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# Inverse Kinematics Problem (IKP) of 6-DOF Manipulator By Locally Recurrent Neural Networks (LRNNs

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Y. I. Al-Mashhadany, MIEEE Electrical Eng.Dept./Al-Anbar University Email: yousif_unv2009@yahoo.com.

Abstract— The paper presents a cognitive architecture for solution of inverse kinematics problem (IKP) of 6DOF elbow manipulator with spherical wrist by Locally Recurrent Neural Networks (LRNNs) and simulated the solution by using MATLAB/Simulink. This design is aimed to allow the manipulator system to perform complex movement operations by solving the Inverse Kinematic Problem (IKP) with LRNNs by using the position and orientation of end-effector which represent by wrist with 3-DOF. The Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation (LMBP) is used in the learning of LRNNs which offered the high computation and accuracy for solving IKP for manipulator. This model permits direct forward dynamics simulation, which accurately predicts wrist position, also present a solution to the inverse problem of determining set of joints angle to achieve a given command for posture of manipulator. The simulation of design achieved by connect the program with Simulink\MATLAB Ver. 2009b to calculate the forward and inverse kinematic and implement the movements manipulator. Satisfactory results are obtained, that explains the ability of implement the posture of 6-DOF manipulator by calculate the kinematic with LRNNs and implement high complex movements. Index Terms— Locally Recurrent Neural Networks, Inverse Kinematics Problem

I. INTRODUCTION robot manipulator is composed of a serial chain of rigid links connected to each other by revolute or prismatic joints. A revolute joint rotates about a motion axis and a prismatic joint slide along a motion axis. Each robot joint location is usually defined relative to neighboring joint. The relation between successive joints is described by 4x4 homogeneous transformation matrices that have orientation and position data of robots. The number of those transformation matrices determines the degrees of freedom of robots. The product of these

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transformation matrices produces final orientation and position data of a n degrees of freedom robot manipulator. Robot control actions are executed in the joint coordinates while robot motions are specified in the Cartesian coordinates. Conversion of the position and orientation of a robot manipulator end-effector from Cartesian space to joint space, is called as inverse kinematics problem, which is of fundamental importance in calculating desired joint angles for robot manipulator design and control [1]. For a manipulator with n degree of freedom, at any instant of time joint variables is denoted by (qi = q (t), i = 1;2;3;....n) and position variables (xj = x(t), j = 1;2;3;….m). The relations between the endeffector position x(t) and joint angle q (t) can be represented by forward kinematic equation, x(t) = f (q (t)) where f is a nonlinear, continuous and differentiable function. On the other hand, with the given desired end effector position, the problem of finding the values of the joint variables is inverse kinematics, which can be solved by, q (t) = f(x(t)) Solution of (q(t)) is not unique due to nonlinear, uncertain and time varying nature of the governing equations. Fig-1- shows the schematic representation of forward and inverse kinematics[2]. The different techniques used for solving inverse kinematics can be reviewed with some articles where, Wu et.al. [3], a new analytic inverse kinematics (IK) solver is proposed which is suitable for multiple constrained 12-DOF human limbs. By decomposing human skeleton into five parts one head chain , two arm chains and two leg chains, a multiconstrained human skeleton can be solved analytically. Al Faiz et.al. [4], presented a computation of the inverse kinematic model of the human arm for robot based rehabilitation that uses measurements of the hand position and orientation and radial acceleration of the upper arm. Analytical analysis and empirical validation of the method are presented. The

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where it is shown in Fig-1. 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 1 d6 ⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎦ (6) The forward kinematic represents by given as: 0 A6 = A1 A6 . The DH parameters are shown in the Table 1.N. ANALYTIC SOLUTION This manipulator has an offset in the shoulder joint that slightly complicates both the forward and inverse kinematics problems.for example. We first establish the joint coordinate frames has been established using the DH convention. 0 A6 and it is Link 1 2 3 4 5 6 di d1 0 0 0 0 d6 ai 0 a2 a3 -π/2 π/2 0 αi π/2 0 0 0 0 0 θi θ* θ* θ* θ* θ* θ* ⎡ ⎤ ⎡r11 r12 r13 ⎢ R ⎢r r r t1×3 ⎥ 3×3 0 ⎢ ⎥ A6 = = ⎢ 21 22 23 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢r31 r32 r33 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣0 0 0 1 ⎦ ⎣ 0 0 0 tx ⎤ ty ⎥ ⎥ (7) tz ⎥ ⎥ 1⎦ .1. The symbolic solutions can be modiﬁed and re-computed to match . II. ⎡c1 ⎢s A1 = ⎢ 1 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 ⎡c 2 ⎢s A2 = ⎢ 2 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 ⎡1 ⎢0 A3 = ⎢ ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 0 − s1 0 c1 −1 0 0 0 0 s2 0 − c2 −1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 0⎥ ⎥ 1 d3 ⎥ ⎥ 0 1⎦ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1⎦ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ d2 ⎥ ⎥ 1⎦ (1) (2) (3) θ2 θ3 z2 θ5 θ4 θ6 θ1 ⎡c 4 ⎢s A4 = ⎢ 4 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 ⎡c 5 ⎢s A5 = ⎢ 5 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 ⎡c 6 ⎢s A6 = ⎢ 6 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎣0 0 − s4 0 c4 −1 0 0 0 0 − s5 0 c5 −1 0 0 0 − s6 c6 0 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1⎦ 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 1⎦ (4) (5) Fig. DH PARAMETERS FOR STANFORD MANIPULATOR. CASE STUDY An Elbow Manipulator with Spherical Wrist has been taken as the example for applied the solution in analytic method and then by used N.[6]. Elbow Manipulator with a spherical wrist. introduced Inverse Kinematics problems for anthropomorphic limbs and have shown how to solve those analytically in order to obtain symbolic solutions. It is straightforward to compute the matrices Ai as shown below: TABLE 1. Drzevitzky [5]. A. other input values that serve as constraints when solving the according Inverse Kinematics problem. which can be used in trajectory planning for rehabilitation robots.algorithm enables estimation of human arm angles.( * ≡ JOINT VARIABLE ).

