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QUESTION PATTERN

; ‡evW© cÖkœcÎ t 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007(†Uó †ccvi)

; eo cÖkœ t 6wU (msMVb 4wU + e¨e¯’vcbv 2wU ) 6 X 10 = 60

; ‡QvU cÖkœ t 8wU (msMVb 4wU + e¨e¯’vcbv 2wU ) 4 X 10 = 40

; eo cÖkœ mg~‡ni GKvwaK As‡ki †¶‡Î c„_K b¤^I eivÏ _vK‡e|

; bgybv cÖkœ t

¾ m½v ¾bxwZgvjv
¾ Kvh©vewj ¾ mgm¨v
¾ ¸i“Z¡ ¾ c×wZ
¾ ‰ewkó¨ ¾ gva¨g
¾ myweav - Amyweav ¾ cv_©K¨
¾ Kvib ¾ e¨vL¨v
¾ cÖYvjx / c`‡¶c ¾ ¸bvejx
¾ MVb ¾ mxgve×Zv
¾ cÖKvi‡f` ¾ Dcv`vb
¾ Drm ¾ avibv

Composed by eMu
‡jKPvi cwiKíbv

‡jKPvi 01 wm‡jevm, gvbe›Ub, m¤¢ve¨ cÖkœvejx, DËi KvVv‡gv|


‡jKPvi 02 e¨emv‡qi cÖK…wZ, e¨emv‡qi cwi‡ek
‡jKPvi 03 GKgvwjKvbv msMVb, Askx`vwi msMVb|
‡jKPvi 04 ‡Kv¤úvwb msMVb, mgevq msMVb|
‡jKPvi 05 e¨emv‡qi A_©ms¯’vb, evRviRvZKib|
‡jKPvi 06 Avg`vwb ißvwb, e¨e¯’vcbvi cÖK…wZ|
‡jKPvi 07 cwiKíbv, msMVb|
‡jKPvi 08 Kg©xms¯’vb, wb‡`©kbv I †bZ…Z¡|
‡jKPvi 09 ‡cÖlbv, wbqš¿b|
‡jKPvi 10 cybiv‡jvPbv|
‡jKPvi 11 g‡Wj †Uó 1 (e¨emvq msMVb) c~Y©gvb 60 ; mgq 2 N›Uv
‡jKPvi 12 g‡Wj †Uó 2 (e¨e¯’vcbv) c~Y©gvb 40 ; mgq 1 N›Uv

Composed by eMu
A+ cÖvwßi wb©‡`kbv

; nv‡Zi †jLv h_vm¤¢e cwi”Qbœ (mn‡R cov hvq) nIqv evÂbxq|


; A‡c¶vK…Z †ewk b¤^i cÖvwßi m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q GiKg cÖkœ evQvB Kiv|
; mgq e›U‡bi gva¨‡g mKj cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z n‡e|
; DËi KvVv‡gv, cÖ‡kœi mv‡_ mvgÄm¨c~Y© n‡Z n‡e|
; Dˇi mc‡¶ wPÎ, ZvwjKv, Z_¨, DcvË, D`vnib, D”Pb¤^I cÖvwßi mnvqK|
; GKvwaK iwOb Kvwj e¨env‡ii †¶‡Î mZK© _vKv DwPr|
; Dˇii †gŠwjK Ask¸‡jvi wb‡P `vM (underline) w`‡Z n‡e|
; wPÎ AvKvi †¶‡Î free hand †Póv Ki‡j mgq evPuv‡bv hv‡e|
; cwi®‹vi - cwi”Qbœ LvZv wk¶‡Ki `„wó AvKl©b K‡i|
; m‡e©vcwi, mwVK Z_¨mg„×, cÖvmw½K DËicÎB D”P b¤^i cÖwßi Dcvq|

Composed by eMu
weMZ eQ‡ii cÖkœvewj

XvKv †evW© - 2003 XvKv †evW© - 2004


e¨emvq bxwZ I cÖ‡qvM - 1g cÎ e¨emvq bxwZ I cÖ‡qvM - 1g cÎ
K wefvMt e¨emvq msMVb K wefvMt e¨emvq msMVb
1| evwY‡R¨i msÁv `vI| Bnvi cwiwa Av‡jvPbv Ki| 1| evwY‡R¨I msÁv `vI|evwY‡R¨i Kvh©vewj eY©bv Ki|
A_ev, GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi msÁv `vI| Bnvi ˆewk󨸇jv eY©bv Ki| A_ev, GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ˆewk󨸇jv Av‡jvPbv Ki|
2| Ask`vix Pzw³cÎ Kv‡K e‡j? Pzw³c‡Îi welqe¯‘ eY©bv Ki|A_ev, 2| wewfbœ cÖKvi mgevq mwgwZi msw¶ß eY©bv `vI|
†Kv¤úvwbi ¯§viKwjwc wK? ¯§viKwjwci aviv¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, Askx`vwi Pzw³c‡Îi welqe¯‘ eY©bv Ki|
3| mgevq mwgwZ wK? wewfbœ cÖKvi mgevq mwgwZi msw¶ß weeiY `vI| 3| ¯§viKwjwc wK? Gi avivmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki|
A_ev, e›UbcÖYvwj Kv‡K e‡j? cY¨ e›UbcÖYvwj wba©vi‡Y we‡eP¨ welqmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, evRviRvZKi‡Yi msÁv `vI| Gi ¸i“Z¡ eY©bv Ki|
4| e¨emv‡qi `xN©‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm¸‡jvi weeiY `vI| 4| cvURvZ cY¨ ißvbxi c×wZ Av‡jvPbv Ki|
A_ev, we‡`wk cY¨ ißvwb c×wZ¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, e¨fmv‡qi `xN©‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm¸‡jv eY©bv Ki|
5| e¨emvq msMVb ej‡Z wK †evS? 5| e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ ej‡Z wK †evS? A_ev, wewfbœ cÖKvi e¨emvq msMV‡bi bvg
A_ev, e¨emvwqK cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb¸‡jvi msw¶ß eY©bv `vI| wjL|
6| AvPi‡Y AbywgZ Askx`vi Kv‡K e‡j? 6| Askx`vwi e¨emv wKiƒ‡c wbeÜb Kiv nq? A_ev, weeiYcÎ Kv‡K e‡j|
A_ev, Askx`vwi e¨emvq wbeÜb bv Kivi cwibvg wK? 7| cÖZ¨q cÎ wK? A_ev, weµq cÖmvi ej‡Z wK †evS?
7| †µZv I †fv³vi cv_©K¨ wbY©q Ki| A_ev, cÖZ¨qcÎ ej‡Z wK †evS? 8| c‡Y¨i RxebP‡µi msÁv `vI| A_ev, wefvMxq wecwY I eûkvLv wecwYi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wK?
8| weµq cÖmvi ej‡Z wK †evS?A_ev, wefvMxq wecYx ej‡Z wK †evS? L wefvM- e¨e¯’vcbv
L wefvMt e¨e¯’vcbv 9| GKRb e¨e¯’vc‡Ki Kvh©vewj Av‡jvPbv Ki|
9| e¨e¯’vcbvi Kvh©vewj Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, GKv_©K cwiKíbvi msÁv `vI| cwiKíbvi ¸i“Z¡ eY©bv Ki|
A_ev, GKwU DËg cwiKíbvi ˆewkó¨mg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| 10| Kg©x msMÖn wK? Kg©x wbe©vP‡bi c×wZ eY©bv Ki|
10| cÖwk¶Y Kv‡K e‡j? cÖwk¶‡Yi ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v Ki| A_ev, †bZ…Z¡ wK? GKRb †bZvi ¸Yvewj Av‡jvPbv Ki|
A_ev, †bZ…Z¡ ej‡Z wK †evS? wewfbœ cÖKvi †bZ…‡Z¡i eY©bv `vI| 11| mij‰iwLK msMV‡bi ˆewk󨸇jv Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, wb‡`©kbvi cuvPwU bxwZ wjL|
11| e¨e¯’vcbvi D‡Ïk¨vewj eY©bv Ki| 12| wbqš¿‡bi msÁv `vI|A_ev, †cÖlYvi ¸i“Z¡ wK?
A_ev, Kg©x msMÖn Ges Kg©x wbe©vP‡bi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`LvI| 13| ˆ¯^iZvwš¿K †bZ…Z¡ ej‡Z wK †evS? A_ev, msMVb PvU© wK?
12| ÷vwds Kv‡K e‡j? A_ev, †cÖlYvi msÁv `vI| 14| ¯’vqx cwiKíbv wK? A_ev, cuvPwU cÖwk¶Y c×wZi bvg wjL|
13| ev‡RUvix wbqš¿b Kv‡K e‡j?A_ev, c‡`vbœwZi wfwËmg~n wK?
14| DËg wb‡`©kbvi ˆewk󨸇jv wK? A_ev, KwgwUi myweavmg~n wK?

XvKv †evW© - 2005


e¨emvq bxwZ I cÖ‡qvM - 1g cÎ XvKv †evW© - 2006
K wefvMt e¨emvq msMVb e¨emvq bxwZ I cÖ‡qvM - 1g cÎ
1| e¨emv‡qi msÁv `vI| e¨emv‡qi ˆewkó¨mg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq K wefvMt e¨emvq msMVb
wK? e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi cvkvcvwk GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq wU‡K _vKvi KviYmg~n e¨vL¨v Ki| 1| e¨emv‡qi msÁv `vI| e¨emv‡qi ¸i“Z¡ eY©bv Ki|
2| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi g~j ˆewkó¨mg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi ˆewkó¨mg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki|
A_ev, †hŠ_g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi MVbcÖYvwj eY©bv Ki| 2| e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ Dcv`vb Av‡jvPbv Ki|
3| mgevq mwgwZi g~jbxwZ¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, wewfbœ cÖKvi †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi msw¶ß weeiY `vI|
A_ev, e¨emv‡qi ¯^í‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm¸‡jv eY©bv Ki| 3| †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi c`‡¶cmg~n eY©bv Ki| A_ev, mgevq mwgwZi g~jbxwZ Av‡jvbv Ki|
4| GKRb Av`k© weµqKg©xi ¸Yvewjmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki|A_ev, ˆe‡`wkK evwY‡R¨ cY¨ 4| hy³ivR¨ n‡Z cY¨ Avg`vwbi c`‡¶cmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki|
Avg`vwbi cÖ‡qvRbxq c×wZ¸‡jv eY©bv Ki| A_ev, ga¨¯’ e¨emvqx ej‡Z wK †evS? ga¨¯’ e¨emvqx‡`i Kvh©vewj Av‡jvPbv Ki|
5| e¨emv‡qi ˆbwZKZv wK? A_ev, GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi Dchy³ †¶Î¸‡jv D‡j−L Ki| 5| e¨emv‡q ¯^í‡gqvw`A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drmmg~n D‡j−L Ki|
6| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi eva¨Zvg~jK we‡jvc mva‡bi †¶Î wK wK? A_ev, †kqvi I FYc‡Îi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wK?
A_ev, †kqvi I FYc‡Îi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`LvI| 6| †kqvi evRvi ej‡Z wK †evS? A_ev, cwi‡gj wbqgvewj ej‡Z wK †evSvq?
7| †fv³v mgevq mwgwZ Kv‡K e‡j? A_ev, †kqvi evRv‡ii ˆewk󨸇jv wK? 7| cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb I cÖvB‡fU wiwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`LvI|
8| wkícY¨ I †fvMc‡Y¨i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wbY©q Ki| A_ev, PvU©vi cvwU© wK? A_ev, Askx`vwi Pyw³cÎ ej‡Z wK †evS?
L wefvMt e¨e¯’vcbv 8| GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi Dchy³ †¶Îmg~n wK? A_ev, Pvjvwb iwm` Kv‡K e‡j?
9| e¨e¯’vcbv Kv‡K e‡j? e¨e¯’vcbvi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki| L wefvM- e¨e¯’vcbv
A_ev, cwiKíbvi msÁv `vI| cwiKíbv cÖYq‡bi c`‡¶c¸‡jv eY©bv Ki| 9| e¨e¯’vcbvi g~jbxwZmg~n eY©bv Ki|A_ev, Kg©x‡`i †cÖlYv`v‡bi wewfbœ Dcvq Av‡jvPbv Ki|
10| DËg wb‡`©kbvi ˆewkó¨mg~n eY©bv Ki| A_ev, wbqš¿‡Yi c`‡¶c¸‡jv eY©bv Ki| 10| wbqš¿b Kv‡K e‡j? wbqš¿‡bi c`‡¶cmg~n eY©bv Ki|
11| mij‰iwLK I Dc‡`óv msMVb Kv‡K e‡j? A_ev, e¨e¯’vcbv Pµ wK? A_ev, GKwU DËg wb‡`©kbvi ˆewkó¨ Av‡jvPbv Ki|
12| civgk©g~jK wb‡`©kbvi msÁv `vI| A_ev, MYZvwš¿K †bZ…Z¡ Kv‡K e‡j? 11| msMVb KvVv‡gv ej‡Z wK †evSvq? A_ev, †cÖlYvi msÁv `vI|
13| cÖwk¶‡Yi D‡Ïk¨mg~n wK? A_ev, GKv_©K cwiKíbv Kv‡K e‡j? 12| GKv_©K cwiKíbv I ¯’vqx cwiKíbvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`LvI|
14| †cÖlYvi Abvw_©K Dcv`vbmg~n wK? A_ev, KwgwU ej‡Z wK †evSvq? A_ev, e¨e¯’vcbv I cÖkvm‡bi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`LvI|
13| mij‰iwLK msMV‡bi myweavmg~n wK? A_ev, Kg©x msMÖ‡ni wewfbœ Drmmg~n eY©bv Ki|
14| Òe¨e¯’vcbv PµÓ ej‡Z wK †evSvq? A_ev, civgk©g~jK wb‡`©kbv ej†Z wK †evSvq?

Composed by eMu
e¨emv‡qi cÖK…wZ

cÖkœ t e¨emv‡qi msÁv `vI|

f‚wgKv t
gvby‡li Afve‡eva †_‡KB Kg©¯ú„nv RvMÖZ nq| Afv‡ei AmxgZvi Kvi‡bB A_©‰bwZK wµqvKjvc we¯—…Z cwim‡i
cwijw¶Z nq| Z‡e A_©‰bwZK wµqvK‡g©i aib hvB †nvK bv †Kb Gi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q Afve cwiZ…ß Kiv| ZvB Afve
c~i‡Yi j‡¶ A_© DcvR©‡bi †KŠkj †_‡KB e¨emv‡qi m~Pbv n‡q‡Q| e¨emvq mgvR weÁv‡bi GKwU ¸i“Z¡c~Y© kvLv|

g~j e³e¨ t
A_©‰bwZK e¨e¯’vq gvby‡li e¯‘MZ I Ae¯‘MZ Afve c~i‡Yi j‡¶, gybvdv AR©b I mgvwRK Kj¨v‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ cY¨-
`ªe¨ I †mev Kg© Drcv`b, e›Ub, Ges Drcv`b e›Ub Kv‡R cÖZ¶ I c‡iv¶fv‡e mnvqK Dc‡hvM m„wóKvix mKj A_©‰bwZK
KvR e¨emvq wn‡m‡e Mb¨|

D`vnib t
A_© DcvR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ m¤úvw`Z KvR¸‡jv e¨emvq ÑÑÑ
DwKj DKvjwZ K‡i A_© DcvR©b K‡ib|
GKRb kªwgK cwikªg K‡i cvwikªwgK cvb|
abx e¨w³i e¨vs‡K Mw”QZ A‡_©i Dci my` cÖvwß| BZ¨vw`|

gbxlx‡`i msÁv t
1. ÔÔ Business means an enterprise engaged in the production & distribution of goods for
sale in the market or the rendering of services for a price.’’
___ Norman Richard Owens

2. ÔÔ gybvdvgyLx mKj ai‡bi Kvh©vewji mgš^‡q e¨emv‡q MwVZ, hv GKwU A_©‰bwZK e¨e¯’vq cÖ‡qvRbxq cb¨`ªe¨ I
†mev mieivn K‡i _v‡K| ÕÕ ___ Boone & Kurtz

3. ÔÔ Business is an occupation of which money gain is the principal object in which


money loss is the main risk.’’ ___ E. Thomas

e¨emvq mgxKib t
∑ B = ∑ I + ∑ T + ∑ AT
GLv‡b, ∑ = mgwó
B = Business;
I = Industry;
T = Trade;
AT= Auxiliaries to Trade.

Composed by eMu
wPGMZ avibv t

D‡Ïk¨ Drcv`b KvR D™¢veb

gybvdv AR©‡bi f~wg D‡`¨vM MÖnb cb¨


m¤ú` e„w× kªg g~jab wewb‡qvM ‡mev
DØ„Ë m„wó cÖhyw³ Drcv`b avibv
Afve c~iY e›Ub
RbKj¨vb
e¨emvq

Dcmsnvi t
gvby‡li Afve c~iY I RbKj¨†Yi j‡¶ Drcv`‡bi DcKibmg~n e¨envi K‡i Drcv`b Ges Drcvw`Z mvgMÖx
†fv³vi wbKU e›U‡bi gva¨‡g Dc‡hvM Ges e¨w³K ev cÖvwZôvwbK gybvdv m„wói gvbexq cÖwµqvi hveZxq Kvh©vewj‡K e¨emvq
e‡j|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t e¨emv‡qi ‰ewkó¨mg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki|

‘The characteristics means a quality of a thing or a subject by which it is properly


identified. ’ ___ Sir Richard Tample

Ggb wKQz `„k¨gvb ev A`„k¨gvb e¯‘ I Ae¯’v i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv e¨emvq‡K Ab¨vb¨ welq †_‡K Avjv`v K‡i| †Kvb
A_©‰bwZK KvR e¨emvq wn‡m‡e cwiMwbZ n‡Z n‡j Zvi wb‡gœv³ ˆewkó¨mg~n _vK‡Z n‡e|

e¨emv‡qi ˆewkó¨

‡gŠwjK ˆewkó¨ ‡MŠb ˆewkó¨


AvBbMZ ˆewkó¨

1. D‡`¨vM MÖnb I msMVb m„wó t


GKK ev †hŠ_fv‡e D‡`¨vM MÖnb †h †Kvb Kvh©µ‡gi cÖv_wgK c`‡¶c|

D‡`¨vM MÖnb
j¶ AR©b
e¨emvqMVb f~wg
cwiPvjbv kªg msMVb
m¤cÖmviY g~jab

2. Dc‡hvM m„wó t
cY¨`ªe¨ Afve c~iY Kivi ¶gZv‡K Dc‡hvM e‡j| e¨emvq 6 ai‡bi Dc‡hvM m„wó K‡i ÑÑÑÑ
; ¯^Z¡MZ Dc‡hvM
; iƒcMZ Dc‡hvM
; ¯’vbMZ Dc‡hvM
; mgqMZ Dc‡hvM
; SzuwKMZ Dc‡hvM
; Ávb msµvš— Dc‡hvM

3. AvBbMZ ˆeaZv t
e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb KZ©…K M„nxZ D‡`¨vM, †`‡k cÖPwjZ AvB‡b MÖnb‡hvM¨ n‡Z n‡e|
; wewfbœ AvBb ÑÑÑ wkí AvBb, kªg AvBb, KviLvbv AvBb|
; `wjj cÎ ÑÑÑÑ †UªW jvB‡mÝ, Pzw³cÎ, ¯§viKwjwc, Dcwewa|

Composed by eMu
4. gybvdv AvB‡bi D‡Ïk¨ t

Profit is the reward for bearing risk & uncertainty.


_________ F.H. Night

Peter F. Drucker Gi g‡Z, PviwU Kvi‡b gybvdv AR©b Kiv Avek¨K ÑÑÑÑ
K. e¨emv‡qi Kvh©KvwiZv cwigvc,
L. SzuwK MÖn‡bi Aby‡cÖibv,
M. cyb:wewb‡qvM,
N. e¨emvqxi Drmvn, DÏxcbv|

5. SzuwK I AwbðqZv t

The business involves larger element of risk & uncertainty.


e¨emv‡q wewfbœ ai‡bi SzuwK I AwbðqZv we`¨gvb ÑÑ

; cY¨ ev †mev webó,


; g~j¨ cZb,
; miKvix bxwZgvjv cwieZ©b,
; cÖvK…wZK `~‡h©vM, cÖf„wZ|

6. A_© ms¯’vb t
Business enterprises can not move a step without finances.
_________S.S. Sarker & Others

e¨emv‡qi cÖwZwU Kv‡Ri Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq Znwe‡ji cÖevn eRvq ivLv n‡jv A_© ms¯’vb|

7. ‡cŠb :cywbK †jb‡`b t


e¨emv‡qi ‡jb‡`b cyb:cyb NU‡Z _vK‡e| AvKw¯§K Kvi‡b †jb‡`b NU‡j Zv‡K e¨emvq ejv hv‡ebv|

8. e¨emvwqK mI`v t
e¨emvq †h mKj DcKib wb‡q Kg©KvÛ cwiPvjbv K‡i, ZvB e¨emvwqK mI`v| †hgb ÑÑÑÑÑ
; cY¨,
; ‡mev,
; A_© FY|

Composed by eMu
9. m¤ú` e„w× t
Wealth is the long term expression of profit.
wewfbœ ai‡bi Dc‡hvM m„wói gva¨‡g e¨emvq e¨w³K Ges cÖvwZôvwbK m¤ú` e„wׇZ mvnvh¨ K‡i|

10. g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv t

Values helps to differentiate right from wrong.


_________ Hadith

e¨emv‡qi †¶‡Î ˆbwZKZv, g~j¨‡ev‡ai weKí †bB|

g~j¨‡eva ‰bwZKZv
¾ e¨emvq GKwU cweÎ †ckv ¾ e¨emvq Kvh©vewji mwVKZv
¾ cÖZvibvg~jK KvR bv Kiv ¾ AvBb †g‡b Pjv
¾ mwVK wnmve msi¶b ¾ mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv

11. mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv t

Social responsibility means the obligations of business to the society.


