,7 cal / g .
1 g . 1 cal = 4,1868
joules, . 7837,7 4,1868 32815 kJ/kg .
3
: (69,5 + 524,8 + 3885,3) 103 BTU/t , 1 BTU = 1,0555
kJ, 4728,2 103 kJ/t = 4728,2 kJ/kg .
: (4728,2 kJ/kg
) / 32815 kJ/kg = 0,144 kg /kg .
: 0,144 (44/12) = 0,528 kg CO2/kg .

(
). CO2.
: 840,2 103 BTU/t = (840,2
1,0555) 103kJ/ t = 886,4 103 kJ/ t (886,4 kJ/ kg ) /
(32815 kJ/kg ) = 0,027 kg /kg .
: 0,027 (44/12) = 0,099 kg CO2/ kg .
1 m3
0,2974 t , 5.
5.3. CO2
CO2

, ( ,

181

, ..) CO2,
.
5. CO2
( ).

CO2

CO2
CO2

CO2

CO2

kg CO2/ t

532

kg CO2/ m3

158,2

%
CO2
45,9

528

157,2

45,6

99

29,3

8,5

1159

344,7

100


, , (Ca)
.
(fly
ash) [2, 11, 15].
,
(, , ..),
( )
(15%
12,50% m3 ,
. 589,13 kWh/m3 515,49 kWh/m3 , 4).1
SiO2,
.

1535% ( ) 70%.
Ca(OH)2
,
. ,
,
1

0,2974 (15/100) 1651 kWh/t = 73,65 kWh/t

182

, / (W/C)
() .
(early strength)
o ( F, C ).
, , C
F,
[11, 16].

, ..
.
5.4.

CO2, .. ,
, ,
.. [2,1214].
,
.
, ,
, ..

.

. pH
.
( , , ..).


.
5.5.

183


,
.
. 2 m3 (500 gallons)
() pH
12.
.
,
.

.

,
.
6.


. ,


.

CO2 .


(..
, ,
, ..). ,
,
-
(, ).

184

.
(BLAINE)


( ),
, (, , ),
(, )
( , ).
()
.

,
( Blaine)
.
1.
.
30-35% .
( ,
)
1.
,
,

(.. , ,
.) ()
.
,
, , ,
.
Blaine, cm2/g m2/kg 2800-6000
cm2/g, .

185

2.
(19652000), (wet) (dry)
(semi-dry), 6000 MJ/tonne
3000-3800 MJ/tonne .
(1993),

2.2% [1].
Portland [2,3,4] (0.110-0.140) tonnes
/tonne ( 27000 MJ/tonne) .
[4]
100-110 kWh/tonne ( 1 2). 2, 63.7%

,
. kWh 0.055 / kWh [5]
.
()
50-55 / tonne [5].
:

30

30

25

25

20

20

15

15

5
3,2

,
,

&

4,4

5
5,1

10

24,6

26,1

10

% ..

35

30

35

.. kWh

..

.. kWh

..

1. .. .

186

(110 kWh/tonne x 0.055 /kWh) + (0.14 tonnes /tonne x 55 /


tonne ) = 13.75 / tonne

:
(13.75 /tonne ) / 0.3 46 /tonne ,
[1,2,3] 30-35%
. ( 14 /tonne ), ,
, 100 /tonne .
,

.

(30% ..) .
100%

, ,
.., 5.1%
,
, 24.6%

24,6

80%

,
.., 1.6%

70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%

,
.. 63.7%

% ..

90%

4,4

&
, 5%
, 4.4%

30

-
, 30%
.., ,
26.1%

26,1
3,2

0%

-
.., 3.2%

2. % ..
.
3.

187

[6,7] kWh/tonne
(Blaine fineness) (work
index) .
..
().

[8,9], :

E = 10(1.7410

FBl + 0.035 wi + 0.4714

(1)

kWh/tonne, FBl (Blaine)


cm2/g wi (work index) kwh/short ton.
(1) 1 short ton (s.t.) = 0.907 tonne.
(1) ( 3200-5000, 200
cm2/g) Blaine 3 (12, 14
16 kWh/s.t.) , .
3,


kWh/tonne

kWh/tonne.

Wi =12 kWh/s.t.
Wi =14 kWh/s.t
Wi = 16 kwh/s.t.

70

60

50

40

30
30

40

50

60

70

kWh/tonne
(Fuller Traylor Grinding Mill Systems)

3. (1)
.

