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Botkin & Keller- 8th Edition Chapter 8- Biological Diversity and Biological Invasions Name: _____________________________________ 1: What is biological

diversity? Variety of life-form. 2: What is a population? groups of individuals of the same species living in the same area or sharing same genetic. 3: What is a species? All organism that are able to interbreed. 4: What are the 9 reasons why people value biodiversity? see webtise Define the following: * Genetic Diversity: Total number of a specic species. Base on DNA, GENES. * Habitat Diversity: Different kinds of habitats in a given area. * Species Diversity: * Species Richness:
Has 3 qualities. Total number of species

* Species Evenness: Relative abundance of species * Dominant Species:

The most abundant species

5: What are the 3 main domains of life? Richness, evenness, and dominant species. 6: What is biological evolution? Change in the inherited characteristics of a population from generation to generation. 7: What causes mutations? Explain how this affects biological diversity. Errors within the DNA, virus, some parents cant be reproduce with normal offspring. 8: What is natural selection? What are the 4 primary factors involved in natural selection? The increasing of offspring. Variation within species some are better suited for an environment than other.

A Closer Look 8.1 Natural Selection: Mosquitos and the Malaria Parasite 1: Discuss the issue with Malaria, Mosquitos and DDT resistance and how this demonstrates natural selection.
Has threaten 2.4 billion people. Fourth cause of death of children and is developing nation, Africa it has killed more than 3,000 children. Its inuencing the environment and survival reproduction killing people.

Migration and Geographic Isolation 1: How does Darwins Finches demonstrate the idea of Adaptive Radiation? It has given him powerful insight into biological evolution. Adapting into different niche. They have separated into #s and have specialized roles. 2: Define: Genetic Drift changes in frequency of a gene in a population due not to mutation, just by change. 3: What is the Founder Effect and how does it demonstrate Genetic Drift? When small # of individuals are isolated from a large population, their characteristic will change by chance. Because they have an small variation. Biological Evolution as a Strange Kind of Game In summary, the theory of biological evolution tells us the following about biodiversity: 1: Since some species do and have evolve, since some become extinct. Biological diversity always changes. 2: Adaptation has not rigid rules. Threats cant always be a threats to others. 3: Species and population become geographically isolated from time to time. 4: Species always adapting to environment change. Trouble is when they dont adapt fast enough. The Competitive Exclusion Principle 1: Explain how the introduction of the American Gray Squirrel into Great Britain demonstrates the Competitive Exclusion Principle. Because there was a different type of food, they have a different rate of population with the red squirrels. Some of the squirrels couldnt survive.. Measuring Niches 1: What is an ecological niche? How many species can coexist. 2: What is the difference between a fundamental and realized niche? Fundamental is temperature range. Realized: condition under which is persists in the presence. Symbiosis 1: In ecology, symbiosis describes a relationship between two organisms that is beneficial to Symbiosis both- each partner in symbiosis is called a: _________________ 2: What is an obligate symbiont? Organism providing what the other needs. Neither could survive without the other. 3: Explain the symbiotic relationship between people and dogs Being friendly, helpful, and companionable. Dogs are very abundant.

Predation and Parasitism 1: Explain how predation and parasitism actually helps increase species diversity in an ecosystem They help increase diversity by causing effects and making changes. How Geography and Geology Affect Biological Diversity place to place at lower attitudes, local areas. 1: In general, greater diversity occurs: From ______________________ 2: What geographic factors affect species biodiversity? By the level of attitude. 3: How can moderate environmental disturbances increase diversity? Depends on what happens, patches increase diversity and species. 4: How do people affect diversity? Explain. Factors That Tend to Increase Diversity 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: Physically diverse of habitat Amount of disturbance Small variation of ecosys. condition High diversity at one trophic level Environment highly modied Middle stages of succession Evolution Factors That Tend to Decrease Diversity 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: Enviromettal .Extreme amount of disturbance . Text Geographic isolation Extreme enviroment Limitation of supplies Recent introduction of exotic species Text

Convergent and Divergent Evolution 1: Define and give an example of each of the following: * Convergent Evolution Species evolve in diff. places or time. Ex/ Dessert climates * Divergent Evolution Population divides geographic barriers. Ex/ Ostrich there are all over Africa. Invasions, Invasive Species and Island Biogeography 1: What are the 4 main principles in the theory of island biogeography?
.Island have few continents . 2 sources of new species on an island are migrating. Evolution new species in place. .Smaller island, few species .Father island from mainland.

2: What is an ecological island? Is comparatively small habitat separated form major of the same kind. Study Questions 1: Why do introduced species often become pests? Because of the ease and speed of long distance travel.