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No parL reproduad. rsBN9s4520-008-1 Prcnde-Hall hremalional (UK) Llmned. Inc.i! Ihis.' RioAe Jdteirc . Mett@ prentic.80t.nnlsslonIn wrlting fromrh. rn.U s A" Copydsht (c) 1989by Pr€ndceHall.-Hall of hdia Privale Limiled.N.e-Hallof Australia PlV Limired lrdtE Prenrlce:HallCaqadiiil6c.'"' 3E I i?il.in any formor bYanYDe. Pende:rlall Hispanoam€ricam s. torb. rsBN 0-13-PAel?t-L EnSlishfo! Sclence bv FrdE:ZlnmerD.siDrrbb-rion D'b 302..$.s3256 r93e 423.r.n Inc. New JelseY.A.w Jersey Engl€wood otthit bookm.il.tdon is authorlzed This edition is publishedjn Bulgrda by Tb€ OFn Society FuDd' Sona.:5 |fi-...2 4'0245 Bclsv(ccfer and lnL$iordcsiSn: supcrvision Edi$rlavprodudion Dcstgn Baldino coverdcstgn: Manufacluring buyer:t ura Crossland Tii*'ililli. Prenli. [*l]St{\ F.0 ! /o t Do utrrry of coqts cltdod. ilYffiy-4 yantrn. Ltd.J) 469nr Pi1121.. Publhhcr. =E 0?63! Cllffs.y b( allrigh$ rc*rved. Lrda. Ne Del'i Prtnlic-Hall of Japan. stug4pore Editora Prenri(e-Hall do Brasil. wlrhoutp. dddnal An€ricrDEditionPublish€d EnJewood citts.:l*Kyt!fll4 $ "JLl for saleonly in Bul8. rdtdo.0U{€. by Pr€nticr-Hall. Tolro simon 6 schusGr Asia Ple. 1992.

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Light.l )8 Unlc\n\tltli.?s 24 Like aod As 25 UsiilgLlke afld Ar 2.lt 24 CradtintS'ftch.l EJIe.Iltt t') i _- I .ltitv Convaita.x Contenls DISCUSSIONPOINTS I7 WRITING SKILLS 17 Topic Sentences 17 wrhitV a Patallnphaf C|ltsifi. INTRODUCTION 35 Short Reading TheNatureof Color 36 USINGENGLISHTO SHOW CAUSEAND EFFECT ]7 Pallerns l8 Senlen(e IdentifringCaute dt1.llJ Ptndlhr.atrdsound J5 o*o u FFEc'r. READINC SKILLS 26 Vocabulary liuilding 26 vacdbulary itl Co text 26 skimming27 Cases28 Readingr TheLlfe-Supporting Uhdentandifl! tl1!Rcdditllt1a ' LISTENING SKILLS 30 vacdbuldry in Conkxl ll) Note-Taking 3l Uhdenladinqtlt Lceturu J2 POINTS 32 DISCUSSION WRITING SKILLS 33 Comparing 33 Transilion words l4 Writing a Paragraphof Comparison 34 I I l l I 3 "our" color.ation ii] COMPARING: The Elements 19 TNTRODUCTION I9 Shorl Reading The wonderMetals 20 USINC ENGLISH TO COMPARE 2I SenrcncePatterns 22 22 utiq d Tdbk 2) Uttlcttkltlihgcrhlparkahs cru.

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xii

contents
POINTS 65 DISCUSSION WRITING SKILLS 65 Writing Conclusions 65 Writing a Paragraphwith a Conclusion 65

5

o""rr.,r*n,Enetw 67
INTRODUCTION 67 shon Reading TheMan! Forns oJEneryy 68' USING ENCLISH TO DEFINE 69 SentencePatterns 70 Ahalyzin!DeJinhionr71 CorrctthqDetrhitio,r.i71 Relative Clauses 72 Fotltulatinll Dqitliti'tlt 72 lJtikg Reldtivc Clautas 72 Delinitiotls 7) Creating . READING SKILLS 7] Vocabulary Bullding 73 rnicro',rDacft)' z cDdo', Adirsj ectdexo_, in Contcxt 75 Vocabultlr! Scannlng 75 ReadinS:E = mcr 76 tl1! Rcd.litv 78 Und?ntdl1.lit\1 LISTENINGSKILLS 7E vo1buldryfu contaxt 78 Nore-Taking 79 Uldc$tandilv tllt Ltcntre 79

DlscussloNPoINTS 80
WRITINGSKILLS 8I Definitions El Extended Definitlon 8l Writing ad E,(tended EXEMPLIFYING: Ha4, 82 INTRODUCTION 82 E3 of Tatuperuture Short Reading TheEfreets
IJSING ENGLISH TO EXEMPLIFY 8] SentencePattems 85 Ra ltniznlll Erdntllls it6 Anallziq ExetnplitrMtia Ss

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xiv

Contents WRITTNCSKILLS IIO Giving Evidence ll0 Wriling with Evidence llo

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INTRODUCTION III Short Reading LightnitlgSttikes ll2 USINC ENGLISHTO GTVEDIRECTIONS I12 Giving Directions to Perform a Process I 13 Imperadve Verbs I l3 Reeotniziry lhperdlire Vefus 1lt Artunliq ltehaChrckololjrdll!, 1t4 Usih!bfipentiveverbs 115 Verb forms: Infinitives and Gerunds I 16 Chaosing verbFarnt 117 READING SKILLS I18 vocabularyBuilding 118 Warcl Roott: blo-, aeto-,rhermo., hydro- ll9 Voeabulary in Conkxt 120 Scanning 120 R€ading: The Magic of a Magnet 120 UnderttandinS the Readhq 122 LISTENINGSKILLS I23 Voeabulat! in Coktert 12) Note-Taking 123 U degandiry.the Lecturc12) DISCUSSIONPOINTS I24 WRITING SKILLS 12' Directions 125 Wrltlng Directions 125

CALCULATING|

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INTRODUCTION I26 Shoff Reading Prcss re: At Molecules Collide 127 I ' .:. USING ENGUSH To CALCULATE I28 Tems 129 Mathematical .U derstanding Indefinite Anicles 129 Usin!IndeJinite Anieles t)a .

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xvi Contents Note-Taking 154 Uad. I N T R O D U C T I O NI 7 J Short Reading TheWo .tstanding llc Lctltt? 15.lTu s 173 . Skimming 166 Readlngi The Moon: A Nice Placeto visil? Maki g InJircncer 168 LISTENINCSKILLS 169 Vocabulary in Conlcxt 16.pyR)'.lcrra-. PoINTs 155 DrscusdroN WRITING SKILLS T55 Reporting 155 Writing a Report 156 II lI Theuniverse lrj DESCRIBINGi INTRODUCTION I57 Shorl Readtng TheSuk an.l OthetStars 157 USING ENCLISHTO DESCRIBE I58 SenEnce Patterns 160 A'ithALli&tit'ts161 tJsinlPre.ttlxt 16. 162 fonttitll cotul\'u]ttl Atlieetives Usinf !64 Wtititq Snao l Sentcnce:' READING SKILLS 164 VocabularyBuilding 164 Wory' Rro6:aqua'.ise D$criqtio$ 160 Dcsttibilry -ed 'iry 16l with and Adjectives Nouur 16J whh'c(l dnd'it\!.165 Vocdbtiary in co.asl(). Nore-Taking 169 tht Ltdur\' l70 Unda$landi\ry POINTS I7I DISCUSSION WRITING SKILLS I7I Describing l?l Wdting a Description 172 167 It llr PREDTCTINGi The Weather 17.

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Thc obiectis 1()developa a! the college'eniry1cvcl. This section begins wilh aDcxplanalionoflhc rhctoricalIunction.dilute. science concepts Thc locus of the book.firs!-yearcollegestudent (for example . This chafl is not scntcnce patterns. however. conpare.usitUcxamdcs of from the shor! reading. Grammalicalslrllclureslhat occur frequenllyin science lexls arc also includcd in this seclkD whcn they scrve a communicativcpurposcrclatcd to lhc rhclorical lilnction.hjdro .Thc Dcxl sequcnced 1()cnablc studcnls item in thc sectionis a group of praclicccxcraiscs. aDd preseDting it ir a short readiDg. Io progress frcm idcntifying the funclion to usir)git. dyna ). basicvocabularylhat wolrld be assumed forstudy are scien.thal are coveredbut not know how to cxprcssLhcm in English. rcadingsor lectures. Next.. Usi g English to. Discussion PoinN.e-related termsthat would bc known to a nativewords sclecred spcakjng. No prcviousscicncc knowledgeis neededby the teacheror student.word roots and affixesinlroduccdarc thosccommonly occurringin scientificterminology (for examplc. Rcading Skills. ListenilgSkills. . ir?e/lia). rclating it o thc scientificmethod. usingEnglish to. fammable. . ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT Thcrc arc lwclvc chaplcrs in thc book.dehydrate No specialized or rare words arc used in any of the combstion. (ctassify.and thcrc is no altempl to cover any scientifictopic thoroughly. rhe sectionpreviewsthe vocabularyfrom thc long rcading.Accordingly.. Reading skitls lor srudenlsto use in expandinglhcir voThis secdonlirsr prcscnrssraLcgics cabularics on an ongoingbasis. transparent . Itltroduction Each chapter beginsby intrcducing rhe rhetoricalfunclion. meantto list all possiblc and in somcchaptcNlbc chart is omitled because fie topics do not lcnd thcmsclvcs10 any parricularsynlaclicstructure. and so on).. is always on languagcfalher than scicucc. and writing Skills..In most chapicrsthc cxplanalionis folbwed by a cha11 palternsthal show how the function may be cxprcsscd. Each chapter has six mair scclions: Introduction.

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.i1e lhe book and to my daughterRaquelfor her imaginalivcilhstraliols tharks to Harry for his conslantsllppon aDdcncouragcmerl'and And a special for alwayshaving mote faith in me than I had in mysclf .rxii Preface ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My lhanks to Dr. Ann Johns of San Diego Slale U vers.ly for thc inspiralior to \t.

)rd plno) cq Dnlpu ur sluJAJ tpql puegsrr^!unrql ur Irpro se^|rrrLIllvql p)^rlli)qoq^{'sl)rrD lu5!rup)qt ql!^{ upSrqr)ur!)s urrtssM.rsro^!unrnoJorrtu.{.M quPr rqr uPql rrqler uns rql tpqt lu.seop! .rsrr^run rqt Jo slJrrss rqt rJ^o)un ol 3ul.rrqlse.Mruol pJsoddo rr)^ aldord.{tt roJ suosud otul u^.{ppors u.uJ .srSV. uolDnpo4.lpp!W rql SulrnpssrrSord rlllrl.rq pell rJurrrs Jo ss Sold aql JI rq tqBrlu J.qt .\ ot SullsalJlul sl tl 'iJrl Io srurolrrlduls urorJprdulr^rp peq s8ulrq uelunqlpqt prsodordrcpueurtxpuy pue /uns rLIl punorepr^oLU !trer tql lcqt pitsrSSnssnqJrplslrv/uJolerqt Jo erpl aql pstPul3lrosntlrrouilc 'prl)lp.irr^ cpplu r)u..{lrnbrtue rruts.urSpnf JIPLLT ol pup serp! ^{ru ot spulLur!rqt urdo ol p)urprl rldord uJtl^ iluo p'up^pp rrurtrs urcpow 'rte rql q8norql lEoll uer pue urJs rq ot llpurs oor rrE lpql s8ulql 8u!^!l iq prsner rre srsprstplpql prrsrSSns rq urq^ lE prq8nptseM rnrlspd s!nollsttsolotqq)ucrJ.rurlpts srq )ireq rlpr ol prsnjrDq urqM qlErp LII!.rJruprroJ JlnJ e pcrr^oJslpro splro.!\ prJue^pp rrou r{)nt(l I\oLI lrpuo^.\ prurrprrql sp^ orMpS snlur3 uEnql lecjB .s008Jaqlserrelspur^a.ql!^\ parsrl Jq plnoJ rPql slreJ uo prspq stu.\orqtuJAJato^\ slsllurlJs .sts!tuel)s iq prsn poqltLu JlseqrqlJo ss til!r\p up sejlnbrr lEtrrlplu )lJlturljs Sulpuptstrpun poqraw )IJIluaIrs eql ol.)l)s'pPilsul .r rJqto Llll^ pelp)runruulo) r^eq tq8ltu r^ '^lou ig .

. HN uh ux\ . Eachchapt€r in (his book is basedon some aspectof this method and how it is expressedin English. . ANDfiHEREARE IINISIBLE ..RGAN l5/v1s THAT FLOAr N fHE AIR AND LIVE I/I'IDE BoDY.. A procedure known as the scientific method was developed for gathering and testing information.2 lo LheScienlilirMethod Inrroduclion experiments. VouR HN...

rrott0luro.{q suollezllprrurS riELUupr lnq 'rurulrl: irt^r ipnts louueJ/.uoutu..rr^JMoH ruo qreo.{'}ooq srqr irJnpltl Jo slsrsuorsn punorP BurqurJ^3 tafiow lo atqrN a4I 'prgrssPl) iq i€tu rrlleu Moq t o purl pue rSesspd turr\otlolrql peru qulptaa uoqs 'rrorssJrdx.{JrssElr Iq.qupe uo slErurue pup sruEldlo spurl uonlrttl Iprr^rs crp rrrlll rJuIs'^pelurtS prtJlprrd .ur BuljrqteB pue sw)llB^rrsqo3u11eur .srlrrds d ueJ r)rp ro lsrSolorq pJorrqrrrlu e sp rPlnrrtred ue 8ur. puE rqSnoqtrutlurlJs or Jrspqtu:^ snql .)ldtuexr rol .ro^4 e\I slrouic sdlqsuollplir pulJ ot pue sDeJJql IJrss''. Ouo.sanrrdord prlplrj Jr LIlr.rrlu 1r^c/\^oH.{pnts ol IEmrup elqrssodrulipPrlr sr tr ..{lle.lo soSels .rurLuorq puEauuoltlr se dnoiS rlrrEs cql ot SurBuolaq se prrJrruipr s! rurpor ?snql .sls!ulrql .ru! qriprsJ )lJllurlrs .r8stslluJlJs.rJ srltlo or/rllilr"/r p.runrrn nt .. rql NOTI)N(IOUINI "tailvw lo uotltsodwo) aql 3u$.n iql uro.q upr sitlrrdord str .{l.dnorS sl uotr€rlJlssPl:) s)llsurlrerpqJ str p .Or"u tr'tllll'l rqf qBnou) tou sl st)eJSunlillo) .1sseI) 1 raldeqr .M sdnoiSotul slurlucloIII llp 3u!3uerB.Iprre ue otu! uortpulrolu! petPIJrdno.r1o.loJ u! )uJllrrlr lueuodutl Juo r^pq llp lpql s8u!qtJo dnolS e Sutue:)Lu-ssr/rpro.t 'rJPds dn sc:lcl pLrP sseluro rqtrrn sPrllEr{ttLrrql{uesr rrlEw 'Irup oi IrtP^{rLIlpue 'rqlerrq non rrp I0 'lpoq rno.t.

aDd il i1 trt slated bccaLrsc which is ffequcntly lbr classificalioo. () watcr is prrl inl() lf lill any cont. and collonare crystallirrc 1o hcate(l' th( ch. or cxllained undcrstood (cntcDcc: lhis sample Consider All matter may be classified as either solid. nrrd arc widcly spaccd ofgascs or molc(Lllcs thc tirc. Ann)rfhoLrs a 1(uid.liqtli(].nd whcn hcalcd.4 Classitying 6A6 or gas Soli(l\are llrnr . cannolfit in a Pir)t or volunrf dioxidc'havcllo lixcdshal)c suchas air. l. Thcrefore qtran ol nrilk vohrnrc. TO CLASSIFY USING ENGLTSH includes: A classificalion class.lrrilk. ways nlatlcr othcr wc rvill discuss in chaplcr.or oil is pourc(l Liquids.r.liquidor gascolrs EvcrythiDg (his may bc classilicd.liquid.vc a dcfirrite Howcvcr. conorl.A considerablc .ssilic(l nnd sarr(i wood.ll walcr. L a basis elsewhcrc.rrrcf of thcir owr. Al1 nlatlcrmay be classificd jrorr.1rc ca(llothcrandthercbyc|rablcliq ol conlaillcr thc shaPc any a liquidwill lakc aDddo nol kccp!bcir$apc. Lalcr wc knolv is nladcof maltcrin solid. on a arc not rigid.for crample. a specificilem or il€ms.Lr€cansc of movcarcrrl. a gcneral 2. slftlcltrrc(i l(x)scly idstoUow.rc dcnsclv or nlnccrlcs ot n soli(l Lhcat(nns an iron bar. fapcr.it will llow all ovcf 1hcsurfacc.lcl r)rolcculcs ol Thc nt(tlls or rablc.it will nrn to tln)bo(tonlr movc vcry ral)idly. n liquidsh.Bul thcscaL(tns. subs(anccs. in which ii is DotreLl. packcd and havevrry lilllc Irccdom R()cks . In lhcsc rubbcr. on lhc othcr lTand.oxylcn.rrgc Whcn thcscvtkls arc in a dcllnilcpatler'n. and carbon Gascs. knowD as mellirrg. if air a tirc. coulaittcr. lhc lilL1cl1l aDd sulfir.Rubbcr.rl(l as cilhef solid.lrca lornl.TIlcatoms Thcy cilher conllress or cxfand rc adapl to any . arc. crynallinc. . al(rms arranged inclu(lc sLLLrsLantcs is sharpan(l clc. havea dcnnitcfornl.ll tl. .glass. or gas.rrxl dividcd inlolwo classcs: nray bc furLhcr Soli(is trl) of $lid\ nrc nli(lc solids Cryslnllinc wood. is not o|1lc y ol lhc alonls glass. Thcy dilluscor slrcadoul wholc sl)acc insidc pu( iL lllls lhc is ir)to <1 lire. thcy lraduallysoftcn. liqrri(ls alll.nnn ltloLrs. ol lhc shiPcor voLL'ntc lo changc lorccwould be nccdcd as sdids.