π/2) respectively. it is necessary and sufficient that the wrist center (oc) have coordinates given by : ⎡0 ⎤ ⎥ o = o − d6 R ⎢ ⎢0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣1⎥ ⎦ o c (8) The orientation of the frame o6x6y6z6 with respect to the base be given by R. 2. θ 4 = −2. a3=25 (all lengths in cm)) with position and orientation of end-effector at (25. Tkp(t) are the target values that the output of the (Kth) unit in output layer while inputting the (pth) sample match at time (t). All the details of learning algorithm can be seen by ref. ⎪ ⎪ θ 3 a = θ 3 b = 1.. If the components of the end-effector position (o) are denoted ox. . The output of the network is a weighted sum of the hidden unit o/p’s: Oi (t ) = ∑ WOik f ( AH k (t ) ). In this paper the dimension of LRNNs used (6-196) and the adaptation of weight is achieved by Levenberg-Marquardt modification algorithm. The output dimensions are the angles of rotation and translation displacement in joints.N.the network is single layer with dimension (19) neurons ( this dimension limited by trial and error ). i.z) .n (13) The net is trained by minimization of the total error. the Learning rule which is used in this paper is fast momentum back-probagation with delta rule structure of network with dimension ( 3-19-6).shows this structure . (pp) is the sample length.2455 rad . the following results can be obtained: respectively. is used for identify the system based on network shown in Fig 2 It is represent the LRNNs[7]: It consist of i/p Layer (I). ANN SOLUTION This section introduces the basics of ANN architecture and its learning rule. The weight matrix consists of WImxi and WOnxm.5708 rad .. 2 . m ⎫ f ( AH k (t − 1)). θ 3 b = 2. ⎠ kp & ⎛1 E (t ) = ∑ ⎜ p =1 ⎝ 2 ∑ (T k =1 ⎞ ( t ) − O kp ( t ) 2 ⎟ ⎠ ) ⎫ ⎪ (14) ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Where. the units in hidden layer only memorize the information for finite time which is the key difference from the fully recurrent BP. and the general solution of angles of rotation can be summarized as follows: ⎫ ⎪ θ3 = a tan(D.15. ⎫ ⎪ θ 1 = 0. ⎭ θ1 = a tan 2( xc . Inspired by the idea of basing the feedforward and backpropagation network structure.. the following results can be obtained: xc = 10cm. zc − d1 ) ⎪ (10) ⎪ ⎬ θ4 = a tan 2(c1c23r13 + s1c23r23 + s23r33.9]. The inputs are the position of end-effector in (x.yc.oy.4636 rad . the characteristic of the network is that the units in hidden layer are connected with themselves and each other. The N. ⎪ (12) ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ The activation function (tangent f(x)) which is used in hidden layer.-π/2.. However. yc ) B. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ θ 6 = 6. This can be fulfilled by a gradient descent procedure adjusting (w) a long the negative of ∇w E(t). θ 2 = 0..4636 rad .30..6779 rad . yc = 30cm. Fig -3. s1r12 + c1r22 ) ⎪ where: ⎪ ⎪ ci = cos( θi ). which is evaluated as that: E (t ) = ∑ pp ⎛1 ⎜ p =1 ⎝ 2 pp ∑ n n k =1 ⎞ e kp ( t ) 2 ⎟ . D = 25cm. Hence at the time (t) the input to the (ith) hidden units is: AHi (t ) = ∑ WT ik I k + k =1 I ∑ WH k =1 m ik i = 1.± 1 − D2 ) ⎪ 2 2 2 2 2 2⎪ x + yc − d + ( zc − d1 ) − a2 − a3 ⎪ where: D = c ⎪ 2a2a3 ⎪ θ2 = a tan 2( xc2 + yc2 − d 2 . hidden Layer (H) and output Layer (O).[8.oz and the components of the wrist center o co are denoted xc.zc then equation(8) gives the relationship: ⎡ xc ⎤ ⎡ xc − d 6 r13 ⎤ ⎢y ⎥ = ⎢y − d r ⎥ 6 23 ⎥ ⎢ c⎥ ⎢ c ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ z z d − 6 r33 ⎦ ⎣ c⎦ ⎣ c (9) The inverse kinematic is achieved by closed solution of above eqn’s.. k =1 m i = 1.The end-effector of the manipulator at the point with coordinates given by (o) and the orientation of the end-effector given by R=(rij).8961 rad . zc = 15cm. the information in such units at one time can only be transferred until being replaced by new data after finite steps. d6=10.± 1 − (s1r13 − c1r23 ) ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ θ6 = a tan 2(−s1r11 + c1r21.1232 e −17 rad . ⎪ − c1s23r13 + s1s23r23 + c23r33 ) ⎪ 2 θ5 = a tan 2(s1r13 − c1r23. and si = sin(θi ) ⎭ If we substitute the values of (d1=15.y. ⎬ (11) θ 5 a = 0.π/2. a2=20.e. .

