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FOUNDATION COURSE PART I TAMIL SECOND YEAR III SEMESTER COMMON TO ALL UNDERGRADUATE COURSES

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myF - 2

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11

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14

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gj;jpdpg; ngz;bh; ghj;J}z; Vw;w gpr;irg; ghj;jpug; ngUQ;Nrhw; wkiy> mwj;jpd; <l;ba xz;nghUs; mwNthd; jpwj;J topg;g^ck; nra;if Nghy> thq;Fif tUe;j kd;Daph;f; fspj;Jj; jhd;njhiy tpy;yhj; jifik Nehf;fp ahidj; jPNeha; mftapw; wlf;fpa fharz; bifnaDq; fhhpif tzq;fp>

15

nebNahd; kaq;fp> epykpirj; Njhd;wp> mlyUk; Ke;ePh; milj;j Qhd;W> Fuq;Fnfhzh;e; njwpe;j neLkiy nay;yhk; mzq;Fil asf;fh; tapWGf; fhq;F ,l;l jhw;whf; fl;low; fLk;grpg; gl;Nld>; vd;wd; gotpidg; gaj;jhy;! md;id! Nfs;eP MUaph; kUj;Jtp;;; Jd;dpa vd;Ndha; Jilg;gh nad;wYk; vLj;j ghj;jpuj; Nje;jpa mKjk; gpbj;jts; ifapy; Ngzpds; nga;jYk>; tapWfha; ngUk;grp ePq;fp kw;wts; Jauk; ePq;fpj; njhOjds; ciuf;Fk;> khrpy; thnyhsp tljpirr; Nrbf; fhrpy;fhQ; rdGuf; fbef Us;Nsd;; tpQ;irad; wd;ndhnld; ntt;tpid cUg;gj; njd;wpirg; nghjpapy; fhzpa te;Njd; fLtuyUtpf; fLk;Gdy; nfhopj;j ,Lkzw; fhdpahw; wpiae;njhUq; fpUe;Njd; GhpE}d; khh;gpy; jphpGhp thh;ril kuThp Ailad; tpUr;rpfd; vd;Nghd;> ngUq;Fiyg; ngz;izf; fUq;fdp aidaNjhh; ,Uq;fdp ehtw; gonkhd; Nwe;jpj; Njf;fpiy itj;Jr; NrzhW gug;gpw; G+f;fko; ngha;if ahlr; nrd;Nwhd; jPtpid cUj;jypd; nrUf;nfhL nrd;Nwd; fhyh ye;jf; fUq;fdp rpijj;Njd; cz;ly; Ntl;ifapd; t&ck; tpUr;rpfd; fz;ldd;> vd;idf; fUq;fdpr; rpijTld;; rPh;jpfo; ehtypy; jpg;gpa khdJ; <uh whz;by; xUfdp jUtJ; 16

mf;fdp Az;Nlhh; MwP uhz;L kf;fs; ahf;ifapd; tUk;grp ePq;Fth; ; gd;dP uhz;by; xUeh sy;yJ cz;zh Nehd;gpNdd;@ cz;fdp rpijj;jha;! me;juQ; nry;Yk; ke;jpuk; ,oe;J je;jpj; jPahy; jdpj;Jah; coe;J Ke;eh yhz;bd;> Kjph;fdp ehdPq;F cz;Z ehSd;cWgrp fisf! vd me;eh shq;ftd; ,l;l rhgk;> ,e;ehs; NghYk;> ,sq;nfhb! nfLj;jid thLgrp coe;J khKdp Nghagpd;> ghbkpo; mUtpg; gakiy xope;njd; mytiyr; nra;jpf; fQ;rpdd; mfd;w tpynfhsp tpQ;irad; tpOkNkh nla;jp> Muzq; fhfpa mUe;jtd; jd;dhy; fhuzk; ,d;wpAq; fLNeh Aoe;jid! thD} nlOnfd> ke;jpuk; kwe;Njd;! CDaph; ePq;Fk; cUg;;nghL Njhd;wp tapWfha; ngUk;grp tUj;Jk; vd;Nww;Fj;> jPq;fdp fpoq;F nrOq;fha; fy;yd Mq;ftd; nfhzuTk; Mw;Nw dhf> ePq;f yhw;whd; neLe;Ja nua;jp Mq;ftd; Mq;nfdf; fUnshL Kiug;Nghd; rk;Gj; jPtpDs; jkpof kUq;fpy; fk;g kpy;yhf; fopngUQ; nry;th; Mw;wh khf;fl; fhw;We;Jiz ahfp Nehw;Nwhh; ciwtNjhh; Nehdfh; cz;lhy; gyeh shapDk; epyndhL Nghfp mg;gjpg; GFnfd; wtdUs; nra;a> ,g;gjpg; GFe;jPq; FahDiw fpd;Nwd; 17

,e;jpu Nfhliz tpotzp tUehs; te;J Njhd;wpapk; khefh; kUq;Nf vd;DW ngUk;grp fz;ldd; ,uq;fpg; gpd;tUk; Mz;ltd; vz;zpdd; fopAk; jzptpy; ntk;grp jtph;j;jid; tzq;fpNdd;; kzpNk fiy!nad; thd;gjpg; glh;Nfd;, Jf;fe; Jilf;Fe; JfsW khjth; rf;fu thsf; Nfhl;lKz; lhq;fjpy; gyh;Gfj; jpwe;j gFtha; thapy; cyf twtp xd;Wz; ljdpil C& uhq;fz; cWgrp coe;Njhh;> MUk; ,d;ikapd; mUk;gpzp Aw;Nwhh;> ,LNthh;j; Njh;e;jhq; fpUg;Nghh; gyuhy;@ tLtho; $e;jy;!; mjd;ghw; Nghnfd; whq;fts; Nghfpa gpd;dh; - Mapio Xq;fpa tPjpapd; xUGil XJq;fp tyKiw Kk;Kiw te;jid nra;jt; cyf twtpapd; xUjdp Nawpg;> gjpNahh; jk;nkhL gyh;njhO Njj;Jk; KjpNahs; Nfhl;lk; Kk;ikapd; tzq;fpf;> fe;Jil neLepiyf; fhuzq; fhl;ba je;Jizg; ghitiaj; jhd;njhO Njj;jp> ntapy;Rl ntk;gpa Nta;fhp fhdj;Jf; fUtp khkio Njhd;wpa njd;dg;> grpjpd tUe;jpa igjy; khf;fl;F mKj RugpNah lhapio Njhd;wp@ MGj; jpud;if mKj Rugpap/J> ahtUk; tUf Vw;Nghh; jhnkd Cnzhyp mutj; njhypnaOe; jd;Nw> ahzh;g; Ng&h; mk;gy kUq;nfd. ; 18

myF - 3 4.rPtfrpe;jhkzp Ik;ngUq;fhg;gpa thpirapy; rPtfrpe;jhkzp %d;whtjhfj; jpfo;fpwJ. tpUj;jg;ghtpdhy; mike;j Kjy;fhg;gpak; ,JNt. jkpo; ,yf;fpag; Nghf;if khw;wpg; GJj;jpUg;gj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. fhg;gpa ,yf;fzq;fs; gyTk; epiwe;jJ. jpUj;jf;f Njtuhy; ghlg;ngw;wJ. E}ypd; jd;ikahYk; fhg;gpaj; jiytdhd rPtfid> rpe;jhkzp vd;W Gfo;e;J $WtjhYk; rPtfrpe;jhkzp vd;Dk; ngahpidg; ngw;Ws;sJ. 13 ,yk;gfq;fisAk; 3145 nra;Al;fisAk; cilaJ. er;rpdhh;f;fpdpauhy; ciu tFf;fg;gl;lJ. vz;kiu kze;J ,d;Gw;w rPtfdpd; tuyhw;iwf; $Wtjhy; kzE}y; vdTk; miof;fg;gLfpwJ. ,f;fhg;gpak; Jwit tw;GWj;Jk; Nehf;Fld; ghlg;gl;lNj MapDk; ,d;gr;Rit epiwe;j fhg;gpakhfj; jpfo;fpd;wJ. fw;gid moFk;> fUj;Jr;nrwpTk; kpf;fjhfj; jpfo;fpd;wJ. rpe;jhkzp vd;gJ nja;tj;jd;ik nghUe;jpa xU khzpf;ff;fy;. mJ Ntz;bath;f;F Ntz;ba nghUis Ntz;bathNw mspf;Fk; jd;ikAilaJ. ,f;fhg;gpaKk; jkpoh;f;F Ntz;ba ePjpfis Ntz;bathNw mspf;Fk; Mw;wy; kpf;fJ vdyhk;. ehkfs; ,yk;gfj;jpy; mike;Js;s ehl;Ltsk; ,q;F ghlg;gFjpahf itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

jpUj;jf;fNjth; ,th; ,sikapNyNa gy fiyfisAk; fw;Wg; Gyik epuk;gpath;. jpUj;jF Kdpth;> jpUj;jf;f kfh Kdpfs;> Njth; vd;Dk; NtW ngah;fshYk; Fwpg;gpLth;. ,th; kJiuapypUe;j jkpo;r;rq;fj;Jf;Fr; nrd;wNghJ rkzj;Jwtpfshy; ,d;gr;Rit kpf;f E}iy ,aw;wKbahJ vd;W rpyh; $wpdh;. ,f;$w;iw kWg;gjw;fhfNt jpUj;jf;fNjth; ,d;gr;Rit kpFe;j rPtfrpe;jhkzpia ,aw;wpdhh;. tlnkhopapy; cs;s rj;jpu #lhkzp ,e;E}Yf;F Kjy;E}y; vd;gh;. MapDk; fw;NghUf;F tlnkhopf;fijapd; jOty; vd;w czh;Nt Njhd;whjtz;zk; jpUj;jf;fNjth; ghbAs;shh;.