)Un\ct)Jq ipu.s rrorlerlrsselr 'Jrrr^rluou (r\el Jql uo pJrlrsscP ro J!t\!l rrqtr.Llt 's! leql ltuo8ue) lejru.Jre ( al'q prpnl)ul tou ore teql spllosl.{JrsselJ uaqM) 'tpltos sb ptlJlsspp ttD puot puo 'uo a u t . lou op slurll rglJcd$rqt.rse uo codrul)r sI rq lp)rruiq) Jo \PLU \r Jrrqt tng t|rlrlurpxr I'l l.)roru 'iJuJluts rql u! p. pu! aulllttst\Jj :se|top o/1r'.(ll 'uosprr qts$d srql roC Jo slpporuureluor I0 rnbr{ s.! olu! paplAlpJrquklaq tput spllos 'suo1s!^lpqns rriqt rsrql ul prpnl)ul sl trletu llB lpqt JloN) '516 ra 'pvbtt pltos)aqtDrp pa{lssttp aq tDw ra nu llv lI:IIf.{l!pssrJ'U. 'trpu ro'plt1@'uvr 9e \pns '.^or .ads wouJ DNrAcrssv'r3 'stlt1LltlJ1uu.ql g SutlJtssel) .If .ssttl6 paa$ ra|qk[ ltD lVU!rNe50r fHtf. onuru lou sr qJrqM 'rrllpur rlPls aqr sl Lrollerulssplr roJ Jo Iprlsiqd srsPq )ql srt pue p|\lb!l pltos.)urlu.DtLU \r\ .re sLLrat rgrtrads aqJ .rrltr sl sselJJeJJuiS .lBtauoS ot rulrrds ruo{ 8ur.B iql Jo suols!^lpqns ilqt IIe r.rLro ucqt.qto IFnor^qo ..AdS OI'IVUIINIID I IO{C DNIAIIISSV.

In a sentence itcnr.6 Classifying Rock. and smallcrbranchcsnray sobdividcagain into evcn sm.paper. and like. rlol scientificwriting becausc on thc perso[ performinglhe actbn. and cottonare cryslallinesolids. (Norethat a classification is likc an upsidc-dotm lrcc The lrutlk of a trcc is cach large branch is subdividcdinto smallcr divided inlo largebranchcs. wakltIreezes dt lf C ) it cxprcsses Lllrivcrsals. 9dr will {ygal which is the ScneralcalcgoryaDdwhich is thc sPecific . branches.) NOTES of classilicaliorand in all form is usedfrcqucntly il1 scntcnces l .lllcr branches. Thc presentsimplc tcnseis the mosl commonly Llscdtcnscill scientific (For cxample. wrling becausc is a gat. 2 . o ly rhe meanirgsof lhc words oxrrc. Oxygen t . The passive lhc cmphasisiD scicnccis usllally or thc acliotl. wood.

1 ptnorl f | frq *"-:l. "."..nrnrlu . ^*"" I i:r.""'J1 1 L *'"''.tg rLII i)l^lr o.r. | *' J..o.. -rrpun 1rclrDrurss "rr.4dor .\t il()p s! ruo ls...i'^'# rpv'os*.".".rsqni sn..h'::Jj) -""^ . pub l?lr Jo rrurlLrrsLI)erut sozpt 4[pads lbrzlra."re.iii .T'l:jE 1 I L Prulssenj su"Qllod aJ 4uas | | t SICrl:IdS Or."::l.."rJ:|ji] :.^'pJ ."r.q.wnrr .o^rj f pdnorgl {'.r"e 'lVUg N3C OI f..l". rp)." ^r.iili!J 1..pp. j "ffi| ""....t.l prsuPx? i i. . qulttlltuzpl o 1ox'tatduntt luo Io ts t^rxa4t.u. o ) d r r PI | atduexe up_J LPJo Pi 'g!l .{Jrssel) .u.f. :I ..:* | I prrIFrPpJ ..:.ij |.e.rrr.. Is:uoaartl'] ..re i'n1rip.l .r..se8e se fel I { } ( pourssPt)J .tdutn 'stuz|ta atqlssod lltt b tuatJod ar aras tsatl :aDN . L s.rr! rulrrds q)er p.'ir-1p ue sr pa15 7 sr.rt'r.rvuqNa9 wouJ gNIICrSSyltr t 8ur.".uosuP)t f n*""uf 'q"lriil ".ICI)!IdS WOUJ 9NITJISSV]f.*.

Trcnsfefting Infothatior.rrr. Fivc inDonantclasses oxidcs. and non etallic 4. arr(i afc insr.Air. r l ' : ' I ' .rcircids. s.and alu|ni|rur. ! . 8. lhc chart.l. A deer is a lJrnmmal. . Salls aci(l(DNA)ilird 10. base\.rctor.rlators. 7.1nfc Colrdu(loN noncoDLlr.Classifying oxidcs. Rocksarc grcLrped sedimenlary. A lcw suL)nirn(|\.l'l . Collee. r i ln(lio\. dianlon(1.wood. r'\"r \iljL.llccausc lhc) do rrol noncor)ductors.rc|or. ll .(1r 'rrrr.diDg lo iLsclcclr'ical Mattefis licqucrrlly cla\silic(l (l.ilylionl llov!ingwhcrc iLis nol carryclcclriccharyc plaslic lil(f ca \rn. Thc Lwokindsofnuclcica(idsarc dcoxylibonucleic riborucleic acid (RNA). nnd nnnxphoLrs.nr0lirlli( ofconllxnrnds. irl cnrryirrll.All r Clals. I. Rcadlhc followirrg parngraphnrrd lin(l . arc goodcon(luclonSrLl)slnr]ccs pa icuh y silvct.'|r l r(l. havcnlnllyclcctfons th.r\rcd.glass.coppcr. Coal. clcclfic culrcnl. oI corl(lLrcljnS. nrclanmrPhlc. lea. r ' r l r r l . carboncxists itjrlcoul. w. ( r r l L f { ' r r r r r " ( .LHCTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY con(luclivily ir a conaccol. t. 9.ruhcr way Thcnuscthc inli)rnration in thc passagc lo corrrl)lclc rbal mat1er lnay be classilic{1. l.and oil may bc classilicd are inorganic c(Jmpounds.lts. or insu with lcw licc eicct()ns arccallcd nrxl carlbc rscd to prcvcrllclcori(. in threefonns:graphilc. and into three cat€goricsi 6. r . lalo$. . as ilrcls. ficc () nmvcan(larc usclirl gold.and paiit arc colloids. dcviccs as Lfnnsislof and afc usM in suchclcctroni( as Jcmicon(luclors . wood. or scnriconduct(r'. .

Mlo.rrrs 6 !!a4wo) 6 3u!^J!ssPl) { .no.'lerurLrP Jo 'sluPId E 'rp sileJqJuJ^rrl ' 8 .rrq p srl .q rpJ PlriDeg Jre suerqrqduP puPsJlrldcu' 9 'JlLruiirour pue JrueBJo : Jq .{E(u IJNPW 's t -€ 'srluJqtui^LrlsP 'ltrPlo Jo aq ueJ stJJsul 'sle(utuP pur? sNPld oMi oiul --:@@- rq uPrrrltPrurluefuo z 'srtslqJl']r^ur o.{dl J ol / -1pdJ)urtlros rqt rsn .re rqt .sr)urnrJs Sur^^olloj Jqt rlJId(x)J .l p(r?liirerqrri^ tspfitLtvJo sluEld P5.s rre qElurup pue sl pldJo srlro3rlpJ IIElou lpql ircN) .raJrr.

1?. lF tlrc {l) \tr arrd lhcir (orrcspol)dillglassivc it is uDders()od. ) scDtcDccl Formula lbr a passivc of vcrb Objccl from activc + sclltcllcc pKrPcr fonrl ol + vcru ld .rre u$c(lin placeol rccdlcs iu conrl)ad ciiscrccordings.i or n. r. Bc carclll l{) choosc thc corrccl tcnsc (Prc\cnl {'r 10 lhc Passivc scntcnces \ . fd..h 01 thc following a. wllcn thcre is .? pasr participlc + by"phrasc (optionnr) Meraury is classified as a metal' (by scientists). Mercury is classified as a metal. lik( .usclhc pas(lensc I'i or wrrJ.---in courlMrlisc in diamonds Thcydiscovercd SoulhAfricain the ninclccnlh cenrury. Lascrs .r of rhc vcrb ."'iiilli.Ji'rrrafs) is nol us((l rhc Lty-Phft]sc cxanrple at'. aDdFraDcis Crick JaDres Watson thc lhcoryof lhe fonnulalcd hclix.o ..l0 classifiing The Passhte voice and in all scicr)lific form of a vcrb is usedfrequcntly in classifying The passivc lhc cnlphasisin scicn(t is uslrally on thc acti(t]. ChaDge ca. in Dlace of ncccllcs wc usclasers recorclingi. If thc acli(n)is il) thc Pasl. lcnscol lhe ve r lo l.livr.uivfit thc subjeclrcccivcs1hcaclioD. A scntence aclior. ACTIVE PASSIVE Collcc is g()wD iD Brazil and colunrbia. This is because thc is drliv?if lhe srbjccl Pcrft)rms thc personperfonningthc actidr.cr lvr?J h('(nusc .tivc lbrm. (pdssir?) it conccnlmlcsou how nlcrcllry is clas_ Thc sccondscnlcnccii prefeffedbccarlsc lhe classiliing (wc fial scicntisls do know sifiid.usclltc preseDl is sinsular.Look al lhcse examplcsi scientists classify mercury as a metal. tllust be.ri'I.)v(.Hcrc are sonlc activc senlenccs forDrs.1nnxlll.?dl on writing.lln if lhc subicctis plrral. Cha ging Actit/e voice to Passive Voice. ir) Dianlor)ds wcrc discovcrcd Soulh Africa iu lhc inclecullr The lheory ol lhc doublc hclix wns foflrulalc(l by Janleswa(s(nl ar)d PncuDrolrin cnn bc curcdbv in Brazilarld ThcyErowcoffee Cohmbia. 11is pa. tlic . double Penicillin can curetnclrnronia.a:a il lhc subiccl Ilrhe aclkD is in thc prescnl.

ls r)1(prru) srrnlcl'llturt qiJrq.qsll3q € 't06t ururrlsurS !i)qlv ^q trir^uDlrr Jo Jruor .]pDlrut ..l )r'.:.(t uorsr)j rqt !L...rlrsndroi :Dn1.)rlt LI(r s.rrtD.Stro Iq L'.|lrtrnUorurrLIt L'(ltur) qL'r0qu)8(xp.urtp) .rtrw crr)t)Dqiolts)p rrlt rn s.)^ iLIr. rql ..\.qrsspt:) .ll.r qrr^ rLIl r(U (tpntd ro rptnSurs) rrqrxnu Drrror rql puDllspd lI Sur..rsrrlui.:".rrLrrr. j.at . -il. "..uts.) 9g6I )rtr tI curpued tl6t Ur lErrD:) rLIl prl)rtllro) srr)$M t . '01 ..t"ol/ fvpaqra lror )rrrprlo^ ttl()rj lulns Dplxr JA{ .iXili Iil.(tt:)o)tx)r! ur )le bqul.qrsscl:.'qr su rrurijrt"..{(trq.l].l.)ro...).. .()lsrrlJl( llrul( Iq (irnford) ']r)srouiuqPs iql r.1 .rtiirs f)lll.Iqrri Jql pJllprurPrq Llrrrds LrplnnH I rrtt Jo lrPd Dlq (tonlro)) 'i\.u1.r(i lrt(tr. ..l 'J)urtu:)sr^rssedrqt (i)Lrrt ot tlrplrodurr sr Lrrs r^rl)e rql..{t urrlrr :rsncJrq qrrul . ..' t '99l.L 9 rl)rxorplrlr u n r s s p l ( xrlo l t l l l p o s q t l ^ ^ l p J lcltlruD dPoS s r o r l i l p r r i i i ^ i i l l t r o ( 1.fili:l::tl'il 'r.1:'..lur {l)(ty.u .)rllrHol slprtrrup pup stupl(l s..)Lto./rzxfo.Jo ru.l.rr| prslltr llq!(lord s.Jtdo)(t ilrDLLI p) .rpJI qr!3 .jl..lxr uD) stsrtu)q:) ..iili.l0 Drlqns. .{).Irft\tnf rl)rxouoru uo(uu)l1)stuno(ul? iSlul ."oo...(LrrqM )se]rJd tcur.ro..:rlarLrrs.)pun (r)^orsrf) 'l|LlrU lilp^\ tuo:) 't iJ nOI L1Sl?t()t.. fu. ur ft:)]]pqr|lrJlr :'rttprlur^ur lrlp^llr)rSrrrt' z l .ror)^tssu(r iU.rq1 troolq uonDrUrnbrl '9 i(l rrDrrll rlro...urx)ru.rt rrrilollru t)p..rlt. t1 7cq.tJN Iq (rlulnllur) al/t F'a/7"AQa slruul(l rlll JostLllii^.ql urn..rr(\r\ct {q j .{.... srs. { q ( i r n r ) p l n u o r L r ) 'sJtrrrt ll.r )lll z '(. )rurtrlrr r)r r)rn(luo) D ro.j}'.qr 3l rcql) l)Jlqns rqt )u[ll no..

p . lhc voubuur! 1 Co text.l2 classifying READING SKILLS Vocabulary Building il will ol conrmunicalior'l. atosc inlo ol gas. lcssfrcquendy lcanlingappcar you must lnakca spccial effofl lo acquircnew dcvclopmcrl. Eilrslcin'sideasarc 1oollbilr?d for nrany pcol)lc lo ulldcrslalrd. gr)wth n vocaL)llaly lhat i$. pall permancni Howcver.llL'id. Plaslic a. unableto bc dcnroycd b. lhcorciical . Chcnrists b.'._ arc hard10disposc 5. nnablc to be sccn . and amorphous.". you icanrcvcryday wordslhal arc repcatcd whcn you first sludya language.4t?rlt5i. of languagc slage liom thc in this book wcreselccLc(l scclion$ All thc wordsin lhc vocabulary irl s('icntifi( discou$eTl)erc frcquenlly bccausc thcyappcar readirgs and leclurcs words.tll]r . your llucnry but growthralc. a.soli(i. cryslallinc q bi)kclLdown b.andsolklsmaybc srrlt. All malleris cithcrliquid.tl 4.1:!!i4b. unablc k) bc conslruclcd 6. Reading and speaking lhe langualcwill increasc yourvocabulary Thisis beLausc lhc wordsyou arc incrcase will '?ol aubnradcally Al lhis and are lhus n rc dillicull1()rcmcnllrcr. in scicntifia lcrnrinology. b. malerlals frcnl thc walcr' efidrred 3. Thc word partsar('dln) lhoselblllrd fucqlcnlly arc Do rarcor spccialized for colltainstrnlcgics thevocalrulary sccii(tls In addi1kt1. ibr Dlaking lo buildyour vocabulary. b. circla lhc lcltcr of thc nnswcrthdt bcsl nralchos scDlcllccs in cach of thosc word as it is uscd ihlicizcd nrcaning of thc iD sizc.?dt studythe compositiot 2. conlil1uing lifc!imehabi1.{. ofyour dley soon bccome sooflcnthal you haveacquircd therc is alwaysa dc'dincin vocairuhry a basicvocabulary.'. unablel0 bc divkled 7. machincs a. L Aloms arc it?.rdl \!y' rrny b. hlgc of Datural trrrsld. products ol becanse lhcy arealnost /r?/. Al onc timc lhc alom was thoughl rc bc fudlvirirl. allcf vocabtrlary. Thc whalcsuddcnly b. disappearcd a. will helpyou \ir'ith cveryaspecl A goodvocabulary yon 1o sl)cak will cDablc your and reading and iislening comprehensiol improve profcssiol you good succccd in arry will hclp A vocabulary and wrile belt€r.