______ M. N. Mishra

mgv‡R wewfbœ c‡¶i mv‡_ e¨emv‡qi cÖZ¶ ev c‡iv¶ m¤úK© i‡q‡Q|

; mieivnKvix
; miKvi
; ‡µZv / †fv³v
; cÖwZ‡hvwM
; wewb‡qvMKvix
; cvIbv`vi

12. RbKj¨vY t
The business enterprise must be so managed as to make the good for public &
private enterprise.
_______ P. F. Drucker
e¨emvwqK Kg©KvÛ RbKj¨vYgyLx n‡Z n‡e| †hgb ÑÑÑ
™ ¯^v¯’¨Ki cwi‡e‡k Drcv`b,
™ m‡PZbZv m„wó,
™ wk¶v ms¯‹…wZi weKvk, cÖf„wZ|
e¨emv‡qi Avbylvw½K ˆewkó¨ ¸‡jv n‡jv ÑÑ

Composed by eMu
13. kªg wefvRb
14. we‡klvqb
15. avivevwnK Dbœqb I we¯—…wZ
16. ‡mevi g‡bvfve
17. gybvdv AR©b
18. MwZkxjZv
19. wgZe¨wqZv
20. A_©‰bwZK I mvgvwRK Dbœqb

Dcmsnvi t
‰ewkó¨MZ Kvi‡b c„w_ex‡Z Ab¨Zg †ckv wn‡m‡e Ôe¨emvqÕ Avcb gwngvq D¾¡j| ZvB c„w_exi mKj †ckv n‡Z GwU
Avjv`v Ges RbwcÖqZv I mvd‡j¨i mv‡_ me©Î m¤cÖmvwiZ n‡”Q| B. O. Wheeler ZvB e‡j‡Qb,
‘‘ An individual firm is an atom of business, the basic source of productive economic energy.’’

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t we‡`‡k cY¨ ißvwbi c`‡¶c ¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv Ki|

‘‘There exist a number of procedures of exporting


goods to the forign country. ’’
---- Durgadas Bhattachariee

cY¨ ißvwb eZ©gv‡b GKwU mvavib welq n‡jI GK †`k †_‡K Ab¨‡`‡k cY¨ ißvwbi †¶‡Î KwZcq myk„•Lj
AvbyôvwbKZv cvjb Ki‡Z nq| cY¨ ißvwbi †¶‡Î Abym„Z GB avivevwnK AvbyôvwbKZv cY¨ ißvwb c×wZ bv‡g cwiwPZ|

Drcv`bKvix ‡fvMKvix / †µZv


( †`k / ivóª ) ( †`k / ivóª )

wkí ‰e‡`wkK evwYR¨ cY¨

ißvwb ‰e‡`wkK gy`ªv Avg`vwb

ißvwb cÖwµqvi ˆewkó¨ t


” ‡µZv-we‡µZvi g‡a¨ e¨cK `~iZ¡|
” Av_©-mvgvwRK I ivR‰bwZK m¤úK©|
” miKvi KZ…©K Aby‡gvw`Z c‡Y¨i ißvwb|

(1) AW©vi cÖvwß t


‘‘ An order is the request from the buyer to the seller for
the supply of goods to the former. ’’
---- N. C. Roy

ißvwb cÖwµqvi cÖ_‡gB mswk−ó ißvwbKviK, Avg`vwbKvi‡Ki KvQ †_‡K cY¨ µ‡qi AW©vicÎ cvq| G AW©vi cÎ `yB
ai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i|

Composed by eMu
†Lvjv AW©vicÎ wbw`©ó AW©vicÎ

” c‡Y¨i bvg ” c‡Y¨i bvg


” c‡Y¨i weeiY ” gvb I ¸b
” cY¨ g~j¨
” ‡gvoKxKib
” g~j¨ cwi‡kva c×wZ

(2) miKvix AbygwZcÎ msMÖn t


ißvwbKvix‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq AbygwZcÎ msMÖn Ki‡Z n‡e| Z‡e miKvix ZvwjKvf~³ c‡Y¨i †¶‡Î Aby‡gv`‡bi cÖ‡qvRb
†bB|
(3) AW©vi MÖnb I ¯^xK…wZ t
ißvwbKvi‡Ki wbKU myweavRbK g‡b n‡j wZwb Zv MÖnb K‡ib Ges Avg`vwbKvi‡Ki eivei GKwU ¯^xK…wZcÎ †cÖib
K‡ib|
(4) cÖZ¨q cÎ †Lvjvi wb‡`©k t
G ch©v‡q ißvwbKviK, Avg`vwbKviK‡K Zvi AbyK‚‡j cÖZ¨qcÎ (L.C.) †Lvjvi Aby‡iva K‡ib|

Avg`vwbKvix g~j¨ cÖvwßi wbðqZvcÎ


( cÖZ¨qcÎ )

ißvbxKvix e¨vsK

(5) wewbgq nvi wba©vib t


ÔÔ A rate of exchange is the ratio at which domestic currency
can be exchanged against foreign currency.’’
---- Gastav Cassel

gy`ªv wewbgq nv‡ii fwel¨Z cwieZ©‡bi m¤¢ve¨ cÖvwßi nvZ †_‡K i¶v †c‡Z g~j¨ cwi‡kv‡ai mgq wewbgq nvi KZ
n‡e, Zv AMÖxg w¯’i K‡i e¨vs‡Ki mv‡_ GKwU Pzw³ m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq|

Composed by eMu
(6) cY¨ msMÖn t
ißvbxKvix Avg`vwbKvix KZ©„K wb‡`©wkZ cY¨ msMÖn K‡ib Ges Zv wbR ¸`v‡g ev W‡Ki ¸`vg N‡i Rvnv‡R cY¨ bv
DVv‡bv ch©š— †i‡L †`b|
(7) RvnvR fvovKib t
‘‘ The exporter shipping documents essentially pass from
an importer on the shipment of goods. ’’
---- Mamtaz Uddin

ißvwbKvix cY¨ †cŠQv‡bvi Rb¨ RvnvR fvov I AvbyôvwbK welqvw` wb‡q wkwcs ‡Kv¤úvwb mv‡_ Pzw³e× nb| PvUv©i
cvwU© `yB ai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i ---
K. wbw`©ó mg‡qi Rb¨
L. wbw`©ó mgy`ª hvÎvi Rb¨

(8) cY¨ cÖ¯‘ZKib t


ißvwbKviK digv‡qk c‡Îi gvb Abyhvqx c¨vwKs K‡i †cÖi‡Yi Rb¨ cÖ¯‘Z K‡ib|
(9) c‡Y¨i mgxKiY t
m¤¢ve¨ `~N©Ubv Gov‡Z ißvwbKvix cY¨ cwienbKv‡j †bŠ-exgv †Kv¤úvwbi mv‡_ Pzw³e× nb|
(10) ïé welqK AvbyôvwbKZv t
cY¨ RvnvRxKi‡bi c~‡e© c~Y© weeib mn KvMRcÎ ïé wefv‡M Rgv w`‡Z nq|

ißvwbKviK Shipping bill ïé KZ…©c¶

‡UªW jvB‡mÝ c‡Y¨i weeib AbygwZcÎ

(11) cY¨ IR‡bi cÖZ¨qbcÎ msMÖn t


e›`i KZ…©c¶ KZ©„K Aby‡gvw`Z IRbKvixi wbKU †_‡K c‡Y¨I mwVK cwigvc-cwigv‡bi ¯^c‡¶ cÖZ¨qb cÎ msMÖn
Ki‡Z nq|

(12) RvnvRxKib t

e›`i KZ…©K cÖ`Ë dock recept


RvnvR †Kv¤úvwb Bill of Leading
RvnvR K¨v‡Þb KZ…©K cÖ`Ë Mates recept

Composed by eMu
Pvjvwb iwm` 3 cÖ‡¯’ ˆZwi K‡i RvnvR KZ©„c¶ KZ©„K ¯^v¶wiZ n‡j RvnvRxKib cÖwµqv mgvß nq|

(13) cY¨ †cÖi‡bi msev` t


ißvbxKvix cY¨ †cÖi‡bi msev` Ges Zv †cŠQv‡bvi m¤¢ve¨ ZvwiL Rvwb‡q Avg`vwbKvix‡K msev` †cÖib K‡i|

(14) `wjjcÎ ˆZwi I †cÖib t

‡bŠ-exgvcÎ Av
i
cÖfve‡jL g
ßv e¨v
Pvjvbiwm` `v
wb s
wewbgq wej wb
Kv ißvwb Pvjvb K Kv
ix
ix

wewbgq wej 3 cÖ‡¯’, ißvwb Pvjvb 4 cÖ‡¯’ Ges Ab¨vb¨ `wjj 1 cÖ‡¯’ ˆZwi Ki‡Z nq|

(15) g~j¨ cÖvwß t


`wjjcÎ mn cY¨ cÖvwßi ci Avg`vwbKvix g~j¨ cwi‡kv‡ai e¨e¯’v K‡i| ißvwbKvix myweavgZ g~j¨ cÖvwß wbwðZ K‡i|
†hgb ----
” wej evÆvKi‡bi gva¨‡g,
” ‡gqv`x wej weµq K‡i,
” ‡P‡Ki gva¨‡g |
(16) †jb‡`‡bi cwimgvwß t
ißvwbKviK Avg`vwbKvi‡Ki wbKU †_‡K cY¨ cÖvwßi m‡š—vlRbK wee„wZ †c‡j †jb‡`‡bi cwimgvwß n‡q‡Q e‡j a‡i
‡bqv nq|
G mKj Kvh©vewj mgvß K‡iB GK †`k †_‡K Ab¨ †`‡k e¨emvqxMY cY¨ †cÖib K‡i Avš—Rv© wZK e¨emv‡qi PvKv‡K
mPj iv‡L| †jb‡`b ch©v‡q †Kvb c‡¶i †Kvb Awf‡hvM _vK‡j Zv ¯’vbxq ewYK mwgwZ ev †P¤^vi Ae Kgv‡m©i gva¨‡g
m‡š—vlRbK fv‡e wgwU‡q †djv hvq|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t e¨emv‡qi Dci cÖfve we¯—viKvix Dcv`vb¸‡jv eY©bv Ki|

‘‘ Organization environment can help or hurt managements


effort to attain organizational goals.’’
---- Bovee & Others

cwi‡ek Ggb GKwU cÖfveK hv‡K cvk KvwU‡q e¨emvwqK mvdj¨ wPš—vI Kiv hvq bv| e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb
¸‡jv `yB †kªYx‡Z wef³ -- e¨wóK cwi‡ek Ges mgwóK cwi‡ek|

” e¨wóK cwi‡ek t
e¨wóK cwi‡ek ej‡Z e¨emv‡qi mv‡_ RwoZ c¶ mg~n‡K †evSvq| Philip Kotler cÖ`Ë e¨emvq
cwi‡e‡k‡I wewfbœ c¶ I kw³ mg~n ÑÑ

A_©‰bwZK
cÖv Av
K… B
wZ ‡Kv¤úvwb mieivnKvix ga¨¯’ e¨emvqx b
K M
Z
cÖ mv
hy gv
cÖwZ‡hvwM MÖvnK Rb‡Mvôx
w³ wR
M K
Z RbmsL¨v

” mgwóK cwi‡ek t
1. HwZnvwmK cwi‡ek t
e¨emv‡qi BwZnvm, HwZn¨MZ Dcv`v‡bi mgš^‡q HwZnvwmK cwi‡ek MwVZ|
Dcv`vb :
” AZxZ AwfÁZv ” e¨w³K hk I L¨wZ
” mybvg ” e¨emvq `¶Zv
” cvwievwiK HwZn¨ ” eskvbyµwgK e¨emvi aviv

cÖfve :
Gme Dcv`vb e¨emv‡qi mvdj¨-e¨_©Zvi †cQ‡b cÖZ¨¶fv‡e cÖfve we¯—vi K‡i _v‡K|

Composed by eMu
2. cÖvK…wZK cwi‡ek t
cÖvK…wZKfv‡e m„ó Dcv`v‡bi mgš^‡q cÖvK…wZK cwi‡ek MwVZ|
Dcv`vb :
” f~ - cÖK…wZ ” b` - b`x ” cÖvK…wZK m¤ú`
” Rjevqy ” MvQ - cvjv ” ‡`‡ki AvqZb
” g„wËKv ” gvbe m¤ú` ” ‡fŠMwjK Ae¯’vb

cÖfve :
cÖvK…wZK cwi‡ek wb‡`©k K‡i †Kvb A‡j Kx ai‡bi e¨emvq D‡`¨vM M‡o DV‡Z cv‡i|

3. A_©‰bwZK cwi‡ek t
A_©‰bwZK cwi‡ek H mKj Dcv`vb wb‡q MwVZ hv †fv³vi µq ¶gZv I e¨q avPu‡K cÖfvweZ
K‡i|
Dcv`vb :
” Avw_©K cÖwZôvb ” kªg I gvbe m¤ú` ” e¨vsK nvi
” g~jab ” A_© FY e¨eöv ” gy`ªvùxwZ
” mÂq ” gv_vwcQz I RvZxq Avq ” A_© evRvi
” wewb‡qvM ” ‡MŠb Dcv`vb ” g~jab evRvi

cÖfve :
A_©‰bwZK cwi‡ek e¨emv‡qi AvKvi (¶z`ªvKvi - e„n`vKvi) wba©vib K‡i|
D`vniY :
evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk gvby‡li Av‡qi Zzjbvq †fvM cÖeYZv †ewk| G Kvi‡b `wi`ª †`k nIqv
m‡Z¡I GLv‡b wejvm `ª‡e¨i Pvwn`v µgk e„w× cv‡”Q|
4. mvgvwRK cwi‡ek t
mvgvwRK cwi‡ek H mKj Dcv`vb wb‡q MwVZ hv mgv‡R emevmiZ gvby‡li mf¨Zv I Rxeb
aviv‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i|
Dcv`vb :
” wk¶v I ms¯‹…wZ ” ag©xq msMVb ” ixwZ - bxwZ
” g~j¨‡eva, ‰bwZKZv ” ms¯‹…wZK msMVb ” cQ›` - AcQ›`
” ag©, eY© ” mvgvwRK ms®‹vi ” AvPvi - Abyôvb
” wk¶v cÖwZôvb ” Kzms®‹vi ” ‡eKviZ¡

Composed by eMu
cÖfve :
mvgvwRK cwi‡ek cY¨ ev †mevi Pvwn`v wba©viY K‡i|

5. ivR‰bwZK cwi‡ek t
ivR‰bwZK cwi‡ek GKwU †`‡ki miKvi I ivR‰bwZK Dcv`v‡bi mgš^‡q MwVZ|
Dcv`vb :
” miKvi ” niZvj ” ivR¯^ bxwZ
” ivR‰bwZK `j ” ag©NU ” wkí bxwZ
” ivR‰bwZK ” Ae‡iva ” AvBb - k„•Ljv

cÖfve :
ivR‰bwZK cwi‡ek e¨emv‡qi Kvh©µg I cwiPvjbvq cÖfve we¯—vi K‡i|

ivR‰bwZK cwi‡ek

Kg©m~Px djvdj
” niZvj ” ‡hvMvb e¨vnZ
” ‡NivI ” `ªe¨g~j¨ e„w×

6. AvBbMZ cwi‡ek t

‘‘Law is the command of the sovereign.’’


AvBbMZ cwi‡ek GKwU †`‡ki AvBbMZ KvVv‡gv I msweavb wb‡q MwVZ|
Dcv`vY :

” mvavib AvBb ” kªg AvBb ” cwi‡ek msi¶b AvBb


” we‡kl AvBb ” wkí AvBb ” ‡fv³v AwaKvi AvBb
” wewb‡qvM bxwZ ” KviLvbv AvBb ” Avg`vwb ißvwb AvBb

cÖfve :
AvBbMZ cwi‡ek e¨emv‡qi Kvh©vewj‡K myk„•Lj K‡i|

7. cÖhyw³MZ cwi‡ek t

‘‘Globalization is now only what technology makes possible.’’


cÖhyw³MZ cwi‡ek weÁvb I cÖhyw³MZ Dcv`v‡bi mgš^‡q MwVZ|

Composed by eMu
Dcv`vb :
” KvwiMwi wk¶v ” Telecommunication ” E- mail
” weÁvb cÖwZôvb ” Fax ” E – commerce
” M‡elbv cÖwZôvb ” Internet ” IT village

cÖfve :
cÖhyw³MZ Kvi‡bB gvbyl Zvi wba©vwiZ j‡¶¨ bvUKxqfv‡e †cŠQv‡Z cv‡i|
D`vnib :
On line shipping Gi e‡`Šj‡Z gvbyl N‡i e‡m †KbvKvUv Ki‡Z cv‡i|

8. Avš—R©vwZK cwi‡ek t
Avš—R©vwZK cwi‡ek GKwU †`‡ki †fŠMwjK mxgv‡iLvi evB‡ii Dcv`vb wb‡q MwVZ|
Dcv`vb :
9 Avš—Rv©wZK evwYR¨ 9 cwi‡ek AvBb 9 we‡`kx mvnvh¨ ms¯’v
9 AvÂwjK ms¯’v 9 Avš—Rv©wZK kªg AvBb 9 Avg`vwb ißvwb †KvUv
9 Avš—R©vwZK ms¯’v 9 Avš—R©vwZK wnmve weÁvb 9 evwYwR¨K †KvUv
AvBb

cÖfve :
Avš—R©vwZK cwi‡ek e¨emvq cwZôv‡bi bxwZ wba©vi‡b mvnvh¨ K‡i|
D`vnib :
evsjv‡`‡ki ICAB Ges ICMAB Avš—R©vwZK bxwZgvjv- GAAP Abyhvqx wnmve i¶‡bi KvR
m¤úv`b K‡i|

Dcmsnvi t
e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb ¸‡jv we‡ePbv I wPš—v bv Ki‡j myôz I my›`ifv‡e e¨emvq cwiPvjbv m¤¢e bq|
Avi ZvB e¨emv‡qi MVb, cwiPvjbv, mvd‡j¨I mv‡_ wVK _vKv Ges DˇivËi Dbœq‡bi ¯^v‡_© e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki
Dcv`vb mg~‡ni AbyK‚j Dcw¯’wZ wbwðZ Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| G cÖm‡½ Nahavandi & Malekzadeh
‘‘Organization should include improved communication, more participative structures &
cultures.’’

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t evwYR¨ Kv‡K e‡j ?

‘‘Commerce is the index of Civilization.’’


---- Prof. L. Kabir
f~wgKv t
gvbe mf¨Zvi m~PbvjMœ n‡Z e¨emv‡qi †Mvov cËb nq|G mgq Drcv`b e¨e¯’v cvwievwiK cÖ‡qvRbg~Lx wQj|
cieZx©‡Z DØ„Ë cY¨ Ab¨‡`i mv‡_ wewbg‡qi †¶‡Î m„ó bvbvwea Amyweav `~i K‡i †fv³v‡`i Kv‡Q cY¨ †cuŠQv‡bvi cÖwµqv
wn‡m‡e evwY‡R¨i D™¢e N‡U|
g~j e³e¨ t
evwYR¨ e¨emv‡qi Ab¨Zg kvLv| gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ Drcv`‡Ki wbKU †_‡K †fv³vi wbKU cY¨mvgMÖx I
†mevKg© wbwe©‡Nœ †cuŠQv‡bvi hveZxq cÖwZeÜKZv Acmvi‡b G‡RÝx (agency) Kvh©µg‡K evwYR¨ e‡j|
D`vnib t
1. ewikv‡ji evjvg Pvj cwien‡bi gva¨‡g XvKvq G‡b weµq Kiv|
2. weÁvc‡bi gva¨‡g bZzb cY¨ m¤ú‡K© †fv³v‡`i AewnZ Kib|
gbxlx‡`i msÁv t
1. ÔÔ Commerce is concerned with the distribution of commodities & under
modern conditions the business of commodities.’’
---- J. L. Hanson
2. ÔÔ evwYR¨ n‡jv KZ¸‡jv cÖwµqvi mgvnvi hv cY¨ wewbg‡qi c‡_ m„ó e¨w³MZ, ¯’vbMZ, mgqMZ cÖwZeÜKZv
mg~n Acmvi‡bi mv‡_ RwoZ|ÕÕ
---- James Stephenson
3. ÔÔCommerce is the system by which material exchangeable benefits are made
available to the members of the community.’’
---- F. J. Wright

msÁvMZ avibv t
K. Drcv`K Ges †fv³vi g‡a¨ ms‡hvMKvix kvLv|
L. wk‡íi cY¨ e›UbKvix kvLv|
M. gybvdvi D‡Ï‡k¨ wbqwgZ I ˆea Kvh©cÖwµqv|

Composed by eMu
wPÎMZ avibv t

cÖwZeÜKZv `~ixKib Dcvq

e¨w³MZ cY¨ wewbgq


¯’vbMZ cwienb
Drcv`K mgqMZ ¸`vgRvZKib
A_©MZ e¨vsK evRviRvZKib
SzuwKMZ exgv
Drcvw`Z cÖPviMZ weÁvcb †fv³v
cY¨

Dcmsnvi t
gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ e¨emv‡qi †h kvLv Drcv`‡Ki Drcvw`Z cY¨ ev †mev P~ovš— †fv³v‡`i wbKU †cuŠQv‡bvi
†¶‡Î m„ó hveZxq euvav `~i K‡i myôz e›Ub wbwðZ K‡i, Zv‡K evwYR¨ e‡j|

Composed by eMu
e¨emvq cwi‡ek

cÖkœ t e¨emvq cwi‡ek Kv‡K e‡j ?

f~wgKv t
ÔÔMan is born free but everywhere he is in chains.’’
---- Rousseau
gvbyl mvgvwRK Rxe| mgv‡R emevm K‡iB gvbyl‡K mKj cÖKvi KvR m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq| †h‡Kvb KvR m¤úv`‡bi
†¶‡Î cwi‡ek GKwU cÖfveK (ctalyst) wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i|

g~j e³e¨ t
” Ôe¨emvqÕ ej‡Z gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ Drcv`b, e›Ub I mnvqK ˆea Kvh©vewj‡K †evSvq|
” Ôcwi‡ekÕ ej‡Z cÖvK…wZK I AcÖvK…wZK wewfbœ Dcv`vb‡K †evSvq hv Rxeb‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i|
‡h mKj ewnt¯’ Ae¯’v e¨emv‡qi Kg©KvÛ‡K cÖZ¨¶ ev c‡iv¶fv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i ev hv‡`i cÖfv‡ei AvIZvi g‡a¨
e¨emv‡qi Kvh© m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq Zvi mgwó‡K e¨emvq cwi‡ek e‡j|
D`vnib t
™ e¨emvq ïi“ Kivi Rb¨ Priliminary expenses,
™ g~j¨‡eva, ˆbwZKZv, mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡, cÖf„wZ|

gbxlxi msÁv t
1. ‘‘ Business environment refers to the aggregate of all forces & institutions which are
external to and beyond the control of individual business concerns & their
managements.’’
---- C. B. Gupta
2. ÔÔ †h me Drcv`b mvsMVwbK Kvh©µg‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i, †m ¸‡jvi m¤ú‡K© mvsMVwbK cwi‡ek e‡j|ÕÕ
---- Mosley & Others

msÁvMZ avibv t
K. wewfbœ Af¨š—ixb I evwn¨K Dcv`vb m¤úK©hy³|
L. e¨mv‡qi Dci cÖZ¨¶ ev c‡iv¶ cÖfve|
M. Dcv`vb¸‡jv‡K g~j¨vqb K‡i e¨emvq K‡i e¨emvq Pvjv‡Z nq|

Composed by eMu
wPÎMZ avibv t

e¨w³
cÖwZôvb

e¨emvq msMVb

mgvR

Dcmsnvi t
e¨emv‡qi Af¨š—ixb Dcv`vb¸‡jv wbqš¿‡hvM¨ n‡jI evwn¨K Dcv`vb Awbqwš¿Z| GB evwn¨K Dcv`vb¸‡jvB GK‡Î
e¨emvq cwi‡ek bv‡g cwiwPZ|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t e¨emv‡q `xN©‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm¸‡jv eY©bv Ki|

‘‘ The sources of finance for an enterprise can be many & diverse.’’