19

rPtfrpe;jhkzp ehkfs; ,yk;gfk; - ehl;Ltsk;


ehtPw; wpUe;j Gykhkf NshL ed;nghw; G+tpw; wpUe;j jpUkhkfs; Gy;y ehSk; ghtPw; wpUe;j fiyghuwr; nrd;w Nfs;tpf; NfhtPw; wpUe;j Fbehl;lzp $wYw;Nwd;. 1

fha;khz;l njq;fpd; gok;tPof; fKfp ndw;wpg; G+khz;l jPe;Njd; nwhilfPwp tUf;if Ngho;e;J Njkhq; fdprp jwpthiog; goq;fs; rpe;Jk; Vkhq; fjnkd; wpirahw;wpir NghaJz;Nl. 2

kioAk; nts;sKk; ,yq;f yhopap dhd;fspw; wPl;lk;Nghw; fyq;F njz;biu Nka;e;J fzkio nghyq;nfhs; nfhd;iwap dhd;ril Nghd;kpd;dp tpyq;fy; Nrh;e;Jtpz; Nzwptpl; lhh;j;jNt. 3

Njdp iuj;Jah; nkha;tiur; nrd;dpapd; Nkdp iuj;J tpRk;Gw nts;spntz; Nfhdp iuj;jd Nghw;nfhOe; jhiufs; thdp iuj;J kze;J nrhhpe;jNt. 4

Fotp ntz;kjpf; NfhLof; fPz;LNjd; Kotp dpd;wjph; nkha;tiur; nrd;dpap dpopAk; nts;sU tpj;jpus; ahitAq; FOtpd; khlj; Jfpw;nfhb Nghd;wNt. 5

20

,yq;F ePz;Kb ape;jpud; khh;gpd;Nky; tpyq;fp tPo;e;jKj; jhuKk; Nghd;wit eyq;nfhs; nghd;ndhL ed;kzp rpe;jyhw; fyd;nga; Ngio ftpo;j;jTk; Nghd;wNt. 6

ts;sw; ifj;jt khe;jhpd; khy;tiuf; nfhs;is nfhz;l nfhOepjpf; Fg;igia cs;s kpy;yth;f; $h;njhW Ka;j;Juha; nts;s ehL kLj;J tpiue;jNj. 7

ikay; ahidapd; Kk;kj khh;e;JNj ida nghd;dfk; ghba ise;Juha;r; nra;a re;jde; jPk;go khjpah iea thhp ele;jJ ed;wNuh. 8

tPby; gl;bdk; ntstpa Nte;njdf; fhL ifahpf; nfhz;L fth;e;JNgha; NkhL nfhs;Gdd; %hp neLq;fl dhL Kw;wpa Njhntd ez;zpw;Nw. 9

goq;nfhnlq; fpiynadg; gue;J gha;Gdy; toq;fKd; dpaw;wpa Rijnra; tha;j;jiy joq;Fuy; gk;igapw; rhw;wp ehnlyh koq;FjPk; Gdyf Khpa nkha;j;jNj. 10

ntyw;fUq; FQ;ruk; Ntl;lk; gl;nldj; jiyj;jiy ath;fje; jtph;gg ; j; jho;e;JNgha;f; Fyj;jiy kfsph;jq; fw;gpd; Nfhl;lfk; epiyg;glh epiwe;jd gpwT nkd;gNt. 11

21

kf;fs; kfp;o;r;rpAk;> tho;tpd; tsKk; ft;itAq; fLk;Gd nyhypAq; fhg;gth; nrt;tD} whapuQ; rpiyf;Fk; gk;igA nkt;ntyhj; jpiufS kPz;bf; fhnuhL gt;tepd; wpak;Gt njhj;j ntd;gNt. 12

khkD kUfDk; NghY kd;gpd fhkDQ; rhkDq; fye;j fhl;rpa G+kD khprpyg;Gy; yhh;e;j Nkhl;bd jhkpd kike;Jje; njhopypd; kpf;fNt. 13

newpkUg; ngUikap ndhUj;j dPspdQ; nrwpkUg; Ngw;wpdQ; rpyk;gg; gz;ZwP,g; nghwpthp tuhypd; kphpag; Gf;Fld; ntwpfko; fodpAs; SOeh; nts;sNk. 14

Nrwik nrUtpDl; nre;ney; thd;Kis tPnwhL tpisnfdj; njhOJ tpj;Jthh; ehwpJ gjnkdg; gwpj;J ehl;nra;thh; $wpa filrpah; Fohq;nfhz; NlFthh;. 15

ghw;Rit awpe;jit godj; jhkiu Nkw;nryg; gha;jypd; nthP,a tz;bdq; Nfhw;nwhb Eisr;rpah; Kj;jq; Nfhg;gt Nuw;wpa khiyj;Nj dphpag; gha;e;jNt. 16

,hpe;jNjd; Ftisap ndw;wp ijtu Khpe;JNgh jtpo;e;Jnfhq; Faph;f;F Ky;iyapd; mUk;GNrh;e; jzpQpkp whh;g;g tha;gjk; tpUe;njjph; nfhz;nkdj; jOtp tPo;e;jNt. 17

22

tsKb eLgth; tuk;gpy; fk;giy ,skio Kof;nfd kQ;iQ Naq;fyp dskU Fapypd kOq;fpg; G+k;nghop Ysnkyp kfsphp ndLq;F nkd;gNt. 18

fz;nzdf; FtisAk; fl;l Nyhk;gpdhh; tz;zthz; Kfnkd kiuap Dl;Gfhh; gz;nzOj; jpay;glg; gug;gp apl;ldh; jz;ta Yoth;je; jd;ik apd;dNj. 19

epj;jpyg; ge;Jl dPd;W ghjphp nahj;jG+ Tlw;wpa ehtp dhfpdhw; wj;JePh; ehiuNk nywpaj; jz;fly; igj;njO jpiunadg; gwit ahYNk 20

nrhy;yUQ; #w;gRk; ghk;gpd; Nwhw;wk;Nghy; nky;yNt fUtpUe; jPd;W Nkyyhh; nry;tNk Nghw;wiy epWtpj; Njh;e;jE}w; fy;tpNrh; khe;jhp dpiwQ;rpf; fha;j;jNt. 21

kPd;fzp dsTk;ntw; wplq;f spd;ikahy; Njd;fzf; fUk;gpay; fhLQ; nre;neypd; thd;Gfo; fspWkha; fodp ahf;fKk; Cd;fzhh;f; Fiug;ghp njhy;nyd; Rk;ikj;Nj. 22

Ma;gpop tpUj;Jtz; lapw;wp Az;LNjd; tha;nghop Ftisfs; #b ks;sh;f Nla;gpiw apUk;Gjk; tyf;if Nrh;e;jpdh uha;nrne yfd;wfh lhpFw; whh;fNs. 23

23

typAilf; iffshd; kyh;e;j jhkiu nkypnta;jf; Ftisfs; thlf; fk;gyk; nghypnta;jg; G+k;ngha;if rpyk;gpg; ghh;g;ngo kiygl thpe;J$d; Faq;if; khw;wpdhh; 24

thisap dpde;jiy aphpa tz;lyh; jhSilj; jhkiu fpopa tz;Rik NfhSil apisath; Fohq;nfhz; Nlfypw; ghistha;f; fKfpdk; goq;fs; rpe;JNk 25

Nrhh;Gad; Kfpw;wiy tpyq;fpj; J}epy khh;Gnfhz; lhh;e;jJ euy tz;Ris ahh;TW gyhg;go kope;j ePs;fsk; Nghh;tpdhd; kype;Jld; nghype;j ePuNt. 26

tay;tsKk; NrhiyeyKk;

<Lrhy; Nghuopj; njUikg; Nghj;jpdhy; khLwj; njopj;Jit fise;J fhYwP,r; NrLwf; $g;gpa nre;new; Fg;igfs; NfhLah; nfhOk;nghdpd; Fd;w nkhj;jNt. 27

fUk;Gf Zilg;gt uhiy Njhnwyhk; tpUk;gpte; jile;jth; gUfp tpQ;rpa jpUe;Jrh wLTopg; gpwe;j jPk;Gif gue;Jtpz; GFjypw; gUjp Nre;jNj. 28

fpizepiyg; nghUeh;jk; nry;yy; fPo;g;glg; gizepiy aha;nrnew; gfUk; gz;bAk; fizepiyf; fUk;gpdpw; ftUk; gz;bAk;

24

kzepiy kyh;nga;J kWFk; gz;bAk; ky;yye; njq;fps ePh;nga; gz;bAk; nky;ypiyg; gz;bAq; fKfpd; NkjF gy;gOf; fha;f;Fiy nga;j gz;bA nkhy;FjPk; gz;lk;nga; njhOFk; gz;bAk;

29

30

fUq;fly; tse;juf; fiuAk; gz;bAk; neUq;FG Kjpiuap dpiwe;j gz;bAk; ngUq;fypg; gz;bfs; gpwTQ; nrw;WG jpUe;jpnaj; jpirfSQ; nrwpe;j ntd;gNt. 31

fpsptsh; G+kU jzpe;J Nfbyh tstay; itfY kpd;d njd;gNjd; WspnahL kJj;Jsp awhj Nrhiy# nohspaik apUf;ifA+ Uiuf;f epd;wNt. 32

ghrty; ypbg;gt Uyf;ifthiog; gy;go khrpdp tUf;ifkh jbe;JNjq; fdpAjph;j; J}ryhL igq;fKF njq;fpNdhz; gok;ghP, thrj;jhio rz;gfj;jpd; thd;kyh;f zf;FNk. 33

kd;wdh wpyQ;rpNka;e;J khKiy Rue;jgh dpd;wjhiu ahdpy eidg;gNtfp ePz;kidf; fd;wUj;jp kq;ifah; fyk;epiw nghopju epd;wNkjp ahw;nghype;j ePukhl khiyNa 34

nts;spg;Ngho; tpyq;fitj; jidatha; kzpj;jiyf; nfhs;gtsq; Nfhj;jida fhyFd;wpr; nrq;fz; nths;sfpw; Gifjpuz;l njhf;Fkh kzpg;Gwhf; fps;isNahL ghYZq; Nfby;G+it ghlNt. 35

25

fhbAz;l G+e;Jfpy; fOkT+l;Lk; G+k;Gif khlkhiy Nkdyhh; kzpf;Foypd; %o;fypw; NfhLah;e;j Fd;wpd;Nkw; FoP,akQ;iQ jQ;rpw fhLkQ;rp Ds;tphpj; jpUe;jtz;z kd;dNu. 36

ehl;bd; rpwg;G

Nfhl;bse; jfh;fSq; nfha;k;kyu Njhd;wpNghw; #l;Lila NrtYe; Njhzpf;Nfhop ahjpah Ntl;ltw;wp D}Wshh; ntUspkhe;jh; Nghh;nfhsP,f; fhl;bahh;f;Fk; nfsitAq; fbAq;nfsit nfsitNa. 37

tpyf;fpy;rhiy ahth;f;Fk; ntg;gpd;Kg; gor;Ridj; jiyj;jzPh; kyuzpe;J re;jdQ;nra; ge;jUk; nfhiyj;jiya Ntw;fzhh; $j;Jkd;wp iak;nghwp epyj;jiya Jg;ngyh epiwJSk;G %h;fNs. 38

mbrpy;itf yhapuk; kwg;GwK khapuk; nfhbadhh;nra; NfhyKk; itfNwhW khapuk; kbtpy;fk;kp ah;fNshL kq;fyK khapuk; xbtpiynt whapu Nkhk;Gthhp Ndhk;gNt. 39

ew;wtQ;nra; thh;f;fple; jtQ;nra;thh;f;F k/jplk; ew;nghUs;nra; thh;f;fplk; nghUs;nra;thh;f;F k/jplk; ntw;wtpd;gk; tpiotpg;ghd; tpz;Zte;J tPo;e;njd kw;wehL tl;lkhf itFkw;w ehlNuh. 40