^\lu 'J:)u)t(ris )l(lot.rrP ]o siniuu^ rlrrr{Jrp I stLrorLDI:r rsiLll ll! tpqrr)Lr)l:)\ jo strpJ 00t lnoqu^llro lo (1D.I| pi^1oqs srotrnb()rlr )q-L I I ll s)l)r) ! s)LJJlJ.)qlorrp rrlro $lltcln lrlrpl(lJrlt tcrll tr)dsnssts UJt)s uoS Zl .redI() rpuur rrE stlr lr)t3 s oulsqns Uojll[u ]noJupqr olu )rtl .(xklns tDqtILrl..r r. Ul uu rilu I|lui(l(lu pUo)is lt st tl si(tll !los 'qdDrlJuru(l .ll rlrrLUnl! rurqu)r tPqtslu.i(l(lu srop .l).ql 8 aI 3ur.{xo prru uorr Jo .tL.is l: 'quPr iqt plrnojp Jr//..tot rLtlL']rro) ll rsnlr)iqi)u.{tr^ttrD lpJrLuiqr 'isiri s npord u)ii.tJlpr|t iJuIt.DrrrlLtis .loq(loriiur1]({-rJlFur r|u.ro Lroll)npo.r/.')rlt Ut l)rtul\ sI .)rlt lorrlnq il)Urnlrirlsl iruilUis )r(lotiqt lo i])uitu)r lsjlliql s.rijixO qrrq^{ P.)tr|Js rl(lol lu|lituruUorldns orr sr?ll q(ic.|![r rrr silnriiow Jdorsor]Illr lujriMo(l L' qtr^ ui^r U)rs )q {)l .lud i)Llt ilpptru LrjlL.lJr p ullriqturr trurp sl)uLl)ltlM /rll p.\ tu)r.prlurrp siJtrutsqns itorzpuru rqlJo i(ro sr tt l)I] uuru ol Lr^.r[u:.{L t oot . .ri{ussu(l [] ( ill(lulilutp(iliqlorrii.P rot nl q r(u.)tpts /.(q'rr.l tl lo lt .r(l r.srtnrrloruprllDr iilr .i)Uituis tsuliql sl tl sJrurt .rpl) luql uoll0uuotrrl sl luql-lullilutrr iitltJo(l(lns suruluo) !l(iuriiuru(l Jqt jo t\ij Jql rl({uriJcrpd.{llerrorsDrrO) r)u)lUir rl(lot :rqt ot itL.rnoj rr^o rrp rrlll wotv lDu$allu{w a\I 6ulpbau 'q(iulSProd q)L'r sli:.L ' 0 1 urql 'q l)qt e 'n')r lrsr.nrj u(x)tu )q.\{l)qUottrsrrolt u su slrc.t.' ot flq JuplrlrlD It 'r uorlDrcdrs q .rurlrJo s.riJDrpd u.l({rucxr IIDirp ruuolqr pULr 'ploiJ ..ronbs Io )r!rrttr)s)l(lot rql puIotB lirlr()ll()tiLlt UI t|(l .lr .{oul \lrrutsqns uorllrru.)Lll Ltr!tolturulotul )Llt llt? lr^o) ol '.orrr.1r ut illpnsn sl irll sl(li)uoJ t(li)Uo) Jsoqlsl.4liru.rrnpur lrriJorp.'urs or^i lo .r:{ltslp \rt 'lqirrl)LIl drr(rrrr.ljlp ur .!oqJcr.I}lns .Ipru ot s..i)u.tM )ltl!trl)S l)uu!il(lJruoJ lo.'slnoru Jperusr plio^r Io prllPr sJprrrp(l rtF llY sLtI()]D rrllr.{Jrsseltr .sLIul(lx) luqM sa^o.{D^.{lutuulslslsrI()) soapl uloN 6ulpu!! plrqro .{ltrO ll ol (ln iilrpDil smuJturs jiq() lv liqto Lltr^{ 'trolllsLruJl .(l Jo 'sJl.1J 1r1./r.rl rlll Lllrpppr uo 1lr.r plnorls q(turSulu(i iqt ul sirtli]urs )Llt llV q(lordl.q prqsuD 'l 'J)Pds rrrFrlqo qtr^ li1l.

in lhe ancient accepted not universally earth. elcmcnls: matter is composcd offour thal lh€ory During the Middle Agcs in Europe. menis. . howevcr.Hc clainled ftal all matter is made of atomsi lhal all arcmsof a singleelcmcnt havc lhc samcshafe.He said that aloms are nol crcaledor dcslroycdLrutrathcr in chemicalreacli(. size. are Jlik|] ll rahichis (allcd the alomic number'All atorrr'lJl lh.'". but ()day a(tns arc belicvcd!o consist Thc sizeof lbc nrclcLlsillsidc wilh a densenuclcusat lhe ccDtcr.\l and onc proton.\'hd's Itn ebi \\ l I \\ \\ \- ao o. whichhavcr posjtivc by clcctftrnj. elc(ri( charge. Thcse was subdivision which no furthcr point reached beyond \aas until a We irdivisiblc particles word mcanirg alonror. In faci.cnill(r( protoDs.ls.Lil".has one clccLron {rasformcd is lhcbasison whichourenlirc Llniversc .l4 Classitying thc philon)pher In 400 R.which l)avca neFnli\cclcitri( chart}aTlii Thc nucleusis surrouDJed in cach alom. the hydrogenalom. thc conceptoI atoms was collsi(lcrcdl(x) FinaUy. thc Danishphysicisl cnlirealom has Do cha4tc.''arrr. aDdthcrcforethc numberofprotons equalslhc numbcr ol clcctroDs NiclsBohr l)rc )seda In l9ll... has 92 protonsand 92 cleclrons . ncrd. ?zz /.you\( sccrrlhcm. irhi -zl t] 2/ hsllumolom what is ir'thal makcs iron hard.commonalomir lhc universe. Eaih nucrcus n".r'i'iffi31 alldn(lllrons whiih hivcno. lirc. and mcrcury a liquid? The properlicsof an elcmcnl arc dcrcrmi[ed by thc rumbcf ol clcclronsin ar a(nn.irillkr /. was to equal the thickn€ssof this s!. abstrac! and was acco formulatedaD atomic theory bascdon his experimcnlation. U. ff:l.wcighl.rhc lrlnr. likc thc model of thc alon iD whi(h thc clectronsrcvolved around thc DLI(lcus ofclcclrons is thoughl () be planelsrevolvearouDdthc sul'l Todaythc movemeDt lhc fositiv( bclwc(rr dn)uDd-a hiv( Thc lorceof allrdcli(\n hoveriDs morelikc Lrccs clectnrn\v!hirlilF afinrr]J kecP: thc clccproronsjn ihi irucla[i aid the rrcg:r-ivc lrons in their padts. in ancienlGreece.in I 804 lhc EnglishnanJohn Dako n rdingly rejeclcd. (lcr'1cr)l youvr \ccn orredlom o{ oxvgen.".i.'nball cqry. The conccplofatoms firn emerged smaller inlo smallcrand be dividcd thal maucrcould theorized l)arlicles Dcmocritus possiblc.mnilrln.i"". lhc most element. r.rll H)JroFrn.one of thc hcavieslelc Oxygenhas eighl protonsand cighl electrons.c. and rvatcr. alld behavioriand that alomsofeach e]cmcntare diffcrcnl ftom lhosc of any other elemcnt. a Grcck wcre called indestructiblc million oflhcnl nore lhan a would takc are so small fia1il that atoms know taday Dcmocritus'thcory.c-c1-q1!qP-er' for many bclievedin Arislollc's world. form new combinations Dalton roughl thal aloms wcrc solid. oxygen a gas. air. mainlv of sDacc.

.r..{ ..ft))ql s.rilrL'ru lD!ll...{xo plre rrr8orptq orur $rrd&rrrp rrlpx.{JrJl rsnetr:q . p r 'Irri). ltat?av.rr..".' z t l r ? x ) l l t 'ltr^c..p.{JrJLri iJLr^..rusrr..U l l | ) uJ o ...LlI z Pf-Pa "lotq 'sru ol! upqt r) p[rs L r r ^ JJ r p s ) l n ) i l ( ) w .lt." 1ilXT.{q L. rro r.lllll:lli'il. t ..ij. r o t.)p )_t!strlo]V .r.{xo Jrll ' s I 'u!)nlxo j 0 s r u o l po t ) r c ! ... l:1i.(.\suc rql lo .9 lutrt)J iilJ| p. t o j p .)ru . .qrssPt:) '. { t l J o s l u o lv ' .Lrne.riJ s r l t u di r ."..liiif..ll]il .ul ' a pll) LrJolD tOSt rropq rsrx)1oU rqt Jo ldDrror..r.".)tp ler..rr.r.r u P p L ] l l q Pq '.slrojltrJu .rr^ro^).Jrrits sJlruULrr )sJlltJo rlrorflrq puEsUorl|q lpu III Io rpEU srJo aoul pup r)s rd flurql.!'ii:.Hurrrrqr. 1 l l r l l U .rxrlrrD ut {-u4 qoxoA S'I-IDIS 9NINAISI..o r)q.. ) L l to t l d i l ) l p s U o _ r l D I n l l J o r r .ors. .rl)Jl) 's to J.(r.)rli )^|lL.".rV p)^)rlrq.r os rrp .q QIL'rPdrs ro LrJ8.)Lro.qup) :srrr urlr rn0tJo pJs(xJrno) sr.1'.{lrsu.li!l u J^!q sUo.l lril)p(i 'rru !r! )/ts )rlt ()l st ulolp uu l)plsUr Jo rn)l)nlt ! jo iTrsrqI .{l 'srro..rrqutru JLII l)nu r)qurnu ilrrslcnbi s..r.1'l1"..itlbl .rr)lLr)l) L.. t o r l r r I l ] ) U J o t u l o t L l) L l .or i.n.oru iqr.ro.ri)^tlnt sl()rDJlJ.{tuEcti^rsurdx) rrE spuourer( z sitProrlP^r .L. l)rso(lulol n. " n.:'i:::'t#: .i.i 'srrLrJtlrrs isJLIt Lltrp:) ur prsn sr lr sp pro^^ I)rzrrnplrrql Jo SUruEILr Jo Jqr srllrrpru rsrq lEql rr.I 'rs..1'r5..rorlr "rno...ru )l.:.11". 'Jn..{rr^q :nLrolD rpPrlrsr ptroMrltl IIV J{r (I 3u!.{l)pr^1 "".rU.:'lj rfrrr'r rLlirsrsuorul srsru)ulJrL'rr iirll^{olloJ rqlJo Lt\pa 6uryDaa aq lu!pup$tapLtD Jsnprrq stsrxr rlrl llv .suol()](l rl!M . "."n.lrllJl rqt Jtrrrl ..oror(r sr.. srM .. l @tr"w. suoi))iri )Lrr r{rrM r....L.u 'sooloid . ii. { q r(lt Ln urole LlourLu)) lsolu )Llt st ruolE uJii.(ro)qt)[Uolp rr]l . 'pixli)ru.rr tu)urrlr rlij u surotc )qt ls Jo llv I 'suolord jo .iJu.'l"lii:li..rrnpllrJo sr. ) L I t ../t f4..r{Jrp '€ r.10 r)qLrrrru )ql st Jru)1.srHV rlpprW )ql n^uunO 'r)lpM plrurrp .[))lrpuL).^.slto...rru ..J:ii:l:1...rr.{rr^r.ruttrs.\..JIrclsr..lt\)N.'.

what you rccord.cach has charactcristics dral arc drsllr?d. ol olhcf gnscs air.rq|i. similar b. whal is Fin! sJirlnn'l rvoirl l(lrir\F on rhc conrrary. stable b.&s b.onstirr?rtr of sah.iJlrr?t throughout lhc experimenl. The succccding li)r Sood nolcchaplerscontain suggcstiol)s laking. Akhough hydrogcnand oxygenhavc sonc similarilics. a. Thc Dotcsyou lakc during a lccturc arc likc lhc you take on a lrip. a.rio.t. a. evcn whcn thc subiecl of the malerial to you. Thc outcolqc of an cxpcrincnlis aflectcd by y44'n0LJ.echnnknl\'r[t:l\ a.ir a shon whilc you will undoublcd prescnted mallcr is ilrlcrcstilrg iD a leclurc. ]nachire b. characterisiics rcadilywirh othcr clcDrcDts. your'mind wandcr.Nole-tdkirrA cleady ir will help)ou lo locuso. A. lhcrcis a smalll.your goal is !o rccord as nany imporhDl points as will l10.rrorereorr a.I(r rgcl nlost you will forget. b. Just as wilh picturcs. subii-e. quality b.v?clcmcnl thal combincs a. .l6 Classifying ) . changing nilrogen in thc I 0 . sonle mushroomsarc safe$ cal./rro. alassified b. diffcrenl 5 . quanlhy prollcrlics. Thenoblcgascs arca groupof gases wilh l?o. a.'and lhcn Llse vour notesto comDlclcthc nexl cxercise.vi(cwr' Lllivrnb\ n. . a. lincrrins irltcrl(r(wirh y('rrr andspccifically aspo"iblc. changirr! 9. Sodiunl and chbrinc are the . d-cjldly 8 . unchaDging b. a. Bcsides and oxygcn. Thc df.you will relainj nloritol thc rcst. bse Note-Tekitrg Many pcoplc likc 1()lakc a camerawhcn they makc a lril) partly bc(ilusclhcy know that they will rememberthe pcoplc arrd placcslhcy havc rccofdcdon filrrr and forget much of thc resl. unsrablc 7 .Without noles. delicious b. ils lJcauly for a shortlinlc. lbc$rs a. ard o rers are pdlr. photographs Iy . mots\\ito is cdkgo zedas al1inscct. diffcrol}tt t2. kecp b. Oxygenis a very a. similar b. elccrrical 4. dc$cribcd A flowercanonly /aldl. Take nolesas you lisrcnlo lhc lccturc "The ChemislryofMa(lcr. It was importanl 10 kecp thc temperatllrcar.