---- M. C. Shukla

e¨emv‡qi `xN©‡gqv`x A‡_©i cÖ‡qvRb wgUv‡bvi Rb¨ g~jab Znwe‡ji †h Ask e¨eüZ nq, Zv‡K `xN©‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’vb
e‡j| `xN©‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’v‡bi †gqv` 7 †_‡K 10 eQi ev Z‡ZvwaK mg‡qi Rb¨ n‡q _v‡K|

ÔÔ Long term finance means supply of long term money through long
term securities.’’
---- Western & Brigham

`xN©‡gqvw` A_© ms¯’v‡bi Drm¸‡jv‡K `yB fv‡M wef³ Kiv hvq --


1. Ae¨š—ixb ev AcÖvwZôvwbK Drm
2. evwn¨K ev cÖvwZôvwbK Drm

; Af¨š—ixb Drm t
ÔÔ In the case of internal finance, there is neither any additional cost
nor any need for mortgage or pledge of company’s assets.’’
---- Sherlekar &
” gvwj‡Ki wbR¯^ Znwej :
ÔÔOwner’s own capitals are the most important source of long term
capital.

wb‡Ri RgvK…Z bM` A_© n‡Z D‡`¨v³vMY g~jab msMÖn K‡i|

” msiw¶Z gybvdv :
msiw¶Z gybvdv wbw`©ó Kv‡R e¨env‡ii c~e© ch©š— A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq| †hgb --
ƒ mvavib mwÂwZ
ƒ jf¨vsk ¶gZv Znwej
ƒ wbg¾gvb Znwej
ƒ ¶wZc~iY Znwej

” AePq Znwej :
¯’vqx m¤úwË cybt¯’vc‡bi Rb¨ G Znwej MVb Kiv nq| g~jab msK‡U I G dvÛ e¨envi Kiv nq|

Composed by eMu
” ‡kqvi :
ÔÔShare capital is most suitable for meeting long term requirements of
a company.’’
---- M. C. Shukla
‡kqvi weµq I e›U‡bi gva¨‡g e¨emv‡qi ¯’vqx g~jab msMÖn Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
” FYcÎ :
ÔÔ Debenture is a document creating debt.’’
---- Justice Chiffy
cvewjK †Kv¤úvwb¸‡jv FYcÎ Bmy¨i gva¨‡g FYK…Z g~jab msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i|

; evwn¨K Drm t
; wkí e¨vsK :
evsjv‡`k wkí e¨vsK (BSB-- 1972) wk‡ívbœqb Lv‡Z `xN©‡gqv`x FYw`‡q _v‡K|
; wkí FY ms¯’v :
evsjv‡`k wkí FY ms¯’v (BSRS-- 1972) `xN©‡gqv`x wkí FY w`‡q _v‡K|
; wewb‡qvM ms¯’v :
evsjv‡`k cyuwR wewb‡qvM ms¯’v (ICB -- 1976) wkí KviLvbvq `xN©‡gqv`x A_© wewb‡qvM K‡i|
; exgv cÖwZôvb :
miKvwi - †emiKvix exgv cÖwZôvb¸‡jv wewfbœ †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi I FYcÎ µ‡q A_© wewb‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g D³
†Kv¤úvwb‡Z `xN©‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’v‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i| †hgb -- BGIC
; Ae‡jLK :
Ae‡jLKMY cvewjK †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi I FYcÎ weµ‡qi wbðqZv w`‡q A_© msMÖ‡n mnvqZv K‡i|
; BRviv †Kv¤úvwb :
BRviv †Kv¤úvwb wkívq‡bi Rb¨ wewfbœ †Kv¤úvwb‡K Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq ¯’vqx m¤úwË K‡qK eQi e¨env‡ii my‡hvM
w`‡q `xN©‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’vb K‡i _v‡K| †hgb --

i. Industrial Development Leasing Company (IDLC)


ii. United Leasing Company (ULC)

; e¨e¯’vcbv cÖwZwbwa :
cvewjK †Kv¤úvwbi e¨e¯’vcbvq wb‡qvwRZ ‡ckv`vwi cÖwZwbwaMY `xN© mg‡qi Rb¨ FY Bmy¨ Ki‡Z cv‡i|

Composed by eMu
; ‡kqvi evRvi :
ÔÔ Stock Exchange is a market for second hand securities.”
---- Hobday
‡kqvi, ÷K, FYcÎ, eÛ, wmwKDwiwUR weµ‡qi wbðqZv w`‡q G ms¯’v `xN©Kvjxb A‡_©i wbðqZv weavb K‡i|
; AvÂwjK ms¯’v :
we‡k¦i wewfbœ A‡ji A_©‰bwZK Dbœq‡b AvÂwjK wewfbœ ms¯’v I e¨vsK KvR Ki‡Q| †hgb --
1. ADB 2. IDB

; Avš—R©vwZK ms¯’v :
we‡k¦i wewfbœ †`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Dbœq‡b Avš—R©vwZK wewfbœ ms¯’v I e¨vsK KvR Ki‡Q| †hgb --
1. IMF 2. World Bank

Dcmsnvi t
e¨emvq msMV‡bi AvKvi, cÖK…wZ, D‡Ïk¨, aib we‡ePbv K‡i| A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm wba©vib Kiv nq| ZvB Gloss &
Baker e‡j‡Qb,
‘‘ Business of all types & sizes have financial needs & requirements.’’

Composed by eMu
mv‡Rkb - 2007
e¨emvq bxwZ I cÖ‡qvM t 1g cÎ

e¨emvq msMVb t
1. GK gvwjKvbv e¨emvq Kv‡K e‡j ? GK gvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ˆewkó¨My‡jv Av‡jvPbv Ki|
2. e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi cvkvcvwk GK gvwjKvbv e¨emvq wU‡K _vKvi Kvib mg~n e¨vL¨v Ki|
3. ¯§viKwjwc ev msN ¯§viK wK ? ¯§viKwjwci aviv¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv Ki|
4. e¨emv‡q `xN©‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm¸‡jv eY©bv Ki|
5. we‡`‡k cY¨ ißvwbi c×wZ Av‡jvPbv Ki|

e¨e¯’vcbv t
1. e¨e¯’vcK / e¨e¯’vcbvi Kvh©vewj Av‡jvPbv Ki| A_ev, e¨e¯’vcbv Pµ e¨vL¨v Ki|
2. Kg©x msMVb ej‡Z Kx eyS ? Kg©x wbev©P‡bi c×wZ ¸‡jv eY©bv Ki|
3. cÖwk¶b Kv‡K e‡j ? cÖwk¶‡bi ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v Ki|
4. ‡bZ…Z¡ Kx ? GKRb DËg †bZvi ¸bvewj eY©bv Ki|
5. KwgwU msMVb Kx ? KwgwU msMV‡bi myweav - Amyweav eY©bv Ki|

e¨emvq bxwZ I cÖ‡qvM t 2q cÎ


e¨vswKs t
1. AvaywbK e¨s‡Ki c~e©m~ix‡`i eY©bv Ki|
2. kvLv e¨vsK Kv‡K e‡j ? kvLv e¨vs‡Ki myweav - Amyweav eY©bv Ki|
3. ‡K›`ªxq e¨vs‡Ki FY wbqš¿b Kx ? FY wbqš¿b c×wZ Av‡jvPbv Ki|
4. we‡`‡k A_© †cÖiY c×wZ Av‡jvPbv Ki|
5. ‡PK / `vMKvUv †P‡Ki Zvrch© / †P‡Ki Agh©`v|

exgv t
™ exgv Kx ? e¨emvq - evwYR¨ exgvi ¸i“Z¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki|
™ ‡bŠ exgv Pzw³i AZ¨vek¨Kxq Dcv`vb¸‡jv eY©bv Ki|
™ AwMœ exgv : Zvrch©, Dcv`vb, ¶wZi Kvib mg~n|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t ¯^viKwjwc / cwi‡gjeÜ / msN¯§viK ej‡Z wK eyS ? ¯§viKwjwci welqe¯‘ Av‡jvPbv Ki|

¯§viKwjwc / cwi‡gjeÜ / msN¯§viK t


‘‘The memorandum of association of a company is its charter.’’
---- Lord Cairns.
‡Kv¤úvwb MVb I cÖZ¨vwnK Kvh©vw` cwiPvjbvq †h me wewagvjv AbymiY Kiv nq Zv †Kv¤úvwbi KwZcq `wj‡j
mwbœ‡ek Ki‡Z nq| G mKj `wj‡ji g‡a¨ ¯§viKwjwc/ cwi‡gjeÜ ev `Memorandum of Association’ Ab¨Zg|
g~j e³e¨ t
‡h `wj‡j e¨emv‡qi bvg, Ae¯’vb I wVKvbv, D‡Ïk¨, `vq, ¶gZvi mxgv, g~jbxwZ, g~jab I Ab¨vb¨ cÖavb welq ¸‡jv
D‡j−L _v‡K Zv‡KB ¯§viK wjwc e‡j|

cÖvgvY¨ msÁv t
1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(1-d) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q- ÔÔ msN¯§viK ej‡Z G AvB‡bi weavbvbymv‡i cÖYxZ
†Kv¤úvwbi g~j msN¯§viK ev cieZx©‡Z Dnvi ms‡kvwaZ iƒc‡K eySv‡eÕÕ|
Prof. J. P. Bose Gi g‡Z - ``The Memorendum of Association is the fundamental document
concerning the formation of a company.’’

we‡klZ¡ t
™ GwU †Kv¤úvwbi g~j `wjj
™ G‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi bvg, wVKvbv, D‡Ïk¨, g~jab, `vq, m¤§wZ D‡j−L _v‡K
™ GwU †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©‡¶Î wb‡`©k K‡i
™ Gi Øviv †kqvi gvwjK I Z…Zxq c‡¶i mv‡_ m¤úK© wbY©xZ nq|

gš—e¨ t
DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvi cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z ejv hvq, cwi‡gjeÜ n‡jv †Kv¤úvwbi g~j `wjj hv‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi g~j welqe¯‘
†hgb : †Kv¤úvwbi bvg, Ae¯’vb, D‡Ïk¨, g~jab, `vq BZ¨vw` welq wjwce× _v‡K hv †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©‡¶Î I Kg© ¶gZvi mxgv
wb‡`©k K‡i Ges hv Øviv †Kv¤úvwbi mv‡_ †kvqvi gvwjK I Z„Zxq c‡¶i m¤úK© wba©viY Kiv nq|

Composed by eMu
¯§viKwjwci welqe¯‘ ev aviv t
AeZiwYKv t
ÔÔ The memorandum contains the fundamental conditions upon which
alone the company is to be incorporated.’’
---- L. J. Brown

¯§viK wjwc †Kv¤úvwbi g~j `wjj AvBbm„ó cÖwZôvb nevi Kvi‡Y ¯§viKwjwc cÖYq‡b †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abymib Ki‡Z
nq| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 6 bs aviv Abyhvqx †kqvi Øviv mxgve× cvewjK wj: †Kv¤úvwb ¯§viKwjwci welqe¯‘
wbgœiƒc t
; bvg aviv t
¯§viKwjwci cÖ_‡g †Kv¤úvwbi bvg †jLv nq| mxgve× `vqm¤úbœ cÖwZôvb nIqvq Gi bv‡gi †k‡l Aek¨B Ltd. ev
mxwgZ k‡ãi D‡j−L _vK‡Z nq| bvg MÖn‡Yi †¶‡Î G AvB‡bi 11 bs avivq wb‡gœv³ wewa wb‡la Av‡Q :
K) †`‡k cÖPwjZ †Kvb †Kv¤úvwbi bvg ev cÖZviYvi D‡Ï‡k¨ cÖPwjZ †Kvb †K¤úvwbi mv‡_ mv`„k¨c~Y© bvg ivLv hvq
bv ; aviv 11 (1)|
L) miKv‡ii wjwLZ AbygwZ Qvov miKvix †M‡RU weÁvc‡bi Øviv wbwl× Kiv n‡q‡Q Ggb bv‡g †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜb
Kiv hvq bv ; aviv 11 (4)|
M) RvwZms‡Ni †m‡µUvwi †Rbv‡i‡ji wjwLZ AbygwZ Qvov RvwZmsN ev Gi †Kvb A½ ms¯’vi mv‡_ m¤úK© i‡q‡Q
e‡j AbywgZ nq Ggb bvg ivLv hv‡e bv| Z‡e wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi †¶‡Î Gi WvB‡i±i †Rbv‡i‡ji c~e© AbygwZ †bqv
cÖ‡qvRb nq| ; aviv 11 (5)|
; Ae¯’vb I wVKvbv aviv t
G‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi wbeÜbK…Z Awd‡mi wVKvbv ev Gi cÖavb Kvh©vj‡qi wVKvbv D‡j−L Ki‡Z nq| ZvQvov †Kvb †Kvb ¯’v‡b
†Kv¤úvwbi e¨emvq Pj‡e ZvI D‡j−L Ki‡Z nq|
; D‡Ïk¨ aviv t
D‡Ïk¨ aviv †Kv¤úvwbi ¯§viKwjwci me‡P‡q ¸i“Z¡c~Y© aviv| GwU Kvh©cwiwai mxgv wb‡`©k K‡i| G avivq †Kv¤úvwbi
D‡Ïk¨vejxi we¯—vwiZ weeiY wjwce× Kiv nq| fwel¨‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi †hme e¨emvq cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cvi‡e ZvI G‡Z D‡j−L
Ki‡Z nq| Prof. Durgadus Bhattacharjee ZvB e‡j‡Qb - ``The object clause of the company is drawn
up as broadly as possible so that the company may not face any trouble in future.’’

; g~jab aviv t
¯§viKwjwci G avivq †Kv¤úvwbi Aby‡gvw`Z g~ja‡bi cwigvY, G g~jab KZ g~‡j¨i KZ cÖKv‡ii Ges KZ msL¨K
†kqv‡i wef³ Zv D‡j−L Ki‡Z nq|

Composed by eMu
; `vq aviv t
G‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i `vq `vwq‡Z¡i cÖK…wZ A_©¨vr `vq µxZ †kqvi g~j¨ Øviv mxgve× _vK‡e bv cÖwZkÖ“wZ
Øviv mxgve× _vK‡e Zv ¯úó K‡i D‡j−L Ki‡Z nq| ZvB N. C. Roy e‡j‡Qb, ÔÔA Limited Company must
declare in its memorandum that the liability of its member is limited.’’
; m¤§wZ aviv t
¯§viKwjwci G As‡k †Kv¤úvwbi ( cÖvB‡fU wjt †Kv¤úvwbi †¶‡Î ) cÖeZ©KMY †Nvlbv †`b †h, Zviv G `wjj D‡j−wLZ
cwigvY †kqvi µq K‡i cÖ¯—vweZ †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjK n‡Z Z_v †Kv¤úvwbi MV‡b m¤§Z Av‡Qb| Aš—Z GK Rb ¯^v¶xi mvg‡b
Zviv bv‡gi cv‡k `¯—LZ cÖ`vb K‡ib|

Dcmsnvi t
DcwiD³ welqvejx AZ¨š— mZK©Zvi mv‡_ ¯§viKwjwc‡Z Aš—f~©³ Ki‡Z nq| KviY GwU †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©‡¶Î wba©viY
K‡i Ges †h †Kvb cwieZ©b h‡_ó AvBbMZ AvbyôvwbKZvc~Y© I RwUj n‡q _v‡K| ZvB M. C. Shukla e‡j‡Qb,
``Memorandum of association is of suprime important in determinig the power of the
company.’’

Composed by eMu
‡QvU cÖkœ t ‡µZv I †fv³vi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Kx ?

wecYb Kvh©µ‡gi †K›`ªwe›`y‡Z †µZv ev †f³vi Ae¯’vb| †µZv Ges †fv³v‡K wN‡iB evRviRZKib e¨e¯’v
AvaywbKZvi †Quvqv †c‡q‡Q| †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î †µZv Ges †fv³v‡K Avjv`v K‡i †`Lv nq bv; †hgbÑ evRviRvZKi‡bi
†¶‡Î e¨vw³i mš‘wó weavb Ñ
`` Satisfaction is a person’s feeling of pleasure or disappointment.’’
---- Philip Kotlir
Avevi, A‡bK †¶‡ÎB †µZv Ges †fv³v‡K Avjv`v K‡i †`Lv nq| mKj †µZv †hgb †fv³v n‡Z cv‡i, mKj †fv³v
†Zgwb †µZv bvI n‡Z cv‡i|
™ ``Customar is the purchaser of production or sevices.’’
---- Manser
™ ``Consumer is the user for personal satisfaction or benefit.’’
---- W. H. Newman
cv_©‡K¨i welq ‡µZv ‡fv³v
1. msÁv ‡h e¨w³ cY¨ ev †mev µq K‡ib, Zv‡K †µZv ‡h e¨w³ cY¨ ev †mev P~ovš— †fv‡Mi D‡Ï‡k¨ µq
e‡j| K‡ib, Zv‡K ‡fv³v e‡j|
2. D‡Ïk¨ ™ e¨vw³MZ e¨envi ™ mš‘wó weavb
™ cybtweµq ™ P~ovš— †fvM
™ cybt Drcv`b
3. e›Ub cÖYvjx Drcv`K †µZv †µZv
Drcv`K †µZv †fv³v
4. Dc‡hvM ‡µZv cY¨ ev †mevi bZzb Dc‡hvM m„wó K‡i|
‡fv³v cY¨ ev †mevi bZzb Dc‡hvM wbt‡kl
K‡i|
5. cªwZ`vb ‡µZv cÖwZ`vb w`‡q cY¨ weµq Ki‡Z cv‡i| ‡µZv cY¨ weµq bvI Ki‡Z cv‡i|
6. msL¨v e¨emvqx I †fv³vi msL¨v wg‡j †µZvi msL¨v ‡fv³vi msL¨v †µZv A‡cv¶vK…Z Kg|
A‡c¶vK…Z †ewk|
7. e¨envi cY¨ ev †mev e¨emv‡q e¨envi K‡ib| cY¨ ev †mev wb‡RB e¨envi K‡ib|
8. µq - weµq †µZv Dfq ai‡bi Kv‡Ri mv‡_ RwoZ| ‡fv³v †Kej µ‡qi mv‡_ RwoZ|
9. µ‡qi cwigvb ‡µZv †ewk cwigvb cY¨ ev †mev µq K‡ib| ‡f³v Kg cwigvb †mev µq K‡ib|
10. µq wm×vš— wm×vš— MÖn‡b Z‡_¨i Dci †ewk †Rvi †`qv nq wm×vš— MÖn‡b Av‡eM cÖvavb¨ cvq|
11. f~wgKv ‡µZv †Kej †µZv wn‡m‡e f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| ‡fv³v †µZv Ges †fv³vi f~wgKv cvjb K‡i|
12. g~jab †µZvi wbR¯^ g~jab _vK‡Z nq| †fv³vi wbR¯^ g~jab _vK‡Z bvI cv‡i|
13. gybvdv gybvdv AR©‡bi AwfcÖvq _vK‡Z cv‡i| gybvdv AR©‡bi †Kvb AwfcÖvq _v‡Kbv|
14. Pzw³ G‡`i Pzw³ Kivi †hvM¨Zv _vKv Avek¨K| G‡`i Pzw³ Kivi †hvM¨Zv _vKv Avek¨K bq|
15. Dcw¯’wZ ‡`vKvb / cÖwZôv‡b Dcw¯’Z †_‡K cY¨ µq Ki‡Z Dcw¯’Z _vK‡Z cv‡i, ev bvI _vK‡Z cv‡i|
nq|
g~jZ, †µZv Ges †fv³vi ga¨Kvi cv_©K¨ Zv‡`i Kv‡Ri Dci wbf©i K‡i| ev¯—‡e †µZv Ges †fv³v GKB e¨w³ n‡Z
cv‡ib, Avevi bvI n‡Z cv‡ib| cY¨ I †mev Pzovš— †fv‡Mi D‡Ï‡k¨ µq Kiv ‡µZv I †fv³v GKB e¨w³, Ab¨w`‡K
e¨emvwqK D‡Ï‡k¨ µq Kiv n‡j †µZv I †fv³v Avjv`v e¨w³|

Composed by eMu
‡QvU cÖkœ t wkí I †fvM¨ c‡Y¨i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Kx ?

ÔÔ Product means the need satisfying offering of a firm.’’


---- Mccarthy

cY¨
( ‡µZvi `„wófw½i wfwˇZ )

wkí cY¨ ‡fvM¨ cY¨


(Kqjv, †Rbv‡iUi) (Jla, †gvevBj †dvb )

™ ÔÔIndustrial products are used in firm’s operations & producing otherproducts.’’