26

5. fk;guhkhazk; jpUtb njhOjglyk;

thy;kPfp vOjpa tlnkhop ,uhkhazj;ij fk;gh; jkpopy; vOjpajhy; fk;guhkhazk; vd ,e;E}y; ngah;ngw;wJ. fk;gh; thy;kPfpiaj; jOtp vOjpdhYk; jkpo;g;gz;ghl;bw;Nfw;gNt ,f;fhg;gpaj;ijg; gilj;Js;shh;. ,J ghyfhz;lk;> mNahj;jpah fhz;lk;> Muzpa fhz;lk;> fpl;fpe;jh fhz;lk;> Re;jufhz;lk;> Aj;j fhz;lk; Mfpa MW fhz;lq;fisAk; 118 ghlyq;fisAk; nfhz;l khngUk; fhg;gpakhFk;. Re;jufhz;lj;jpYs;s jpUtb njhOjglyk; <z;L ghlg;gFjpahf itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

fk;gh; fk;gh; fhsp Nfhapypy; G+ir nra;Ak; vspa FLk;gj;jpy; Njhd;wpath;. ,th; gpwe;j Ch; Nrhoehl;Lj; jpUtOe;J}h;. ftpr;rf;futh;j;jp fk;gd;> fy;tpapy; nghpatd; fk;gd;> fk;gd; tPl;Lf; fl;Lj;jwpAk; ftpghLk;> fk;gehld; ftpijapy; Nghy; fw;Nwhh;fF ; ,jak; fspahNj vdg; gyuhYk; ghuhl;lg;ngw;wth;. ,th; fhyk; fp.gp. 12 Mk; E}w;whz;L.

fk;guhkhazk; jpUtbnjhOj glyk;

ePq;Fntd; tpiutpy; vd;Dk; epidtpdd; kUq;F epd;wJ Mq;F xU FLkpf; Fd;iw mUf;fdpd; mize;j Iad; tPq;fpdd; cyif vy;yhk; tpOq;fpdd; vd;dtPud; G+q; foy; njhOJ tho;j;jp tpRk;gpilf; fbJ Nghdhd; 1

ike;ehfk; vd;d epd;w Fd;iwAk; kugpd; va;jp ife; ehfk; midNahd; cw;wJ czh;j;jpdd; fzj;jpd; fhiy ige;; ehfk; epfh;f;Fk; tPuh; jd;neLtuT ghh;f;Fk; nfha;e; ehfk; eWe;Njd; rpe;Jk; Fd;wpilf; FjpAk; nfhz;lhd; thdu tPuh; mDkhidg; ghuhl;b cgrhpj;jy; Ngha; tUk; fUkk; Kw;wpw;W vd;gJ Xh; nghk;ky; nghq;f tha;nthP , epd;w ntd;wp thdu tPuh; kd;Ndh gha;tU ePsj;J Mq;fz;,Ue;jd gwitg;ghh;g;Gj; jha;tuf; fz;ljd;dctifapd; jsph;j;jhh;mk;kh 27 3 2

mDkhd; rPij $wpa Mrpiaj; njhptpj;jy; thyp fhjyid Ke;ij tzq;fpdd; vz;fpd; Nte;ijf; fhYwg; gzpe;J gpd;id fld;Kiw flNthh;f;F vy;yhk; VYw ,aw;wp Mq;fz; ,Ue;J ,tz; ,Ue;Njhh;f;F vy;yhk; Qhyehafd; jd; Njtp nrhy;ypds; ed;ikvd;whd; 4

mDkhd; nra;jpfisf; $Wjy; vd;wYk; fuq;fs; $g;gp vOe;jdh; ,iwQ;rpj; jhoh epd;wdh; ctif nghq;f tpk;kyhy; epkph;e;j neQ;rh; nrd;wJKjyh te;jJ ,Wjpaha;r; nrg;ghw;ghiy td; jpwy; cuNtha; vd;d nrhy;Ythd; kUj;jpd; ike;jd; 5

Mz;jif Njtp cs;sj;J mUe;jtk; mikar; nrhy;yp G+z;l Ngh; milahsk; iff; nfhz;lJk; Gfd;W Nghhpy; ePz;lths; muf;fNuhL epfo;e;jJk; neUg;Gr;rpe;jp kPz;lJk; tpsk;ghd; jhd; jd; ntd;wpia ciug;g nts;fp 6

thdutPuh; NkNy nra;Ak; fhhpak; vd;? vd mDkhidf; Nfl;ly; nghUjik Gz;Nz nrhy;y ntd;wik Nghe;j jd;ik ciunra Ch; jP ,l;lJ Xq;F ,Uk; GifNa Xj fUjyh; ngUik Njtp kPz;byhr; nraNy fhl;l njhpju czh;e;Njk; gpd;dh; vd; ,dpr; nra;Jk; vd;whh; ahtUk; ,uhkidf; fhZjw;F tpiujy; ahtJk; ,dp NtW vz;zy; Ntz;LtJ ,iwAk; ,y;iy Nrtfd; Njtp jd;idf; fz;lik tpiutpy; nrg;gp MtJ mt; mz;zy; cs;sj;J mUe; Jah; Mw;wNy Mk; NghtJ Gyik vd;d nghUf;nfd vOe;J Nghdhh; 8 7

28

mDkhd; Ke;jpr; nry;Yjy; Vj ehs; ,we;j rhy tUe;jpdJ ,Ue;j Nrid Mjyhy; tpiutpd; nry;yy; MtJ md;W mspak; vk;ikr; rhjy; jPh;j;J mspj;j tPu jiykfd; nkypT jPug; NghtJ eP Kd;dh; vd;whh; ed;W vd mDkhd; Nghdhd; 9

Rf;fphPtd; ,uhkidj; Njw;Wjy; Kj;jiy v/fpdhw;Fk; Kbg;g mUq; fUkk; Kw;wp tpj;jfd; J}J kPz;lJ ,Wjpaha; tpise;jjd;ik mj;jiy mwpe;j vy;yhk; miwe;jdk; Mopahd; khl;L ,j;jiy epfo;e;j vy;yhk; ,ak;Gthd; vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhk; 10

fhh; tiu ,Ue;jdd; fjphpd; fhjyd; rPhpa nrhw;fshy; neUl;l nrq; fzhd; Mh; caph; Mapuk; cilad; Mk; vdh Nrhh;njhWk; Nrhh;njhWk; caph;j;Jj; Njhd;wpdhd;. 11

jz;ly; ,y; neLe; jpir %d;Wk; jhapdh; fz;byh; kle;ijia vd;Dk; fl;Liu cz;L caph; mfj;J vd xWf;fTk; csd; jpz; jpwy; mDkid epidAk; rpe;ijahd; 12

Mhpad; mUe; Jah;f; flYs; Mo;gtd; rPhpaJ md;W ek; nra;if jPh;T mUk; %hp ntk; gopnahLk; Kbe;jjhk; vd #hpad; Gjy;tid Nehf;fpr; nrhy;Ythd; 13

29

Rf;fphPtdplk; ,uhkd; JaUld; NgRjy; Fwpj;j ehs; ,fe;jd Fd;w njd; jpir ntwpf; fUq; Foypia ehly; Nkapdhh; kwpj;J ,tz; te;jpyh; khz;Lshh; nfhNyh gpwpj;J mth;f;F cw;wsJ vd;id ngw;wpNaha; 14

khz;lds; mts; ,ts; khz;l thh;j;ijia kPz;L mth;f;F ciuj;jypd; tpspjy; ed;W vdh G+z;lJ Xh; Jah; nfhL nghd;wpdhh;nfhNyh Njz;bdh; ,d;dKk; jphpfd;whh;nfhNyh 15

fz;ldh; muf;fiu fWT ifk;kpf kz;L mkh; njhlq;fpdhh; tQ;rh; khiaahy; tpz;jyk; mjdpy; Nkapdh; nfhy; NtW ,yhj; jz;ly;,y; neLQ;rpiwj; jisg;gl;lhh;nfhNyh 16

$wpd ehs; mth; ,Uf;if $lyk; Vwy; mQ;RJk; vd ,d;g Jd;gq;fs; Mwpdh; mUe; jtk; mah;fpd;whh;nfhNyh NtW mth;f;F cw;wJ vd; tpsk;Gtha; vd;whd; 17

rPijapd; epiyikia mDkhd; Fwpg;gpdhy; czh;j;jy; vd;Gop mDkDk; ,utp vd;gtd; njd; Gwj;J csd; vdj; njhptJ Mapdhd; nghd; nghop jlf;if mg;nghU ,y; tPuDk; md;GW rpe;ijad; mika Nehf;fpdhd; va;jpdd; mDkDk; va;jp Ve;jy;jd; nkha; foy; njhOfpyd; Kshp ePq;fpa ijaiy Nehf;fpa jiyad; ifapdd; itafk; joP, nebJ ,iwQ;rp tho;j;jpdhd; 19 18

30

,uhkdpd; kfpo;r;rp jpz; jpwy; mtd; nray; njhpa Nehf;fpdhd; tz;L ciw XjpAk; typad; kw;W ,td; fz;lJk; cz;L mts; fw;Gk; ed;W vdf; nfhz;ldd; Fwpg;gpdhy; czUk; nfhs;ifahd; 20

Mq;F mtd; nra;ifNa msit Mk; vd Xq;fpa czh;tpdhy; tpise;jJ cd;dpdhd; tPq;fpd Njhs; kyh;f; fz;fs; tpk;kpd ePq;fpaJ mUe; Jah;f; fhjy; ePz;lNj 21

rPijiaf; fz;l nra;jpia mDkhd; ,uhkdplk; $wy;

fz;lndd; fw;gpDf;F mzpiaf; fz;fshy; njz;jpiu miy fly; ,yq;ifj; njd; efh; mz;lh; ehaf ,dp Jwj;jp IaKk; gz;L cs JaUk; vd;W mDkd; gd;Dthd; 22

cd;ngUe;Njtp vd;Dk; chpikf;Fk; cd;idg; ngw;w kd;ngU kUfp vd;Dk; tha;ikf;Fk; kpjpiy kd;dd; jd; ngUe;jdia vd;Dk; jifikf;Fk; jiyik rhd;whs; vd;ngUe; nja;tk; Iah ,d;dKk; Nfl;b vd;ghd; 23

nghd; myJ ,y;iy nghd;id xg;G vd nghiwapy; epd;whs; jd; myJ ,y;iyj; jd;id xg;Gvdj; jdf;F te;j epd;myJ ,y;iyepd;id xg;Gvd epdf;F Neh;e;jhs; vd;myJ ,y;iyvd;id xg;Gvd vdf;Fk; <e;jhs; 24