r.JJqI ' s 'suur(r lP)lrrlJq) .{rsrrt) o! saloNrfio( 6ulsn tI 3u!AJIssq:) .I rql tuo{ uolteuiroJur rqt rsn .lorldllrDxr up sl lorlo)lv .'lr o1 rrnr).{pru sturnlrtsuoJsI .^nJitip .{q SJJUplsqns rrldluls olul Lr. tslilololqB tsrlrtul lrlitlLuuonsrulsselr lpqM r)srid_ Jo sncl.qsrliJu! ul sazraluastyto"L S]'II'S DNIJTUM ' p a.) pnnodtuorro '(rt) rrntxrul turur:rP ue Surqr::srpse sluJrlr.saq louueJ strrrntrlsuo)sll .Itered LI)eg sqderiJpred otur pizJtll]&o sr lpurtpw u.Z IPJrLreLIJrru 'uort]odordllrp or llrJsJld Jq.urLru is'rt!ns :lulpere(]lllT .{t rljlJnds u loJ tolp e rqrr)srrd ol popiiu rq plno^t uoltBuloJUJ slql rtai .l -n'o) .^"rrrurpro .l .rllod e .toH sINrodNorssn)srq 'slul uL()u pltDtlulru se pizpoiiaut lltuiltbr.f/.q tlliiFrt tslrloltlttnu V .Ll)p .t 'sur?arlr ^q prlerpLt.L -xr rld|:..1!.tsliiolorP..{ ro LrMol eJorldood *ll asqol aturlrnoJ asle.{t JLloueqt olu sl .losselr slqtul stlripnls rql IJrssulr almqrs no/ lq8lu ^.{.trallloJ (ulllpos nqt pLrp'lunlltor LtlLuelr^ 'srFolpr 0l ilulplo))e spooJ iiullJlssplJ ul pilsrot!ll .0plrp Lldprgprpd rLIl ul sr lellr Burqlfur^r ro^or plnoqs qrrqM .{ Zsrulu ZslmLI)s ^Jlssulr Zstp) slDnnuosrlp lBqAA .ullll!4u9.44op rrrlorq aq touueJ tl .1L 'q(tcrirprpLl rrlt l st tEq^^.tplsrsrqt Jo Llrei lJlss.?l | -ln^f ^ h t^ I |rf .teld lleql()oJ e alsd3olotoctrur u atsltu.ol1lult ul punoJ z6 tnoqg ll() )ru rlrlll ' 0 1 'srrlddlruolllsodruor it!ulrif to M!l )qJ ' 6 'iL()JO iJdrrrcxi ue sl UoqJP)g 'rLloJo ildruPxr uc srIllw z ' ( l u J n l l r s u ' \ J\ t r J ( )$ l l r ) ( l d ( l i q l ( l t l p r rl 9 'J|l)rlolu q)er LrlLlIM(uotp.Jo rd.{nql 'stlllnlllsl|oJ 'zI strJo Jsoqt Lt(xJ NrlrJJIp rre $llsllitJBluqJ sll ' I I .llril|lo)lolnrsSiriilJ .)uo.nuM .{sd atr.Z plrn)tno.rJ rtp.tq3noqtatJldruo)I sJssJld Jrdol iql ur pJzuut(ltuns st eJprro tqBnoqllpllLliJ srq. .$uqeJ aspooJ .rs uHEodvH Fi:ni.rJuriur.lualLlo)lutns .

il .r.r8 Classilying The lopic sentence nray appenrar th€ b e g n i n g o f r h e p . ScDlcncc. |la|lclsbc(nusr is Jlrpiter.n(l thi. and 2. r . . bccausc it annouDccs cxacllywhal the par.)covcrcverylhinit L is specific enough Io cov€ronly whal i! jn thc |aragr.ppc. Plnnels nrayLrc classificd accordinll lo si/c an(lm. Also.llrrdlhc onc scnlclrcc lh. L 4. in 1hcparagrirfh. pi.ncls Rcccnr i|rlcrior All theolhcf!arccallcd supcrior spncc cxIkrrarions haveuncovered no cvidcnce of lifc on any of thescflaDcts. no lcss. Uranlrs.r(l v(nLrs) if( (lirss((t . is broadcnougb1.it (lhnt is.11 Write a paragraph you. planels Aslfonomers classify accordirg lo thcir posilioDs in rcl.lgraphl lhc scnlcDcc thil bcgin! whi(h sc[lcnccdocs not bcl(Jng Reccnl tpa|e aqllordtiafis .r . Plancls nr.r (l(x:s ngr'alh.c x t r l d j n .ar(l I'krlo ir( classified a(cording 10 lh(ir si/( nr(l mnss.k of . Plnnets mn-v alsotrc Mnrs.ragf('lph.1y L)c classilied acco inlt lo lx)silion. prelcrably Alwaysreread altcrsonrc linrc h:rs chcck 1o seethat ev€ry s€ntencc is rclatedto lhc lopic scnlcncc. Vcnr.u\( jr j\ lrx) all rhc I brca(l.. Thosc lhal arc insidc lhc (anh s orl.Or il mny .graph infonnatir)n in lhc Sc r(]rr(c is ror lhc l)r\l l)c.Uraplr in lhc par.l is LhcbcsL LoIic scntcncc is aboul-Do molc. T h c l o p i c i l c l c n ra r ) du d c r s l i r r d i l b l c senlencc u iilcslhc pnraqrnph andrrrakcs l r Jt h c f c i r d c f . (o 1hc i siTc sonelimL. par.lc to. sLrlrpon. g f a f h t o n n n o u n c e Lhcrnain idcir.s callcd lhc lclrcslrial Lhcy nr( sirrrilaf cafll).grirl)h? L 2.ir it rlor spccjlic ro this f. li)f ncilhcfcovcrs scrrtcnccs I an(i4 arc loo Daffowto bc thc topicscntcocc. or rxlrlijrr the ropic sentence. in Lhcp. Plinctsmay bc clnssilicd a((o(lir!l lo l)()silior or Jrzc. Mcrcury. M{:rcury.lu|ilct the largesl.. r i l s t h i r r s u t ) p o a .' Urarr!s nnd N(l)runr. followcd by SalLr'n ard lhen lhc "twiDs. your paragraph. is rol rclcva|llo lhc l(rpic ol clissiiicntiolr nudlhcrcfofc lhould n0l bc iucludcd. providc Theresr ofthe senlences shoLrld lhc detajls thatrcl. scientins classily nrarry rhingsill lhc unrvcrrc. Rca(t /rd/l)cloulli lhc pnrscntcncc lo uDily il. passcd. Sla|tthr paragfaph in!eresls with a topicscr)lcllrr t]rirL l statcs ll)c Inai!lidca. . Satu l.rLioD lo rhc earlh.. ard Nc|tlrrc arL'lhcnlajof or larlj(r plan{:ls.ragfrphs h r x r l dg i v c ( l c l .rs planels.rss.l)h.r thc o r d r o s L i l l r i r i T c l h r l i ( l c r . Thc reslollhc scnlcnccs or provc rhe nlah poinl.rs. Whichof thc followingis lhc t)cst lopicscnlcn((lof rhisl). goo(tlol)j( The sanplc paragraph belowis irr(ompletc. writing a Pardgraph of Classificatiotl Poi|lls ol clasrificatioD based on onc 01 lhc ljiscLrssion 111.

rolu! iSuEDe^luo tou suoslrPdluo:l rtl.)NqOUINI sl.rp suosrJ€dllro:) 'r..!et ro'DerluoJ sptnblrrJtlto lle leql .lO t8prl^{ouI Jtr!lurtrsSurrue^pe pup surnq pooM lellt pr)ltou sBrr!Jq 3u!IELu .M asnol J)uetsqns JuluuJlapot 'JIdorexJ rol surrlqord .uawalgaql tulreduro) 7 lartdetlt .ltouPsl SulredLuo:) uolleui.u!lJ!^ IrruEJ Sunl Jo srqpq rqt Jo rrosuPdnror e sE/|lrI lJlpllos.rq Jo qunrJ E IrlEr uer tuE ue tpqr DeJ JLII'JIdurpxJ rog uollpLuroJuluo J^!DJd$Jd /\Ju e Jpr^oid suosUedluo) 'rlrt lsor It puP'^trtrqPlrE^P 'Itl^!lrnpuor '3uFI^ rrp slElrlu snopE^ lerlortlr roJ porEdu-roJ Iprulrrlr .ruP) SunlpuPSulIoLus urr^\rrq Iu!l p Jo tur^ors!p:qr ol pil leLJl uoliplndod IPrrurB rql Jo rsotli qlrM s.oJU! 3o!SuprrpJo.rr^a .6I '))uJlrs Jo tJrdsp iir^r Jo lrEd e snql .Motls suoslledluo) uJq^ BulisJrJlulrroru sr pllos srLuoJrq tl urqr\ spnPdxe rrrP^/\rPql rrPJrql rus tqlJo lq8lr^{ eqr sJnrrl rrrrlr rq or prD^Dsrp sr qunrr rql urq^\ e^rssrrdui srLUoDqiluo pe.{rql'tou soopi)uots uplunq )lrots!qJrduJqM ll puedx.Alos01sn slquuJ prp^lotdrts luEliodrulop suoslredLuo) u.roJ qJ!q.{ei{ cuo s! uollB)l.{rql sp'rrpds ssaldn . oslEtnq uo!lelu.llssPlf sdlqsuoltel:)r 3u!Ir)s iq uollpLUroJul rzlupBro ot fut sts!tLrrlrs NOIl.

thc cxtraordinarypropcrlicsol tilaniurt have nrndcil Lllc llcw wondcr mclal.kr . chcnli(ally nrctal lhal is vcry activc PureiroDis a rclativcly sofi.AlthoLrgh magncsillm cnlergcd as ar inll)ortal)t 1940s. iron pyriie is oftcn callcd lbolt gold bcca sc oflhc sinlihrity ol ilt cok)r rc ilsclf gold. is rarcly found in thc frce stale (not combiiEil rr'ilh olhcr rielals) and nrusl bc cxlr. (lhcy rittci]l(ia usc ilr corrstrLiciioD. (lhal is. lccurrin!(rrmpounLis rorc:l:\u(ha\ hcrlr. btlt in becausc it is so aclivc chcDrically coDtrasl to iron and stccl. it is Drorcrcsislanllo corrosi(D. and housc lraius. al1dfind as nrany colrlparisons Readlhe following passagc The wonder MetAk scarchcd for. ancient Grccks.rtil(.)ld. (i har(lcf t() cxtfacl tltnn alll' aclivc. 'lnihe il is lcss nrclal.silvcry it combineswilh oxyAcn to clgoclc or form rU!!). but il wars and difiicult lo cxtract. shjnlqls -stccl. lhc makingliold but at )cr't by c\pcrinreirlint about thcnl) dlcy nradenlany discovcrics.1nd hcal.lLrlonn)t)ilcs.i l)l rit(..who only spcculated All bul 20 of the over 100 elemcntsidcnliiicd to dalc are mclals blrl only 7 of theseare common in thc carth'scrusl.Like ir)rr it is n)li..'nlr. Irorr is vcry slrongly magnclic. mn$nclilL.and thc la(llhal the earlh is a il4g_Dglt lip. and rusl rcsislaDl than purc iron.il is prcsclrl ol il." likc ledLL lechnique wilh lhc mclal\ (irr j. Lighler aDCl slroDgcr lhnrr slccl.rr( Juc irLtn'\tcllllrcl) l(' thfsc inir)'. It is usrlnllynlixed with olhcr or c_!1t! elemcnlsor conrpoL)clsro form qugyssuch as slccl.a Thi sludy of melalsbcgan in lhc Middlc Agcs when alchcnrisllj l. rcacl vktcr)tly wilh chcmically . which arc morc durablc l)ol useci ul)til a ccnlury a8o AILlminllft is thc mosl abundanlnlctal.l)oiassi!rnr.n)n0ulr!i' lrr Thc bcauliful cok)rs fact. l1)ckets. In thc spaccagc. ablcro withstand nll (x) active arrdcalcitrDr. lhc nlost wiclcly ulcd rctal.20 Compdring Shott Reading as you can.ahnrinuIn is vcry IiSht at)cjlDolc rcsislilt)tto corrosi(nl. fromnalLrrallv ('f ro.lsl li.lhcy rrcvrr\rcccc(l((lirr r(' cinrvcrt 'brq( mclal'. a abundanl iD thc caflh.. Thcscqualilicsmakc it uriclirllbr airplar)cs. morc chcDrically alr cllclless strDply in scawalcrar)dlhal means thcrcis alnlosl minum.lcd irr.pcdscicnrislspff1()thc thcl drat i()n is a nlaior contponcnlol thc a'anll'scolc. ] itll. rhe iiiifiining malor mcralsarc sodilrm. sidinS. lron.\ g.

JLoJ s.ululnlv )Uttpuhqb lt1tLt sleleu raqlo iueur < uorl :ssatilJos 'tos tt st uolt trnd l.' ' ' 'lLintlunlvLtb|t ulnulurnlP > unrseuSPru :aruPpunqe ssal s1la ltsduqo tl lt qlha\lv !u'a tql ul ptltpunqt :uolsoJroJol etuelslsat tssaulqSll ' ' ' '/ktltl/.krJ Iaals pup uotr < unurunlE l5als pup uor! < unununle ot lu)Jtslsat rtoutpuD ltnAsl unlututkl)t putrLto.loo!pdl]Drua{o alltlil Lto.ll lLlqll o1 ts unJ ur .N!IUEIJICI CNIISYUINO3 runultunlE = UOJ! :SSauIos ' ' ' '[os st luulutunlvl ]t Ltofitlt'I plo8 .)Lrrr4Jtpuo srlerlLrrJtri)r ilu!lsDrl -oo) strluPlrursLro itPlLl.[o [tulrl ul$t4t la asnrraqpp6 s.$u fua^lls tla[lLrlrJ " slqetu reqlo IIP < uor! :asn '' ''|D!AU prsn'1:PP\/A lsauaqt I SAf.14t sl u .allrid uorr :roloc 'ploi ot toto) s . s gIIIUY'lthlls DNravdr\io) s.{eMle toLrsi({ lnq ieru iilupdruo:) . Fals slel3tu raqlo IIe < ulnulunle :eluppunqs ' ' ' 'IpDUt . .sJJrr iJIlp pue sarluelr(rs rlJqt Ja^o)srpol sLLrJll oJoruro o^^1Suru[rrpxr sr Suupdnrc:) IIUVdWO) OJ HSrr9NA DNrSn IZ SuuEduro) .

is lcsslharr half the mclling loint of that of chrotfiium.} paralers | ] sr)\.r.nerar. Rcadthc passagc the sevei ilalicizedmetalliaccordirg to thcir mcllir)g pojnts.. aruminum in mdny DIFFERENCES CONTRASTING fis unlike I fromI aluminum. b thc mclling ..'. The mehing poiDl ofplnrirrrr is high comparcdto nnsl melalsbut not as high as The mehing point of zir.'. .. Lisl thc nrclal wilh lhe rrrjre. Iron 1is dtfferent from ) Ldiff€rs unlike iron.22 Comparing SentancePattefts COMPARING SIMILARTTIES frire u . }"urr. cornpared I In comparison to iron...'". jmponanr asJ Las r**. u {relarivelv . i ui. I ' i ." - hqll"'. l(omparauveiyl l bclow () dc(crminclhc oftlcr ol UfiderstafiilingCompansors. Iron is llessabundant Lnotas sofl as ) .I mching noinl /1. poinr ofcoppcr isslighlly highcr lhaDgoldard lowerthanDlalinunr.Irry has thc clopper a|1(l lowestmclling poinr ofall the metalsuold havc similar meltirS poinls.i r u ' ' 9 . grld and approximatclythrlc timcs lhe mehing poi of rrdirrr. I alumrnum 's l'8nr' lo iron. In contrast Loiron... n n .. I | . Mr.J fheavierrhan l thanI aluminum.on '.