---- Pride & Ferall
™ ``Consumer products are meant for the final consumer.’’
---- Mccarthy

cv_©‡K¨i welq wkí cY¨ ‡fvM¨ cY¨


1. msÁv cybt cÖwµqvRvZ K‡i Ab¨ cY¨ Drcv`‡bi Rb¨ ‡fv‡Mi D‡Ï‡k¨ µqK…Z cY‡K †fvM¨ cY¨
µqK…Z cY¨ wkí cY¨ e‡j| e‡j|
2. D‡Ï‡k¨ e¨emvwqK KvR| e¨w³MZ ev cvwievwiK ‡fvM|
3. †µZv Drcv`bKvix ev e¨emvq cÖwZôvb G c‡Y¨i †µZv| ‡fv³v ev e¨enviKvixMYB G c‡Y¨i
†µZv|
4. †µZv msL¨v Zzjbvg~jK fv‡e Kg| Zzjbvg~jK fv‡e †ewk|
5. µ‡qi cwigvb Zzjbvg~jK fv‡e †ewk| Zzjbvg~jK fv‡e ¯^í|
6. e›Ub cÖYvjx A‡c¶vK…Z †QvU| A‡bKUv `xN© ; Kvib †µZvi Dcw¯’wZ meÎ
7. ga¨¯’ e¨emvqx A‡c¶vK…Z Kg msL¨K we`¨gvb| A‡c¶vK…Z ‡ewk msL¨K we`¨gvb|
8. Pvwn`v A_©‰bwZK I mvgvwRK Kvi‡b cwieZ©bkxj| mve©¶wYK Pvwn`v we`¨gvb|
9. g~jab AwaK cwigvb g~jab cÖ‡qvRb| Kg cwigvb g~jab cÖ‡qvRb|
10. wba©wiZ gvb wba©wiZ gvb m¤úbœ| me cY¨ wba©vwiZ gvb m¤úbœ bq|
11. GKK cÖwZ g~j¨ A‡c¶vK…Z †ewk| A‡c¶vK…Z Kg|
12. ¯’vwqZ¡ A‡c¶vK…Z †ewk| A‡c¶vK…Z Kg|
13. weµ‡qvËi †mev ‡µZv cÖ‡qvRb Abyfe K‡i| wKQz e¨wZµg Qvov cÖ‡qvRb †bB|
14. BRviv e¨e¯’v e¨env‡ii †¶‡Î cÖPjb Av‡Q| e¨env‡ii †¶‡Î cÖPjb ‡bB|
15. D`vnib cvU, KvV, Zzjv, Kqjv cÖf„wZ| Pvj, Wvj, Jla, cwÎKv cÖf„wZ|

GKB cY¨ GKB mv‡_ wkí cY¨ Ges †fvM¨ cY¨ e‡j we‡ewPZ n‡Z cv‡i| ‡hgb- Mvwo
Mvwo e¨w³MZ e¨env‡ii D‡Ï‡k¨ µq Kiv n‡j ÑÑÑÑ †fvM¨ cY¨|
Mvwo wk‡íi gvjvgvj en‡bi Rb¨ e¨envi n‡j ÑÑÑÑ wkí cY¨|

Composed by eMu
‡QvU cÖkœ t wefvMxq wecwY I eûkvLv wecwYi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Kx ?

LyPiv Abymv‡i
(AvqZb Abymv‡i)

wefvMx e„n`vqZb LyPiv e¨emvq eûkvLv wecwY


wecwY mivmwi cY¨ weµq

ƒ ÔÔDepartment store carries a wide varity of product lines.’’


---- Kotler & Armstrong
ƒ ÔÔ GKB cÖwZôv‡bi gvwjKvbvq GKB aib‡i †`vKv‡bi mgwó‡K kvLv wecwb e‡j|ÕÕ

Kg©‡¶Î, µq-weµq Ges cÖK…wZi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K G‡`i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ i‡q‡Q|
cv_©‡K¨i welq wefvMxq wecwb eûkvLv wecwb
1. D‡Ïk¨ wefvMxq wecwYi D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv wewfbœ Drm n‡Z eûkvLv wecwYi D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv Drcvw`Z cY¨ I †mev †`k-
msM„nxZ cY¨ ev †mev GK¯’v‡b †µZvi wbKU we‡`‡k wewfbœ ¯’v‡b kvLvi gva¨‡g mivmwi †fv³vi wbKU
weµqKiv| weµq Kiv|
2. msMVb cÖK…wZ wefvMxq wecwY kn‡ii †K›`ª¯’j GKB M„‡n GKB eûkvLv wecwY ¸‡jv †`‡ki ev kn‡ii wewfbœ GjvKvi
Qv‡`i wb‡P Aew¯’Z| wew¶ßfv‡e Aew¯’Z|
3. µq-weµq c×wZ wefvMxq wecwYi cÖavb KvR nj we‡K›`ªxq µq Ges eûkvLv wecwYi g~L¨ KvR n‡jv †K›`ªxq Drcv`b Ges
†K›`ªxq weµq| we‡K›`ªxq weµq|
4. c‡Y¨i cÖK…wZ wefvMxq wecwY‡Z wewfbœ ai‡bi `ªe¨ weµq nq| mvavibZt GKRvZxq I mswk−ó `ªe¨ weµq Kiv nq|
5. Drcv`bKvix I we‡µZv G‡Z c‡Y¨i Drcv`bKvix I we‡µZv wewfbœ| G‡Z c‡Y¨i Drcv`bKvix I we‡µZv Awfbœ|
6. †Rv‡Ui cÖK…wZ GwU cvwk¦©K †Rv‡Ui GKwU D`vniY| GwU j¤^vgyLx ev c~e©vci †Rv‡Ui GKwU D`vniY|
7. ‡µZv wefvMxq wecwY mvavibZt abx I AwfRvZ †µZv‡`i eûkvLv wecwY‡Z abx-`wi`ª wbwe©‡k‡l mKj †kªYxi
Pvwn`v wgUvq| †µZvi mgv‡ek nq|
8. Ae¯’vb wefvMxq wecwb kn‡ii †K›`ª¯’‡j Aew¯’Z nIqvq ‡µZv cvevi m¤¢vebvq kn‡ii RbvKxY© GjvKvq eûkvLv
wewfbœ GjvKv n‡Z †µZvMY `ªe¨ µ‡q Avm‡Z cv‡i| wecwY ¯’vwcZ nq|
9. `ªe¨g~j¨ wefvMxq wecwb e„n`vKv‡ii nq e‡j GwUi cwiPvjbv Drcv`bKvix wbR¯^ wecwYi gva¨‡g mivmwi †µZv‡K
e¨q †ewk| †m Kvi‡Y `ª‡e¨i g~j¨ †ewk| `ªe¨mvgMÖx weµq K‡i| †m Kvi‡Y `ª‡e¨i g~j¨ Kg|
10. †jb‡`‡bi cÖK…wZ G ai‡bi wecwY‡Z bM` I av‡i c‡Y¨i µq-weµq nq G ai‡bi wecwY‡Z †Kej bM‡` cY¨ weµq nq|
11. †jvKmvbx wefvM/kvLv ‡Kvb wefvM wecwY‡Z AjvfRbK n‡jB wefvMxq ‡Kvb kvLv AjvfRbK n‡j eûkvLv wecwY Zv †h †Kvb
wecwY Zv eÜ K‡i w`‡Z cv‡i bv| mgq eÜ K‡i w`‡Z cv‡i|
12. ga¨¯’ e¨emvqx Dcw¯’wZ wefvMxq wecwb wb‡RivB ga¨¯’ e¨emvqx| Drcv`bKvix cY¨ Drcv`b K‡i wewfbœ kvLvi gva¨‡g
Ge¨e¯’vq ga¨¯’ e¨emv†qi D‡”Q` m¤¢e bq| mivmwi wewµ K‡i e‡j ga¨¯’ e¨emvqx D‡”Q` m¤¢e|
eûkvLv wecwY AvKv‡i Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e eo n‡jI we‡kl †kªYxi †fv³v‡`i †mev cÖ`v‡b wefvMxq wecwY AwaK Kvh©Ki AvaywbK
we‡k¦ †fv³v mš‘wó AR©‡b G `yÕai‡bi e¨emv‡qi RbwcÖqZv w`b w`bB e„w× cv‡”Q|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t cÖwk¶‡bi ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v Ki|

ÔÔWe take more vitamin pills to solve personal health problems & more
training to solve our manpower problems.’’
---- Mamoria & Ganker
myôz e¨e¯’vcbvq wbwðZ Ki‡bi Rb¨ Kg©x‡`i h_vh_ cÖwk¶Y cÖ`vb Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| cÖwk¶‡bi gva¨‡g Kg©xiv Zv‡`i
`¶Zv I Drcv`bkxjZv e„w× Ki‡Z m¶g nq|
1. Kg© Ges Kg©xi m¤úK© ¯’vcb t
``Training does more than just prepare employes to perform their jobs
Effectively.’’
cÖwk¶‡Yi gva¨‡g cÖv_©x‡`i mswk−ó KvR Ges Zv m¤úv`‡bi Dcvq Rvbv‡bv nq|
2. `¶Zv e„w× t
ÔÔEmployees have to adapt to boost productivity to stay competitive.’’
---- Dessler
‡Kvb GKwU KvR m‡e©vËg Dcv‡q m¤úv`‡bi Rb¨ cÖwk¶‡bi gva¨‡g Kg©x‡`i `¶Zv evov‡bv nq|
3. g‡bvej e„w× t
cÖwk¶‡Yi Kvi‡b Kv‡Ri cÖwZ Kg©x‡`i †bwZevPK gvbwmKZv `~i Kiv hvq|
4. m¤ú‡`i mبenvi t
Drcv`‡bi DcKibmg~n m‡e©vËg e¨envi K‡i j¶¨ AR©b mnRZi Ki‡Z cÖwk¶Y mnvqZv K‡i|
5. AcPq n«vm t
cÖwkw¶Z Kg©xiv Drcv`b cÖwµqv m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb _v‡K| d‡j KuvPvgvj Ges Ab¨vb¨ †¶‡Î AcPq n«vm Ges Avq e„w×
cvq|
6. `~N©Ubv n«vm t
bZzb bZzb hš¿ Ges Zv cwiPvjbv †KŠkj Rvbv _vK‡j `~N©Ubv Gov‡bv m¤¢e|
7. ZË¡veavb n«vm t
cÖwkw¶Z Kg©x‡`i Kg ZË¡veavb cÖ‡qvRb nq|
Graicunas KZ…©K cÖ`Ë ÔcªvwZôvwbKÕ m~Î n‡jv ÑÑÑÑ

R = n( 2n-1 + n-1)
GLv‡b, R = Reletionship n = number of subordinates

Composed by eMu
8. `~iZ¡ n«vm t
``Training helps to reduce regional & cross cultural gap.’’
---- Ivanveich
cÖwk¶‡Yi gva¨‡g wewfbœ A‡ji A_©‰bwZK I mvs¯‹…wZK Ae¯’vb m¤ú‡K© avibv cvIqv hvq|
9. mnR mgš^q t

e¨w³ `j
mgš^q

cÖwZôvb

cÖwkw¶Z Kg©xiv Zv‡`i Dci AwR©Z `vwqZ¡ effectively Ges efficiently m¤úv`b K‡i|
10. cÖhyw³MZ Dbœqb t
``Globalization is what technology makes possible.’’
wek¦vq‡bi G hy‡M cÖhyw³MZ Ávb cÖwZôv‡bi mvd‡j¨i nvwZqvi| cÖwk¶‡Yi gva¨‡g G Ávb AR©b Kiv hvq|
11. m¤úK© Dbœqb t

‡µZv

‡fv³v
cÖwk¶Y

we‡µZv

cÖwk¶‡bi gva¨‡g †µZvi mv‡_ cÖwZôv‡bi mym¤úK© M‡o D‡V|


12. j¶ AR©‡bi mnvqZv t
ÔÔThe aim of training is to solve an organizational problem.’’
---- Dessler

Composed by eMu
Kg©x `¶Zv

cÖwk¶Y Drcv`b e„w× cÖvwZôvwbK j¶¨

weµq e„w×

gybvdv

cÖwk¶‡bi ¸i“‡Z¡i Ab¨vb¨ †¶Î ¸‡jv n‡”Q ÑÑÑÑ


13. Kvh©Ki wb‡`©kbv
14. Drcv`b I cvwikªwgK e„w×
15. mvsMVwbK ¯’vwqZ¡
16. Kg©x AveZ©b n«vm
17. c‡`vbœwZi my‡hvM
18. gvbwmK Dbœqb
19. KvwiMwi ˆbcyb¨ Dbœqb
20. mnR cwiPvjbv
Dcmsnvi t
cÖwk¶Y kªwgK Ges gvwj‡Ki Df‡qi Rb¨B Acwinvh© GKwU welq| w`b w`bB cÖwk¶‡bi ¸i“Z¡ cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡Z e„w×
cv‡”Q| G Kvi‡bB Prof. Scott e‡jb, ``Training is the corner stone of sound management for it makes
employees more effective & productive.’’

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t e¨e¯’vcbvi Kvh©vewj / cÖwµqv / Pµ Av‡jvPbv Ki|

f~wgKv t
cÖwµqv ej‡Z avivevwnK fv‡e ci¯úi m¤úK©hy³ myk„•Lj I myweb¨¯— Kvh© mgwó‡K †evSv‡bv nq| e¨e¯’vcbvi
Kvh©vewj avivevwnK I ci¯úi m¤úK©hy³|
ÔÔManagement is a process & more particulary a social process.’’
---- E. F. L. Breach
``Management is a process of decision making & control.’’
---- Stanly Vance
e¨e¯’vcbvi KvR mg~n KL‡bvB †kl n‡q hvq bv| ZvB e¨e¯’vcbvi KvR‡K e¨e¯’vcbv Pµ I ejv nq|
ÔÔManagement is a task of planning, coordinating, motivating & controling
towards the specific objective.’’
---- J. L. Lundy
Henry Fayol 5wU Kv‡Ri K_v D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb ÑÑÑ
ƒ c~ev©bygvb I cwiKíbv ƒ msMVb ƒ wb‡`©kbv ƒ mgš^q ƒ wbqš¿Y

Weihrich & Koontz 5wU Kv‡Ri K_v D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb ÑÑÑ


ƒ cwiKíbv ƒ msMVb ƒ Kg©xms¯’vb ƒ ‡bZ…Z¡ `vb ƒ wbqš¿Y

R. C. Davis 3wU Kv‡Ri K_v D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb ÑÑÑ


ƒ cwiKíbv ƒ msMVb ƒ wbqš¿Y

Luther Gullick e¨e¯’vcbvi KvR‡K POSDCORB Øviv cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb ÑÑÑÑÑ


ƒ Planning ƒ Organizing ƒ Staffing ƒ Directing
ƒ Coordinating ƒ Reporting ƒ Budgeting

wewfbœ †jLK, wPš—vwe`‡`i gZvgZ we‡ePbv K‡i e¨e¯’vcbvi Kvh©vewj‡K wb‡gœv³ fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq ÑÑ
ƒ ‡gŠwjK Kvh©vewj t
1. cwiKíbv :
ÔÔPlanning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to be
in a desired future.’’ ---- Koontz
cwiKíbv n‡jv fwel¨Z Kg©m~Px welqK c~‡e© cÖYxZ GKwU bxj bKkv|

Composed by eMu
2. msMVb t
msMVb n‡jv cwiKíbv ev¯—evq‡bi cÖ_g c`‡¶c|
ƒ DcKib msMÖn ƒ `vwqZ¡ e›Ub
ƒ Kvh© wefvM ƒ cvi¯úwiK m¤úK©
3. Kg©xms¯’vb t
``Staffing is the process by which Managers select, train, promote &
retire subordinates.’’
---- J. L. Massie

k~Y¨c

ga¨ e¨eövcbv k~Y¨c` evwni †_‡K

wbgœ e¨eövcbv k~Y¨c` evwni †_‡K

wPÎ t Kg©xms¯’vb cÖwKªqv

4. wb‡`©kbv t
cwiKíbv Abyhvqx cÖwZôv‡b wb‡qvwRZ Kg©x‡`i Øviv Kg© m¤úv`‡bi Rb¨ wewfbœ Av‡`k, wb‡`©k ev Dc‡`k
cÖ`v‡bi cÖwµqv‡K wb‡`©kbv e‡j|
5. ‡cÖlYv t
Kg©x‡`i gb¯—vwZ¡K w`K we‡k−lY Ges wbqš¿‡Yi cÖwµqv‡K †cÖlYv e‡j|
ƒ Kvh©Ki †bZ…Z¡ cÖ`vb|
ƒ Drmvn`vb I g‡bvej m„wó|
ƒ ‡mŠnv`©¨ c~Y© gvbexq m¤úK© ¯’vcb|
6. mgš^q t

e¨w³

wefvM mgš^q mvab Dc wefvM

kvLv

Composed by eMu
`jxq cÖ‡Póvq Ges †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g msnwZ ¯’vcbB mgš^q|

7. wbqš¿Y t
ÔÔControlling is the projection of planning.’’
---- Mary Niles
M„nxZ cwiKíbv Abyhvqx Kvh©vewj m¤úbœ n‡”Q wKbv Zv ch©‡e¶b Kiv, †Kv_vI †Kvb wePz¨wZ NU‡j Kvib
AbymÜvb, we‡k−lY Ges ms‡kvabg~jK e¨eöv MÖn‡bi cÖwµqv‡K wbqš¿b e‡j|
ƒ mnvqK Kvh©vewj t

8. ‡hvMv‡hvM t
ÔÔCommunication is the share of thoughts, opinions & informations.’’
---- Webstar
‡hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨†g e¨e¯’vcbv MwZkxj nq|

9. cÖwZ‡e`b t
e¨e¯’vcbvi wewfbœ ¯—‡i msNwUZ NUbvi weeiYx cÖKvk‡K cÖwZ‡e`b e‡j|

e¨e¯’vcK cÖwZ‡e`b wm×vš— MÖnb

wjwLZ ‡gŠwLK

10. ev‡RUKiY t
cvi¯úwiK msL¨vZ¥K cÖKvk‡K ev‡RU e‡j| e¨e¯’vcK cÖwZwU KvR ev‡R‡Ui gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcb K‡i|
GQvovI D™¢veb Ges cÖwZwbwaZ¡g~jK ev Rbms‡hvM g~jK KvR Ab¨Zg|

Dcmsnvi t
e¨e¯’vcbvi Kvh©vewj me ai‡bi cÖwZôv‡b GKB iKg| cÖwZôv‡bi wfbœZvi Kvi‡b G mKj Kv‡Ri cwigvb
Kg - †ewk n‡Z cv‡i| G cÖm‡½ Arnold Toynbee e‡jb, ``Civilizations live & stay vital as long as
they respond successfully to chellenges.’’

Composed by eMu
msw¶ß cÖkœ

cv_©K¨
” ‡µZv Ges †fv³v
” wefvwMq wecwY Ges eûkvLv wecwY
” ‡kqvi Ges FYcÎ
” Kg©x msMÖn I Kg©x wbevP©b
” wkí I †fvM¨ cY¨
” cÖvB‡fU Ges cvewjK wjt †Kv¤úvwb
” ¯§viKwjwc Ges cwi‡gj wbqgvejx
” Drcv`K Ges †fv³v mgevq mwgwZ
” weÁvcb Ges cÖPvi
” e¨e¯’vcbv I cÖmvi
” GKv_©K Ges ¯’vqx cwiKíbv
” mij‰iwLK, mij‰iwLK I c`¯’, Kvh©wfwËK msMVb

msÁv / wK †evS ?
™ e¨emvq msMVb ™ ‡kqvi evRvi ™ ‰e‡`wkK evwY‡R¨i `wjj
™ AvPi‡b AbywgZ Askx`vi ™ PvU©vi cvwU© ™ Pzw³ K‡g©i wfwË
™ cÖZ¨qcÎ ™ Askx`vwi Pzw³ cÎ ™ Pvjvwb iwm`
™ weµq cÖmvi ™ e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ ™ weeibcÎ
™ msMVb PvU© ™ KwgwU ™ c‡`vbœwZi wfwË
™ c‡Y¨i Rxeb Pµ ™ ÷vwds ™ wb‡`©kbvi ˆewkó¨
™ e¨emv‡qi ˆbwZKZv ™ wbqš¿b ™ ‡cÖlbv
™ we‡jvc mvab †¶Î ™ wb‡`©kbvi bxwZ ™ ‰¯^iZvwš¿K †bZ…Z¡
™ ev‡RUvwi wbqš¿b ™ Dc‡`óv msMVb ™ mij‰iwLK msMVb
™ e¨e¯’vcbv Pµ ™ MbZvwš¿K †bZ…Z¡ ™ civgk©g~jK wb‡`©kbv
™ ‡cÖlbvi ¸i“Z¡ ™ cÖwk¶‡bi D‡Ïk¨ ™ ‡cÖlbvi Dcv`vb
™ msMVb KvVv‡gv ™ Kg©xmsMÖ‡ni Drm

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t †bZ…Z¡ wK ? GKRb DËg †bZvi ¸bvejx Av‡jvPbv Ki|

f~wgKv t
ÔÔThe more successful the goal attainment, the more evidence the
leadership.’’
---- Bateman & Zeithaml
Leadership kãwU G‡m‡Q Bs‡iwR `Lead’ kã †_‡K|

to guide to conduct

Lead

to persuade to influence

cÖvq 900 wLªóv‡ã ivRv ev iv‡R¨i e¨e¯’vcbvi †¶‡Î †bZ…‡Z¡i welqwU Dcjew× Kiv nq|
g~j e³e¨ t
‡bZ…Z¡ n‡jv †Kvb e¨w³i wKQz Av`©k ev ¸bvejxi mgwó hvi Dci wfwË K‡i †Kvb `j ev †Mvôx j¶¨ AR©‡bi c‡_
AMÖmi nq|
cÖgvY¨ msÁv t
1. ÔÔLeadership is the ability to influence people towards the attainment of
organizational goal.’’
---- R. L. Draft
2. ÔÔ †bZ…Z¡ Ggb GKwU cÖwµqv hv ¯^Ztù~Z©fv‡e D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡b Ab¨‡`i DrmvwnZ Ges mvnvh¨ K‡i|ÕÕ
---- Keith Davis
3. ``Leadership is the quality of behavior of individuals where by guide people or
their activities in organized effort.’’
---- C. I. Barnard

Composed by eMu
wPÎMZ avibv t
R. L. Hughes ‡bZ…‡Z¡i avibv‡K wb‡gœv³ wP‡Îi gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcb K‡i ÑÑ

‡bZv

Abymvix
Ae¯’v

mgwóK avibv t
™ ‡bZ…Z¡ †bZvi ¸bevPK ˆewkó¨|
™ ‡bZ…Z¡ Kg©x‡`i w`K wb‡`©kbvi †KŠkj|
™ Kv‡Ri cÖwZ Drmvn m„wói Dcvq|
Dcmsnvi t
‡h we‡kl †KŠkj ev cÖwµqvq †bZv Kg©x‡`i AvPib‡K cÖfvweZ K‡ib, Ges Zv‡`i Kg©cÖ‡Póv‡K cÖvwZôvwbK j‡¶i
w`‡K cwiPvjbv K‡ib, Zv‡K †bZ…Z¡ e‡j| ZvB L. A. Apply e‡j‡Qb, ``The time had come to substitute the
word `Leadership’ for `Management’.’’