31

cd; Fyk; cd;dJ Mf;fp cah; Gfo;f;F xUj;jpMa jd; Fyk; jd;dJ Mf;fp jd;id ,j;jdpik nra;jhd; td;Fyk; $w;Wf;F <e;J thdth; Fyj;ij tho;tpj;J vd; Fyk; vdf;Fj; je;jhs; vd,dpr; nra;tJ vk;Nkha; 25

tpw;ngUe;jle; Njhs; tPu tPq;F ePh; ,yq;if ntw;gpy; ew;ngUe; jtj;js; Ma eq;ifiaf; fz;Nld; my;Nyd; ,w;gpwg;G vd;gJ xd;Wk; ,Uk; nghiw vd;gJ xd;Wk; fw;G vDk; ngauJ xd;Wk; fsp elk; Ghpaf; fz;Nld; 26

fz;zpDk; ciseP ijay; fUj;jpDk; ciseP thapd; vz;zpDk; cis eP nfhq;if ,izf;Fit jd;dpd; XthJ mz;zy; ntq;fhkd; va;j mth; mk;G njhisj;j Mwhg; Gz;zpDk; ciseP epd;idg; gphe;jik nghUe;jpw;W MNkh 27

NtiyAs; ,yq;if vd;Dk; tphpefh; xUrhh; tpz; Neha; fhiyAk; khiy jhDk; ,y;yJ Xh; fdff; fw;gr; Nrhiymq;F mjdpy; ck;gp Gy;ypdhy;njhLj;j J}a rhiyapy; ,Ue;jhs; Ia jtk; nra;j jtk; Mk; ijay; kz;nzhLk; nfhz;L Nghdhd; thd; cah; fw;gpdhs; jd; Gz;zpa Nkdp jPz;l mQ;Rthd; cyfk; G+j;j fz; mfd; fkyj;J mz;zy; fUj;jpyhs; njhLjy; fz;zpd; vz;mUq; $whg; kha;jp vd;wJ Xh; nkhopia vz;zp 29 28

jPz;byd; vd;Dk; tha;ik jpirKfd; nra;j Kl;il fPz;byJ mde;jd; cr;rp fpope;jpyJ vOe;J Ntiy kPz;by Rlh;fs; ahTk; tpOe;jpy Ntjk; nra;if khz;by vd;Dk; jd;ik tha;ikahy; czh;jp kd;Ndh 30

32

Nrhfj;jhd; Ma eq;if fw;gpdhy; njhOjw;F xj;j khfj;jhh; NjtpkhUk; thd; rpwg;G cw;whh; kw;iwg; ghfj;jhs; ,g;NghJ <rd; kFlj;jhs; gJkj;jhSk; Mfj;jhs; my;ys; khad; Mapuk; nksyp Nkyhs; 31

,yq;ifia KOJk; ehb ,uhtzd; ,Uf;if va;jp nghyq; Fioatiu vy;yhk; nghJTw Nehf;fpg; Nghe;Njd; myq;F jz;Nrhiy Gf;Nfd; mt;top mzq;F md;dhis fyq;F njz; jpiuapw;W Ma fz;zpd; ePh;f; flypy; fz;Nld; 32

muf;fpah; msT mw;whh;fs; myifapd; FOTk; mQ;r neUf;fpdh; fhg;g epd;ghy; NeaNk mr;rk; ePf;f ,uf;fk; vd;w xd;W jhNd Ve;jpio tbtk; va;jp jUf;F cah; rpiw cw;wd;d jifad; mj;jkpas; mk;kh 33

ijaiy tzq;fw;F xj;j ,ilngWk; jd;ik Nehf;fp Ia ahd; ,Ue;j fhiy myq;fy; Nty; ,yq;if Nte;jd; va;jpdd; ,ue;J $wp ,iwQ;rpdd; ,Ue;Jeq;if nta;J ciu nrhy;y rPwpf; Nfhwy; Nkw; nfhz;Ltpl;lhd; Mapil mzq;fpd; fw;Gk; Iaepd; mUSk; nra;a J}a ey; mwDk; vd;W ,q;F ,idad njhlh;e;J fhg;g Nghapdd; muf;fpkhiu nrhy;Ykpd; nghJtpd; vd;W Mq;F Vapdd; mth; vyhk; vd; ke;jpuj;J cwq;fpapw;whh; 35 34

md;dJXh; nghOjpy; eq;ifMh; caph; Jwg;gjhf cd;dpds; nfhb xd;W Ve;jpf; nfhk;nghLk; ciwg;gr; Rw;wp jd; kzpf;fOj;jpy; rhh;j;Jk; msitapy; jLj;J ehNad; nghd; mb tzq;fp epd;W epd;ngah; Gfd;wNgho;jpy; 36

33

tQ;rid muf;fh; nra;if ,Jvd kdf;nfhz;NlAk; mQ;rd tz;zj;jhd; jd; ngah; ciuj;J mspia vd;ghy; JQ;RW nghOjpy; je;jha; Jwf;fk; vd;W cte;J nrhd;dhd; kQ;R vd td nkd; nfhq;if topfpd;w kiof;fz; ePuhs; 37

mwpTwj; njhpar; nrhd;d Ngh; milahsk; ahTk; nrwpTw Nehf;fp ehNad; rpe;ijapy; jpUf;fk; ,d;ik KwpT mw vz;zp> tz;z Nkhjpuk; fhl;lf; fz;lhs; ,Wjpapd; caph; je;J <Ak; kUe;J xj;jJ midaJ ve;jha; 38

xU fzj;J ,uz;L fz;Nld; xsp kzp Mop Md;w jpU Kiyj; jlj;jhs; itj;jhs; itj;jYk; nry;t! epd;ghy; tpufk; vd;gjdpd; te;j ntq;nfhOe; jPapdhy; nte;J cUfpaJ clNd Mwp typj;jJ Fsph;gG ; cs;Cw 39

thq;fpa Mopjd;id tQ;rh; Ch; te;jjhk; vd;W Mq;F cah; kiof; fz;ePuhy; Mapuk;fyrk; Ml;b Vq;fpdd; ,Ue;jJ my;yhy; ,ak;gys; va;j;jNkdp tPq;fpds; tpae;jJ my;yhy; ,ikj;jpys; caph;g;G tpz;lhs; md;dth;f;F mbaNdd; epw;gphpe;j gpd; mLj;j vy;yhk; nrhy;Kiw mwpar; nrhy;yp Njhif eP ,Ue;j #oy; ,d;dJ vd;W mwpfpyhNk ,j;Jiz jho;j;jJ vd;Nw kd;d! epd;tUj;jg;ghLk; czh;j;jpndd; caph;g;G te;jhs; 41 40

,q;F cs jd;ik vy;yhk; ,iaGsp ,iaaf; Nfl;lhs; mq;F cs jd;ik vy;yhk; mbaNdw;F mwpar; nrhd;dhs; jpq;fs; xd;W ,Ug;ngd; ,d;Nd jpU csk; jPh;e;jgpd;id kq;Fntd; capNuhL vd;W cd; kyub nrd;dp itj;jhs; 42

34

rPij je;j #lhkzpia ,uhkdplk; mDkhd; jUjy; itj;jgpd; Jfpypd; itj;j kh kzpf;F muir thq;fp ifj;jyj;J ,dpjpy; <e;jhs; jhkiuf;fz;fs; Mu tpj;jf! fhz;b! vd;WnfhLj;jdd; Ntj ey;E}y; cah;j;Js fhyk; vy;yhk; GfnohLk; Xq;fpepw;ghd;. 43

35

myF - 4

6. nghpaGuhzk;
,isahd;Fb khw ehadhh; Guhzk;
gd;dpU jpUKiwfspy; gd;dpuz;lhk; jpUKiwahf nghpaGuhzk; tpsq;FfpwJ. fhg;gpaj;Jf;Fr; Nrf;fpohh; ,l;l ngah; jpUj;njhz;lh; Guhzk; vd;gJ ,jd; rpwg;G Nehf;fp nghpaGuhzk; vd;W toq;fg;gl;lJ. Re;juh; ghba jpUj;njhz;lj;njhif ek;gpahz;lhh; ek;gp ,aw;wpa jpUj;njhz;lh; jpUte;jhjp Mfpa ,t;tpU E}y;fisAk; mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L rptdbahh;fspd; ngUikfis tpsf;fpf; $WtJ nghpaGuhzk;. nghpaGuhzj;jpy; ,uz;L fhz;lq;fSk;> gjpd;%d;W rUf;fq;fSk; cs;sd. ghlg; gFjpahfpa ,isahd;Fb khw ehadhh; Guhzk; Kjy; fhz;lj;jpy; jpy;iytho; me;jzh; rUf;fk; vd;w ,uz;lhtJ rUf;fj;jpy; ,lk;ngw;Ws;sJ.

Nrf;fpohh; nghpaGuhzj;ij ,aw;wpath; Nrf;fpohh;. njhz;il ehl;bYs;s Fd;wj;J}hpy; Ntshsh; kugpy; Nrf;fpohh; Fbapy; Njhd;wpath;. ,tUila fhyk; fp.gp. gd;dpuz;lhk; E}w;whz;L. Nrf;fpohh; ,uz;lhk; FNyhj;Jq;fd; vd;Dk; Nrhokd;ddpd; Kjyikr;rh; ,tuJ ,aw;ngah; mUs;nkhopj;Njth; vd;gJ. ckhgjp rpthr;rhhpah; Nrf;fpohh; Guhzk; vOjp nghpaGuhz Mrphpaiu rpwg;gpj;Js;shh;. kfhtpj;Jthd; kPdhl;rp Re;juk; gps;is jhk; ghba Nrf;fpohh; gps;isj; jkpo; vd;Dk; E}yhy; Nrf;fpohhpd; rpwg;Gfisg; ghuhl;bAs;shh;.

nghpaGuhzk; ,isahd;Fb khwehadhh; Guhzk; mk;nghd; ePba mk;g yj;jpdpy; MLthh; mb #Lthh; jk;gp uhd; mb ikj;jp wj;Jah; rhy;gpd; Nkd;ik jhpj;Jshh; ek;G tha;ikapy; ePL#j;jpu ew;F yQ;nra; jtj;jpdhy; ,k;gh; Qhyk; tpsf;fp dhh;,is ahd;F bg;gjp khwdhh; Vhpd; ky;F tsj;jp dhy;tUk; vy;iy ,y;ynjhh; nry;tKk; ePhpd; ky;fpa Ntzp ahh;mb ahh;jpwj;J epiwe;Njhh; rPhpd; ky;fpa md;gpd; Nkd;ik jpUe;j kd;dpa rpe;ijAk; ghhpd; ky;f tpUk;gp kw;wit ngw;w ePL gad; nfhs;thh; 2 1