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"Borh coffcc and lca arc drinks. you mighr say. of water: PacificOccan-46% Atlanric Occan-22.l5 months y.A goocj way $ makea coDrlarison would be no poinl in comparin8 begin wilh whal thcy havc iD common. 4. Inchrdc al lcasl onc way thc ilculs arc similar and onc way lhcy arc diffcrcr)t. Writc a scntcncc comparinglhc itcursin cach oflhcsc pain. cakxies.800km 5 . 2.For cxanrplc. geitalbnpcriod: elephanl-21 months giraffe. bur coffcc is nradefroDr a bcan and tca is prcparcdfrom lcavcs. applc(mcdium)-75 cgg. comparc thc items in cach ol lhcsc pairsorally ilr or)cor Notc $al thc itcnrshavc somcthingiD comnlon. 5. surface lcmpcralurer Mcrcury-3to'C Vcrlus-475oC maximlm life!pall:.10 comparetca aDd coffec. and a microscopc a lelescopc a submarine and a dolphiD bnd a calcula(t a compuler a descnand a juDglc a photocopier ard ar1x-raynrachinc .for odrcrwisctherc two scnlcnccs.480 km canh.z4 Comparing Creati g Sente ces. 3." l. l./otld's percent 6.I2.70 diameten moon-3. is lo tbcnr. Thereis morc than onc way to wrilc each anslver.l4. kangaroo-16 ycars cat-23 ycars 3 .9% credtifig compddsons.

r ssalsl le^lts) 'pIoBsi rlqEelletu s.pro.1^puat pLlu iroJrq prsr oslps! ry 'Ies I sPop 'op I sEop l/uod po.lsllurlrs E rM s{ulql eH urlolr u iroJiq pi!I] s! .)Lll ruiporrl . se^{xq8tru eqr :.{q^lclErprluurl .MolloJsrunouordiounourqtJrlrlg :pDsnst3.^1])r!pP rqt ul pcirqJo sr)llsoMt illl 'r^ltDfpe up li)UE iiu!rl)1. L0l^ si)Lrtluis iilrlMolloJrqt Jo qrur u! sluelq rql ul IIt! (plo8 upql elqBellEq.r7 'ff pur?.14 spro^'\ rLIl Jsn ^0uirlbJ{ : u 1 1 0 U o .lto d suosueduol sv puo a{\il ..srop uorr lsm lolr siop IoIrrN / ----t!* 1r)iiolpiq sl un!liH 9 lqSll tsoLulr? 'Iil)lu lcr u ^^eiq e sl rlPqol g 'uoltour pilplrls LrclMrN'ruiq )rcJ)q oaIlBD 'SJJlndtuo:) rvu. lou sl re^lls CSuolIIIEnbe era^{ Ipp puE lqSlu oql) 'Ipp aql sr Suol '.4 rLIl'qrr^ P.ilrel lou p sl'lrrdttloJ Llrrpow € 'op slsllLrJlJs turl'Illrnoxatolr plp stsltuilJs)iiirD tlrilJul] iqI 'l!'li(u oe sl 'urnlssut(xl !Je)le z Et 'tunlpos l '14llto slc pub e\l"l 6ulsn t.

3. 2. lr' ('xcltcnlcllr a. cxplosioD 4. thf seDltnccilscll Sonlclimcs alwayslry 1ofigurc oul its meaningfronr ils con1ex1.1ld of damagc. or be stretchcd scations of eachunil. unijlanrrcd 5.s canhqtrakcs s(rch if nalLrr.:rd 6. planntd a. Fromthese pulled into wirc. iD mincrals a. shinc a.?c. healirg nnd . to air arrdnn)islurc.irlro. The spantan. shoLrld yoLr rcad hear a ncw wher or your concentration. undcrstand othcr clucsto hclp yoLr ll)atchcslh( vocabulary in Cortexl. Many livcscouldbc savcd hlrnicnncscould Lrcprcdiclc(1. Thc room gol s. whc| exposcrl Ll.llprercrt. forms on its surface. yoLlwill havcthc (hanceto li8nrcoLlt In the vocabulrry yot can usc alrd lcclurcs' Thclr. rust of Lhc lhc cnusc lhc policcinvenigalcd srllrsided. b. when thc flanrcs colll0uslL0n. word mcaLrings thc wor(1. a black chemical substance. lhc surroundingscntcnccs the meanrnS: cold is a ductile metaL one gram of gold can be dlawn into a wlre 1.tullyand warm duc lo imfropt:r ventildliatl. rcsources .r]will. Thcrclbrc. b air circulaliorr a. bufnrng causcd. givcss(nncin(licatiorrof or paragral)h Al other times. occurrcllces a.8 miles in length' you caDconcludc that a drclilc nc(al is one lhat can two scrrlcnces. rarc @ plcrrrilirl iri.in thc fca(lilrils from scrrtcn(cs. conlairs a dcllnili(nr: silver sulfide.26 comparing READING SKILLS VocabularyBrilding will break n reading or leclurcro look up wordsin a dicli(nrnry Interrupling yoLr worcl.ous b. Circlc lllc lcttcr ol thc answcr lhal L)csL sclllcrr(cs in cachol lhc follt)wirlg wo as it is Lrsed ol tbc ilalicizcd meaDing il is so dLlLtnLlntll becausc lhal is i|rcxpcnsivc clcnlclrt L siliconis a nolrnrclalli( aud rucks.

rx.{llerrsuIllM noI 'rrlrrt)s Suripnls urqM 6ulw rpls ._ qriic e .rr.u u! plre pupl uo r^ll lelll rr/rsltrtro rre snPlqlqdtuY rJDPU nnr^rl I Pnnlq -slpru]trs pup srupldlle Jo &rsrldrlr]/ rql LIIur3^xo sl rrrql " .u crlr:tqo o1 . 'r^ltrnpordiroru t! aletu o1libs rItLII.rrDeq s3rupSuIlll-uled q 'Ll 'plo.re LIrItl^/r'srllnqns luP puP rllu Jtll p€ox I :r8pssL'd e trlDs oI'srlr uor sllJo PtprIEDurg e lrg !}1ne I!3LrlpPrr lno{/r.Spssed SulperJE } A{oul ol luu^\ . llrt 9uo1qlluv crlt torrlnq snso)slp :uoirru.{orlstp q c^orx)r 'p _ 'cilirieq uojl ll ./rrrr..2rrrrl s. uoruluo) illuttr Jlllf.{xotsulitqlrt-sr^to^ul slPleulltl P sSorr{l 8ul^!t q 'rrle.u no^ rPql uotleruroJu! .lnspoaitilr4d v gt pjll$r 'P p0urlrlrtlq 'rrlerM ll )Iurll ol rile/urul piJtl-rp pltl6fui6iiqJ g I sEM urru q .nlelrlPru cql suleruoJ )qaifl-or ilqesr^ppsr rt '!rsptr luql ut p.mqrs roJ qslFtrs t 'uo )npoour rql peiu -z 'sJucruuns cnlll tlll .{ roJ ppq sr tlaws 6uuD4ul' 0 r 'q nulqlErrq P rrorrPlnrrlr ro|rrTdrrr uPrunH ' 6 rprxorp uoqre) 3ur'€qt5 puE ntB.rr lerlurrqrc . 6 I srrlllluled ! stuplnrulN 1l 'sLrollBraoo Aueul p)ol'Aulo! ' 8 1 t)t2stllr4lsau' roJstrll)qrsrue Duld ul pcsniSutrq lerDuriJ.rrtlsroJselJlqt^ rJfu9'I ' I I ur BurqtpJlq q n1o&tlqtPerq P 's8unl rno.{ltsp)rru q)}Br ol rlqp q .Z SutrPdruo:l . lsnltl stsliirnllsFiu'runulun.lo B s3r14) iiullt)i-r?l.?llrpul'... ugJ loaH ' € I fuPssr)ilr 'B 'sBulLIl 8ul^!l lle ol /rrl.lturel tl aijueq|q ssrlcsn q 'e .oordtrrJ p .lotu .) 'pmDll e ol pllos u /..1tl ralerl ls)roJ q IDrulLrD luc39 lp)lurq|E 'zl 'saLrc DllPursueLIltulloseS.jaqv tutbl[sl \ asneTrq ..{llllrre) pcro]siq plnoqsrullose9 ' 0 2 -.

(Youwill bc givcnLinlc() rcadthe pass.annol hL I \ailhoLrt it.tion il contains.ilh oxvlcu Vcgclablc 1ofofnrdccay. Someli|nes Thc rapidoxidalr(nr ofluels carscs conbLrsLion.?r1 a.rilgraph. Thc\c are all examples of slow oxidati(D. conlains thc mair idca.ncc is o\ygc1r.\id. or grain.in lopic and thc inli)nrr. lo coflo(ic. II a subnance rvilh a lovl'kindliIlgtcnr|cr. Tfy to do this all in thrcc an(l . b. . ancl!astclcss at room tcntpcrnrurr-cach onc is ]lcrcss. n1rcs\c!1li.nl clcnrcnls .klcn. nrcaIirrg thaL il fcadilv.rc rhc Niscsr)\)g('|.inrqcon)lriDc sith oxygcn lo h.tcnl Thrcc of our nn)slalrunda|lnn(l in|ort.lnt)lc. and hLrnlan bcings crnnoLlivc withoLrl i1.Thi\ slrLrst. nil()gcn.o.is hcated in lhe ibscncc ol l)rotrcr vclril.rr(l w. odorless. 2. in)n rolntrinc{ wilh {rxfsci lrom lhc air lo producc ir(D oxidc.l ingfedient in air and waicr and lhc rnoslabuIdnnlclcmcnlin lhc ei|1hs cfU\1. Oxygcn is vcry activc chcmically.d rhefirsL andconclLrsion olcachchaptcr Skim thc followingpassagc t() discovcf irs m. the scicnlists cachgar nn(llhc ycit o1(liscovcrics. l:.tcr comlrinc $.rny thrrc . thc importancc of oxygcn.al)l)lcs lo runrLJrrs. oilsuredin p. Thc main topicof this readinS is: a. paint to harden. (n firc. how oxygcn. anclhydrogeD.nd hydrogcn lo livinglhin!s. d.s oily rag\. allhough not always. rhoroLrghly lntcr) t. lhe induslrial Lrscs of oxyitcn. gas(tirrc lo bLr r.rrv to li{c lll a urlrqlreway. and il1n lo rusr. ihc charactcfinics ol hydrcecn.li(nr nln! . AlthoLrgh Lhcydrarenr. n lirc stins sponlancously..rll orles\.or rtrs1. For cx. Thcn answerlhc followinaqucsLious. such.. woo(llo r)1. A11 oithe followinS topics arc discLrssed in lhc passaltc r. b.gc half minules. Readlhc summary a( thc cnd of lhc pasiirgc. Fo(xl.r(r. which Ircqucnrly. ncwspapcrs.28 Comparing L Rcadlhc firsl scDtcrlcc ofrvcry p. Readirrg TheLife-Supportitlg cascs llow lonJlcan a hLrnrdrr t)einglivc witholrt oxy|cn2 Whnt il thcrc wrfc rro nitrogcn ir the air?J!sl how irnponanl is hydml.tion. a comparison of nitrogcD and oxygcn c. and hyd()gcn(liffcrjion lhc othcrclcnrcnls. oxrdatron.rc rolt)n)pcrlics-.rc. nilfogcn. who discovcrcd d. nilrogcn.lLrfc. (rr concllrskrt 4. niuogen. NrlciToskima paragraph wholeb(rck.firc.onrbinc\ i!irh olhcr substanccs in a proccss called oxidntioD.and hydr'(rgcn. thc diffcrcnccs bclwccn(hc lhrcc Hascs. Thcsanrc subslancc causes nrcral.

lJ^(loJ ssaror(lc iq JlLlls oslPsr o)ilorlrN or 1Pl1^ ntrr^rl sluurtLrc ut!1rro) rriiloilrLr IIY sBLrrql l]!ruslLruld 'dll^llre lPrls^Llo ol l)rrll rno ululurulll )rnluri(hu)l .LN.[)t(lp]rporlor plrlo^'lslErJtU lsq ilrttrr''rxi )q PInoM l.t\ori ol LuJ(lttllrq uiSo.ru) 'rrriJ.rlru ululuorsrJzllllric uollcxriurnoilllrP{lEr p.'(xo.{xo siiulJqLluttlllHL()ltlrlI(ls)l i^ll tlPqlJloLoi^ll x)uLlL)) sillntltLu rnoLItlM :rql Lrlplrn(I sl uinlxo ilLrr^rl sl f!ru stLltltlPlio or lDrtu)ss.{lddns ':)tLlllstlol i)lJLll silnsslt pool LIIIM sc(llqt()J ll Jrl iql J^4l8rJLr))Llt iJupnPold 1M rlrrLl^^'uril.!rnbll iq rlE rql LLl()lJ pilrlrlxr 'srllorqrrue'suosrod SLrrqBnel pue'(rPIxo sP3 snorlILI) srnJlllsrue rq ulrr LrrSorltN J)iIl sr^rsoldxr .trlprrlrrl' rq ol sl)url rr l]lrrluil) rrtllo rlll^ lrErr srop LrrFoIlIu 's nrDrrdruJ] rq plno^\ n lloLLIs qjiqJo dlJq r{lr qrr^'l'rr^. -llro:) uoildnsrou sropurilorlrLr'trojrr {I s))Lrursqns LIi sl LlJSorlltl'urilxool lsE.rDrs 'rlP 8LII.{.lJ^IunJrll ur lurturlJ lLlepunqP Jr! r.4poq ol PLrE .tlrouiq(l 'ralBMsprlqlo4 aJesalpoqlno 6Z Sulredruo:) .L0 tllrM sr1.rn(l lsorulu lvrlu Jqr sr rrJSorpIH puE uns rql rs.rl or spLIn(xlllror prlPstuPId Lliaq sPquJtolllrl Jql LIrltlMtll spllllo(lluoJ iJll sll ol uJl.pup lupld llE lsorulPuI punoJosllrsI urnorp/\H Lunrliq ollll JiiqJ sJnssrl IDLLIILIE LL)iJorpftl lo uorsri^uoJiql sr .'{lprdel o)trlslsrnq srtll sitlrolJ pi)llDr sr uoLr.{xo iqr nlrp ol tr)iJorrrlr ^lrpPJr riqro qrrM)Lrrqtuo.l'rMoclir'^ ur prsn rre trrql 'rtqPlstrnrrD sPurlodtuor 'sls.rlspoolq.r^lrEr!dL!lol 1o! srop ll'sl l!ql lJ^nr!Lrl '.rJur lo .rlllos s.ql sr pLIe trpoq ir|] ot pi)rr.L sp qrns !31up )pnlrtrr spunoduror rrqlo rrp/'!(xl nB PLIP tr:8orl|r llrEtu rsnPrJg ln.leq(rl ollrl srssPd Luu.nl Jo trorlsnqlt()r o(r r'rr^'\ Jritll Jl uollsnq Jr| 'iqrprrq r^^ rtu .I{I lIikrrrs.trnsrnO urSorpill r.{lPlerpuP '. llu Jo tusPI(io1(rd 'tlollsnqruo) slloJLrulLlods os rn))o rrLrr'ilsqns :)Lll lPql.^ oq urtlM Jlqlssoclrul plrp 'r'.lltrol il.)Ll]LIIur3.