Composed by eMu
DËg †bZvi ¸bvejx t
ÔÔAn effective leader inspires people to direct their efforts
towards goal accomplishment.’’
---- R. D. Agarwal
e¨e¯’vcbxq KZ…Z¡ e¨envi K‡i GKRb †bZv msMV‡bi Ab¨‡`i cÖfvweZ K‡i _v‡K| G‡¶‡Î GKRb †bZv‡K
KZ¸‡jv we‡kl ¸b ev ˆewk‡ó¨i AwaKvix n‡Z nq|
gbxlx‡`i `„wófw½ t
™ S. Robbins :- A leader should have qualities, such as __
ƒ Intelligence ƒ strength
ƒ charisma ƒ bravery
ƒ decisiveness ƒ integrity
ƒ enthusiasm ƒ self - confidence

™ Imam Gazali (1100 AD) :- A king (leader) should have 4 qualities __


ƒ Justice ƒ Patience
ƒ Intelligence ƒ Modesty

mgwóK avibv t
wewfbœ ˆewkó¨ Ges ¸bvejx GKRb e¨w³‡K †bZvq cwibZ K‡i|
” e¨w³MZ ¸bwejx t
1. ˆ`wnK mvg_© :
ÔÔHealth is the greatest of all possessions; a pale cobbler is better
than a sick king.’’
---- Bickerestaff
GKRb †bZv‡K eûgyLx RwUj KvR m¤úv`‡bi Rb¨ ˆ`wnK mvg_©¨ _vK‡Z nq|
2. AvKl©b ¶gZv :
ÔÔA thing of beauty is joy forever.”
---- John Keats
GKRb mdj †bZv Zvi †hvM¨Zv, eyw×gËv w`‡q Kg©x‡`i gv‡S MÖnb‡hvM¨Zv ‰Zwi K‡ib|

Composed by eMu
3. AvKl©bxq e¨w³Z¡ :
e¨w³Z¡evb †bZvi wbKU `‡ji m`m¨iv AbyMZ _v‡K|
4. mvavib Ávbeyw× :
ÔÔCommon sense is common in nature, but uncommon in practice.’’
GKRb †bZv‡K mvgvwRK, A_©‰bwZK, ivR‰bwZK wel‡q mg¨K avibvi AwaKvix n‡Z n‡e|
5. wk¶v :
ÔÔ Education aims at enlightening people.’’
wkw¶Z †bZv cwiw¯’wZ Ges cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx wm×vš— MÖnb K‡ib|
” gvbwmK ¸bvejx t
6. `~i`wk©Zv :
fwel¨‡Z Kx Kx mgm¨vi m„wó n‡Z cv‡i Ges Kx Kx m¤¢vebv Av‡Q - Gme wel‡q †bZvi `~i`k©x wPš—vfvebv _vKv
DwPr|

Strengths weakness
SWOT analysis

Opportunities Threats

7. AvZ¥wek¦vm :
ÔÔConfidence is a plant of growth.’’
---- Johnson
cwiKíbv Abyhvqx KvR Ki‡j †Kvb Awek¦vm GKRb †bZv‡K weåvš— Ki‡Z cv‡ibv|
8. Ab¨vb¨ :
mvnm, `„p g‡bvej, eyw×gËv|
” mvgvwRK ¸bvejx t
9. mn‡hvwMZvg~jK g‡bvfve :
‡h †Kvb Kg©x ev Abymvixi mgm¨vq †bZv Zvi cv‡k G‡m `uvov‡eb|
10. eÜzmyjf g‡bvfve :
ÔÔFriendliness is neither a formality, it is rather a life.’’
---- David Grayson

Composed by eMu
11. ‡hvMv‡hvM `¶Zv :
mswk−ó mK‡ji mv‡_ cÖZ¨¶ †hvMv‡hvM _vK‡j cvi¯úwiK m¤úK© DbœZ nq|
12. Ab¨vb¨ :
cÖwZK‚j cwiw¯’wZi mv‡_ Lvc LvIqv‡bv, Ab¨‡K †evSvi ¶gZv|
” ‡ckvMZ ¸bvejx t
13. AwfÁZv :
ÔÔExperience is a jewel, and it had need be so.’’
---- Shakespeare
AwfÁZvm¤úbœ †bZvi KvRKg© A‡bK ‡ewk gvwR©Z nq|
14. mvsMVwbK Ávb :
GKRb †bZvi gv‡S mvsMVwbK Ávb _vKv evÂbxq ÑÑÑ
ƒ `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ wba©vib,
ƒ Dcvq I DcKiY msMwVZKib,
ƒ wefvMxqKiY, cÖf„wZ|
15. Ab¨vb¨ :
KvwiMwi Ávb, wk¶v`v‡bi ¶gZv, m‡PZbZv|
” we‡kl ¸bvejx t
16. mZZv :
ÔÔHonesty is the best policy.’’
---- Franklin
K_vq I Kv‡R †bZv mr Ges wbôvevb n‡eb|
17. b¨qcivqbZv :
‡bZv KviI cÖwZ c¶cvwZZ¡ Ki‡e bv Ges mK‡ji cÖwZ mywePvi Ki‡eb|
18. Drmvn `vb :
Kg©x‡`i Drmvn`vb GKRb †bZvi Ab¨Zg cÖavb ¯^xK…Z ¸b|

19. cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© Ávb :


ÔÔEffective leaders have high degree of knowledge about the company,
Industry, about technical matters.’’
---- S. Robbins.

Composed by eMu
GKRb eyw×gvb †bZv cÖwZ‡hvwM Ges mn‡hvwM cÖwZôvb m¤ú‡K© Ávb iv‡Lb|
20. Ab¨vb¨ :
SuywK MÖn‡bi ¶gZv, `vwqZ¡ MÖn‡bi gvbwmKZv|
Dcmsnvi t
cÖwZ‡hvwMZv g~jK evR‡i cÖwZwU e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bB ¯^íZg mg‡qi g‡a¨ wb‡R‡`i D‡Ïk¨ AR©b Ki‡Z Pvq| Avi
wbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb h_vh_ †bZ…Z¡|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t Kg©x msMÖn I Kg©x wbevP©‡bi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Kx ?

Kg©x msMªn I Kg©x wbevP©b Kg©xms¯’vcb cÖwµqvi `ywU ¸iƒZ¡c~Y© c`‡¶c| Kg©x msMªn cÖwKªqvq cÖwZôv‡b k~Y¨c` c~i‡Yi
Rb¨ m¤¢ve¨ cÖv_©x‡`i Av‡e`b Ki‡Z DrmvwnZ Kiv nq|
gbxlx‡`i `„wófw½ t
1. ÔÔRecruitment is the process attracting qualified applicants to an
organization.’’
---- David H. Holt
2. ``Selection is choosing the best people for the job.’’
---- Van Fleet
Kg©x ms¯’v‡bi `yÕwU wfbœ KvR wn‡m‡e Kg©x msMÖn I Kg©x wbe©vP‡bi g‡a¨ †ek wKQz cv_©K¨ j¶ Kiv hvq|
cv_©‡K¨i welq Kg©x msMÖn Kg©x wbe©vPb
1. D‡Ïk¨ Kg©x msMÖn cÖwµqvi g~j D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv m¤¢ve¨ cÖv_©x‡`i PvKwii Kg©x wbe©vPb cÖwµqvi g~j D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv msMÖxwnZ cÖv_©x‡`i
Rb¨ DØy× K‡i Av‡e`bcÎ msMÖn Kiv| g‡a¨ †hvM¨Zg cÖv_©x wbe©vPb Kiv|
2. Kv‡Ri aib wefvMxq wiKzBwRkb msMÖn, Drm wba©vib, weÁwß cÖ`vb BZ¨vw` Av‡e`b cÎ evQvB †_‡K P~ivš— wbe©vPb ch©š— Kg©x
KvR Kg©x msMÖ‡ni Aš—f~©³| wbe©vP‡bi KvR we¯—…Z|
3. ¯—i GwU Kg©©x ms¯’vb cÖwµqvi cÖv_wgK ¯—i| Kg©x ms¯’vb cÖwµqvq Kg©x msMÖ‡ni c‡ii ¯—i n‡jv Kg©x
wbe©vPb|
4. AvIZv Gi AvIZv mxwgZ| KviY Av‡e`b cÎ msMÖn ch©š— G cÖwµqvi G cÖwµqvi AvIZv e¨vcK| KviY wb‡qvM, c‡`vbœwZ,
e¨wß| e`wj, c`vebwZ, QvUvB BZ¨vw` cÖwZwU Kv‡R wbev©P‡bi
welqwU m¤ú„³|
5. cix¶v MÖnY Kg©©x msMÖ‡ni Rb¨ †Kvb cix¶v MÖnb Kiv nq bv| Kg©x wbe©vP‡b wewfbœ ch©v‡q cix¶v MÖnY Kiv nq|
6. Drm Kg©x msMÖ‡ni Drm `yÕwU - Af¨š—ixY I evwn¨K| Kg©x wbe©vP‡bi Drm n‡jv msM„nxZ cÖv_©x|
7. †gqv` wiKzBwRkb †_‡K weÁvcb cÖ`vb Kiv ch©š— Gi e¨wß| ZvB Gi Av‡e`bcÎ †_‡K P~ovš— evQvB ch©š— GKwU `xN© †gqv‡` G
†gqv`Kvj LyeB ¯^í| cÖwµqv mgvß nq|
8.e¨q G‡¶‡Î Zzjbvg~jK Kg e¨q nq| `xN© mg‡q m¤ú~Y© cÖwµqv †kl Ki‡Z e¨q †ewk nq|
9. `vq `vwqZ¡ msM„nxZ cÖv_©x‡`i e¨cv‡i cÖwZôv‡bi †Kvb `vq `vwqZ¡ m„wó nq wbe©vwPZ cÖv_©x‡`i Rb¨ cÖwZôv‡bi Avw_©K I ˆbwZK `vwqZ¡
bv| m„wó nq|
10. wfwË Kg©x msMÖn Kg©x wbe©vP‡bi wfwË| Kg©x wbe©vPb Kg©x wb‡qv‡Mi wfwË|
DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvq †`Lv hvq, Kg©x msMÖn I Kg©x wbev©Pb G `yÕwU welq ci¯úi wbweofv‡e m¤úK©hy³| Kg©x msMÖn
Qvov †hgb bZzb Kg©x wbe©vPb Kiv hvq bv †Zgwb wbe©vP‡bi D‡Ïk¨ Qvov Kg©x msMÖ‡ni †Kvb Zvrch© _v‡K bv|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t msMVb PvU© / ZvwjKv ej‡Z Kx eyS ?

msMVb KvVv‡gvi ˆiwLK Dc¯’vcbv‡K mvsMVwbK PvU© e‡j| Ab¨ fv‡e ejv hvq, †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi wewfbœ Kvh©wefvM,
Dc-Kvh©wefvM Ges wb‡qvwRZ e¨w³e‡M©i ga¨Kvi m¤úK© A_©vr †K Kvi Ici KZ…Z¡ Av‡ivc Ki‡e ev †K Kvi wbKU Revew`wn
Ki‡e BZ¨vw` welqmg~n †h wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Zz‡j aiv nq, Zv‡K msMVb wPÎ e‡j|
gbxlx‡`i `„wófw½ t
1. ÔÔOrganization chart is the visual representation of an organization’s
structure.’’
----- R. L. Daft
2. ÔÔOrganization chart is a diagram of an organization’s structure showing
the functions, depertments or positions of the organization & how they
are releted.’’
---- Stoner & Others
3. ÔÔOrganization chart is a diagram of the positions & reletionships within
the organization structure.
---- Bovee & Others
msMVb Pv‡U©i bgybv t

e¨e¯’vcbv cwiPvjK

gnve¨e¯’vcK

Dc- gnve¨e¯’vcK

mnKvix gnve¨e¯’vcK

e¨e¯’vcK

mycvifvBRvi

Kg©x e„›`

mvsMVwbK PvU© n‡jv msMV‡b wb‡qvwRZ wewfbœ e¨w³ ev c`mg~‡ni AvbyôvwbK m¤ú‡K©i `„k¨gvbiƒc| G PvU© †_‡K †h
†KD GK bR‡i cÖwZôvb m¤ú‡K© cÖ‡qvRbxq avibv jvf Ki‡Z m¶g nq|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t AvaywbK e¨vs‡Ki c~e©m~ix‡`i eY©bv `vI|

f~wgKv :
AvaywbK hy‡Mi e¨vsK e¨e¯’vi mgqKvj -1400 mvj †_‡K AvR ch©š—| G mgqKv‡jB e¨vs‡Ki Kvh© cwiwa evo‡Z ïi“
K‡i| Ges e¨vsK AvaywbKZv I cwic~Y©Zv jvf K‡i|
ÔÔThe present day banker has three ancestors;
goldsmiths, merchants & money lendes.
A modern bank is something of these.’’
---- G. Crowther
mf¨Zvi cÖ_g n‡ZB gy`ªv e¨e¯’vi mv‡_ GK`j †jvK KvR K‡i Avm‡Q| Zv‡`i A_©‰bwZK I mvgvwRK KvR Kg© n‡ZB
AvaywbK e¨vsK e¨e¯’v M‡o D‡V‡Q| GB we‡kl †kªYxi †jvK¸‡jv hyM hyM a‡i Gwkqv I BD‡iv‡ci wewfbœ ¯’v‡b †Kvbbv †Kvb
fv‡e A_©‰bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ûi mnvqK wn‡m‡e e¨vswKs Kvh©cwiPvjbv Ki‡Zv| Av‡jvPbvi myweav‡Z© A_©bxwZwe`MY G‡`i wZb
†kªYx‡Z wef³ K‡i‡Qb|
1. ¯^Y©Kvi t
ÔÔThe development of banking in England is the traced to the
goldsmiths who became prominent after the middle of the
seventeenth century.’’
---- T. T. Sethi
¯^Y©Kvi‡`i f~wgKv :
K. ¯^Y©, nxiv, †iŠc¨ Av‡M †_‡KB gvby‡li cQ‡›`i e‡j ¯^Y©Kvi‡`i mv‡_ Zv‡`i mym¤úK© M‡o D‡V|
L. ¯^Y©KviMY Avw_©K fv‡e †ewk m”Qj wQj|
M. mvgvwRKfv‡e ¯^Y©Kvi †kªYx mr, wek¦vmx I b¨vqcivqY wn‡m‡e| we‡ewPZ n‡Zv|
N. Zviv wbivc‡` g~j¨evb m¤ú` msi¶‡Y we‡kl e¨e¯’v MÖnb Ki‡Zv|
O. A‡_©i cÖPj‡bi ci GK †kªYxi †jvK ¯^Y©Kvi‡`i wbKU wKQz wKQz A_© Rgv ivL‡Zv|
Gme AbyK‚j Ae¯’vq e¨vswKs e¨e¯’v msMV‡b ¯^Y©Kvi MY †hme KvR Ki‡Zb Zv n‡jv :
K) †jvKR‡bi RgvK…Z A_© I g~j¨evb m¤ú` wbivc‡` msMÖn I msi¶Y Ki‡Zb|
L) Rgv UvKvi cÖgvY wn‡m‡e nv‡Z †jLv iwm‡`i cÖPjb K‡ib|
M) hv‡`i A‡_©i Afve Av‡Q, Zv‡`i RgvK…Z A_© n‡Z FY w`‡Zb|
N) AvgvbZKvix‡`i wKQz gybvdvI cÖ`vb Ki‡Zb|

Composed by eMu
Giƒc eûwewa e¨e¯’v MÖn‡b Zv µgvš^‡q cÖvwZôvwbK w`‡K GwM‡q hvq| 1640 mv‡j Bsj¨v‡Ûi ivRv cÖ_g Pvj©m -Gi
mgq jÛb miKvwi UvDqv‡i iw¶Z ¯^Y©Kvi‡`i †ek ¯^Y© AvUK Kivi ga¨ w`‡q miKv‡ii mv‡_ Zv‡`i we‡iva †`Lv
†`q| Gi djmªywZ‡Z ZrKvjxb ivwbi mb` Øviv MwVZ nq we‡k¦i cÖ_g †K›`ªxq e¨vsK †Kv¤úvwb Ôe¨vsK Ae Bsj¨vÛÕ|

2. gnvRb t
ÔÔThe money lender for investment, in vew for his skill & experience
in the technique of exaction, he reaches an embryonic banker.’’
---- G. Crowther
gnvRb‡`i f~wgKv :
K. Avw_©Kfv‡e gnvRb †kªYx me mgqB m”Qj wQj e‡j Zv‡`i mevB wek¦vm Ki‡Zv;
L. Zviv mvaviY gvbyl‡K cÖfvweZ Kivi h‡_ó kw³ ivL‡Zv Ges A_© Rgv MÖnb I FY cÖ`v‡b mnvqZv Ki‡Zv ;
M. A_© I FY msMÖn I cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g gnvRb †kªYx wewfbœ e¨vswKs Kvh©µ‡g RwoZ n‡q c‡o;
N. Gfv‡e wewfbœ Avw_©K Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡bi gva¨‡g Zviv e¨vswKs e¨e¯’vi Dbœq‡b e¨vcK Ae`vb iv‡L| gnvRbMYB
e¨vsK e¨e¯’vq RvgvbwZ FY, eÜwK FY mn wewfbœ e¨vswKs Kvh©m¤úv`b K‡i| gnvRb †kªYxi Kvh©µ‡gi djmªywZ‡Z
1700 L„óv‡ã Dcgnv‡`‡k cÖ_g evwYwR¨K e¨vsK wn‡m‡e Ôw` wn›`y¯—vb e¨vsKÕ cÖwZwôZ nq|

3. e¨emvqx t
ÔÔThe merchant whose high & widespread reputation & credit enable
him to issue documents that will be taken all over the world known
as title of money. ’’
---- G. Crowther
e¨emvqxi f~wgKv :
K) c~e©eZx© hyM †_‡KB e¨emvqxMY wQj h‡_ó m”Qj ;
L) wb‡Ri cÖ‡qvR‡bB ZvB h‡_ó mZZvi cwiPq w`Z ;
M) e¨emvqxMY cÖPzi cwigv‡Y A_© †jb‡`b, msMÖn I msi¶Y Ki‡Zv ;
N) wek¦vm I wbivcËvi Kvi‡Y A‡b‡K Zv‡`i A_©Rgv ivL‡Zb ;
O) cieZx© ch©v‡q e¨emvqxMY evwYwR¨Kfv‡e FY MÖnY, msi¶Y, FY`vbmn wewfbœ †jb‡`‡bRwoZ n‡q c‡o|
P) Gfv‡e Avw_©K Kvh©µ‡gi avivevwnKZvq e¨emvqx †Mvôx e¨vs‡Ki cÖvwZôvwbK iƒc ‡`q|
Dcmsnvi t
Ava~wbK e¨vs‡Ki weeZ©b †Kvb wec−e bq, eis µ‡gvbœwZ I µgweeZ©‡bi dj| ZrKvjxb ¯^Y©Kvi, gnvRb, e¨emvqx
†kªYx AvaywbK e¨vs‡Ki †MvovcËb K‡i Dbœq‡bi w`K wb‡`©kbv w`‡qwQj|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t kvLv e¨vsK/e¨vswKs Kv‡K e‡j ? kvLv e¨vs‡Ki myweav-Amyweav eY©bv Ki|

g~je³e¨ t
GKwU cÖavb e¨vs‡Ki Aax‡b †h e¨vs‡Ki A‡bK¸‡jv kvLv †`‡k-we‡`‡k e¨vswKs Kvh© cwiPvjbv K‡i, Zv‡K kvLv
e¨vsK e‡j| G e¨e¯’vq wbqš¿bKvix Awdm‡K Head Office Ges wewfbœ ¯’v‡b ¯’vwcZ kvLv ¸‡jv‡K Branch Office e‡j|
cÖvgvb¨ msÁv t
ÔÔBanks that sell their services through multiple offices are called
branch banking.’’
---- P. S. Rose
ÔÔ ‡h e¨vs‡Ki †`‡ki me©Î A‡bK¸‡jv kvLv _v‡K, GKwU cwiPvjbv cl©` Ges GK `j
‡kqvi gvwjK Lv‡K Zv‡K kvLv e¨vsK e‡j|ÕÕ
---- M. N. Mishra

kvLv e¨vswKs t

e¨vsK

Head Office Branch office (A)


Service Clients

Branch office (B) Service Clients

Branch office (C) Service Clients

we‡klZ¡ t
1. kvLv¯’vc‡bi gva¨‡g cwiPvwjZ e¨vsK e¨e¯’v ;
2. G e¨e¯’vq GKwU wbqš¿bKvix cÖavb Awdm _v‡K ;
3. kvL¸‡jv †K›`ªxq Awdm‡K Revew`wn K‡i _v‡K ;
4. cÖavb Awdm bxwZgvjv cÖYqb I kvLvi gva¨‡g ev¯—evwqZ K‡i ;
5. kvLv¸‡jv †K›`ªxq Awd‡mi Aax‡b Zv‡`i Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv K‡i|BZ¨vw`|
Dcmsnvi t
kvLv e¨vswKs GKwU m¤cÖmvwiZ e¨vsK e¨e¯’v| Gi gva¨‡g GKwU e¨vsK GKB mv‡_ †`k-we‡`‡ki wewfbœ ¯’v‡b
e¨vswKs †mev cÖ`v‡b m¶g|