36

Muk; vd;G Gide;j Iah;jk; md;gh; vd;gnjhh; jd;ikahy; Neu te;jth; ahtuhapDk; epj;j khfpa gj;jpKd; $u te;njjph; nfhz;L iffs; Ftpj;J epd;W nrtpg;Gyj;J <uk; nkd;kJ ug;g jk;ghp nta;j Kd;Diu nra;jgpd; 3

nfhz;L te;Jkidg;G Fe;J FyhT ghjk; tpsf;fpNa kz;L fhjypd; Mr dj;jpil itj;j Ur;rid nra;jgpd; cz;b ehY tpjj;jp yhW Ritj;jp wj;jpdpy; xg;gpyh mz;lh; ehafh; njhz;lh; ,r;irapy; mKJ nra;a mspj;Jshh;. 4

MSk; ehafh; md;gh; Mdth; mstp yhh;csk; kfpoNt ehS ehSk; epiwe;J te;J Efh;e;j jd;ikapd; ed;ikahy; ePS khepjp apd;g ug;G neUq;F nry;tk; epyhtpvz; Njhsp dhh;ms iff;fp Uj;jpa Njho dhnud thOehs; 5

nry;tk; Nktpa ehspy; ,r;nray; nra;t jd;wpAk; nka;apdhy; my;yy; ey;Fu thd NghjpDk; ty;yh; vd;wwp tpf;fNt ky;yy; ePbanry;tk; nky;y kiwe;J ehNlhWk; khwpte;J xy;iyapy; tW ikg;g jk;Gf cd;dpdhh; jpy;iy kd;dpdhh;. 6

,d;d thWt sQ;R Uq;fTk; vk;gpuhd; ,is ahd;Fb kd;dd; khwd; kdQ;R Uq;F jy;,d;wp cs;sd khwpAk; jd;id khwp ,Wf;f cs;s fld;fs; jf;fd nfhz;Lgpd; Kd;id khwpy; jpUg;g zpf;fz; Kjph;e;j nfhs;if auhapdhh;. kw;wth; nray; ,d;d jd;ika jhf khya dhd mf; nfhw;w VdKk; md;d Kk;njhp ahj nfhs;ifa uhapdhh; ngw;wk; Ch;tJk; ,d;wp ePba Ngij ahSld; ,d;wpXh; ew;w tj;jth; Ntl NknfhL Qhyk; ca;e;jpl ez;zpdhh;. 8 7

37

khhpf; fhyj; jputpdpy; itfpNahh; jhhpg; gpd;wpg; grpjiyf; nfhs;tJ ghhpj; jpy;yk; mile;jgpd; gz;Gw Nthpj; jhuhd; tpUe;njjph; nfhz;ldd;. 9

<u Nkdpia ePf;fp ,lq;nfhLj; jhu ,d;dK J}l;Ljw; fhirahy; jhu khjiu Nehf;fpj; jNghjdh; jPu Ntgrpj; jhh;nra;t njd; vd;W. 10

ekf;F Kd;gpq; Fztpiy ahapDk; ,kf;F yf;nfhb ghfh;f; fpdpath; jkf;F ehk;,d; mbrpy; jfTw mikf;F khnwq;qNd mzq;Nfvd. 11

khJ $Wts; kw;nwhd;Wq; fhz;fpNyd; Vjp yhUk; ,dpj;jU thhpy;iy NghJk; itfpw;Wg; Nghk;,lk; Ntwpiy jPJ nra;tpid Naw;nfd; nray; vd;W. 12

nry;yy; ePqf ; g; gfy;tpj; jpanre;ney; ky;yy; ePh;Kis thhpf; nfhLte;jhy; ty;y thwK jhf;fYk; MFk; kw;W my;y njhd;wwp Nad; vd; wah;Tw. kw;w khw;wk; kidtpahh; $wKd; ngw;w nry;tk; vdg;nghp Jskfpo;e;J cw;w fhjyp dhy;xUg; gl;ldh; Rw;w ePh;tay; nry;yj; njhlq;Fthh;. 14 13

38

ngUF thdk; gpwq;f kionghope;J mUF ehg;gd; mwptUq; fq;Fy;jhd; fUF ikapU spd;fzk; fl;Ltpl;L cUF fpd;wJ Nghd;w Jynfyhk;. 15

vz;Zk; ,t;Ty fj;jth; ahtUk; Jz;nz Dk;gb Njhd;wKd; Njhd;wpby; tz;z ePba ikf;Foy; ghk;vd;W ez;zy; nra;ah eLtpUs; ahkj;J 16

cs;sk; md;Gnfhz; ^f;fNthh; Nghplhf; nfhs;s Kd;ftpj; Jf;Fwp apd;topg; Gs;S wq;Fk; tay;Gfg; Nghapdhh; ts;s yhh;,is ahd;Fb khwdhh;. 17

fhyp dhy;jl tpr;nrd;W iffshy; rhyp ntz;Kis ePh;topr; rhh;e;jd Nfhyp thhp ,lhepiw af;nfhz;L Nkny Lj;Jr; Rke;njhy;iy kPz;ldh;. 18

te;jgpd; kidtp ahUk; tha;jypd; epd;W thq;fpr; rpe;ijapy; tpUk;gp ePhpy; Nrw;wpid myk;gp Cw;wp nte;joy; mLg;gpd; %l;l tpwfpy;iy vd;d NkNyhh; me;jkpy; kidapy; ePLk; myf;fpid mWj;J tPo;j;jhh;. Kwpj;jit mLg;gpd; khl;b Kistpj;Jg; gjKd; nfhs;s tWj;jgpd; mhprp ahf;fp thf;fpa ciyapw; nga;J ntWg;gpy;,d; mbrpy; Mf;fpNkk;gL fw;gpd; kpf;fhh; fwpf;fpdp vd;nra; Nfhk; vd;wpiwQ;rpdhh; fzt dhiu. 20 19

39

toptUk; ,isg;gp NdhLk; tUj;jpa grpap dhNy mopTWk; Iad; vd;Dk; md;gpdpw; nghype;J nrd;W Fopepuk; ghj Gd;nra;f; FWk;gaph; jltpg; ghrg; gopKjy; gwpg;ghh; Nghyg; gwpj;jit fwpf;F ey;f. 21

kidtpahh; nfhOeh; je;j kdkfpo; fwpfs; Ma;e;J Gdypilf; fOtpj; jf;f Gdpjghj; jpuj;Jf; ifk;ik tpidapdhy; NtW NtW fwpaK jhf;fpg; gz;il epidtpdhy; Fiwia Neh;e;J jpUtK jikj;J epd;W. 22

fztdhh; jk;ik Nehf;fpf; fwpaK jhd fhl;b ,izapyh jhiu <z;L mKJnra; tpg;Nghk; vd;d czh;tpdhy; czu xz;zhxUtiu czh;j;j Ntz;b 23

mizaKd; nrd;W epd;wq; fth;Japy; mfw;w Yw;whh;.

mOe;jpa ,lUs; ePq;fp mbaNdd; ca;avd; ghy; vOe;jUs; nghpNaha; <z;l mKJnra; jUs;f vd;W njhOk;gdhh; ciuj;j Nghjpy; Nrhjpaha; vOe;J Njhd;wr; nrOe;jpU kidtp ahUk; njhz;lUk; jpifj;J epd;whh;. 24

khyaw; fhpa ehjd; tbnthU Nrhjp ahfr; rhyNt kaq;F thh;f;Fr; rq;fud; jhd;k fpo;e;Nj Vythh; Foyhs; jd;Ndh blgth fddha;j; Njhd;wpr; rPykhh; G+ir nra;j jpUj;njhz;lh; jk;ik Nehf;fp. md;gNd md;gh;G+ir mspj;jeP mzq;fp NdhLk; vd;ngUk; cyfk; va;jp ,Uepjpf; fpotd; jhNd Kd;ngU epjpak; Ve;jp nkhoptop Vty; Nfl;g ,d;gkhh;e; jpUf;f vd;Nw mUs;nra;jhd; vth;f;Fk; kpf;fhd;. 26 25

40

,g;ghp rpth;f;Fj; jf;f tifapdhy; ,d;gk; ey;fp Kg;GuQ; nrw;whh; md;gh; Kd;ngOe; jUspg; Nghdhh; mg;nghp ath;jk; J}a mbapiz jiyNkw; nfhz;L nka;g;nghUl; NrjpNte;jd; nraypid tpsk;g Yw;Nwd;.. 27

rPwhg;Guhzk; kio miog;gpj;j glyk;

,Ryhkpaj; jkpo; ,yf;fpaq;fspy; jiyrpwe;j rPwhg;Guhzk; ckWg;Gytuhy; ,aw;wg;gl;lJ. rPwh vd;w nrhy; rPwj; vd;w muGnrhy;ypd; jphpghFk;. ,r;nrhy;ypd; nghUs; tho;fi ; f tuyhW vd;gJ. Kfk;kJ egpapd; tuyhw;wpid ,e;E}y; 3 fhz;lq;fs;> 92 glyq;fspy; rpwg;ghf vLj;Jiuf;fpwJ. egpfs; ehafk; mth;fspd; tho;f;ifiaf; fUg;nghUshff; nfhz;L> fhg;gpa ,yf;fzq;fs; midj;Jk; xUq;Nf mikag; ngw;W rpwe;J tpsq;FfpwJ rPwhg;Guhzk;. ,e;E}ypd; muGehl;L tUzizapy; jkpofj;ijf; fhzKbfpwJ. nkf;fh efuk; kJiu efiug; NghyNt tUzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,t;thW ,e;E}yp;d; top ckWg;Gythpd; jkpo;ehl;Lg; gw;wpid czh;e;Jnfhs;s KbfpwJ. ghlkhf mike;Js;s kioaiog;gpj;jg; glyk; MFk;. gFjp `p[puj;Jf; fhz;lj;jpYs;s

ckWg;Gyth; ckWg;Gyth; ,Ryhkpa jkpo;g;Gyth;fSs; Kjd;ikahdth; eWkzg; nghUl;fis tpw;Wtho;e;j nra;aJ Kfk;kJ myp vd;gthpd; Gjy;th; Mthh;. fbif Kj;Jg; Gythplk; jkpo; gapd;whh;. vl;ilaGu rk];jhdg; Gytuhf tpsq;fpath;. ts;sy; rPjf;fhjpapd; Mjutpy; ,f;fhg;gpaj;ij ,aw;wpdhh;. ,Ryhkpaf; fk;gh; vdg; Nghw;wg;gLgth; ,tuJ fhyk; fp.gp. 17 Mk; E}w;whz;L MFk;. rPwhg;Guhzk; kioaiog;gpj;j glyk; mWrPh;f; fopnebybahrphpa tpUj;jk; Kdptw typkh ey;F KiyAW eWk;ghd; khe;jpg; gdpkjpf; fUiz nra;J glut tioj;Jg; NgRe; jdpKjw; W}j uhwh khz;bdpw; wifik ngw;w tidfoy; rFgp khh;fs; tOj;jpl tpUf;F ehspy;
41