ll.I t i \ t h e l i g h t e s lk r o * . cliLrnr is. [ s w c r L I L ] Lt r c s l n l i l c h c \ l h c ir cr. r l r . r L v L i . LISTENING SKILLS V o c a b u l a r y i n c o n t e x t . rrjlr)grrr is vcly. 5. 1. m c a n i n So l l h e i l a l j c i z c dv l o .l c \ r l h c i n l b r m a l i o n i n t h c p r c v i o l r sp a \ s a i t cA your comprehcnsion b y f i n d i n g t h c c r r o l i n c a c l rs L . t c nh . I O x y g c n .b o r o n l y o x y g c n i s 101ife.rts to a licc stntcLrya pfoccss callcdsl)ontancous lo oxyltcn. H y d r o g e na D d o x y g c n a r e t h c m a i n ( o n n i l u c n l s o f l h c w i r l c r w L ( l t i r r k . w l ilh U n c l e f i l a d i n g t h e R e a d i r g . n c l c m e n t a n d i s h i g h l y f l a n n n a L r l cH . dullncs! shine . It is imposslblc f(r'a llrc l() starlsponta|rcously. t"ll rl.lIL . Oxygc| is thc DloslaLruD(lanl clcnrcnt 11.crsc. n i t r o 8 c n . .| t . causcs. i r .LclulrcaclirU o l r h c p . I0.r. FlLrnnn 6. ". bcjnls can livc Lrplo 15 nrinlrrcs wirhouroxygen. u \ c o l ] f b o d i e sa r c a b o u t t w o t h i r d s r v a t c r l H y d r o g c n i s a l $ J b L I i r r r o s t l i r c l r n r d i n n l l a c i d s . v c s i n i l . | l ' r .pprcs o[ ftxx] isancxnn]plcolrnpidoxidation. l h c . s s . S . L Thc dccayilrg 4.hyrlrogcn 14. p r .. l c n l c n la n d r c n a t i n gi 1 ( o n l c l l y .dcol jn oLl|l)odjc\L)ccaLrsc 12. E a ( h o l l h c f o l l o w i r ) gn a l c n r c r i l si l i r r c ( ) r s i 1 l c n .h ol Lhcsc \crlcnrcs.lrrosl J . . \ i l i s r L s c d o c p o l i s h c dt h c c .a n d h y d r o . wc couldall snrr)kc h(rlrh bceansc it rs so stablc. r c l h c c h i c l c l c m c n l ! o l l h r a i r w c b r c . Nitfogcn convc. 9. r J / c r . Nit()llcr'r is Lrsccl in cxplosiles in LhcLrni!. O L r rc x i s l c n c cc o u l d n o L L ' ct n . .N j l r ( ) ! r c | r a n d o x y g c n .3 0 Cumpd. I1thc air wcrc purc oxylcn. f l . r n r n . l i p l . Tllc cslcnlial ingredicnr in fcl1ilizcrs is hydfogcn. i \ l p $ . Scicnrins do DorkDow urhil lhc sun is Dr. s(bslancc lhal carscs Lorurlr Dr{)wn. Comt)arcd wilhout hn nirgoLrr 8. . r p r o t ) c n i c \ . l c l h c l { : l l c r o l l h c . Thc. c i t .(rlvc 7.ing a r e m o r c a L o m so j h y d r c g c i l i D o u r b o d i c s l h a r a r y o l h c r c l c r r c r r b c ( . L 'r h . l) c(trnrast !o hclium. l | r i r . g e .. llydrogcn is rhe nron ablrndirnr clcnrcnr oLrrl)(. r 1 ( )g i v c l h c l l u i s h .r\lhc orlc th:11 2. licr a c.rtjc\ is Donllarnnriblc. . csscnlial wood lo fot is nol thc sanic.

q1 ^^oll(l non(llrq IIr^^ sltll rrcssrlrq] jr)s rJuorrlsEq rqr LlltarnoI .{ UJLI^^ os snu)l Mru ol no. sl uoq..4pnts )rp oq/!r rsoqt roJ lclllrissi lnq slrrprlt9 llr?Jol lnJJsnsl llulpearJtd JlnlJJI ssslJlnol rtolrq litdsqj {ooqlxil rnol pe nolJr silou.roIpnls ol rJpro ur rrnFil c. roJ prsn sr rrddo:) ' q .qrI.{ tBqt llr.rrlcl ruJt0Mrl^ ..qqe1i5i./nSJLII uo tpolj sBriqDl ol sru!qs e ----_ surl.1 !urqr nr{rrtl|rr .4 iJnpon t llt/v\iiurpair)rd 1$lJ riiontupl uill (I e ur 3ur.1Lu .!rl puc .tr l rr.{tlrulJtlr pllp rErq srophpuot t2qel.l . r'.r).) q './r?p itoru e srlrqq.c ur.vu''rt rct lLIt'c)..q urotloq ! 'LTEi))O iql lO 'Jr/. tr. r!trqlu^s^uPW / rlrJs q tsnJ .)s fIr).lUiljiliiit Jq uE.)q Itrr{ tfl.rrllrq rlel lll^ nol .]ls. tlullsel iiuol . nDal Jqt ot Lt)tsrl noi sDsrlou iIpJ ./qr. I I dot .x'r li. s.\r.ul ' t ))uep0nqP q ilneloqs 'e .)ilq ! 'rrry'r"rurrl tJ isnP)rq llturnbJ{ pnll$ll{xl iq ol spDori^lls pirpFli|p Piolqtuo) ! 'lJils iJrlpord ol uoil LltlM Pri(o//.r!f.\jncxq \t.lo soJplLIeLU rqt pjo)rr ol sl sJlouilutlpl Jo cK)dtnd iqJ 6uDloJ-atoN srJl ./ror prsne) peq plre rrll 9 sPuetliqtlM q sqrosqe P 'ts|u slrljr_r tDql IPtr(u e sl IiJ]l ssrlulets g .rj"7//'rrr rq I rt SuuPdruo:) .B 'iLtliiut rqlJo slrerl u! l/o]'0.1p "P fu..) rn '.r f nr.r J\u.^ puEroDnpuo) pooil e sr tr rsnE):)qiluulM rltlril.q JnJ0nDiq e 'ipeJ n) Iupqs tou lllM pue L()lto) uuql .q rlqeleirq 'al!p.'slclJW 'llprrr rol (Mop rlu^ ol pi r no^ rrl^'I L()snroJpr[]rrdor 0Jo nrru(lolr^ip.ql iztlri{o)rr noi ssep ul ur)qr iciq no..'.|y^l'aI Jo $llslrilJerell) q $r$n s 'rlllulr ii! slett(u l^etLl 'Zl llt2to sa\adoLdat-II pnq$sqc q prleodr|s rnlP^ iLIt ul Prlrrlpr spM nsnoq iqtJo Jllcurl rqt..)tqc...J.lu1qs pJuurts ^trselc rtqDVDut n\ \t ! .'JSr-XJxJ rql ltrldruor ol s)lolr rxrn plrp rrrol JsnLIJLI] snorrJrd iLIl..

silvcr.ll.lectric it is nol (lt](lil(. fowcr. Usc your notcs to dcrclrinc lvhcthcr cd(h oJ rhc . imagine. Newlon was dre firs( to srrcceed ill changirg l). . silvcrtanrisircs. l r . l . Why are thcy (lillcrurL/ L Comfarcthc foodsof lwo couDlrics 4. Golcl is r)ol uscdlor L. r r . . bcginwith lhcif sinrilarirics irxl Lbrnt)()ir1r l|(if (liJ]0fcnccs." ln whar waysarctheydiffcrerl? Docs C. 2. "Car A is bcltcr LhnnCar ll. wifilrgbo(ausc t 0 .comlbrr. you know..Avoid v. . l . . or crcatc? in lhis connlrywilh oDclhil i\ 2. r r .r.rsr 3 .rnra|] brain. . .lls 1 3 .lsinlo gokl. an. n)ilhcDr. Comparc . . is haf(lcflhirrr(irhcf rirrol oLrrrrn)sl irrrr. havcl)ccul)rogf. an(icopl)cr.1rl(l lo solvc p()LtcrDs. Comparc an Amcrican . r r L. . ' . cosr. rcliabiliry. ' r u { r I . colLli\ lhc Drosl ol nll thc nrcral\. lhcif car wilh onc lrom anoLhcr Coulidcr aD(lra.llloy ol riDa|]dcoppcr.Cold.ltical complcx Will thcy cvcr bc al)lcl(r lhinki will thcy cvalrarc. silveris Lrsed ior pholographic fihr bc.appcarancc.1gue statenreDls sucb rs. chcnrically.nrc thar is polLrlar fopular lD your counlry.r A hirven rnorc specific |owc ulnrolor?irslr)|gcr [xx]y? a iaslcr pickup? Bt rte. and nrike iLrdgnrenrsi will rhcf be ablero analyze. nrcl. hr conrranrc Fol(i. Copper is as malleable nnd duclilc 4 .12 Comparing Unde$tahding the Lecture.nulcsonrc silvcr con )Lrnds rellccl liithr. m f l I \ r ..r( T I Gold. (or\(lucror Coppcr is uscdli)f clcctric wiriugbcrilusc it is a lrctrcr than gilvcr. r l r Li | 1 .1rc anrons . cold h. Purcsilvcris a rclalivcly ntl rrrclal.oLrnlry.silvcr. 1oplay chcss. 7 .w r i! .1sporlor g. Thc propcflicsof silvcr rcscnlblclhosc ol gokl . 9 .orklltan\hlp.rlcrs lo lfanslatc liorrroDclaDguaitc lo arx'thcr. and coppcr arevaluc(i for theirlun(r nrxl scirtcil)'.r .11r(l eo|l)cr.Co0rl)r. BroDzc.rrrl DISCUSSION POINTS (nr1 To compafc itcnrs. i|l r.lif.11)!r)(l. t 2 . Drnkc dccisions. . .lnrnrc(l I comparca conrputcr and Llrc hr. l i ' / | . r .s a t)cautiftrl loncr bLrlir is nol r\ (hlraL)lc as silvcf 6 .clivc 5 . be ableto desigD.

.(n)u rl lellSlp ttc sl-(Lu s.l!'ll) iL0 rrlrll pu! [rr]l lsrlj tlllJo sjllspil)glDqr tLIl tqu)tta :l paqpw sfollttlu )!seq oMl JIB Jltql s(uill ilotu Jo oMl ilooltlu rsruitl iirliu(iruo) Jr) l.4rrrL'rtn!UrlpLIEtLInr.{llsor)r(xu.rlllppLrc 6ultvduo) S.{ JI 't()llls(xl sll lnoqu {ulql uP) noi sie/\^ u0 sv p)lullsL()tuip iq LlBrll lnq oMl )r0 Jr)ql rolu^ili LIpJ{) Iulql'Jlduexil 'poorsrrpuniFr.t qrluM.\tt1a.1.Mlrq sruu^nliit.ro.tro prllll uolllsod sl! tul^!3 rLIr oo r. nol rql r(){. rl ll (ln qiirl Morl Isu no.lIip UDLII tliJnoqrlu uu!p.q srt 7a l).4r .( oq ti^ill uer pue lle(mulluor Llr^e^ ller{iq Autlr ll rooll ou sttli)ql lrrq'Lrii.josltuoJrrDro.trrJ rillu tql qrluil iLIl 'sl leql srq) r ( il urulxor(l(lp) /t-sirnseilu tl vr9 'rillu p qll^4 trnscJtu pLlo']uttutsLiq 'Lrolll()d iJoluucsll iJu|lllsoJrrJq lll.trr(n) lPrlar ll)r |loi.qllt sl .)'. s lnbtl uolio ilulllrMrulllril)s srlll.ploM 'lrlllolllr Jo ouo 'rl)lJ .IIXS 9NIIIUM alotllIPJ riqlo.)ilr slu^ )ou sr ulsp lr? lctltlp ptte tlols p LlrrMlrq i)LrirlTJlprtl-L 'rlrur l|l pisI sl polll rr rlrlqMrulutri]ip purr.'LLInu.snJ LIxrq rLrn|])lnrc llrilor pIq .Auq no^ Jl LIJ^J -slps!rrqlunlrrooLlsr!illqM '1|)srrrrd prrnse.I.4 oltq srl(tucxi )ql pei)u 'iull 0 )llslltDelcLlJ illo suloll tlloq rledtrcl re povlrr{ lp 'pLloJiS iLll Jo lDllslltlJU.nl.{Jlspirrorrsrsr!Lunllufuiilorpill.Jl's! illP nDo^)It rLIl dn trjlq ^{oqJoiJolettu '.'(lolsrno. 01.)rI tPqr op rl)u) lrPr lErlM tlclutox)qd u plro iillllltll'd P 0dtuo] g I €€ 3ulrPdLUo:) ..ns .rullruls iLIrJo oo$isn)s!p sDurl.dd '(t861 'slluM :vo^ ^\rN) ulnuPrr urfiv .xll.ro upql.t.]rrqrunu 'qunot rle nol'.rrlorc 6Z-8Z'.

Words relationships that clarifythese arc calledlransilion words.usingMcrhodI or Melhod2 dcs(ribcd abovc. oI a]tl dfspit?.Transition wordslhal indudealthoqh. Th€ first paragraph usesMefiod I.Thendcvclop thc rcslof rhc paragraph to supponthe mainidea. The two itcmsare comparcd charactcristic by characteristic: firstlor fusibility.ften for stability. an theothcr hdkd. TransitionWords In all writing. nevethelest. on the other hand. a combinationof Methods I and 2 are used. however..iiJtnhtrrransillon more. same t ay. vet. likewise. andbesides exDress rhe comDarison o[ Iikc ilcm9. il can be manufacturcdby bombarcling lithium with neutrons.Frcqucntly. paragraph The second usesMefiod 2. su.and finally forcost. However.reover. inih. Bcllinwilh a topicsentence tha! statcs fie maiDidca.h astimitarty. are usedto showcontrast in cantrast.it is very imponantlo showhow thc idcasarc relatcd. a thecontrdry. .brt.even rhough.n.l4 Comparing is rare. is radioaclivcand can only bc found in traceson the earth. Tririum. witlng d Pdragraph of Compdison Writea paragraph of comparisou oD one of lhc Discussion Points. bur it is stable.although this method makcs ir morc cxpcnsivcthan dclr tedum. Analogdatais described firsl and digilal dala second.in spite Orhel word.

g€

'pPo.M rno p!r! s,ftJ^^ s?^\oq )ql rr^otrsrp Iqrrrql pup sNr^r pue Jo suo!lPntrs tJruuorol )JuJlrs qof Jqt s! lI .slJJlJJ pu! srsnP) ureq) Jo lo uorlJErr snonulruorP sl llnsrr.)qI .strlotp Lunluprn rrqto rllds u'lnj Lrttpql suorlnrlr sesPrlor s! LuorE rl 'rrlcls rrnrrern Juo sv turl lpsnp)Io purl s[J)Jo :ldluexr up sl uorlrP rerlJnu v .prlLJlp Jo )sner rqt s)orlrrrq puo)rs rqt.to rJ{Jr Jtlt pop 'luJ^r prro)isP.lorsnpJrql srlrroJJq JJUJrrnrJo ruoJo tr:JJ))tll sJtrlllru()s slur^r oMt rtll lpql prurnssp rq touuer tr,rJtll?r iq1 rprlr,rrr"n rrll",]:ttJ;J; .Llt JIEnbqueJuE s! ,rrql rrurnbrs ur p)urddlq ,{rqt rsncrrq lsn! rrqloue Jt prsnP) lur^i Jrro tElll i)lunssE ol lo|I,la^r^^orl lnJclpr rq tsnlu slslluJlJs

pp.p.^B',iu. ^qeq rr."'oruns rq'srrq,' r!)q, .,,^",,';]i'.l3.l"ili't i'ili;]lr"J

'ildrupxr roC .uol)drunss!, srsner3u!rl)rLLros s!ql t() p)s!q sr crurt)s IIV .i)sne) ! seq lu)^r lunlpu ^li^r lpql ,sl tprll ,rrntpu ul itllEsnpJ IDrnluu sl .rrql tpql p)tso88ns snddlrni)t Dqdosol!qd Iirrg :) 1r,{rD1oa)-qttrl rlll .DqJ) pur? isnl]) roj tur)loolsrpnl)ur sFeJ)lJ!turlrsSuourrs(t!tlsuoltpl)Sullcrs Jo ss orcl ll