Composed by eMu
kvLv e¨vs‡Ki myweav t
eZ©gv‡b e¯—Zg we‡k¦ A_©‰bwZK †mev `v‡b kvLv e¨vs‡Ki Rywo †bB| weivU AvKv‡ii g~jabmn c„w_exi cÖvš— Ry‡o
cÖmvwiZ kvLv e¨vsK wek¦ evwYR¨ e¨vcK cwiwPwZ I RbwcÖqZv jvf K‡i‡Q|
1. e„n`vqZb cÖwZôvb (Large-Scale Organisation)t
kvLv e¨vsK †Kv¤úvwb nIqvq kªg wefvRb, we‡klÁg~jK Kvh© cwiPvjbv, Kg©x-cÖwk¶Y, e¨q, ms‡KvP cÖf„wZ
myweav¸‡jv e„n`vqZb e¨emvq †fvM K‡i|
2. †K›`ªxq e¨vs‡Ki mv‡_ mym¤úK© (Good Relationship with Central Bank) t
kvLv e¨vsK †K›`ªxq e¨vs‡Ki m`m¨| ZvB G e¨vsK †K›`ªxq e¨vsK cÖ`Ë mKj cÖKvi my‡hvM myweav †fvM K‡i| m`m¨
nIqvq †K›`ªxq e¨vs‡Ki mv‡_ GKUv fvj m¤úK© M‡o D‡V|
3. ch©vß cywRu (Adequate Capital)t
GKw`‡K e„n`vqZb Avw_©K cÖwZôvb Ab¨w`‡K wewfbœ A‡j eû kvLv Kvh©Ki _v‡K e‡j G e¨vsK ch©vß g~ja‡bi
myweav †fvM K‡i _v‡K| A‡bK¸‡jv kvLvi gva¨‡g G e¨vsK †`‡ki RbM‡bi wbKU n‡Z cÖPzi mÂq msMÖn K‡i|
d‡j †`‡ki g~jab MVb mnR nq|
4. SzuwK n«vm (Decrease of Risk)t
G e¨vs‡Ki SzuwK kvLv ¸‡jv †hŠ_fv‡e enb K‡i e‡j mvgwMÖK SzuwK n«vm cvq|
5. ch©vß ‡mev (Adequate Service)t
‡`‡k we‡`‡k kvLv _v‡K e‡j G e¨vsK AwaK Rb‡mev Ki‡Z cv‡i|
6. A_© ¯’vbvš—i (Transfer of Money)t
G e¨vs‡Ki gva¨‡g †`‡k we‡`‡k A‡_©i ¯’vbvš—i mnR nq| wewfbœ ¯’v‡b kvLv Av‡Q e‡jB G KvR m¤¢e nq|
7. mylg Dbœqb (Balance Development)t
‡`‡ki me©Î kvLv we¯—vi K‡i G e¨vsK mylg A_©‰bwZK Dbœq‡b mvnvh¨ K‡i| FY cÖ`vb, wewb‡qvM BZ¨w`i gva¨‡g G
Dbœqb nq|
8. Zvi‡j¨i myweav (Advantages of Liquidity)t
kvLv¸‡jv ci¯úi wbf©ikxj I mn‡hvwMZvi gva¨‡g KvR K‡i e‡j Kg bM` A_© Rgv ivL‡jB P‡j| Ri“wi
cÖ‡qvR‡bi mgq GK kvLv Ab¨ kvLv †_‡K A_© msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i|
9. Kg©ms¯’vb (Employment)t
G e¨vs‡K AwaK msL¨K †jv‡Ki Kg©ms¯’vb nq| Gi d‡j †`‡ki †eKviZ¡ n«vm cvq| KviY Gi cÖavb Awdm †_‡K
ïi“ K‡i cÖZ¨š— A‡ji kvLv †Lvjv nq|
10. AwaK gybvdv (More Profit)t
G e¨vsK Ab¨vb¨ e¨vs‡Ki Zzjbvq AwaK gybvdv AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i|

Composed by eMu
11. ‰e‡`wkK evwY‡R¨ mnvqZv (Aid in Foreign Trade)t
kvLv e¨vsK ˆe‡`wkK wewbgq kvLvi gva¨‡g Avg`vwb I ißvwb evwY‡R¨ mnvqZv K‡i| GR‡b¨ ˆe‡`wkK wewbgq kvLv
†Lvjv nq|
12. g~ja‡bi MwZkxjZv e„w× (Increasing Capital Velocity)t
wewfbœ kvLvi gva¨‡g A_© ¯’vbvš—i I wewb‡qvM mnR nIqvq G e¨vs‡Ki gva¨‡g g~jab MwZkxjZv e„w× cvq|
13. my‡`i nv‡i mgZv (Equality in Interest Rate)t
wewfbœ kvLvi gva¨‡g me©Î GKB bxwZ‡Z my` avh© nq| kvLv ¸‡jv cÖavb Kvh©vj‡qi wba©vwiZ my‡`i nvi AbymiY K‡i
mviv †`‡k my‡`i nv‡i mgZv Av‡b|
14. cÖwk¶‡bi myweav (Training Facility)t
AwaK g~jab I m”QjZv _vKvi cÖwk¶‡Yi gva¨‡g G e¨vsK `¶ Kgx© ˆZwi Ki‡Z cv‡i| Kgx© I wbe©nx‡`i Kv‡Ri
gva¨‡gI cÖZ¨¶fv‡e cÖwkw¶Z Kiv hvq|
15. Ab¨vb¨ myweav :
RbM‡bi Av¯’v ,
`¶ e¨e¯’vcbv,
mybvg e„w×,
PvKzwii DrKl©Zv,
SzuwK e›Ub myweav, cÖf„wZ|
Dcmsnvi t
kvLv e¨vsK GKwU AvaywbK wek¦we¯—…Z e¨vsK e¨e¯’v| Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b Gi Ae`vb e¨vcKfv‡e we¯—…Z|

Composed by eMu
kvLv e¨vs‡Ki Amyweav t
kvLv e¨vsK GKwU we¯—…Z I e„n`vqZb e¨vsK e¨e¯’v| kvLv e¨vs‡Ki gva¨‡g e¨vcK GjvKv I RbMb‡K e¨vswKs myweav
w`‡jI Gi wKQz Amyweav I Av‡Q|
1. RwUj e¨e¯’vcbv :
AwaK kvLv I cÖPzi Kg©x Ges †jb‡`b _vKvq e¨e¯’vcbv †ewk RwUj n‡q _v‡K| ZvQvov wekvj AvqZ‡bi cÖwZôvb
cwiPvjbvqI RwUjZv †`Lv †`q|
2. AwaK e¨q :
kvLv e¨vswKs e„n`vqZb cÖwZôvb, A‡bK kvLv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq cÖPzi e¨q nq| hv Gi gybvdv AR©‡b cÖwZeÜKZv
wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i|
3. wm×vš— MÖn‡Y wej¤^ :
mKj kvLvi cÖvß Z_¨ wb‡q AvBbm¤§Z fv‡e wm×vš— MÖnb Ki‡Z cÖPzi mgq e¨q nq| cÖPzi kvLv wb‡q wm×vš— MÖnY
Kiv †ewk Kómva¨|
4. AvgjvZvwš¿KZv :
mKj Kvh©µ‡g we‡kl K‡i FY cÖ`vb I wewb‡qv‡M `xN© AvgjvZvwš¿K RwUjZv †`Lv †`q| d‡j me¸‡jv KvRB RwUj
I mgq mv‡c¶ n‡q c‡o| Giƒc RwUjZv kvLv e¨vswKs Kvh©µg‡K Aw¯’wZkxj K‡i †Zv‡j|
5. GK‡PwUqv cÖfve :
e„n`vqZb kvLv e¨vsK A‡bK mgq GK‡PwUqv cÖfve we¯—vi Ki‡Z Pvq, hv Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq|
GK‡PwUqv cÖfve mgvR I A_©bxwZi Rb¨ ¶wZKi|
6. e¨vsKvi MªvnK m¤úK© :
e„n`vKvi cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e e¨vsKvi I MÖvnK cÖZ¨¶ fv‡e m¤úK© M‡o †Zvjv m¤¢e nq bv| e¨vsK MÖvnK m¤úK© my`„p
Kiv bv †M‡j mvdj¨ AR©b Kómva¨ nq|
7. `ybx©wZ I ¯^RbcÖxwZ :
kvLv e¨vs‡Ki Kg©KZ©v I Kg©PvixMY cÖvqB `ybx©wZ I ¯^RbcÖxwZi mv‡_ RwoZ n‡q c‡o| `ybx©wZ I ¯^RbcÖxwZ †iva
Kiv bv †M‡j e¨vs‡Ki cÖwZ MYAv¯’v bó nq|
8. ¯’vbxq cÖfve :
‡h GjvKvq kvLv Awdm Aew¯’Z †mLvbKvi cÖkvmb I RvwjqvZ PKª e¨vs‡Ki Dci cÖfve we¯—vi Ki‡Z cv‡i| Giƒc
cÖfve e¨vs‡Ki mybvg I Kvh©µg‡K e¨vnZ K‡i|
9. ivR‰bwZK cÖfve :

Composed by eMu
ivR‰bwZK `j ¸‡jv Zv‡`i AvwacZ¨ evov‡bvi Rb¨ kvLv e¨vsK My‡jv‡Z `j M‡o Zz‡j| d‡j e¨vs‡Ki ¯^vfvweK
Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq Sv‡gjv m„wó nq|
10. `ye©j kvLvi †jvKmvb enb :
`ye©j kvLv ¸‡jv†Z m„ó‡jvKmvb gybvdvavix kvLv¸‡jv‡Z ew›UZ nIqvq Zv‡`i K…ZKvh©Zv †Zgb †`Lv hvq bv| GQvov
Giƒc †jvKmvb e¨vs‡Ki gybvdv Z_v AMÖhvÎvq ûgwKmiƒc|
11. RvZxqKiY :
A‡bK mgq kvLv e¨vswKs -G wb‡Ri †`‡k ev Ab¨‡`‡k mKj kvLv ev AvswkK kvLv RvZxqKi‡Yi duv‡` c‡o wb‡Ri
mewKQz nvivq|
Dcmsnvi t
kvLv e¨vs‡Ki wKQz Amyweav _vK‡jI eZ©gvb cÖwZ‡hvwMZvgq e¨vswKs RM‡Z Gi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv e¨vcK Ges wU‡K _vKvi
Rb¨ Amyweav¸‡jv `yi Kivi cÖ‡Póv Pvjv‡bv DwPZ|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t FY wbqš¿b Kx ? †K›`ªxq e¨vs‡Ki FY wbqš¿b c×wZ Av‡jvPbv Ki|

f~wgKv t
ÔÔCredit is indispensible as fire ;
a good servant but a bad master.’’
ÔFYÕ n‡”Q e¨vw³ ev cÖwZôvb KZ…©K cÖ`Ë avi| Avi Ôwbqš¿bÕ ej‡Z F‡Yi cwigvb cÖ‡qvRbxq gvÎvq a‡i ivLv‡K
eySvq| ‡K›`ªxq e¨vs‡Ki GKwU cÖavb KvR nj FY wbqš¿Y Kiv| RvZxq ¯^v‡_© F‡Yi Kvg¨ †hvMvb wbwðZ Kiv‡KB FY wbqš¿Y
e‡j| e¨vsK F‡Yi e¨emvq K‡i| Avevi FYwfwËK A_©bxwZ‡Z FY mieiv‡ni cwigvb Kg ev †ewk n‡j A_©bxwZ‡Z weiƒc
cÖwZwµqv m„wó K‡i| F‡Yi cwigvY hw` Kg nq Z‡e A_©bxwZ ¯^fvweKZ MwZ e¨vnZ nq| G‡Z FY ms‡KvPb nq| Avevi
F‡Yi cwigvb †ewk n‡j gy`ªvùxwZ N‡U| ZvB FY wbqš¿‡bi ¸i“Z¡ AZ¨vwaK|
g~j e³e¨ t
‡h c×wZ‡Z miKv‡ii c‡¶ †K›`ªxq e¨vsK †`‡ki F‡Yi cwigvY Kvg¨¯—‡i iv‡L, Zv‡K FY wbqš¿Y e‡j| myZivs
evRv‡i F‡Yi cwigvY fvimvg¨ ¯—‡i a‡i ivLvB n‡jv FY wbqš¿Y|
cÖgvY¨ msÁv t
™ ÔÔ Credit control means the regulation of bank advantages’’
---- K. K. Dewett
™ ÔÔAf¨š—ixb g~j¨gvb w¯’wZkxj ivLv‡K FY wbqš¿Y e‡j|ÕÕ
---- Shekar & Shekar
we‡klZ¡ t
1. †`‡ki A‡_©i cwigvb fvimvg¨ ¯—‡i ivLv ;
2. ‡`‡ki Af¨š—‡i A‡_©i cwigvY I g~j¨gvb w¯’wZkxj ivLv ;
3. `ªe¨g~j¨ mnbxq ch©v‡q ivLv ;
4. F‡Yi cwigvY Ggb Kvg¨ ¯—‡i ivLv, hv‡Z gy`ªvùxwZ ev gy`ªv ms‡KvPb m„wó bv nq ; BZ¨vw`|
Dcmsnvi t
F‡Yi †hvMvb Kg I †ewk `ywUB ¶wZKi †mRb¨ †K›`ªxq e¨vsK †h †KŠk‡j FY`vbKvix cÖwZôvb mg~‡ni FY m„wói
¶gZv‡K e„w× I ms‡KvPb K‡i| Kvg¨¯—‡i iv‡L Zv‡KB FY wbqš¿Y e‡j|

Composed by eMu
FY wbqš¿Y c×wZ t
ÔÔThe most important function of central bank is to control credit
created by commercial banks.’’
---- Gordon & Natarajan

A_©bxwZi MwZ cÖK…wZi wePvi we‡k−l‡Yi Av‡jv‡K †K›`ªxq e¨vsK wewfbœ ai‡bi c×wZ Aej¤^bK‡i _v‡K| me mgq
mKj cwiw¯’wZB GKB c×wZi e¨envi mgvb Kvh©Ki dj w`‡Z cv‡i bv| c×wZ e¨env‡ii c‡i gy`ªv evRv‡i Kx ai‡bi
cÖwZwµqv m„wô Ki‡Z cv‡i - Zv we‡k−lY K‡iB †K›`ªxq e¨vsK Zvi nvwZqvi ev †KŠkj mg~n e¨envi K‡i _v‡K|
‰ewk‡ó¨i wePv‡i FY wbqš¿Y c×wZ‡K cÖavbZ wbgœwjwLZ `y fv‡M fvM Kiv nq :

FY wbqš¿Y c×wZ / †KŠkj

msL¨vMZ c×wZ wbe©vPb g~jK c×wZ

1. FY eivÏKiY bxwZ
1. e¨vsK nvi bxwZ 2. cÖZ¨¶ e¨e¯’v
2. ‡LvjvevRvi bxwZ 3. Rvgvb‡Zi cÖvwš—K nvi cwieZ©b
3. Rgvi nvi cwieZ©b bxwZ 4. ‡fvM¨ c‡Y¨i FY wbqš¿Y
5. ‰bwZK civgk©
6. cÖPvi

K) msL¨vMZ c×wZ t
G e¨e¯’vq †K›`ªxq e¨vsK mivmwi evwYwR¨K e¨vs‡Ki F‡Yi cwigv‡bi Dci wbqš¿Y Av‡ivc K‡i _v‡K|
1. e¨vsK nvi bxwZ :
‡h nv‡i †K›`ªxq evwYwR¨K e¨vs‡Ki wej, FYcÎ, eÛ, wmwKDwiwU evÆv K‡i ZvB e¨vsK nvi| e¨vsK evwo‡q ev Kwg‡q
FY wbqš¿b †K e¨vsK nvi bxwZ ejv nq|

2. †Lvjv evRvi bxwZ :


‡LvjvevRv‡i wej, wmwKDwiwU, FYcÎ, eÛ, cÖf„wZ µq-weµ‡qi gva¨‡g FY wbqš¿Y Kiv‡K †LvjvevRvi bxwZ e‡j|

Composed by eMu
3. Rgvi nvi cwieZ©bkxj :
cÖ‡Z¨KwU ZvwjKvfy³ evwYwR¨K e¨vsK Avgvb‡Zi GKwU wbw`©ó Ask eva¨Zvg~jK fv‡e †K›`ªxq e¨vs‡K Rgv iv‡L,
hv‡K msiw¶Z ev wewae× Rgvi nvi e‡j|

L) wbe©vPbg~jK c×wZ t
ÔÔThe regulation of credit for specific purpose or branches of economic
activity is termed as selective or qualitative quality control.’’
---- Reserve Bank of India
1. FY eivÏKiY bxwZ :
G c×wZ‡Z †K›`ªxq e¨vsK evwYwR¨K e¨vsK¸‡jv‡K wKQy Lv‡Z FY `v‡b wewa wb‡la Av‡ivc K‡i| Avevi †Kvb †Kvb
†¶‡Î wbw`©ó mxgvmn FY`vb D`vi K‡i|
2. cÖZ¨¶ e¨e¯’v :
cÖZ¨¶ wb‡`©kbvi gva¨‡g FY wbqš¿Y‡K cÖZ¨¶ e¨e¯’v e‡j| G c×wZ‡Z ZvwjKvfy³ e¨vsK¸‡jv‡K †K›`ªxq e¨vs‡Ki
FY`vb bxwZ Abymib Ki‡Z ejv nq| †Kvb e¨vsK bxwZ cvj‡b e¨_© n‡j AwZwi³ my` avh© Kiv, AwaK wiRvf© msi¶b
wewfbœ kvw¯—g~jK e¨e¯’v MÖnb Kiv nq|
3. Rvgvb‡Zi cÖvwš—K nvi cwieZ©b:
Rvgvb‡Zi †h Ask nv‡Z †i‡L †`qv nq, Zv‡K Rvgvb‡Zi cÖvwš—K nvi e‡j| aiv hvK, 100 UvKv RvgvbZ †i‡L
evwYwR¨K e¨vsK 80 UvKv FY †`q, (100-80) = 20 UvKv cÖvwš—K nvi| G nv‡i n«vm e„w× NwU‡q †K›`ªxq e¨vs‡Ki A_©
mieivn evovq I Kgvq|
4. ‡fvM¨c‡Y¨i FY wbqš¿Y :
evwYwR¨K e¨vsK cÖ`Ë †fvM¨c‡Y¨i Dci F‡Yj wKw¯—i cwigvb evwo‡q I Kwg‡q †K›`ªxq e¨vK FY wbqš¿Y K‡i| aiv
hvK, e¨vsK 25000 UvKv g~‡j¨i GKwU wd«R †Kbvq FY w`‡q MÖvnK‡K Zv 10 wKw¯—‡Z cwi‡kv‡ai my‡hvM †`q| Giƒc
wKw¯—i cwigvb evov‡j †µZvi AvMÖn evo‡e| wKw¯—i cwigvb Kgv‡j †µZvi AvMªn Kg‡e| Gfv‡e †fvM¨c‡Y¨ F‡Yi wKw¯—
evwo‡q I Kwg‡q FY wbqš¿Y Kiv nq|
5. ‰bwZK civgk© :
Aaxb¯’ e¨vsK¸‡jv‡K FY wbqš¿‡Yi wewfbœ civgk© w`‡q ˆbwZK fv‡e DrmvwnZ Kiv nq| †K›`ªxq e¨vs‡Ki civgk©
mg~n cvjb Kiv evwYwR¨K e¨vsK ¸‡jvi Rb¨ ˆbwZK eva¨Zvg~jK n‡q c‡o|
6. cÖPvi :
FY wbqš¿‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv I Dcvq m¤ú‡K© AwaK cÖPv‡ii gva¨‡g FY wbqš¿Y cÖm‡½ wbqwgZ msev`, mvgwqKx,
cÖwZ‡e`b, ey‡jwUb, cÎ-cwÎKvq e¨vcK cÖPvi Kvh© Pvjvq| G‡Z evwYwR¨K e¨vsK¸‡jv FY wbqš¿‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Abyfe
K‡i |

Dcmsnvi t
mvgwMÖK e¨vsK e¨emvq I gy`ªv evRv‡ii AwffveKwn‡m‡e FY wbqš¿Y Kvh©µg mdj Kievi Rb¨ †K›`ªªxq e¨vsK Z_v
evsjv‡`k e¨vsK DcwiD³ c×wZmg~n Aej¤^‡bi gva¨‡g †`‡ki A_©bxwZ‡K MwZkxj ivL‡Z †Póv K‡i|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœt †`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Dbœq‡b †kqvi evRv‡ii f~wgKv (¸i“Z¡) eY©bv Ki|

f~wgKvt
cuywR evRvi MVb Ges wewb‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g †`‡ki e¨emvq- evwYR¨, wkí KviLvbv weKv‡k †kqvi evRvi g~L¨ f~wgKv
cvjb K‡i Ges cÖZ¨¶ I c‡iv¶fv‡e †`‡ki RbMY Gi mydj †fvM K‡i|
Ò The development of the corporate form of business unit and increase
in national debt in the various countries have increased the importance
of Stock Exchange. Ó
---- Reddy & Gulshan.