fPh;j;jpNrh; ts;sy; nts;spf; fpoikapw; Fj;J ghtp yhh;j;njOe; Njhjp kpd;g ujdpil apUf;Fk; Nghjpy; $h;j;jrPh; rFgp khhpw; Fiufoy; Riyf;F ntd;Nghh; ghh;j;jpth; jk;ikg; ghh;j;Jg; gutpepd; wpida nrhd;dhh;. 2

khhpePh; twe;J Nrhiy kukpiy Ajph;e;J kpf;f ghhpdp nyOe;j igq;$o; girawf; fUfpf; fhdw; Nwhpdk; gue;j ngw;w rpwhh;fSf; FzT ey;Fk; thhps Kiyg;ghy; tw;w tUe;jpdh; klth nuy;yhk;. 3

jUkKe; jtK Ks;s jaTk;Ngh natUq; nfhQ;rf; fUkKq; fsTk; ght fhhpf SwTq; nfhz;L tUtpUe; njhUtd; te;jhy; thapiy ailj;Jj; J}a thpitah; jkf;F ehzp ahz;iknfl; liye;jh ud;Nw. 4

fUikNrh; nghpa Nkjp fgpiyA eWk;ghy; tw;wp aUikah aPd;w fd;Wk; thDy fjdpw; nry;y nthUtop elg;gf; fhy;f Sijf;fh ybg;g kho;fpj; njUtop fplf;Fk; thl;lQ; nrg;Gjw; fhpa jk;kh. 5

gwitfs; gwf;fp yhJ gOtq;f sLf;F kq;F epiwjsp hpyhik fz;L nel;Laph;g; ngwpe;J ghur; rpwfpid tphpj;Jj; jz;zPh; Njbr;nrd; Nwhb tpz;zp YiwJsp apd;wp ehT Kyh;e;Jnka; Gyh;e;j khNjh. 6

kUjed; dpyKk; ghiy tdnkd Tyh;e;J thtp ngUfpa $t Nyhil gpwq;FePh; twe;jp ahJk; gUfed; dPU kpd;wpg; grpkpFj; joF Fd;wpg; ahpitah; fw;G kpd;wp afypl nkype;j jd;Nw.
42

vOrPh;f; fopnebybahrphpa tpUj;jk; Cdw nkype;J Gyhy;nghjpe; jpUe;j TlyK nkd;GU thfp Nkdpkp nuhspNgha;f; fuq;flh sijj;J nkype;jpwe; jdh;rpyh; rpyNgh; $dpAq; Fiwe;Je; jpUe;jil fpoq;Fq; nfhzh;e;jtpj; Jg;gwg; gpire;J fhdpdp yiye;J jphpe;jdh; rhk fhyK kpFe;jd ntd;Nw. mWrPh;f; fopnebybahrphpa tpUj;jk; jpUj;jkh Aiug;gf; Nfl;Lj; jpUegp apuq;fpg; ghhpy; tUj;jq;f zPf;f Ntz;b kdj;jpdpw; fpUig kPwpg; nghUj;jUk; GWf;fhd; Ntjg; nghUspid natU Ks;sj; jpUj;jU nkhspia Ad;dp JMtpue; jpUif Nae;jp ,iwtNd kiwapd; tho;Nt naq;fZk; gue;J epd;w Fiwtpyhg; nghUNs Nrhjp Fytpa nthspNt ePjp KiwFiw twepd; NwhNd Kjy;tNd aoptpy; yhk dpiwnrOQ; RlNu nad;W epfo;j;jplf; fpUig nra;jhd;. vOrPh;f; fopnebybahrphpa tpUj;jk; mfkpir apUe;J Grpj;jplf; fpilah jhFy kpFj;Jsq; fyq;fpr; nrfjy KOJe; jphpe;jiye; jth;f butpaf; Fitgy ntjpu tpfyw ntLj;J kidkpir Gijj;Njh hpjagq; ifaq;fspg; ngd;d kfpjy KOJe; Jjpnraf; fhpa kioKfpw; fUTjpj; jJNt.
43

10

11

mWrPh;f;fop nebybahrphpa tpUj;jk; Mjpap dUsp dhy;te; jUs;nrA Kfpyhk; gps;isj; jPjW jpirapw; Nwhd;wpr; nrOq;fphp jto;e;J tpz;zpd; kPJw ele;J fhyhy; tpiue;Jnrd; Nwhbf; $bf; fhjy;Nrh; epyj;ij ehSq; fhj;jplr; nrwpe;j jd;Nw. 12

vOrPh;f;fop nebybahrphpa tpUj;jk; miynahL jOtpr; #d;Kjph;e; njOe;Nj aoFw tpsq;Fik khhp jiykf tspf;fj; jha;kidf; Fw;w jidas;Nghw; wiukpir aLj;Jf; Fytpnka; gjwpg; gakpFj; jjph;e;j FunyhL kpd;dptha; ntUtpj; Jiytw Twthz; kftspj; jJNghw; nrhhpe;jJ Fsph;e;je; epyNk. 13

kpd;Dl dpbA Kof;fplj; jpfphp kpirjphp fjputd; kiwe;J gpd;dpl tpuTk; gfypD kpUNs gpwq;fplf; fyq;FePh; gue;J Kd;dpl ejpf zpiwe;JNk nyOe;J Nkhjplr; nrWf;fiu jfh;j;J kd;dpa tpUghy; tFj;jpLq; fhiy kilAl ndLj;njwpe; jdNt. 14

Ntapid Kwpj;J ntbj;jKj; jidj;J Ky;iyak; GwtpDf; fspj;Jj; J}anea; japh;ghy; flj;Jl ndLj;Jr; RLepyg; ghiyapw; nrwpj;J
44

Neaige; ehf kzpapid kUj epyj;jpdpw; nwhFj;Jnew; FtpNkw; Nghaij nea;j dpyj;jpypl; Lg;igg; Gzhpapw; GFj;jpd nts;sk;. 15

tPLf bwe;J ntspapil GFe;J Ntz;Lt jpitnad tpUk;gpj; NjLt Njbr; rikj;Jz thpjha;r; rpwhh;kid njhWkpUe; jywg; ghLW grpfz; ltuid khh;fs; gNahjue; jidKdpe; jpdpNkw; NflW kiojh Dynfyhk; nga;J nfLj;jpl te;jnjd; Wiug;ghh;. 16

esph;Gdy; gue;J jiyf;fil fle;J eye;jU kidg;GwQ; nrwpa FspUld; thilf; fhYk;te; jbg;gf; nfhOe;Jtpl; nlhpfd wOtp ntsptu thpjh apUe;jt uyJ nkype;jt hpisQh;f nstU nkhsptpL eiffs; fpLfpnld; wbg;g Tlw;gl glntd kpilthh;. 17

fhw;nwhL FspU kbg;gjhw; nwhWf;fs; fhnlyhq; fple;Japh; tpLg;g Ntw;wkh aaq;fs; fak;Gff; fky kpOg;gd ntz;zpwe; jdth yhw;wpidf; fle;Njh uhWnry; yhpjh ahwpU ehz;kio ngayhy;
45

Ntw;nwhU efh;f;FQ; nrythp jhfp nkype;jd Tyfpdp nyitAk;. 18

gpwe;jjP tpUl;bg; nghope;jd Tyfk; NgJww; wzpg;gjw; fpdpNk ywe;jth tha;ik Kfk;kNj ad;wp ahw;Wjw; fpahUs nud;dr; rpwe;jR fhgp khh;fdp nyhth; rpe;ij$h; Gfh;jpd kjdp dpiwe;jpL nkhopNrh; Fj;Jgh NthJ Neuj;jpw; nrd;wb tzq;fp. jUkK kwpT nkhOf;fKk; nghiwAe; jaTNkhh; tbntd ntLj;Nj tUjpU egpNa apUrJ jpdkha; kionghop juepy tiyak; ntUtuy; nghpjha; nkyptJ jtpu Nkd;ikAk; tsikAq; nfhLf;ff; fUKfp yfyj; Jthr;nrA nkd;whh; fgPgpw #yit nra;jhh;. ed;ikf nsth;f;F elj;jpl te;j egpJthr; nra;jpl KfpYe; njd;tiu Kjyhk; tiufspw; GFe;j jpdfud; tpRk;gpil nrwpe;jhd; Gd;ku Kjyh khdpl hPwhg; Gtpapdp YapUs tidj;Je; jd;kK newpAe; jtwpyh jPdh; Fynkdj; jioj;Jah;e; jdNt. 21 20 19

46

8. ,ul;rzpa ahj;jphpfk; ,ul;rzpa gUtk;

fpwpj;Jtf; fhg;gpaq;fSs; ,ul;rzpa ahj;jphpfk; jiyrpwe;j gilg;ghFk;. ,J mwk;> nghUs;> ,d;gk;> tPL vd;Dk; ehw;nghUSk; mike;jJ. ,f;fhg;gpak; $Wk; ,d;gk; Nghpd;gkhFk;. ,jd; Kjy;E}y; Mq;fpyj;jpy; [hd;gdpad; ,aw;wpa jpUg;gazpapd; Kd;Ndw;wk; (Polgrims progress) vd;gjhFk;. ghtp xUtd;> ,NaR ngUkhdpd; mUshy; kdk; jpUj;jp> Nghpd;g tPl;bid Nehf;fp> RUjpE}y; fhl;Lk; tptuj;jpd;gb gazj;ijj; njhlq;fp ,d;g Jd;gq;fis vjph;nfhz;L ,Wjpapy; kuz Mw;iwf; fle;J tPLNgW miltjhf ,ul;rzpa ahj;hpfk; $WfpwJ. ,e;E}y; MjpgUtk;> FkhugUtk;> epjhdgUtk;> MuzpagUtk;> ,ul;rzpa gUtk; vd;w Ie;J gUtq;fisAk; 47 glyq;fisAk;> 3766 nra;Al;fisAk; nfhz;lJ. ekf;Fg; ghlg;gFjpahf ,ul;rzpa gUtk; mike;Js;sJ. ,ul;rzpak; vd;gJ <Nlw;wk; ,ul;rzpa newpapy; nrd;W nfhz;bUe;j Md;kpfDk;> fpwpj;jtDk; ek;gpf;ifAk; jUk Nrj;jpuj;ij mile;J mq;F rpyehs; jq;fp ,d;Gw;W> kuz Mw;iwf; fle;J> Kj;jpj;jpUefh; Nrh;e;j gFjpfs; ,q;Fr; nrhy;yg;gLfpd;wd.

vr;.V.fpU\;zg;gps;is jpUney;Ntyp khtl;lj;jpy; nul;bahh; gl;bapy; Ntshsh; kugpy; Njhd;wpa ,th; fpwpj;Jt rkaj;jpidr; rhh;e;J> jk; ngaiu n`d;wp My;gpul; fpU\;zg;gps;is vd;W khw;wpf;nfhz;lhh;. fpwpj;Jtf; fk;gh; vd;W Nghw;wg;gLfpd;whh;. fpwpj;jth;fspd; Njthuk; vd;W Nghw;wg;gLk; ,ul;rzpa kNdhfuk;> ,ul;rzpaf;Fws;> ,ul;rzpa rka eph;zak; Kjypa E}y;fisAk; vOjpAs;shh;. ,tuJ fhyk; fp.gp. 19 Mk; E}w;whz;lhFk;.