188

189


. -, .., 15780 -


FBl (Blaine)
Bond (wi) , ,
Bond (wi) ,
( ) R d80
.

d80. d80
,
. d80

.

kWh/t,

.

.
30-35% (.
) .
( , )

1.
,

190

, , ,
.
Blaine, cm2/g m2/kg 2800-6000
cm2/g,
Bond (wi) Df
( d80 ( ) R.

(19652000), (wet) (dry)
(semi-dry), 6000 MJ/tonne
3000-3800 MJ/tonne .
[28]
100-110 kWh/tonne . 1, 63.7% ,
, ,
.

100%

, ,
.., 5.1%
,
, 24.6%

24,6

80%

,
.., 1.6%

70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%

,
.. 63.7%

% ..

90%

4,4

&
, 5%
, 4.4%

30

-
, 30%
.., ,
26.1%

26,1
3,2

0%

-
.., 3.2%

1. % .. .

()


[28], [29] , , kWh/tonne

191

(Blaine fineness) (work


index) Bond (wi) . [28], [30]
..
( ).

[28],
:

E = 10 (1.7410

FBl + 0.035wi + 0.4714

(1)

: kWh/tonne, FBl
(Blaine) cm2/g wi (work index) kwh/short ton.
. (1) 1 short ton (s.t.) = 0.907 tonne.
, ,
,
Bond (wi), ( )
R d80 :

E = 23.7 wi R 0.193 d80 0.769

(2)

: E, . (1), R = Df /d80
, Df
() 80% d80
(), 80%
.
R = Df /d80 (2), :

E = 23 .7 wi D f 0.193 d 80 0.962

(3)

, , ()
, [31] (2-) ( 2). , ,
,
. 1 ,

192

, 2 .
R1
R2,
, : R = R1 x R2.
, . (3) : E = E1 + E2.
, E1
E2 .
E1 : E = 23.7 w D 0.193 d 0.962
1
i
f
in

(4)

2 : E2 = 0.87 23.7 w d 0.193 d 0.962


i
in
80

(5)

1 , R1

2 , R2

2. () .

0.87 . (5)., 13%


, 1 2
. (4). :
E = 23.7 wi D f 0.193 din 0.962 + 0.87 23.7 wi din 0.193 d800.962

(6)

(1), (6) wi = 14.5 kWh/short ton, Df = 16000 m


d80, 1,
3 .

193

, %

x, m

3. (Blaine) [4].
1. d80 3.
= R0.5=R
()

Blaine FBl,
cm2/g

d80, m
(
)

R,

R1 = R0.5

d80, m

2500
3000
4000
5000

55
41
30
23

290.9
390.24
533.33
695.7

17.06
19.75
23.06
26.38

57.15
44.70
27.76
17.41

R,

280
357.94
576.37
919.01

(Y),
R1

R1 = 15

d80, m

57.70
45.84
29.28
18.91

R,

277.30
349.04
546.45
846.11

,
kWh/t
,
d80

.

194

.
.
.. .- . -

:
(, )
() (
).
,
,
.
,
.
()
,
(%
)
(-5 mm).
1.
(, -),
, (-5
mm), (,
.).
( )
.
.
1 ()
. , 1
% .

195

1.
. : www.goodquarry.com (2007) & (1994)

, mm


,
mm

700-1000

100-300

100-250

20-100

,
Tertiary

Cone crusher
()
VSI crusher
(

Barmac)

14-100

10-50

...,
Quaternary

VSI crusher
(

Barmac)
Cone crusher
()

10-40

10-20


Jaw crusher
()
Gyratory crusher
()

,
Primary

Cone crusher
()
HSI crusher
,
(
Secondary
)
Jaw crusher
()

( .), 13%
, 9%

13,0%

-, (3+7) %

27,8%
9,0%

, 2%
, 11%

10,0%
2,0%

14,0%
0,2%

11,0%
13,0%

, 13%

(), 0.2%
, 14%
, 27.8%

1. (Metso Minerals,
2007)

196

2.
( 2), (-5 mm)

, .
,
(blasting).
( 10-15%)
.

, 700 mm,

:
1.


2.

-
3. 440 t/h.
, 24 (14 ),
(300 ) :
1.848.000 t/


2.
. ( 3 4)
,
(, ) ,
(close side setting, c.s.s.).
Metso Minerals (2007).