NOIl,)n(lou-tNI

punos pu0'1146!7 "tolo) peJJE pue esnE]
€ raldPq)

16 Causcand Eflecl Short Readiflg r'rs lo sct diflcrcnl (olors Lrclowlo (iiscovcfwhal caLrsts Rcadthc Passag€ The Nature of Color th( grnss 'rnLl Why is th( sky bluc nnd (hc grass lrcen?Why isrrl thc \ky green wav bhrc?arcl why is a nrserctl inncadof |urplc? whal wc sccns colof is lhc oi light our bfanrsrcspondlo lhc differcnl rvavclcngths lravcls vcry quickly on (lifiercrrl thaL encqly cleclromailnic fo n of L{thl is a which wc se( as difltrenl col(rrsFor cxarr|rc' n of wavclcn8ths, frcrtLicncics, ol 660 (nm) caLrscs us 1() tce vi()lelA w'velcrrgth r)l 400 rran(N(lcrs wavelcnglh ol w'vclcrrilLh\' by drc nrixing is in(lLrced us to scererl ThecolorLrrowlr nn, causcs ''vc_ Lrycilhtr ils own wavclcnllhof a rrixlrrrcol lht \ Ycllowcan bc prortucctl arrd oxygcrl ol nrolc(lrlcs i)luc bccnLrse to rcd'unAgrccr. olrf sk) l(x)ks t.''tgttts (olor' than nny olhcr wavclcrrglhs iu thc air sialtcrn()rc Lrhrc niLiogcrr

red oran9e gleen Dlue lndlgo

prlsm
of all colors sir Isnnc lionr a mixing of thc wavclcDgtlls whitc lighl rcsLrlts prism'lhc $'hilc a passccl tllrough Slnss thal whcn sunliShl cliicovercd Ncwt<rn thc spccLrurll jiro"rr"a allowcd tllcrl li8hl Ncw()rl otcolorcd inu, n tlt"clrunr iiot'r, ru"rnL'irr"l lr''rr'rrr! J l\1rrr "l ilir.'"*1 3 *6,' .11,,1.,' In(l lr( c('l"l' i., s h i r . l i ; h L' ' r n l r r r r s . rr'llt ( r h n * f l"." i,l.i*f.rl.ii',.i'rrf",),I\cr,mLnlJcnr.)r'.rrnt(,1 'J rlr'''\l r' $lr'r'r r \ ' r l f l ( . , , i " . 1 l ' n . , . p r : r ' r i r n a b t . r . r L i t.rrrrl r J h J m J r r ' ol whilc surllillhr Thc bc'n rairr' a ,."rfiehrfalh u; d",ps of watcrir thc air aficr inlo a rainbowof colors. sDallcrs ';.:";i;;;; than thal ol' shorrcr 1o human evcs wavclcnSlh\ ;;" invisiblc u r v ( r i l l r ' ' r ' r i ( rl r i 1 1 ' J t c ' k r r r c ( l l \ ' rr \i,,l(|I'r,,Llu(c ur \ i r J \ | l i l h r ' l r . r r ( J r r J r n r ' r ' l \ r \ " w r v r ' r ' r d i ' r ; J r r r r nri ' r \ ' . h : r ' , rr h c , , , l r n J t ' " J r r i c i r r t r r r cl' il F l l r ' all(l nrcas!1rc c'n wc blll wavclcnglhs' by thcsc we .onnu sce.ulorsproduccd

sllet ulls prSeurpp .-

rq8!t rato!^plrln .!tsnv)/r)aNril

. Flo!^ Jo lPql ueql ie oqs sqlSuala EAr

( sD{J' ,asne)e cuoJJq LtpJt)rJJJuv) alJ.{Je S!JlAqt SorrllDr.r|os PUpSJSllrr)JO

,6tunp uttJtt4irq6llr)lo!^ 4k ar'ryord stl;l]:;:ff, rtlol^ lo ttt1tut lr rruot4s
uaoJt puP per ro} sqt8uele^E^{ aql }o arnlxlru P
qltuale^e^{ ulllo sl!

+

^{olle^

(sDaJJt,{ueur rJnpord ^!ur pue'srsnu) isne) roo ,{ueul ,{q pi)npor(l rq ^eur rLtO xolduro) DJ}J;) uruo rlp slraJjapLre liisriuO) 'w 6 pub par rolsqtl; itlt^tt^ aUl u^o l .ta|tlat:qp:,npakl )q uti ^rollr| lo uuxtqt u ro 4l6uala^bn

sqlSuale^En,o SuFlur p +

u^rotq tolor rql

( slJ4la JPr)Jrd SlPMI0 SiSn0J 'rt^JMotl 'tlolllu$ap Ag a)urlues rql Lrl asnBj tqt sJpiJDJd t)ajlr rL0 s urttruos) '|t|$uap^uM Io 6i.1tntu aq tq prtnp i uMa4 raloJ a\J laJOrA OaSa^t

+

ruu o0' Jo qlSurle^B^r

'ta|1ti ))s ot str sasnw(tua) salautouDu )ar lo tltEuatar,D D 'srttrorlno JqlrJstp slJrJla'su)(ldsq ,9rrrqlaruos ,{qM urBldxJsrsnpl suollpntrs lo slur^r r}ruuo) stJ{Ja plrc sJsnel

/

J)Adda aNv !rsnvt ^roHs or HsI'IDNa'9NIsn
/ t DJIr? DUe Jsne'r

18 cause and Effect ol all colod. . . . Tlle bca of white light rcsults ton a mixi g oI the wavelengths whhe sunlight splallercinto a tainbow oI ulors (Sometimes lhere is a correlati{mbclweentwo evcnls that is, ollc cvcnl the other, 'vhcrhcr or nor thcrc is a causalconnccli()lralwaysaccompanies

a mixture of the white light --+ _--wavelengtbs of all colors Se tence Pattens

A mixinsor.ll wavelenstls I il"^li,'"j. I a whheliBhr. . Lrnduces J by I fcauscd lduero I

ft**" I l'..',1'c ln I

whhe lighl is { lnduc€d by

of I I a result by,, Lproduced

} a mlxing of wav€lengths

ffl Yhen I

all the wavelengthsare mixed, a whilc lighl is produccd

aremlx€d A while light ts producedlwhen I all fte wavelengths
LAS J

IuI

areakopredktior akdcanbe.x\ersedwith Note: SoneoI theabove tente. Fot exampk, "$ all thewavele thetuture ltht arenixed,a white (Ptedictio,ls u,ill beditctttted light wi baproduced." furthet in Chapter 12.)

'Cause ard Effect Thc Roman oralor Ciccro wrole, "Thc causcsof Identryittg " In cach of lhc folInorc interestinglhar thc cvcnls thcmsclves eve.rti'ure-eue. lwicc. and lhc cffe€l once lhe causc underlinc lowing sentenccs, l. When copperjs hcatedto 1083' C, il mclls. lhey absorbencrgyfrom fte sun. 2. changesoccur in planB \,r'hen

il srilprlt{ p llnsil Lrer rle rql ul ijulpu.toqns 'soooarqr^ rru.rqr 'ntnlejtdl(tit ul )se )ul uu isncj suolt)ccj lelrrurq) v 'rrort)D)r lp)rrlltq) e Jo iler rqt srsoJl)ul i.rnpord rllop p rltr^ qluor e 3lrlqqnlt ' 9 .lnlE.ttJo uolti)i)uuorrgt ro 'uonputproqns uolleulp.{cr rsn€tr srBBrll^l q lqilll rlp iqt U!8ulpu)qslpt lqfrl Luo.qp rlll Lrpqr lurll srtrrrrllr:)s tlrpuodru!ssrl ro ot rlEulpnxlns s] .rr.l.ptxorpuoqreJ pJlos SultEiH t lriilrorts iq ot plru rlnr)lr rqt )sno) oJrct.r4Jo 3u!l]lnq.q sIlJ tqiJlliq prsner rte sriJellw E 'p pllos erq urqM sLurlt q iplxolp uoqre) .lollnsrr e sr purMrqt Jo punosiq! q 'pul.1lcr le)lu.ror sisnB) JiteM o! plJeuu tul^losslc ! 'rrluM 'u pn^lossrp rI| p!)e Jq ot uu rsllBJ liuol 'rotuM Lrlpr^losslpsl pljo u9 uiq^^ pcluj(ll rju srlol z 'Jrltorid!uit iqt uuls|?JJJUI p 1(l pi(npr. .q riiluorts sl plilJ )JrlJJli aql 'trsolr rru r)roJ Jo saull oqt uoqM . 'p.lo r) rlrql JI)tr) sasbJ4dwbd aulput$Japun 'lqnrlJoLrollJrljir trll ^q pirnpo{ sr rolo:) ' 0 1 'slsu ll Jrorll Jql'.ql Luorl rlns.rl {rur u.r\cJllrt uv 6i) to.rlP lslour ol pJsodx.snplr o^.9 'ppu rl.€ Jo srull rLlt rn$l) iqt 'p ur(! rq ot sr.rsrqsv i plirj rrlruiJErlr s.4iql J0 llns u rre suotllrqhrv e 'pul^^.aplxolp pllos uoqlsr ijultt?itl !!to{ stlnsci se8 v e 'sciie s npotd (rrl &p) .re saplts.uo tEqr os s.uPrro rq_L ' I Jo IInd lelroltet!^er3 'suole Jo uotlez!uolrqt J:)npursrlrlupd prSreqr 3u!^olu-lseJ :)8ipq) )lrp.Ilr pup rsner MoLIs u! pisn ^llurnbrrJ st 'r.r rrdPr{ snulrl urnl sprrY ' E 'poo.iq prsne.rnrurt ll! rr .^tlp8i)u c s.rluEr III ol rnp sr rlprru sseduor E Jo uorlexr rql 6t IJ+JA pu! JsnP:) 't .ltdl(lJtarF llulserl)Lrl I 'soJltJluas ts:tqt Jo q)er Jo nuluuitu Jrll sJrl)tlru tsiq lgqt raMslleJqt.nroloiqt riilLrorlsrql 'rrr(u .rruiurrs rloJ0 llPd luuuodlur iql LIosnJoJ 01nol s^1ollB uooelrrproqnsD.q] Jo pnnoscqt isrlcr llp rqt u! suo0etql^ 9 'rle rLIt ul puaq ol s. sl rrcJIrrour rLIl 'uootu )ql iqt .Josilrll iql .

tilon.. T h c g a s D r c s n r f ci n c f e .lusc.be t$t. rombinf (hcts() (l.1rs bcli)re LhcurainclaLrsc. ThcnranrclaLrseofrhi\scnrencc. mainclau\e. hLtn. s e s ..i\i1. l h c r a L co l n c h c n r i c . t h c c a l r . scntcncc.1ain.t\ ol lhc word alirilysinlrodLrccs Iwo clauses. if.r.lzl la -lS 9' e IJ .tr1a1li4rntl]t..efrirrcthereh no dir nt vttrttt 0n thc r?00r) is cxprc. Usi g Suborcli ation.rh ol lhc lollowiLrg \crrtcncc\.1/rr'rn rvhich)s Llqa dent/..r|l)c.?rrrirtlr. h c n . Whcn silicorr is addcdlo ifoo. or lcss inrponanl. Nolicethal the word .1t1 btitl!$ antlnot lit r/] //r(.40 Cause and El{cct il li a .ldt^e.ondary clausr: Human beings cannot live on the moon b€cause there is no air or water there./.9'c .i a\ . Evcnwhcn hcatcd ll) I000" c. r f o r ) L l c c o n t c J r'LLs rc t srslaDt 3 . Thc connc(ling lhc rubor(linalc of lessinrNotcnlsolhal lhc. ds. N c o n g i v c so f f l i g h r n .s /rddir or wntr lhcrr.rht: f/. rllcfcLrry is hc. 2. ll is cqu.lauses clr(lsc.rrr.rl.rdrrc lr. ihhoLrgh rhr rvoftl is rx)l localcd l]&rrrrr bctwccrlhc claLrscs.orel:l to l)oiarrL say. \ t ) l i d . i Lc o n d c n l c \ r l i r c r l l y t o . by purLing whik thc lcssimporLanL i(tc. 7 . 4 .. nraybc fevcrscd.lLric a conUletc lhoughlb) itself. iLslillnc(\asn conncrtor sincc it rclaL!s lhc nrcir|ring ol orrclo lhc olhcr. \ r r ..lc lo thc othcr./&1/r. No oDcwas killc(ibccausc thc ivalanchc occLrrrc(l al r)ieh(.rnrIlcs. idea (l.rt in thr rutiol diraLe 0r sc. Iu cach()1 lhc ii)llolvirrg cx. i(lcnlily lhc rrrnin clnLrse bf dclcrnrinin! which clnLrse conLnius thc cc|rlfrli(1c. 8 I i c i r ( r r rd i o x i d c i s c o o l c d L o 7 9 " C . h c. A ! t h c l c m p c r a t u r ei n c r c ..n whichnleans fiat il cansranLl aloncas.jscd in Lhcrrl{.. Whcn co|r]cts o r [ ] c l c o r s c o l l i ( l c r lw i t h l h c c a r t h .Now thc subordin.YorL will ncc(l(o add a connectins worrl nrch al r1. scnlencc ir docsnor cxpfcss l)cc.1l]s!.y hilvc bcen rcvcrscd 6 . And. corrucc()f bclrvccu lhc nrcauili.lc cl. w a l c r w i l l n o l ( l o c { ) r l l ) o s c ./rP/4 ot lec.1])l)c. r g r ) c t i L licl(l nl. E..fd . \ \ c i l L h r ) U g hi l . n c l c c L r i c c l r r r c n t i s p . Thc\ccondary.Lrsrs inlo one lcnLencc so that oDc idca is \Lrborclilr.lttd1. I . ot lr thtit.l. lJn(lc ir)clhc rnairl clausc onccand thc colrnccling wo(l LhnL link\ lhc rlau\c\ 1wiac. Recog1|izil1ll Subordifiatior.r . l r c a c t i o ni n c r c a \ c s . It caDnor stanLl irloncas. s c ( lL ) t c a L r \L ch ev o l u m c ( l c c r c a s r ( l ./?rrr.:llcd ro 18.n]. 5.rll).