,ul;rzpa ahj;jphpfk; ,ul;rzpa gUtk; jUk Nrj;jpuf; fhl;rp (Md;kpfDk; ek;gpf;ifAk; nka; tho;itf; fz;Zw;wJ) cly;caph; fz;,ik xj;j khl;rpah; glh;cWk; mde;jhpd; gLfh; itg;igAk; eliyahh; gpugQ;r er;R tho;f;ifapd; filiaAk; fle;Jnka; tho;itf; fz;Zw;whh;. 1

47

(jUk Nrj;jpur; rpwg;G) thdKk; G+kpAk; ,ize;j khz;gJ QhdKk; ed;ikAk; edpf jpj;jJ jPdKk; <dKk; Nrh;tpd;wp MaJvt; T+dKk; ghtKk; xope;j ePuJ. 2

GdpjNk vq;fZk; nghypAk; nghw;gJ jdjkhh; mUz;kio nghopAk; rhy;gJ kdpjh;th dth;vd kUsj; jf;fJ edpjt xOf;fj;jpd; eyk;nfhz; nkha;k;gJ. 3

rPyKk; xOf;fKk; jpfo;e;j nrt;tpapy; ghnyhL Njd;fye;J XLk; ghyJ QhyKw; Wk;njh$c ed;F mUe;jpDk; rhyTk; gad;gLk; jifik rhd;wJ. 4

fUkG+ kpapd;filf; fz;z jhaJ jpUkiyr; rhuNyhL ,ire;j rPuJ kUkyp jUkyh;r; Nrhiy tha;e;jJ jUkNrj; jpuk;vdg; ngah;j ioj;jJ. NtW (gazpfspd; gutr epiy) ,d;d zk;jF gukrh jdq;fNshL ,ire;J kd;D Qhdey; tsk;jU jUkNrj; jpuj;ijj; Jd;D khj;jpuj;J Muzf; fpotuhk; J}Nahh; gd;d Uk;gu khde;j gutr uhdhh;. 6 5

48

(fpwpj;jtd; ek;gpf;iff;Ff; fhl;Lk; fhl;rpfs;) ,ida rPyuha; ed;ndwp gpbj;J,U NthUk; jpida idj;Jk;Neh tpd;wpcs; mjprak; rpwg;gj; Jidtpd; VFop tuk;gW fhl;rpiaj; njhFj;Jg; GidAk; Ntjpad; Njhow;Ff; fhl;bdd; Gfy;thd;. $Uw;W Xq;fpa kjptNyha; nfhw;wtd; kfpikr; rPUw;W Xq;fpa jpUefh; mzpj;JWQ; nrayhy; VUw;W Xq;Figk; nghd;ka vopYUg; gilj;J,g; ghUw;W Xq;fpa ruhrug; gFjpfs; ghuha;! mw;G ky;fpa MUaph;j; Njhoek; mUikj; jw;g ud;Rjd; gpuhl;bNahL cyTyhd; rikj;j tpw;g Oj;jigk; nghd;kyh;g; ghpksk; tPRk; fw;g fr;nrOq; fhtdj;J vopy;eyk; fhzha;! kPA ah;e;jthd; ehl;bs turd;tPw; wpUf;f J}a nghd;ndhL kpd;idAk; ntapiyAk; njhFj;J Nka gd;kzp Fapd;Wtpz; Zwkpsh;e;J vq;Fk; ghap UQ;Rlh; gug;Gkz; lgepiy ghuha;! ek;gh; ehl;ba ek;gpf;if cUf;nfhz;l ez;g> ,k;gh; ehl;ba jpUr;rig vDkz thl;bf;F ck;gh; ehl;bs turd;nra; xg;Gld; gbf;iff; fk;gk; ehl;ba jpUkzg; ge;jiyf; fhzha;! vd;k df;fpdp aha;rU NtRu Nerk; ed;ik ew;Fz ed;dil ed;kdr; rhd;W jd;k ghydk; jiamd;G rhe;jnkd;W ,ida gd;k zpj;jpus; GiuFz epjpfisg; ghuha;!
49

10

11

12

(mth;fs; kzpkz;lgj;ij mLj;jJ) ,ida ahitAk; tapd;njhWk; NjhoDf;F ,ar; rpida yh;e;jG+q; fhtfr; nrOk;nghopy; eLtz; tidAk; nghd;jpU khkzp kz;lgk; mLj;jhd; epidtpd; ePqf ; yh ek;gpf;if NahLke; eptph;j;jd;. 13

(tdf; fhtyh; re;jpj;jJ) Ma Ngho;jj;J tdghp ghyfh; mLj;Jj; J}a ahj;jpiuf; Fwpapdhy; mth;epiy Jzpe;J Nea ed;nkhop epfo;j;jpEk; newpf;fpil epfo;e;j Nra fhhpak; njhpf;fvd> Ntjpad; njhpg;g. 14

ed;W Nfl;Lcsf; fspg;nghL ehafd; gutp epd;W nrt;tpaPh; gpugQ;r epUtprh uj;J kd;wp Ue;Jk;,t; tsk;gL jUkNrj; jpuj;J Kd;wpy; te;jdph;@ jpUtUs; khl;rpNa Kw;Wk;. 15

Iad; kPh;,dpj; Jd;gk;,d; whapDk; Mz;Nlhh; ikap Us;gL kuzj;ij tud;Kiw ePe;jpj; Ja;a thamf; fiug;gbd; Rth;f;fNf hpd;gk; ifa jhFkhy;> vd;Wcsk; fdpe;Jiu ahb. 16

tk;kpd; <z;L> vd kyh;f;fuk; nfhStpca; ahdj;J vk;k Uq;fpDk; ,ire;Js GJikiaf; fhl;b mk;k! <J,J> vd;W mikntyhk; mfKwj; njUl;b kk;kh; ePq;fpa kjptyPh; Nfz;k;> vd tFg;ghh;. 17

50

(jUk Nrj;jpuj;J tsq;fis mth;fs; $Wjy;) kwpAk; jz;Gdy; kLTz;L ejpAz;L> tidaf; fiwap yhjntz; JfpYz;L> ftpd;mzp Az;L> ewpa Kg;gof;fdp Az;L> jPk;go eiwAk; epiwa Tz;l fhdfk;cz;L,e; epyj;jpdpy; vq;Fk;. 18

jq;f khspifj; jyKz;L> jiytidg; gutg; nghq;F khjtg; GiuAz;L> Gj;Jiu jpfo;j;j vq;Fk; Ntjpaf; FOf;fSz;L@ Mjypd; vkhPh;> ,q;fp Ue;Jrpy; ehs;fop kpd;> vd ,irj;jhh;. 19

(gazpfs; mq;F kfpo;e;jpUj;jy;) Gdpj ePh;gbe;J MLth; G+e;Jfpy; tidth; fdpjy; ePh;ikapy; flTisf; ifFtpj;J ,iwQ;rp ,dpJ Nghdfk; mUe;Jth; ,d;dpir gapy;thh; Jdpj tph;e;Jmd tujKk; Njhj;jpuk; Ghpthh;. 20

Jd;D khjtf; FOnthL Njhoik nfhs;thh; gd;D Ntjpa NuhLrk; ghliz gapy;thh; nghd;d fh;j;njhdp nrtpkLj;J csf;fsp G+g;ghh; ,d;d thWmtz; itfy;Xh; rpyfope; jpLq;fhy;. 21

(fpwpj;JtDf;Fs; ,Uf;fpd;w Md;kk; vd;Dk; jiytp jd; jiytid vz;zp) gd;d Uk;gu Nyhfg jtpePj;J ,e;ep yj;Jte;J va;jpa <rdhh; kd;Dk; md;Gk aj;jpU Nkdpia cd;dp cd;dpj;jd; cs;sk;c UFths;. 22

51

Nrt bj;Jiz Nehtj;jp irjpir Mt ypj;njidj; Njba md;Gshh; $tpf; $tptp spf;ff;F wpf;nfhshh; ghtp Nad;gpio Navd;W gd;Dths;. 23

tUjp dj;Jk zj;njhopy; Kw;Wthd; FUjp Nth;j;Jsp Nkdpapy; Nfhj;Jcfj; jpUT sj;Jj;jp Ue;jzp nra;jrPh; fUjp Mtpf iue;Jf YOths;. tpUz Nkdpapy; ntt;tpUg; ghzpnry; jUzk; kw;wth; jk;gpio Xh;fpyh; mUs;e ae;Jkd; dpf;f> mj; jh> vDk; fUiz cs;spf;f rpe;Jf yOths;. Qhyk; NkTk;e uhj;Jk ehafd; Xy khh;FUR xz;kly; Ch;e;jUs; rPy khfj;jp Uj;Jjp Ukzf; Nfhyk; cs;spf; Fioe;Jsk; Njk;Gths;. 26 25 24

Mop ahd;tyg; ghfj;J mkh;e;Jshh; thop thopvd;W Vj;jpDk; itfy;Xh; Cop ahfj;jp ifj;Js;c ile;jds; Vio Mj;Jkg; gd;dp,q; nfd;gNt. (tpz;nzhyp Nfl;lJ) <J fhyj;Jcd; Md;k, ul;rfh; fhj ypj;Jcd; gyd;fSk; iff;nfhL,q;F Mj hpj;JmLf; fpd;wd uhy;vdf; Nfhjpy; rPNahd; Fkhpf;Ff; $Wkpd;.
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27

28

vd;nwhh; rj;jk;v Oe;jJ tpz;zpil kd;wy; kq;fsk; ky;fpa nghd;dfh; Kd;wp dpd;W Koq;fp KiwKiw Jd;Wvf; fhsk;njh dpj;jpL khWNghy;. 29

(Md;kpfd; Japy; ePj;Jj; njsptiljy;) thdpd;W cs;sj;J thh;e;jey; thf;nfDk; NjDz;L Mh;e;jdd; Mj;Jkr; nry;tpAk;@ Cd ise;jc ly;Japy; tPrpdhd; Qhdk; ky;fpa nka;kiw ehtyd;. 30