197

2. (-5 mm) (% )
( )
(: www.goodquarry.com, 2007)

1.
,
Primary

2.
3.
1.

,
Secondary

2.
3.
1.

..., Tertiary

(-5 mm)
(% )

2.
3.

(Igneous +
metamorphic)

(Limestone)

(Sandstone)

1.
2.
3.

(Igneous +
metamorphic)

(Limestone)

(Sandstone)

1.
2.
3.

(Igneous +
metamorphic)

(Limestone)

(Sandstone)

1.
2.
3.

3 - 6% () 10 15% ()
6 - 7% () 20%
()
1 - 2% () 15 20% ( &
)

0 - 23% ()
15 - 25% () <30%
()
10 - 15% ()

5 - 30% () 40%
()
<20% () 40%
()
~15% () 40%
()

100
y = 0,0002x3 - 0,0377x2 + 3,067x + 9,4486

90

R2 = 0,9997 (3)

80
3

70

60
50

y = -0,0003x3 + 0,0316x2 + 0,3502x + 3,1645


R2 = 0,9969 (2)

40
30

20
y = 2E-06x3 - 0,0006x2 + 0,4319x + 0,4908

10

R2 = 0,9977 (1)

0
1

10

100

1000

, mm

2. (1-. , 2-.
, 3-. )

198


, mm

+38 mm

-38+20 mm

51 mm

-20+10 mm

-10+5 mm

50

45 mm

27

38

38 mm

21

38

22 mm 0

30

30

10

20

30

40

60

10
16,5

16

50

13,5

36

70

15

51

25 mm 2

14

46

10

32 mm

12

35

24

-5 mm

18

80

90

100

% .

3.
.

+ 38 mm

-38+20 mm

200 m m

-20+10 mm

-10+5 mm

71

150 m m

11

60

100 m m

15

48

80 m m

18

40

60 m m

30

50 m m

23,5

20

40 m m

12
0

10

20

30

40

60

14
18

11

24
29

14

50

12

9,8

13

21

15,2

19,5

24

10

17,5

23,5

8,2 4,8 5

14

21

-5 mm

70

80

90

100

% .

4.
.

199

, (t/h) ,
( 5, 6, 7, 8 9).

,

(,

1993;

, 1996; Tsakalakis, 2000; , 2001).


( -)
38 mm , 4 ()
38 mm
20, 10 5 mm.

5. ( -
22 mm).

200

6. ( -
25 mm).

201

7. ( -
38 mm).

202

8. (
50 mm).

203

9. (
60 mm).

3.
3.
3. -

440 t/h


( 175 mm)

.
.

()
()
,
c.s.s.: 22, 25 38 mm
c.s.s.: 50 60 mm
%

22 mm
25 mm
38 mm
50 mm
60 mm
-38+20 mm
31.5
40.1
56
30.9
35
-20+10 mm
36
30.6
23.5
24.9
25.4
-10+5 mm
15.7
13.6
10.5
16.2
15.6
-5 mm
16.8
15.7
10
28.0
24.0

100
100
100
100
100
c.s.s. (close side setting):

204

, , % (-5 mm)
8%
.
.
,
140.000 t/.
( 4
/ t) :
140.000 t / 4 / t = 560.000 /

.

,
,

.
Mitchell & Benn (2007),
.
4.
Metso Minerals, Crushing and Screening Handbook, Brochure No. 2051-04-07-CBL/
Tampere (2007)
Mitchell, C., Benn, A., Quarry Fines Minimisation: Process Optimisation Case Study 4
British Geological Survey & Metso Minerals (UK) Ltd (2007), www.goodquarry.com
, ..,
(--), (1994)
, .., "
a ", - ,
75, - 1990, 41-48
, .., " - ", , 3, 4 (1993), 37-45

205

T, .., "
", - , 6, 1 (1996),
25-36
Tsakalakis, K., Use of a simplified method to calculate closed crushing circuits, Minerals
Engineering, Vol. 13, No 12 (2000), pp.1289-1299, Pergamon
, .., "
", . . , (2001),
263-272
, .., .,
,
.. , (2005), 105-112
Tsakalakis, K.G., Modelling the Crushing-Sizing Procedure of Industrial Gyratory
Crushers, in 11th European Symposium on Comminution, October 9-12, 2006, Budapest,
Hungary (2006).

206


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, .
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209