N. 3. This simulation is solved by using the connection between the MATLAB/Editior program and Simulink to run every input of anllytical solution and NN solution and then comparison between them. identification for inverse kinematic calculation with maximum normalized values for an angle of joints. Fig-3. 5. .presents the solution of IKP by analytical solution with Matlab/Simulink and Fig-4represents the solution of IKP by using LRNNs. Fig. NN identification with maximum normalized values for angle joints. The solution of IKP is achieved by using the LRNNs as forward direction after the neuro-identifer data base to be making used in calculation of N. Fig. Figs-5. NN Solution of IKP for 6-DOF Elbow Manipulator. Scheme of LRNN with one hidden layer.N and the solving of equations of analytic solution is achieved by Matlab Var. Analytical Solution of IKP for 6-DOF Elbow Manipulator. 2.N (with dimension (6-19-6 )) inverse kinematic by LMBP learning algorithm.Fig.R2009b. 4. Fig. SIMULATION RESULTS The simulation of N. III.6represent the N.

Yousif Ismial Mohammed AL Mashhadany (MIEEE) was bon in Baghdad 1973. pp. S. vol. as an Asst. [9]. Lecturer in the Electrical Engineering Department. I. He received the B. “A 12-DOF Analytic Inverse Kinematics Solver for Human Motion Control ”. Al Mashhadany. Diplomarbeit Thesis. S Alavandar. Ma. Elhanany. degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department from the MEC. Nigam. “Analytical Solution for Anthropomorphic Limbs Model. Vol. “Symbolic Solutions for Inverse Kinematics Problems for Anthropomorphic Limbs”. ISSN 1841-9836. Int. Baghdad (1999). 9.N in calculation depends on the band of identified sampling. [5]. of Computers.B. NO. Iraq in (2009). IEEE transaction on neural network. Y. 30-August 2004.Sc. Ph. Any additional movement constraints to the IKP may be resolved easily considering the proposed NN approach compared to that one of analytical solution. Journal of Information & Computational Science. Wu. Drzevitzky. issue: Proceedings of ICCCC 2008. the ability of FRBP-NN to identify and solve the IKP with high accuracy and it can use NN to identify any envelop for movement of manipulator with short time of computation when it compared with analytical solution by closed form using the Jacobean matrix. september 2008 Fig 6. 6.D degree in Control Engineering from the University of Technology. 19. His research interests include biomedical. J. 2008. M. “Inverse Kinematics Solution of 3DOF Planar Robot using ANFIS”. PP 137141. E-ISSN 18419844. 2003 [7]. “A Fast and Scalable Recurrent Neural Network Based on Stochastic Meta Descent”. IEEE transaction on neural network VOL. IV. Gao. Z. Z. Menhaj. First Edition. March. “Iverase Kinematic Techniques of the Interactive Posture Control of Articulated Figures”. Al Faiz. no. November 1994. . L Wu. REFERENCES [1]. Chen. Liu and I. Baghdad (1995) Iraq. “Robot Modeling and Control”. III (2008). [6]. robotic and control system. “ Training Feedforward Network with the Marquardt Algorithm”. M. Z. he has been working at the University of Anbar – Iraq.Error values for LRNNs identification. 5. Spong.[4] M. Since 2004. P Baldi. L. Communications & Control. Y. M.T. “Learning to play Go using recursive neural networks” science direct neural network 21 February 2008 [8].Sc degree in Control Engineering from MEC. M. This point can be overcome by training the network for every point with many trails to get optimal results. Will published in ISEIA 4-6 October. Vidyasagar. The sensitivity of N. M W. Baerlocher. it can be concluded that. Suppl. M.J. Hagan. 150-155 [3] X. 2009. [2]. Thesis 2001. (IK of Human Arm) ”.. P. Germany. CONCULITION From the obtained results.