(ek;gpf;ifapd; cs;Szh;r;rp) FUR cah;j;j Fhprpy; tUifapd; ghpR czh;e;Jek; gpf;ifAk;> gz;zt> jhpr idf;FmU fhaJ jk;gpuhd; Ghpir khefh;@ NghJtk; ahk;> vd;whd;. ed;W vdh,U NthUk;e Wk;nghopy; kd;W shh;tpil ngw;Wte; jpj;Jld; nrd;W $bdh; nrt;tpa E}y;newp vd;Wk; khW,y; ,iwtid Vj;jpNa. 32 31

NtW kuz MW gfnyhsp rjhepd;W Xq;Fk; gtpj;jpu Njrhe; jj;jp ,fgu re;jp nad;Dk; ,lhpUl; gpok;G njhf;Fme; mftapd; fLfpr; nry;Yk; mLjpiu kuz Mw;iwf; ffdahj; jphpfh; jk;jk; fz;fspy; njhpaf; fz;lhh;. 33

53

(mth;fs; ,NaRtpd; jpUtbg; Giziag; Nghw;wpg; ghLjy;) fz;Lly; kdKk; fz;Zk; fyq;fpdh; ftd;wh NuDk; cz;nlkf;F cWjp vd;dh cs;SNs Cf;fpj; njhz;lh; kz;lyk; Gue;j NrR kyubg; Giziag; gw;wp vz;lF Njthuk; nfhz;L ,irj;jdh; gpzpg;ghh; neQ;rpdpy;. 34

(mth;fs; ghbaJ) Njthuk;> filf;fzp> gz;: ,e;jsk; guNdguk; guNdgug; nghUNsguQ; Nrhjp cudhba tpRthrpfl; Fte;jhjuk; GhpAk; ngUkhdb NaNdhngUk; ghtpgpio gl;Nld; ruzhbte; jile;Njd;xU jkpNad;filf; fzpNa. 35

J}yj;ijc te;Jz;LR fpj;Jr;Rfk; Ngzpf; fhyj;ijAk; fopj;Njd;cah; fjp$l;Lk;ul; rzpa %yj;jdp KjNyfil %r;NrhAKd; KLfpr; rPyj;jpU Kfj;jhh;xsp jpff;filf; fzpNa. 36

Nfhjhh;Fzf; Nfld;kpff; nfhbad;nfhLk; ghtp VjhfpYk; ed;nwd;wpyd; vdpDk;Gwf; fzpah Mjhurh; Ntrhmd tujhmUs; ehjh ghjhutpe; jk;Nrh;j;njidg; ghptha;f;filf; fzpNa. 37

fpUghfu fUzhfu fpsh;Gz;zpag; nghUg;Ng ngUkhtb Nad;nra;gpio nghWj;njd;Daph; gphpf kUthh;jU FUrpy; jpfo; tjdhk;Gr Kk;cd; jpUehkke; jpuKk;mfk; jpfof;filf; fzpNa. 38

54

myF - 5 nkhopj;jpwd;> fbjk; tiujy;> ,yf;fpatuyhW 9. nkhopj;jpwd;

E}y; kjpg;Giu E}ypd; ngah; - Mrphpah; ngah; - E}y; rhh;e;Js;s Jiw ntspapLk; epWtdj;jpd; Kfthp E}y; gw;wpa epiw Fiwfs; - jfty; gFjp fUj;Jg; gFjp.

mwpf;if jahhpj;jy; epfo;r;rp xd;wpid tpsf;Fk; tifapy; mwpf;if mikj;jy; - epfo;r;rpapd; ngah;> epfo;r;rp eilngWk; ,lk;> ehs;> fhyk;> gq;Nfw;Nghh; Mfpa nra;jpfs; Kfg;gpy; Fwpg;gplg;gly; - epfo;r;rp njhlq;fpaJ Kjy; KbtJtiu cs;s nra;jpfs; jpul;bj; jug;gly; - tuNtw;Giu> ed;wpAiu Fwpg;gplg;gly; - jiyik ciuapd; fUj;Jr; RUf;fKk; rpwg;GiuAk; ,lk;ngwy;.

10.fbjk; tiujy; ngw;Nwhh;> cwtpdh;> ez;gh; KjyhNdhh;f;F vOJk; cwTKiwf; fbjq;fs; - fy;tp epWtdk;> fhty;Jiw Kjypatw;wpw;F vOJk; KiwaPlL ; f; fbjq;fs; - ,jo;fs;> thndhyp> njhiyf;fhl;rp epWtdq;fSf;F vOJk; fbjq;fs; cs;spl;l mYty; Kiwf; fbjq;fs;. fbjj;jpy; ,lk;> Kjypad ,lk;ngwy;. ehs;> njhlf;fk; (tpsp)> nra;jp> Kbg;G> Kfthp

tpz;zg;gk; vOJjy; Ntiy> epjpAjtp> tPl;bw;F Ntz;ba FbePh;f; Foha; ,izg;G> CUf;Fj; Njitahd E}yf trjp Kjyhdit Ntz;b tpz;zg;gpj;jy;. tpz;zg;gj;jpy; mDg;Geh;> ngWeh;> Kfthp> tpsp> nghUs;> ghh;it> nra;jp> ed;wp$wp Kbj;jy;> ,lk;> ehs;> ,izg;G cs;spl;lit ,lk;ngwy;.

55

11.,yf;fpa tuyhW mw ,yf;fpak; gjpndz; fPo;f;fzf;F E}y;fs; mw E}y;fs; jpUf;Fws; Mrphpah; tuyhW E}y; mikg;G E}ypd; rpwg;G mw E}y;fspy; jpUf;Fwspd; jdpj;jd;ik ciufs;.

fhg;gpa ,yf;fpak; jkpopy; fhg;gpaj; Njhw;wk; fhg;gpa tiffs; ngUq;fij Ik;ngUq;fhg;gpaq;fs;@ rpyg;gjpfhuk;> kzpNkfiy> rPtfrpe;jhkzp> tisahgjp> Fz;lyNfrp> IQ;rpW fhg;gpaq;fs; - #shkzp> ePyNfrp> aNrhju fhtpak;> ehf Fkhufhtpak;> cjaz Fkhu fhtpak;> fk;guhkhazk;> nghpaGuhzk;> ,Ryhkpa> fpwpj;Jtf; fhg;gpaq;fs;.

56

gUtk; %d;W kw;Wk; ehd;fpw;fhd nghJthd tpdhj;jhs; mikg;G (PATTERN OF QUESTION PAPER)

gj;Jtpdhf;fs; xt;Nthh; myfpypUe;Jk; ,uz;L tpdhf;fs; gFjp m (njhpT tha;g;G ,y;iy) (No Choice) 10x2 = 20 kjpngz;fs;

Ie;J tpdhf;fs; gFjp M xt;Nthh; myfpypUe;Jk; ,uz;L tpdhf;fs; (,uz;by; xd;iwj; njhpT nra;jy;) Ie;J tpdhf;fspy; %d;W tpdhf;fs; gFjp , xt;Nthh; myfpypUe;Jk; xU tpdh (vitNaDk; %d;W tpdhf;fisj; njhpT nra;jy;)

5x5 = 25 kjpngz;fs;

3x10 = 30 kjpngz;fs;

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jpUts;Sth; gy;fiyf;fofk;> NtY}h;. khjphp tpdhj;jhs; ,uz;lhkhz;L - %d;whk; gUtk; gl;ltFg;G nghJj;jkpo; - jhs; III (mw,yf;fpak; fhg;gpa ,yf;fpak;> nkhopj;jpwd;> ,yf;fpatuyhW) fhyk; : 3 kzp gFjp m midj;J tpdhf;fSf;Fk; xUgj;jp mstpy; tpilaspf;fTk; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. jpUf;Fws; - Fwpg;G vOJf mwpT vj;jifa fUtp vd;W ts;Sth; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whh;. rpyg;gjpfhuk; $Wk; %d;W cz;ikfs; ahit? kzpNkfiy cyfmwtpay; vd;d nra;jhs;? jpUj;jf;fNjth; Fwpj;J vOJf. Rf;fphptdplk; ,uhkd; JaUld; NgrpaJ ahJ? ,iwtDf;F khwehadhh; vt;thW czT gilj;jhh;? kio ,d;ikahy; Vw;gl;l Jah; gw;wpf; $Wf. ,ul;rzpa ahj;jphpfk; gw;wp vOJf. ,ul;ilf; fhg;gpaq;fs; ahit? gFjp M fPo;ff ; hZk; tpdhf;fSf;F xUgf;f mstpy; tpil jUf 11. m. gpwh;nghUis tpUk;ghjpUf;f jpUts;Sth; $Wk; fUj;Jfis Muha;f. (my;yJ) M. eLTepiyik Fwpj;J jpUf;Fws; $Wtd ahit? 5 x 5 =25 kjpg;ngz; : 75 10 x 2 = 20

12. m. khw;whs; kfTf;Fg; ghy; mspj;j khyjp fij Fwpj;Jf; $Wf. (my;yJ) M. fharz;bif ngw;w rhgk; ahJ? tpsf;Ff. 13. m. Vkhq;fj vLj;Jiuf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ? ehl;bd; tsk; (my;yJ) M. fk;guhkhazj;jpy; rPijiaf; fz;l vt;thW $Wfpd;whd;? nra;jpia mDkd; ,uhkdplk; vt;thW rPtfrpe;j hkzpapy;

58

14. m. kioapYk; ,iwtDf;F czT rikf;f ,isahd;Fb khwehadhh; ney;iyf; nfhz;L te;j jpwid tpsf;Ff? (my;yJ) M. ,ul;rzpa ahj;jphpfj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gLk; jUk Nrj;jpur; rpwg;G ahJ?

15. m. eP FbapUf;Fk; fpuhkj;jpw;F E}yftrjp Ntz;b khtl;l Ml;rpaUf;F xU tpz;zg;gf; fbjk; tiuf. (my;yJ) M. IQ;rpWq;fhg;gpaq;fs; Fwpj;J vOJf.

gFjp

3 x 10 = 30

fPo;ff ; hZk; tpdhf;fSf;Ff; fl;Liu tbtpy; tpil vOJf. 16. GfOld; tho jpUts;Sth; $Wk; fUj;Jf;fis tpsf;Ff. 17. rpyg;gjpfhuj;jpy; ,lk;ngWk; rpwg;gpay;Gfisj; njhFj;Jiuf;f. fdhj;jpwk; ciuj;j fhijapd;

18. rPijiaf; fz;l mDkd; ,uhkdplk; te;J tzq;fp $Wtdtw;iw tpthp. 19. egpfs; ehafk; kioapid mioj;jtpjk; Fwpj;J Muha;f. 20. gjpndd;fPo;f;fzf;F E}y;fisg; gw;wp xU fl;Liu vOJf.

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