¸i“Z¡/f~wgKv
‡Kv¤úvwbi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K wewb‡qvMKvixi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K mvgvwRK `„wó‡KvY †_‡K

1| g~jab MVb 1| wbivc` wewb‡qvM 1| cÖe„w× AR©b


2| g~ja‡bi MwZkxjZv e„w× 2| mÂq e„w× 2| gv_vwcQz Avq e„w×
3| g~ja‡bi wbðqZv MVb 3| Z_¨ mieivn 3| RvZxq Avq e„w×
4| Zvij¨ i¶v 4| civgk© cÖ`vb 4| Rxeb hvÎvi gvb Dbœqb
5| FY myweav 5| AwMÖg †jb‡`b 5| `ª“Z wkívqb
6| mybvg e„w× 6| ˆe‡`wkK gy`ªv msMÖn
7| evRvi m¤cÖmviY 7| gy`ªvùxwZ n«vm

Dcmsnvit
‡`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Dbœq‡bi gvcKvwV n‡jv mswk−ó †`‡ki †kqvi evRvi| †kqvi evRv‡ii Ae¯’v †`‡L D³ †`‡ki
mvgwMÖK A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’vi cÖwZ”Qwe cvIqv hvq| G m¤ú‡K© Sherlekar e‡j‡Qb, ÒStock Exchange are, in
fact, the focal points of the capital market systems that fuel the growth and expansion of
nationalbuisness, to the ultimate benefit and well being of the national economy and its
people .Ó

Composed by eMu
cÖkœt Òexgv ¶wZc~i‡Yi Pzw³Ó - e¨vL¨v Ki|

gvby‡li Rxeb I m¤úwËi ¶wZ n‡Z cv‡i| G ¶wZi SuywK †_‡K cwiÎvb †`evi Rb¨B exgv e¨e¯’vi D™¢e n‡q‡Q| GK
c‡¶i ¶wZ n‡j Ab¨ c¶ H ¶wZ wcÖwgqv‡gi wewbg‡q c~iY Kievi Rb¨ GKwU Pzw³‡Z Ave× nq, H Pzw³‡K ¶wZ c~i‡Yi
Pzw³ e‡j| Pzw³ Qvov exgv nq bv| Avi exgvi Pzw³ ¶wZc~i‡Yi Rb¨ nq e‡j G‡K (exgv Pzw³‡K) ¶wZc~i‡Yi Pzw³ e‡j|
1. I.S. Kanwal (AvB.Gm.K¨vbvj) Gi g‡Z, Òexgv GKwU ¶wZc~i‡Yi Pzw³ hv‡Z exgvKvix wcÖwgqv‡gi wewbg‡q
exgv MÖwnZvi ¶wZc~iY K‡i|Ó
2. M.N.Mishra e‡jb, Òe¨w³MZ exgv e¨ZxZ mKj exgvB ¶wZc~i‡Yi Pzw³|Ó
¶wZc~i‡Yi bxwZ cÖ‡qv‡Mi †¶‡Î †h me welq we‡ePbv Kiv nq Zv n‡jvt
K. ¶wZ Awb”QvK…Z Ges cÖZ¨¶ KviY Øviv msNwUZ n‡Z n‡e|
L. ¶wZi cwigvY mwVKfv‡e wbY©q Ki‡Z n‡e|
M. exgvK…Z welqe¯‘i g~j¨ A‡c¶v Kg ev †ewk g~‡j¨ exgv Kiv n‡j Zvi D‡Ïk¨ mr n‡Z n‡e|
N. ¶wZ msNUb †iv‡a exgvMÖwnZv m‡e©v”P mZ©KZv Aej¦b K‡i‡Qb e‡j cÖgvY Ki‡Z n‡e|
O. †h cwigvY m¤úwËi ¶wZ msNwUZ nq Zv exgvK…Z n‡j exgvKvix m¤ú~Y© ¶wZc~i‡Y eva¨|
P. KLbI ¶wZi cwigvY A‡c¶v AwaK g~j¨ exgvKvix cÖ`vb K‡i bv|
Q. exgvKvix ¶wZi AwZwi³ A_© MÖnY K‡i‡Q cÖgvwYZ n‡j Zv †diZ`v‡b eva¨ _vK‡e| BZ¨vw`|
D`vniYt
wg. nvmvb Zuvi 5,00,000 UvKv evwowUi GKwU AwMœexgv cÎ MÖnY Kij| evwowU AwMœ`» nIqvi ci exgvKvix
¶wZc~iY ¯^iƒc 5,00,000 UvKv exgvMÖwZv‡K cÖ`vb K‡i| msNwUZ ¶wZi mgcwigvY c~iY K‡i e‡j mvaviY exgv‡K
¶wZc~i‡Yi Pzw³ ejv nq|
mvaviY exgvq exgvKvix m¤úwË ¶wZi m¤ú~Y© SuywK MÖnY K‡i, Zv c~iY K‡i e‡jB G‡K ¶wZ- c~i‡Yi Pzw³ e‡j
AwfwnZ Kiv nq|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœt ißvwb †µwWU M¨vivw›U w¯‹sg wK?

f~wgKv t
1918 mv‡j hy³iv‡R¨ miKv‡ii D‡`¨v‡M cÖ_g Òißvwb avi M¨vivw›U exgvÓ cÖeZ©b Kiv nq| 1957 mv‡ji fviZxq
Dcgnv‡`‡k ißvwb SuywK exgv K‡c©v‡ikb cÖwZôv jvf K‡i| Gi ci 1962 mv‡j ZrKvjxb cvwK¯—vb Ges 1964 mv‡j fvi‡Z
Òißvwb avi M¨vivw›U w¯‹gÓ Pvjy nq Ges RbwcÖqZvi nvZ a‡i ch©vqµ‡g d«vÝ, KvbvWv, myB‡Wb, cwðg Rvg©vwb, Rvcvb cÖf„wZ
†`‡k Zv e¨vcKfv‡e Qwo‡q c‡o|

g~j¨ cwi‡kv‡a wej¤^, Avg`vwbKvi‡Ki ‡`DwjqvZ¡, †`wi‡Z cY¨ †cuŠQv, PvwM`v I wewbgq nv‡i cwieZ©b, ivR‰bwZK
Aw¯’iZv, hy× cÖf„wZ evwYwR¨K I ivR‰bwZK wec` ißvwbKvi‡Ki g~j¨ cÖvw߇Z wej¤^ ev AwbðqZv m„wó K‡i| ißvwbKvi‡Ki
cY¨g~j¨ cÖvwß wej¤^ ev AwbðqZv `~i K‡i Giƒc evwY‡R¨i Dbœq‡b wcÖwgqv‡gi wewbg‡q exgvKvix exgvMÖwnZvi mv‡_ †h Pzw³
m¤úv`b K‡i, Zv‡K ißvwb avi M¨vivw›U exgv e‡j|
Ò ißvwb M¨vivw›U exgvi Aax‡b ißvwbKviK ißvwbRwbZ SuywK I ¶wZ †gvKvwejv K‡i AwbðqZv `~i Ki‡Z
m¶g|Ó
---- I.S.Kanwal.
D‡Ïk¨ t
1| e¨emvqx‡`i ißvwb e¨emv‡q DrmvwnZ Kiv|
2| e¨emvq welqK Avw_©K SuywK enb Kiv|
Dcmsnvit
g~jZ G w¯‹g ev cÖKíwU, ißvwb FY exgvi GKwU Ask|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœt †kqvi evRv‡ii ˆewkó¨ eY©bv Ki|

GKwU †`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Kvh©µg cwiPvwjZ nq †m †`‡ki Avw_©K evRvi KZ©„K| Avi Avw_©K evRv‡ii me‡P‡q
¸i“Z¡c~Y© Dcv`vb n‡jv Stock Exchange ev †kqvi evRvi| mviv we‡k¦B GB evRvi e¨emvqx, wewb‡qvMKvix‡`i wbKU AwZ
cwiwPZ bvg|
1| msNwUZ evRvi t
ÒStock Exchange is an organized financial market for trading to
stocks and bondsÓ ---- Banglapedia.
†kqvi evRvi GKwU msNwUZ evRvi; †hLv‡b Avw_©K cÖwZôvbmg~n †jb‡`b K‡i|
2| µq weµq t
Ò Stock Exchange is a market for buying and selling of public
securities. Ó ---- Oxford Dictationary.

ZvwjKvfy³ cvewjK wjwg‡UW ‡Kv¤úvwb

Aax‡b
e¨emvqx/mvaviY e¨w³

Share
‡kqvi& evRvi

‡kqvi gvwjK
`vjvb Stock
Revi Bond
Debentures
Securities

3| ¯^Zš¿ cÖwZôvb t
‡kqvi evRvi AvB‡bi gva¨‡g m„÷ GKwU ¯^Zš¿ Avw_©K cÖwZôvb|

4| gva¨wgK evRvi t
Ò Stock Exchange is a market for second hand securities Ó
---- Hobday.
‡kqvi evRv‡i gva¨wgK ch©v‡qi †kqvi, eÛ, wW‡eÂvi µq weµq Kiv nq|

Composed by eMu
5| ZvwjKvfyw³ t
‡kqvi evRv‡i µq weµ‡qi c~e©kZ© n‡jv mswk−ó †Kv¤úvwb‡K µq ZvwjKvfy³ n‡Z nq|

6| wewbgq †K›`ª t
‡kqvi evRv‡ii wbR¯^ †Kvb †kqvi, eÛ †bB| GwU ïay wewbgq †K›`ª wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i|

7| bxwZgvjv t
‡kqvi evRvi wbR¯^ AvBb Ges mswk−ó wewa wb‡la †g‡b P‡j|

8| m`m¨fyw³ t
wbw`©ó cwigvb †kqvi, ÷K µq K‡i †kqvi evRv‡ii m`m¨c` jvf Kiv hvq|
9| g~j¨ wba©viY t
E
B
fvimvg¨ we›`y

O A
Pvwn`v †hvMv‡bi fvimvg¨ we›`y‡Z ( E ) †kqv‡ii g~j¨ (Face Value) wba©viY Kiv nq|
10| g~j¨ n«vm e„w× t
wewfbœ Kvi‡Y †kqvi ev ÷‡Ki g~j¨ DVvbvgv K‡i| †hgb :
9 Pvwn`v †hvMv‡bi AmgZv
9 evRv‡i A_©bxwZi †ZRx fve
9 cÖwZôv‡bi mybvg, cÖf„wZ|

11| Z_¨ cwi‡ekb t


‡kqvi evRvi wewfbœ †¶‡Î mswk−ó c¶‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ mieivn K‡i|
Ù miKvi Ù bxwZ wba©viK Ù wewb‡qvMKvix Ù `vZv †Mvôx|

12| cwiPvjbv t
‡kqvi evRvi Company Act -1934 Ges Securities and Exchange Commission Act –
1993 Abyhvqx 12 m`m¨ wewk÷ A_ev Board KZ…©K cwiPvwjZ nq|

Composed by eMu
13| bM` I AvMvg Pzw³ t
‡kqvi evRv‡i bM‡` Ges Pzw³wfwËK AvMvg †jb‡`b Kiv hvq|

14| A_©bxwZi m~PK t


Ò National mirror of economy of a country Ó †kqvi evRv‡i RvZxq A_©bxwZi m~PK (Index)
wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i|

15| ZvwjKvf~³ †Kv¤úvwb t


‡h †Kvb wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb †kqvi evRv‡i ZvwjKvf~³ n‡Z cv‡i|
¾ miKvix cvewjK wjt †Kvs
¾ ‡emiKvix cvewjK wjt †Kvs
¾ wewae× ms¯’v|

16| Pzw³cÎ t
‡kqvi µq weµq Gi †¶‡Î `yB ai‡bi Pzw³cÎ i‡q‡Q|
(i ) µq wPVv (ii ) weµq wPVv|
Pzw³c‡Îi welqe¯‘
ƒ `vjv‡ji bvg I wVKvbv|
ƒ `vjv‡ji Kwgkb
ƒ ‡kqvi/÷‡Ki g~j¨, weeiY
ƒ Rev‡qi bvg, wVKvbv
ƒ g‡°‡ji bvg, wVKvbv
ƒ ‡jb‡`‡bi ZvwiL|

17| m`m¨ t
‡kqvi evRv‡i `yB ai‡bi m`m¨ KvR K‡i| h_vt
(i ) `vjvj t ‡µZv ev we‡µZvi c‡¶ †jb‡`b K‡i|
(ii ) Revi t gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ †jb‡`b K‡i|

Composed by eMu
18| µq weµq c×wZ t
‡kqvi evRv‡i g~jZ PviwU c×wZ‡Z µq weµq Kiv nq| h_vt
(i ) KjIfvi c×wZ (ii ) AbjvBb c×wZ (iii ) †UªwWs †cv÷ c×wZ (iv ) Rwes c×wZ|

19| †jb‡`‡bi gxgvsmv t


‡jb‡`b 15 w`‡bi g‡a¨ m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nh| †jb‡`b wb®úwËi †¶‡Î

™ cÖ_g w`em @ Contango day


™ wØZxq w`em @ Ticket day
™ Z…Zxq w`em @ Intermediate day
™ ‡kl w`em @ cwi‡kva/ wnmve w`em|

20| wbqš¿b t
‡kqvi evRvi Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC-1993) KZ©„K wbqwš¿Z nq|
Dcmsnvi t
GKwU †`‡ki †Kv¤úvwb ev mswk−ó cÖwZôvb¸‡jvi g~jab Znwej m„wó‡Z †kqvi evRvi g~L¨ f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| G
Kvi‡Y we‡k¦i cÖwZwU †`‡kB GK ev GKvwaK †kqvi evRvi i‡q‡Q|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœt we‡`‡k A_© †cÖiY c×wZ Av‡jvPbv Ki|

f~wgKv t
GK †`k n‡Z Ab¨ †`‡k A_© ¯’vbvš—i‡K we‡`‡k A_© †cÖiY e‡j| mvaviYZ Avg`vwbi gva¨‡g m„÷ †`bv`vi A_ev
kªg`v‡bi gva¨‡g AwR©Z A_© GK †`k n‡Z Ab¨ †`‡k †cÖwiZ nq| wewfbœ n¯—vš—i‡hvM¨ `wj‡ji gva¨‡gB we‡`‡k A_© †cÖiY
cÖwµqv m¤úvw`Z nq|
A_© †cÖiY c×wZ t

1| ¯^Y© (Gold ) :
Avš—©RvwZK wewbg‡qi gva¨g wn‡m‡e ¯^Y© me©RbMÖvn¨| we‡`‡k A_© †cÖi‡Yi gva¨g wn‡m‡e HwZnvwmKfv‡e me‡P‡q
†ewk RbwcÖq gva¨g GwU| Z‡e eZ©gv‡b ¯^‡Y©i `y®cÖvc¨Zv, ¯’vbvš—‡ii SuywK, ¯’vbvš—i e¨q I miKvwi wbqš¿bRwbZ Kvi‡Y A_©
†cÖi‡Yi gva¨g wn‡m‡e Gi e¨envi µgk n«vm cv‡”Q|

2| ˆe‡`wkK wewbgq wej (Foreign Bill of exchange ) :


‰e‡`wkK †`bv cvIbv wb®úwËi †¶‡Î ˆe‡`wkK wewbgq wej GKwU eûj cÖPwjZ gva¨g| G c×wZ‡Z cvIbv`vi GKwU
wbw`©ó mgq ci wbw`©ó cwigvY A_© cwi‡kv‡ai Rb¨ †`bv`v‡ii Dci GKwU kZ©nxb wb‡`©k cÖ`vb K‡ib| †`bv`vi ¯^xK…wZ w`‡j
wejwU ˆea we‡j cwiYZ nq| AZtci cvIbv`vi H wejwU Zvi †`‡k Aew¯’Z Avw`ó e¨vs‡K fvwO‡q A_© msNÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i|
A_ev Zvi †Kvb ˆe‡`wkK cvIbv`vi‡K n¯—vš—i K‡iI wbR †`bv cwi‡kva Ki‡Z cv‡i| eZ©gv‡b G c×wZ †ek RbwcÖq|

3| e¨vs‡Ki AvÁvcÎ (Bank Draft ) t


Avš—©RvwZK wewbg‡qi gva¨g wn‡m‡e e¨vs‡Ki AvÁvcÎ GKwU ¯^xK…Z ˆea gva¨g| e¨vsK GwU Bmy¨ K‡i| e¨vsK
we‡`‡k Aew¯’Z Zvi cÖwZwbwa ev kvLv‡K cÖ`Ë e¨vsK Wªvd‡U wjwLZ e¨w³‡K GKwU wbw`©ó cwigvY A_© mieivn Kievi wb‡`©k
cÖ`vb K‡i| we‡`‡k Aew¯’Z †Kvb cvIbv`v‡ii Kv‡Q A_© †cÖiY Ki‡Z PvB‡j †`kxq e¨vs‡K mgcwigvY A_© Rgv w`‡q e¨vsK
WªvdU msMÖn Rgv w`‡q A_© msMÖn K‡i|

4| WvK‡hv‡M A_© †cÖiY ( Mail Transfer ) t


mnR I AvaywbK G c×wZ‡Z GKRb †`bv`vi e¨As‡K A_© Rgv w`‡q H A_© Zvi we‡`k¯’ kvLv ev cÖwZwbwa e¨vs‡Ki
wbKU †cÖi‡Yi wb‡`©k ‡`q| e¨vsK H wb‡`©k bvgv WvK wefv‡Mi gva¨‡g Zvi kvLvi wbKU †cÖiY K‡i| A_© †cÖi‡Yi msev`
e¨vsK WvK‡hv‡M †cÖiY K‡i e‡j G‡K WvK‡hv‡M A_© †cÖiY e‡j|

5| Zvi‡hv‡M A_© †cÖiY (Telegraphic Transfer ) t

Composed by eMu
`ª“Z I mn‡R †jb‡`b wb®úwËi Rb¨ Zvi‡hv‡M A_© †cÖiY Kiv nq| e¨vs‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq cwigvY †`kxq gy`ªv Rgv w`‡q
GKRb †`bv`vi mgcwigvY ‰e‡`wkK gy`ªv cvIbv`vi‡K cwi‡kv‡ai Rb¨ e¨vsK‡K wb‡`k© †`q| e¨vs Zvi we‡`kx kvLv ev
cÖwZwbwa e¨vs‡Ki wbKU Zvi‡hv‡M (†Uwj‡dv‡bi gva¨‡g) H A_© †cÖi‡Yi wb‡`©k †`q|

6| e¨w³MZ †PK ( Personal Cheque ) t


we‡`‡k A_© †cÖi‡Yi GKwU mnR I wbivc` gva¨g wn‡m‡e e¨w³MZ †PK e¨eüZ nq| DbœZ K~U‰bwZK m¤úK©
we`¨gvb Giƒc `ywU †`‡ki gv‡S we‡kl Pzw³i wfwˇZ e¨w³MZ †P‡Ki A_© †cÖiY Kiv nq| G c×wZ‡Z †cÖiK Zvi ¯’vbxq
e¨vs‡K wb‡Ri wnmv‡e †PK Kv‡U Ges we‡`‡k cvIbv`v‡ii Kv‡Q cvwV‡q †`q| cvIbv`vi Zvi †`‡ki wbR¯^ e¨vs‡Ki wbKU
†PKwU Rgv w`‡j †`kxq gy`ªvq A_© msMÖn K‡i| G e¨vsK c‡i Avw`ó e¨vs‡Ki wbKU †_‡K †P‡Ki G A_© msMÖn K‡i| Aek¨
†PK mPivPi e¨envi n‡Z †`Lv hvq bv|

7| bM` cÖZ¨qcÎ (Cash Letter of Credit ) t


we‡`‡k A_© †cÖi‡Yi mnR, wbf©i‡hvM¨ I eûj cÖPwjZ c×wZ nj bM` cÖZ¨qcÎ| G c×wZ‡Z GKRb Avg`vwbKviK
c~©ev‡ýB e¨vs‡K bM` A_© Rgv w`‡q wbw`©ó cwigvY ˆe‡`wkK gy`ªvi cÖZ¨qcÎ Ly‡j Zv we‡`‡k cvIbv`v‡ii wbKU e¨vs‡Ki
gva¨‡g cvwV‡q †`q| cvIbv`vi Zvi †`‡k Aew¯’Z †cÖwiZ e¨vs‡Ki kvLv eKv cÖwZwbwai wbKU H cÖZ¨qcÎ Dc¯’vcb K‡i A_©
msMÖn K‡i|

8| ågYKvixi cÖZ¨qcÎ (Travelling Letter of Credit ) t


G c×wZ we‡`k åg‡Yi †¶‡ÎB AwaK e¨eüZ nq| G c×wZ‡Z GKRb ågYKvix wbR †`kxq gy`ªv e¨vs‡K Rgv w`‡q
ˆe‡`wkK gy`ªvi cÖZ¨qcÎ MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| e¨vsK Zvi we‡`k¯’ kvLv ev cÖwZwbwa‡K D³ cÖZ¨qcÎ fvOv‡bvi wb‡`©k cÖ`vb
K‡i| MÖnxZv we‡`k åg‡Y cÖ‡qvR‡b mn‡RB GUv fvwO‡q H †`kxq gy`ªv msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i|

9| ågYKvixi †PK (Travelling Cheque ) t


we‡`‡k ågY Ges we‡`‡k A_© †cÖi‡Yi GUvI GKUv mnR Ges RbwcÖq c×wZ| G‡Z GKRb ågYKvix †`kxq A_©
e¨vs‡K Rgv w`‡q GKwU ˆe‡`wkK gy`ªvi †PK MÖnY K‡i| ågYKvix we‡`‡k H †PK †h e¨vsK †_‡K †c‡q‡Q †m e¨vs‡Ki kvLv
ev cÖwZwbwai wbKU Rgv w`‡q A_© msMÖn K‡i LiP wbe©vn K‡i|

10| wbwðZ WvK †hv‡M †cÖiY (Guaranteed Mail ) t


GwU WvK †hv‡M A_© †cÖi‡Yi GKwU DbœZZi ms¯‹iY| A‡bK mgq mvaviY WvK‡hv‡M A_© †cÖi‡Y †`wi nq| G mgm¨v
`~i Kievi Rb¨ GwU Pvjy Kiv n‡q‡Q| GwUi we‡klZ¡ nj wb‡`©kcÎ †cuŠQvi Av‡MB cÖvcK A_© msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i|

Composed by eMu
11| mvK©yjvi cÖZ¨qcÎ (Circular Letter of Credit ) t
G c×wZi gva¨‡g e¨vsK Zvi wewfbœ †`‡ki kvLv ev cÖwZwbwai Dci wbw`©ó cwigvY A_© GKwU wbw`©ó mg‡qi g‡a¨
cÖ`v‡bi Av‡`k Rvwi K‡i| G Av‡`‡ki mv‡_ cÖvc‡Ki bgybv ¯^v¶i msewjZ GKwU cwiPqcÎ _v‡K| cÖvcK we‡`‡k
Ae¯’vbKv‡j Avw`ó kvLv ev cÖwZwbwai wbKU GwU Dc¯’vcb K‡i A_© msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i| G cÖZ¨qcÎ GKwU wbw`©ó mgq I
A‡_©i Rb¨ Bmy¨ Kiv nq weavq H mgq I A_© †kl n‡q †M‡j G Av‡`k evwZj n‡q hvq|

12| Avš—©RvwZK gvwb AW©vi ( Internatio nal Money Order ( IMO )) t


we‡`‡k A_© †cÖi‡Yi †¶‡Î GKwU mnR c×wZ nj Avš—©RvwZK gvwb AW©vi| †h me †`‡ki g‡a¨ WvK wefv‡Mi gva¨‡g
A_© Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi Pzw³ _v‡K ïay †m me †`‡kB G c×wZ‡Z A_© †cÖiY Kiv hvq|

13| Avš—©RvwZKfv‡e ¯^xK…Z KvMRx gy`ªv ( Internatio nally Re cognised Paper Money ) t
we‡`‡k ågYKv‡j miKvwi Aby‡gv`bµ‡g mxwgZ cwigvY Avš—©RvwZKfv‡e ¯^xK…Z bM` ev KvMRx gy`ªv m‡½ K‡i wb‡q
hvevi AbygwZ †`Iqv nq| mswk−ó e¨w³ †`kxq evRvi n‡Z Giƒc bM` we‡`kx gy`ªv msMÖn K‡i Ges we‡`‡k G¸‡jv fvwO‡q
D³ †`‡ki gy`ªv cvq| Wjvi Giƒc GKwU gy`ªvi bvg|

14| BчgBj ‡dv‡b †cÖiY ( Electronic Mail Transfer )t


G c×wZ‡Z e¨vsK I mybvgavix Avw_©K cÖwZôv‡bi gva¨‡g we‡`‡k A_© †cÖiY Kiv nq| †cÖiK wdmn e¨vs‡K A_© Rgv
w`‡j e¨vsK GKwU †Mvcb †KvW b¤^i cÖ`vb K‡i| †cÖiK cÖvcK‡K †KvW b¤^i Rvwb‡q †`b| e¨vsK Zvi we‡`k¯’ kvLv ev
cÖwZwbwa‡K BчgB‡j mgMÖ ZL_¨mn cÖvcK‡K A_© cÖ`v‡bi wb‡`©k †`q| cÖvcK wb‡`©wkZ e¨vsK ev cÖwZwbwai wbKU †Mvcb
†KvW b¤^i Dc¯’vcb K‡i A_© msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i|

Dcmsnvi t
cÖwZwU c×wZB eZ©gv‡b mgvbfv‡e cÖPwjZ| Z‡e AvaywbK e¨vswKs c×wZ‡Z
ATM Card , Online Banking , SWIFT cÖf„wZI A_© †cÖi‡Yi e¨eüZ nq| †h c×wZi gva¨‡gB we‡`‡k A_© †cÖiY Kiv
†nvK bv †Kb Zv Aek¨B ˆe‡`wkK gy`ªv wewbgq wbqš¿b †gvZv‡eK n‡Z n‡e|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t UxKv †jL XvKv ÷K G·‡PÄ|
f~wgKv t
XvKv ÷K G·‡PÄ evsjv‡`‡ki g~jab evRv‡ii me‡P‡q ¸i“Z¡c~Y© msMVb| G evRv‡i g~jab evRv‡ii †kqvi I eÛ
µq- weµq Kiv nq|
XvKv ÷K G·‡P‡Äi Rb¥ t
XvKv ÷K G·‡PÄ 1954 mv‡j ZrKvjxb c~e© cvwK¯—v‡b GKwU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb wnmv‡e cÖwZwôZ nq| cieZ©x‡Z
1962 mv‡ji 23 †k Ryb cvwK¯—vb ÷K G·‡P‡Äi bvg cwieZ©b K‡i XvKv ÷K G·‡PÄ ivLv nq| AvbyôvwbKfv‡e GB ÷K
G·‡P‡Äi Kvh©µg Avi¤¢ nq 1956 mv‡j Ges cieZ©x‡Z 1971 mv‡ji ¯^vaxbZv hy‡×i mgq Gi Kvh©µg eÜ n‡q hvq|
1976 mv‡j cybivq Avi¤¢ nq Ges Av`¨vew` Zv Pvjy Av‡Q|
‡h mg¯— AvB‡bi gva¨‡g GB †Kv¤úvwbwU Zvi Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv K‡i †m¸‡jv n‡jv †Kv¤úvwbi wbR¯^ i“jm, evBjR,
wmwKDwiwU GÛ G·‡PÄ Kwgk‡bi 1969 mv‡ji Aa¨v‡`k, †Kv¤úvwb AvBb 1994 Ges wmwKDwiwUR GÛ G·‡PÄ Kwgkb G¨±
1993|
cÖwZôv I e¨e¯’vcbv t
XvKv ÷K G·‡PÄ 12 m`m¨ wewkó GKwU KvDw݇ji gva¨‡g cwiPvwjZ nq| G 12 R‡bi g‡a¨ 9 Rb KvDwÝji
_v‡Kb XvKv ÷K G·‡PÄ Gi ‡g¤^vi Ges evKx 3 Rb miKvi I wewfbœ †P¤^vi Ae BÛvw÷ª n‡Z Av‡mb|

XvKv ÷K G·‡P‡Äi D‡Ïk¨ t


1) wewfbœ e¨emvq cÖwZôvb mg~‡ni †kqvi, wW‡eÂvi †jb‡`‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab Znwej
msMÖ‡ni e¨e¯’v Kiv|
2) wewfbœ Avw_©K nvwZqv‡ii mnR cÖvc¨Zv I weµ‡qi wbðqZvi e¨e¯’v Kivi gva¨‡g †`‡ki ¶z`ª I gvSvix
wewb‡qvMKvix‡`i wewb‡qvM Z_v mÂq AvMÖnx K‡i †Zvjv|
3) `xN©‡gqv`x A‡_©i Pvwn`v c~i‡Yi Rb¨ e¨vsKmg~‡ni Dci wbf©ikxjZv n«vm|
4) ‡`‡k we‡`kx wewb‡qvMKvix‡`i AvK…ó Kiv|

XvKv ÷K G·‡P‡Äi Kvh©vejx t


wewfbœ cvewjK wjt †Kv¤úvwb‡K ZvwjKvf~³Ki‡Yi gva¨‡g Zv‡`i †kqvi, wW‡eÂvi ÷K G·‡P‡Äi weµ‡qi e¨e¯’v
Kiv| †gvU ZvwjKvf~³ wmwKDwiwUm- Gi msL¨v 256 wU, Gi g‡a¨ †gvU †Kv¤úvwbi msL¨v 238 wU, ‡gvU wgDPyqvj dv‡Ûi
msL¨v 10 wU Ges †gvU wW‡eÂv‡ii msL¨v 8 wU| ( ˆ`wbK cÖ_g Av‡jv -‡m‡Þ¤^i -22/2002 wLªt)

Dcmsnvi t
eZ©gv‡b ÷K G·‡P‡Äi e¨cK wfwËK I MwZkxj Kvh©µg mgMÖ ‡`‡ki g~jab evRvi‡K kw³kvjx Ki‡Z mvnvh¨
Ki‡Q|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t evsjv‡`‡ki e¨emvq A_©ms¯’v‡bi mgm¨v / cÖwZeÜKZvmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki|
f~wgKv t
ÔÔA business that hopes to prosper must remain financially sound.’’
---- C. R. Basu
¯^vaxbZv jv‡fi ci evsjv‡`‡ki A_©bxwZ‡Z weivU †Mvj‡hvM †`Lv ‡`q| wkíKviLvbv cÖvq meB eÜ wQj| g~ja‡bi
Afv‡e cÖ‡qvRbxq KuvPvgvj, hš¿cvwZ BZ¨vw` µq Ki‡Z bv cvivq e„nr, gvSvwi I ¶z`ª wk‡íi Aw¯—Z¡ cÖvq wejywßi c‡_ wQj|
`xN©‡gqv`x Ges ¯^í‡gqv`x FY`vbKvix cÖwZôv‡bi Afve‡nZz Ges Ab¨vb¨ wewfbœ mgm¨vi Rb¨ wk‡í A_©ms¯’vb m¤¢e nqwb|
; ¯^í‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’v‡bi mgm¨v t
1. ¯^í g~jab :
evsjv‡`‡ki RbM‡bi gv_vwcQz Avq Kg| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ m‡qi cÖeYZv Kg e‡j g~ja‡bi cwigvbI Kg| Gi
d‡j wewb‡qvM K‡g hvq|
2. wewb‡qvM Abxnv :
wewfbœ Kvi‡b gvbyl SyuwK MÖn‡b AbyrmvwnZ nq| d‡j wewb‡qvM m¤¢e nqbv| hv bZzb e¨emvq MV‡b Ges
we`¨gvb e¨emvq m¤cÖmvi‡Y euvav m„wó K‡i|
3. my‡`i nvi :
evsjv‡`‡k wkí-KviLvbvq FY`vbKvix cÖwZôv‡bi msL¨v †hgb Kg, †Zgwb G cÖwZôvb¸‡jv n‡Z FY
msMÖ‡ni †¶‡Î e¨emvqx‡`i AvwaK nv‡i my` cÖ`vb Ki‡Z nq|
4. g~jab e¨envi :
evsjv‡`‡ki g~jab evRvi AmsMwVZ I AbybœZ nIqvq G¸‡jv e¨emvq A_©ms¯’v‡b D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Ae`vb
ivL‡Z cvi‡Qbv|
5. Ab¨vb¨ Amyweav :
6 ‡kqvi evRv‡i AcÖZzjZv I Ae¨e¯’vcbv|
6 gnvRb I FYMÖnxZv‡`i AmZZv|
6 `wi`ªZv, Awk¶v, ¯^RbcÖxwZ, `~bx©wZ, †LjvcxFY|
; ga¨‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’v‡bi mgm¨v t
6. `xN©‡gqv`x cwiKíbvq Amyweav :
`xN©‡gqv`x †Kvb cÖKí A_©vq‡b ga¨‡gqv`x e¨e¯’vi A_©msMÖn Ki‡j Zv SzuwKc~Y© n‡e|
7. wKw¯— cwi‡kv‡ai Amyweav :
wKw¯—‡Z FY cwi‡kv‡a wKQz Amyweav i‡q‡Q| †hgb- †Kvb Kvi‡b weµq n«vm †c‡j cÖwZôv‡bi Cash
inflow cÖZ¨vwkZ cwigvb‡i †P‡q Kg n‡e| d‡j h_vmg‡q wKw¯— cwi‡kv‡ai Amyweav n‡Z cv‡i|

Composed by eMu
8. RvgvbZ e¨e¯’v :
¯^í‡gqv`x A_©vq‡bi †ewki fvMB RvgvbZnxb| GgZve¯’vq mnvqK RvgvbZ †`qvi gZ h‡_ó m¤úwË bv
_vK‡j †gqv`x FY msMÖn A‡bK mgq m¤¢e nqbv|
9. Zzjbvg~jK LiP :
‡gqv`x F‡Yi my‡`i nvi hyw³m½Z Kvi‡bB ¯^í‡gqv`x F‡Yi †P‡q †ewk|
10. Ab¨vb¨ Amyweav :
6 FY`vZv cÖ`Ë kZ© †Kv¤úvwbi wm×vš— MÖnb ¶gZv‡K msKzwPZ K‡i|
6 FY`vZv cÖwZôvb gÄyixK„Z A‡_©i 10% - 20% ¶wZc~iY Rgv ivL‡Z Pvq|
6 bZzb I Avw_©Kfv‡e `~e©j cÖwZôv‡bi c‡¶ †gqvw` FY msMÖn KóKi|

; `xN©‡gqv`x A_©ms¯’v‡bi mgm¨v t


11. AwaK AvqKi :
mvavib ‡kqvi ev AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi g~ja‡bi gva¨‡g `xN©‡gqv`x A_©vqb Kiv n‡j †Kv¤úvwb‡K AwaK AvqKi
cÖ`vb Ki‡Z nq|
12. RvgvbZ cÖ`vb :
`xN©‡gqv`x FY MÖn‡bi mgq e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi wbw`©ó ¯’vqx m¤úwË eÜK ivL‡Z nq|
13. Znwe‡ji mxwgZ e¨envi :
‡h me cÖwZôv‡bi ¯’vqx m¤úwËi cwigvb Lye Kg Zviv AwaK cwigv‡b FY MÖnb Ki‡Z cv‡ibv| ev¯—e‡¶‡Î
`xN©‡gqv`x F‡Yi e¨envi mxwgZ|
14. AwZ g~jabvqb :
cÖ‡qvRbxqZv wbiƒcb bv K‡i A_©msMÖn Ki‡j ÔAwZ g~jabvqbÕ mgm¨vi m„wó n‡Z cv‡i|

15. Ab¨vb¨ Amyweav :


6 Avw_©K Ae¯’vi Dci cÖwZwµqvi d‡j †Kv¤úvwb Zvij¨ mgm¨vq co‡Z cv‡i|
6 FY cwi‡kv‡a AcivMZv I D`vmxbZv bad debt m„wó K‡i|
6 AwaK AcPq I my` †Kv¤úvwbi jvf AR©b ¶gZv‡K e¨vnZ K‡i|

Dcmsnvi t
Gme mgm¨v `~i Kiv n‡j G‡`‡ki e¨emvq cÖwZôvb¸‡jv Avi A_©msK‡U _vK‡ebv Ges e¨emvq cÖwZôvb¸‡jvi mydj
mvavib RbMb †fvM Ki‡e|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t c‡Y¨i Rxeb Pµ eY©bv Ki|

f~wgKv t
gvbyl Ges Ab¨vb¨ cÖvYxi Rxe‡bi gZ c‡Y¨i I Rxeb Kvj i‡q‡Q| †Kvb cY¨ evRv‡i cÖ‡ek Kivi gva¨‡g Gi
RxebKvj ïi“ nq, Ges evRvi †_‡K wejxb nIqvi gva¨‡g Gi RxebKv‡ji cwimgvwß nq|
g~j e³e¨ t
‡Kvb cY¨ evRv‡i cÖ‡ek Kivi ci †_‡K Avi¤¢ K‡i m¤ú~Y©fv‡e wejxb nIqv ch©š— mgqKvj‡K D³ c‡Y¨i RxebKvj
ev RxebPµ e‡j|
cÖvgvb¨ ms½v t
ÔÔProduct life cycle is the course of a product’s sales & profits over
its life time.’’
---- Philip Kotler
ÔÔ‡Kvb bZzb cY¨ evRv‡i †h mKj avc AwZµg K‡i Zvi eY©bv‡K c‡Y¨i Rxeb Pµ e‡j|ÕÕ
---- Berkowitz

c‡Y¨i Rxeb Pµ(PLC) t


c‡Y¨i RxebPµ ej‡Z c‡Y¨i Rxeb BwZnvm‡K eySv‡bv nq| me c‡Y¨i Rxeb Pµ GK iKg bq| GKwU ¯^vfvweK
c‡Y¨i Rxe‡b cvuPwU ¯—i AwZµg Ki‡Z nq| h_v- 1. cY¨ Dbœqb, 2. cÖeZ©b / m~Pbv, 3. cÖe„w×, 4. c~Y©Zv, 5. cZb / weµq
AebwZ| wb‡gœ c‡Y¨i Rxeb P‡µi wewfbœ ch©vq/ avcmg~n eY©bv Kiv n‡jv :

weµq I
gybvdv

weµq

gybvdv

mgq
¶wZ wewb‡qvM cY¨ Dbœqb cÖe„w× c~Y©Zv cZb
m~Pbv
wPÎ t c‡Y¨i RxebP‡µi chv©q / avcmg~n|

Composed by eMu
1. cY¨ Dbœqb ch©vq (Product Development Stage)t
cY¨ Dbœqb ch©v‡q cÖwZôvb †Kvb bZzb c‡Y¨i aviYv Lyu‡R †ei K‡i, Ges Zv Dbœqb K‡i| A_©vr †Kvb bZzb cY¨
aviYv AbymÜvb, cY¨ Drcv`b, Ges Zv evRviRvZKi‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv ch©š— cY¨ Dbœqb ch©vq| G ch©v‡q weµq _v‡K bv e‡j
gybvdvi cwigvY k~b¨ _v‡K| Ab¨w`‡K wewb‡qvM e¨q AwaK nq|
2. cÖeZ©b / m~Pbv ch©vq (Introduction Stage)t
G ¯—‡i cY¨wU evRv‡i Qvov nq| m¤¢ve¨ †µZv‡`i wbKU cY¨wU cwiwPZ Kiv‡bvi Rb¨ G ch©v‡q e¨vcK cÖPv‡ii e¨e¯’v
Ki‡Z nq| G‡¶‡Î c‡Y¨i weµq Lye GKUv †ewk bv nIqv gybvdv AwR©Z nq bv ev n‡jI Zv bvggvÎ| G cÖm‡½ E. J.
McCarthy e‡j‡Qb ÔÔIn the market introduction stage, sales are low as a new idea is first
introduced to a market.’’
3. cÖe„w× ch©vq (Growth Stage)t
GwU c‡Y¨i RxebP‡µi me‡P ¸i“Z¡c~Y© ch©vq| G ch©v‡q c‡Y¨i cwiwPwZ e„w×i cvkvcvwk c‡Y¨i weµq I gybvdvi
cwigvY `ª“Ze„w× cvq| cªe„w× ¯—‡i Ae¯’vb cÖwZôv‡bi Rb¨ myweavRbK n‡jI wbgœ A_ev D”Pgv‡bi cÖwZ‡hvMx cY¨ evRv‡i
cÖ‡ek Kivq G †¶‡Î gybvdvi A‡avMwZ ïi“ nq|
4. c~Y©Zv ¯—i (Maturity Stage)t
G ¯—‡i c‡Y¨i weµq cÖe„w× K‡g hvq| cY¨wU Zxeª cÖwZ‡hvwMZvi m¤§yLxb nIqvq weµ‡qi cwigvY evov‡bv m¤¢e nq
bv| G ch©v‡q cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq wU‡K _vKvi Rb¨ cÖwZôvb‡K cÖPv‡ii Rb¨ cÖPzi A_© e¨q Ki‡Z nq| d‡j gybvdvi cwigvY
µgvš^‡q K‡g Av‡m|
5. AebwZ ¯—i (Decline Stage)t
c‡Y¨i RxebP‡µi me©‡kl avc n‡”Q AebwZ| †µZvi i“wP I cQ›` cwieZ©b A_ev DbœZgv‡bi bZzb bZzb c‡Y¨i
Avwe©fv‡ei Kvi‡Y †µZv Av‡Mi cY¨ µ‡q AvMÖn †`Lvq bv| d‡j c‡Y¨i weµq I gybvdvi cwigvY Kg‡Z Kg‡Z GK ch©v‡q
k~‡b¨i †KvUvq P‡j Av‡m| cY¨wU wUwK‡q ivLvi Rb¨ ev¯—e Ae¯’vi †cÖw¶‡Z h_vh_ e¨e¯’v wb‡Z wb‡Z bv cvi‡j GK ch©v‡q
cY¨wU evRvi †_‡K wejyß n‡q hvq|
Dcmsnvi t
me ai‡bi cY¨ Dc‡ii cvuPwU avc AwZµg Ki‡Z cv‡i -Ggb bq| Ab¨w`‡K, mKj cY¨ RxebP‡µi wewfbœ ch©v‡q
Ae¯’vbKvjxY mgq I mgvb bq| ZvB cÖwZôvb‡K ¯—i‡f‡` c‡Y¨i evRviRvZKiY ‡KŠkj wbe©vP‡b h‡_ó mZK© _vKv cÖ‡qvRb|

Composed by eMu
cÖkœ t e¨vemv‡qi A_©ms¯’v‡bi msÁv `vI|

e¨vemvq A_©ms¯’vb :
A_©ms¯’vb e¨emv‡qi GKwU Ab¨Zg ¸i“Z¡c~Y© KvR| †QvU, eo, gvSvwi - †h †Kvb ai‡bi e¨emvq cÖwZôvb MVb I cwiPvjbv
Kivi Rb¨ A‡_©i cÖ‡qvRb| GB cÖ‡qvRbxq A_© ev Znwe‡ji cÖevn (Fund Flow) eRvq ivLv nj A_© ms¯’vb|

g~j e³e¨ :
e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi Kg©KvÛ cwiPvjbv Kivi Rb¨ A‡_©i cÖ‡qvRbxqZv wbY©q, Zvi cwigvb wba©vib, D³ A_© msMÖ‡ni Rb¨ m¤¢ve¨
Drmmg~n kbv³KiY, wewfbœ bxwZ I kZ© mg~n we‡ePbv K‡i A_© msMÖn, msM„wnZ A‡_©i mwVK e¨envi Ges mwVK e¨venv‡ii gva¨‡g H
e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi D‡Ïk¨ mva‡bi cÖwµqv‡K e¨vemvq A_©ms¯’vb e‡j|

A‡_©i e¨envi : wewfbœ Drm †_‡K A_© msMÖn K‡i Zv `yBwU D‡Ï‡k¨ e¨envi Kiv nq|

¯’vqx m¤ú` AR©b PjwZ e¨vq wbe©vn

cÖvgvb¨ msÁv : we‡klÁMY wewfbœ mg‡q wewfbœ fv‡e mgevq mwgwZ†K msÁvwqZ Kivi †Póv K‡i‡Qb|
¾ “Business finance is concerned with the sources of funds available to enterprise of all
sizes and the proper use of money or credit obtained from such sources.”
- - - Gloss & Baker
¾ “†h †Kvb ai‡bi g~jab, FY, bM` Znwej BZ¨vw` hw` e¨emv‡q e¨vemv‡qi D‡Ï‡k¨ wb‡qvM Kiv nq, Z‡e Zv‡K e¨emv‡q
A_©ms¯’vb e‡j|Ó
- - - G.R.Terry
¾ “Planning, collecting, controlling and administrative functions of the funds of
organization are called business finance.”
- - - Guthman & Dougull

msÁvMZ aviYv :

¾ cÖ‡qvRbxq A_© msMÖn I msi¶Y|


¾ msM„nxZ A‡_©i Dchy³ e¨envi|
¾ mvgwMÖK A_© e¨e¯’vcbv|
¾ wewb‡qvM e„w×i cÖwµqv|
¾ bM` A_©/g~jab mieivn|

Composed by eMu
wPÎMZ we‡k−lY :
Finished
goods

Book
Administrative debts.
M.F.G. expenses
operatio

Finance
Drm t Business organigation & management by M. C. Shukla.

D`vnib : GKwU bZzb weÁvcb ms¯’v ¯’vcb Ki‡Z g~jab eve` †gvU cÖ‡qvRbxq g~ja‡bi cwigvb n‡e 2,00,000 UvKv|
¯’vqx g~jab = 1,40,000 UvKv, PjwZ g~jab = 60,000 UvKv
†gvU cÖKí e¨q = 2,00,000 UvKv
cÖKí A_©ms¯’vb -
wbR¯^ Znwej = 1,00,000.00
gvwn‡bi FY = 60,000.00
e¨vsK FY = 40,000.00
‡gvU = 2,00,000.00
wPÎMZ aviYv :

wewb‡qvM i¶bv‡e¶Y I

e¨emvq
A_©ms¯’vb

g~jab, FY, bM`

wPÎ t e¨emvq A_©ms¯’vb


Dcmsnvi : e¨emvq A_©ms¯’vb GKwU cÖwµqv hvi gva¨‡g e¨emv‡q g~jab, FY, bM` Znwe‡ji Drm BZ¨vw` wPwýZ Kiv hvq Ges D³
Drm †_‡K msM„nxZ A_© (Fund) †K wbqš¿b Kiv hvq Ges m‡e©vcwi myôz wewb‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g A_©vMg e„w× Kiv hvq|

Composed by eMu
A_©ms¯’v‡bi AvIZv :

A_©ms¯’v‡bi AvIZv

cÖ‡qvRbxqZv wbY©q cwigvb wba©vib Drm wPwýZ mwVK e¨envi


A_© A_© A_© A_©

Composed by eMu

Related Interests