rptxoip. . . .)rl ol .) .\ aisu ot JituMiql Jo)rrrlor huit Jqi pisnur lu(l^.srxrJrr(l L lllro) o\lp sP.{LrPtt pru r)t sr pro^{rlsrl:jrrg upd urDUr r] rLrorj rr sl Lt)lltM'r(x)r uy 6u1p11ng tuo1nqmo1 S'ITI>IS DNI(IVgII .ro^'l qsrliluS rI pi)lllrot rrc sProM PrsnIIuorL[Uo) llp jo JluqUrqr Jro!\]) qtoq ro. r . r u s u o r u r r t l r l o u r e I o s D r u ) i ) ^ D A l ) r ' n o sD prDrq sr otl)r UL' riiruro plrp '^{o r. { r q t . l .trtpM rqt rjnt!.r rql l)isr1u) lcllM € z^nrrrr)Jo roqM Z auortroiri(lt dn p. . J .\1 ') o Z Z i ( l o r r p u n o t p u L i r o i j u J i l u ^ r ) r | J o i l n l u .tl]s Io D.ri)^{ i r L l t u ) r t M . . { r l runrpos slrlJi(r prppu rrql Lr)LIl .)q] su.9 astrllrdrqr nu|l.{qdoft)lq) L u u l r ) u ^p L I l n t l s s r l l J q r J pr0rrl Jq uDr punos ou :l)rJJr :)s'Ir) :trilj.{iJrrui lo. I :l).L.) rq ol . { j o l p l o q u J u rrl IrIEN:l (I:ltol\ M o o J l E q l ruonsinb)Ltt. i r r i .uru0 u)ql puc )rriLrrurdxi uD ollol rql ppru 'Ltdbr6orDd D ut tlaJJg puD asno) 6ula! 6Dad t()uonilll]srl n"Ur^ p qnrrrlll \iluor)q uosrr(l p :DrjJr uoqs oor sr llDq).rilL. ! i r^ .)ltr :i)sllur :isn3l :lr)il. r r . U o l l ) p i r i r l l ( t n p i ) ( { r o l .{lt^|l)u ot )prxorp.loor rql Mo or qrrqM'srxrtlns ro'x)oi )qt irol)q r(ror rlrrq'\'l.ri(RIil lt iJulsnu) jo f o() iltr ri lo isl))lrr J]./ a.{LI .{ lr](lA..io sl.r rqt. .{rl . 4 rp l U U( u n l p o so l u t I p J r q o t ! U i ( l l l l u n_ur\nu)'slill)(1 r r l l p i l . ) q to t ) p r x o j p . n .ri.rLIr rcqt lllr.M i)ll1 Io i)rnl!. t J i ) p l r n o l i ) l l .. f .{(l rurlrpor iql pisnLl:) tLnlM I a(ln:.rP(l rqt irurMou)t pUU srxLlrr(l ltlt ro 1.{ 'prr urnl s)^!. f .surl.lJp ! lr]JJsn iq Uilto u!:) ( st(x)r u. r p . . \ r " \ r t i r t t c .L l r I D J q u o l L t rl r t u ^ { i ! r ( ) s l n d \ t u ) p n l s r t l s [ U r q ) .i a..rlr iLlr srr\ l0qA\ arJloM 'E Lrlsl)llr(lrprxorplq utntpos lt Ilurltn{l jo DrJtr )tprp Ultrr.to l)rllr iqr spMluqM .p)rds.iuirq 'i\1.ro urlll oot sr nrrl p :Jsnr:) lrltM l l l J ^ l ( ) s s t ps t p l r D L r c :a! pj p i r L u o Jr . t i . Z It r)tjt3 puP rsnP:) .{i uc.r9 ruorjillrprl tsprl P. s u o r i p r x o .rr(i!!rI )rll l o o a .1 r l t i .k)M.i(l)rl.lt ! p l[srr spuo(] rso(ltIo ilul]lu. r ( . r i r I tl c q l t \ . r i ( i u t ) t ) q l l ) i j n s u J l L ts t ! t i l ) | l l itll'pi^lossrp ). r r l 0 M .'!()rrl')l(lrrruxr roC litrUL'aru str luru[lu. t l t s .lo t))}Jrrrlt roM llqM urltpos}0 spuoqrqt iirrl\crrq.1 '1111.prxorp. r U .t s)lul)lrrr\rp II. .u r .\'t r\LrJl). \ r l t t .

rposJirfu ncans not polsibk ina(ttrttta ntcans . lldtltnabk . hypertefisit.tr pressure .te!1. For cxample.drllr'"'Ilrcanl(n)ynr cnsily They both refer to $mclhirg thal can Thcrcforc. subnofinal lhc bol(nr ol thc sca d.ypo-: under.'rr. dk. iliconneded on nrch rely conrl)lctcly howcvcr. hypcwcr)tilali(D t. submcfgc h .almcanstDl 1oilic. hlpolensitttl = low blood pressurc postr after. fasterthin thc sl)ccdol sound t . neans nrr ..rDrrol A worll of caution is rrccded.rld.'have thc sarDc (alch (The is .?dcsrrd/y. postglaaial= after the glacial period sub-i wder. fu . arrd changcd thal has cvolvccl clucslo determirrcmeaning Englirh ls a laDgrragc words from many langu. above. hypcrsonic LxxlyLctuPeraturc c. p!ll ul)(lefwalcr excclsivcbrcalhirg 8.rr''l' i.Thc clucscan sonrctirnes over many ycars. over.and i/ makc a word ncgalive will tcll yolr lhal rrt. submatine = a ship used under watcr L hypolhcrn)ia 2. .f!diJ. lhe f(tlowing lin of prullxcsand Lh(rr hypet.beyond the norm. a\1di olti. lcssacidic a.Posf-.r r-.?drd. You will nol lefl bcbw lnal(h lhe tenns al thc Iisled.+: Causeand Effect prcfixcs un-.gcs. hyporcxic L hypoa(idic 4. less than the norm.you lnun always scc if Lhc nrcnning(hnl you dhleot tninJlammable.illcr rhc o|craln)r k aftcr(icarh . hi!hly poisonous i .absorbil1g nleaninlll be nislcading. bcrrcalh c. htlpo-.l gucssed fits lhc way the wod is usedin lhc sc|lcncc. for you c. in . beneath.lnd irr4dl rrar1. useall thc mearriuSs = high blood hypet-.r/ means ot cantle. SlLrdy Prefixes: wilh Lhcir nlcanirrilsal lhc rilhl.

jo ijurrrprur Jo )LIr s)LI)rerrr tsrll tpllt .1.rJlu^^ lt r4.€ : rnPrl^\ooI! nrrllri)J e -turlqorcl )qt l() UorNIos! ot pil .)il) 'q tLrclls .l JJeds iql .pJr..rc(iJs q .D tl rqJrcil) rl ir.rqto irll puu Lll_rou $oii rl(i sp..litc.p.'J rLIt lu.u^Ui q ss.P 'slJ^0llpullosll)lLl^{ Llnnolrlt 4r.\tJ.rrMsLrE )qt .tlrr.)rrP.1 lsrq.arrot) ut troltlqnoA {t lrtJJ3 pue rsnPtr ..r Jqt sl llv I I lP)rIri|1 'uoll).lli q urSuo O '.tJqtillot iluo) u r.t |rdluDll r. prtu.itrrr!.rrrp rqrpd o^ l )qI ./0r{.rrtlslllx.uortp$.0 'll olur . os soM Joop sselii illl .Jr^^stroJJr IIV -(roqt a)s ur.'raM os \lJilqo srii0lLri'u )lqlst^Uls.to r.P ll'l q '.lprlr/ ilutrlrrli s Jr.)J' rr/.r or sr sc przp{Dt! rr .orrl/lrrr srq .r?rrdosl poo^ 8 LI slrrup rr lt(' {i^ril I 'trlDr J(lt uro4.nt|l)pA u tl l(n)ur )10 pLrp LlllpJ rllt ul)).9 urpprll xb{ q Lr^roul a})Pttfu 'lprriplr)u sp^4 ullll)lu)(l.6i.iIr.ror(lr ou pprl I rliirrollltv z \l).t.rrro.{rUDiiriuo ulr ()t|1.os rLIl pLrrr or sr ru)lqor(r e r^los ot ^P.M l(lrui .ql../y'rt x/ i(I0)sojJltu v ' { l prnuctp prilrPluJ u \ 'lL'll(lsoq ..Jo tur^orslp srrl rpqt p.r.MJqt rll pit)rul)r su^/r isnoq rLlt J<t tl.lil)un'u 'lr rliinorLltsrssp(i tqijll ou r. qtiDJiLll itP.i .ta{sut1.l 'srtrurtlr)srsi\r q)e) prsn pro^.ql .t)ol(l .nrl rqt it}rl tr.r/ rqt ur t(ri^'\ JJAllpJrll c 0l npl(l u It)()l 1l '.t) ste?"\ Sulpllnqplo irll 'zl IU Ur().) q c)s -1I)Jcs 'nl iuul(l oql dotplrpl o p.

an(loLIrntia()s(opes..lio.44 Causeand Eflect Scanhing qLrcsliorrs. our eycs. who oriSinaled (apilalletters) L What is silvcr brcmide usedfor? (kcy words: silvcr tn'{nni(lc) Readi g Relecting o Light () "sf!r" to usthrough otrrabili(y lllc worldconrcs Moslof whal wc krrowaL)out Bul how (lo we sce: Si!lhli\ olrr tcicscopcs. tbr rlle key words.fcflcctillg lor cxitndc. our cyes. lnslcad il is thc lighl lhil lf. To scan lct cyc\ by s. 10spccilic malerialfor thc alrswcrs lo sear{h Lcchnical when you need wofLl wilhoul rcading cvcrv you will r'vant1o locale drc parlic!lar inlormalior youf rurr fapidly passagc.vcls rd dlat fcachcs o(rl. with our eycs. not sonlcLhirlg l|1)ll] thc srlnol liliht. il all in firec mirrlrlcs. bccausc YoLr scelhis ltagc. Try lo do Fassagc 1 Whal is lhc st)ccdof light2 (key wordsi a LlrgeDunlbci the wavc Lhcory oi lighl?(key wo|ds:a pft)fernirnx lrilh 2.travels \iJ .lnning Ther Iind lhc answcrs Rcadthc lbllowirlglhree qucslions.n be accomplishcd down ihc pagc and lmk for thc kcy or inlporlanl words lhil yoLrare scrkjrrg the by sc.drriri the Thisc.Q' . lionr lhc l)nfcr to yoLlrcycs ao clcflriclight.

lll.::i.i"l.i"*.{uurrr ul .i..il tiliilin lr:ii..ii."..j ..:ilT. ffi ilu riiir iill''.i:1. ili:frll . -:iiiiii:l:lti ..jiliij-!.trfi 'Ii.'i:'iiill.-l:iii[.lt::l lllll.Hliti u:t'iJi' .. .il.ilr'# .."1.ii .ir.ltlti :..l.:li'r. li.rq.p-trredjo .i:*.li:1.jl:.:tii iut:m ll ill**ill":i.:.Ili* :lufili:ily.l.*llfll ll.l[::i )iriii:.ffirii:.un1qrltrur5 .llj...: .lilillli"l'. lit.llll::r.tii1.i. n.:l.n:r.^Eqrrn* n.l.ilt.. '3Ce|ln9 qOnol ego 6ullcauer 'oceJlns qpourS ^.l i iLll ll.*t# .llHll*." Jououtnnq ilfiill.iilr1.i#diT Ii[i]i :i:iiii:il::.1 ^.]:.""'Ifi i.'.^'ir_i"li.rui..ir^"rirq:n.i:ll i:Jl.iii. qgiq.'.i j#ji jii:.gsl'?j.'.:"'1.suolDJJ!p.l .l'liiti.rrclt) lp &i.lll il:ti ifl.'i.:Tll't :.]lli.:i::".:iJ::11i"li:.?.[i:ililff :# i.r.i:...1.:x#i$iiij:$fi..r r:. i..ilidjilll.. .:1.o lpls tcqto cqt uo llrlolxl -rpJque) iM ...*r'ili* ii"{+' :ll1:]-s.j.p"ri.::l1lln!:.ii'lll.l::'1.!J rrr tJ..LuJtll.:t.is louuo) lrq JIB.il :ir.ji. lllliltltl t.'::.1ullsr.il:...#frilt..:i:i*illili: ri:.{.?i:'.rl:.i f..:.::... st IDJJg puP asnPi rqr Lr derllerrsp u.ill. j:..:l'i1".. u6n ero 6uncauar lq6r'r '. ..ij r.:.ilt.:: lln.nm:r srstsrnr ^llenlJe lqil{ Lor0 prln"n srq 11i^*el^I ..:.rui:n:.

or rrcilhcr sL. gctIightcncrgy Logrow.rxl rccor(lirrg carcftrlly and o6scrvirrf jllcorfccl ol lllc li)llo\1'jllg cach whclhfr Irl(licirlc conclusions.46 Causeand Eflect Light rays changedirectlonin water. J-ighl lravcls al diffcrcrrt sl)eedsirr cliffcrcnt \rrhsril(.rsurrg .inrPlic(l l)y olhcr irrli)rnrnlion irl llrc Passagc is slaLc(j slatcurcr\ls rslfuc whclhcl lhc slrlcnlcrrl Dorimplic(l (/). ll js (his ligh( cn(ryy liorr Lh( sLrn (lifcctly Aninrirls lr)nr thc slrrr.Plarrls livirg rhirrgs enablcs gcl ir lionl rhc plarlls theycal.cs Solrxl wavcsdo Dol travcl irr (rnisht lincs 1 0 .lcly arrdnrc. Lighl lfavcl\ iu thc sime lvay ns v)Lrn(l 8 .lflh an(l (hal w. Mosl ol lhc v)Lurd ivc hear is rclleclc(i . is rcfleclc(l 4 .A scicrrlist irr' lrla(ctr|nl( accuf. L i g h t l r a v e l sf i r n c r l h l 1 ) L r g h 6 . (hc c.tutin(licale s nilcs l)cl rccorl(l l.lrrlrs bll|n a h(tc in il.lc(l {N) l)o.sslllan lhl'(nrllh slower 2 . in carr fcsult Ii)flDaliorr in thc l)nssagc (S). Thc rpccd01lighl is 186. Lighttravels lighl. S c i c n l i n s( l i l l r o t i l l w a y s k r o l v l h a l l i g h l l r a v e l s 1 .000 nir' lhn)ughgl. MoonlighL w n l e r l h i D ( ) L r n ( id o c s 5 . l)y rcn(lrrrl rlrakccvcryclli) lo lrc l)rccisc nlr'rsl Making Inferences. Lighrtravcls lirslcr lhan nrtrnd 3 .

'rdLUr \9 pJJput \p^ qtlcrq ruod \rH \ 'leluter p /lrual1br.Ltiuro^ .puc rJp rJd.M q qliturrls E 's^pr s.Joor ult iql uo iltrlllujllltlrltnsrlll.jo rrllrl rllt alJrl) $rrroJ u! [Jt4nqDxoA .t Jo.rullsupll p uuql nlilll ilol! stDurr l)rlqo Jul)cdo oV Zl 'Diqrosqe sl iJulpllnq lr.rrJltrnuql .bqPnb D patuJ^Jid e STlI}IS 9NIN!IISI'T jrl(k)rd ri^ilJ iri^ rq tsnur stslturlrs El '^8riuo rliq ()1prllr^roa iq Lt!) ifirlrr lqiJlt .4 pczlJllullrqt Jo SuJuecuj aql siq Llruts)q tPqt tr^\sup rqt .()r.lsneJ .z luiulr^olu fO srslou .r ll pord lllM i'lrulqreu] ^^eiH I liil uLr)rloA tet:n 'sr)LlJtuJs i)scrllJorl)Ba Lll pcsn s!I slr pro.'Jurtuur.p/rl rJqSlLI p JAeqsJ]m^ s.p 'roolJtLIt Lrr suo'iL1q!^ .lelJuJSuI .J qtstqe .l -t ssrulPr.llrrrrlr4 eqt tuo{ SJIJ lno Ditord sJsselSuns 's.rl(r ruu V €l 'Joo lur.o.{q przleDereqr p sitclult) Iprtdor.Jotsot\l Il It rlijjf puP.unsrqt .tl 'iiipllrl pisrr^rl r?st))[Jrr .

nclrillg loc(l$ on lhc nlaini(lcas.Uscyou (lo not havcfara8lrl])h ()1 lhc lccL!Lfc. Wc hcaf soundwbcn our car drum\ viL)ralc .li()n.rgcs 10 4 .benclrl a. dcsigned b.ch ()l lhc i. may srinnnrizclhc Drain rhc spcakcr ()1 "Thc MLrsic yolr Il1. l t . wc nrayneverkDow ho*. a. 6. Ptriod Note-Takihg l.'Ihcn usc conDlclc all the uhderclanditlg the Lecture.1.rrrrrd lo prcccss . 1 2 .extcnsivc a.d/rdrr in colort. obscrvcd b.rr. porlaDl poirlson a chalkboar(i lhcnr ou .'o.lcs lhc goinglo covcralrdwhal yori needlo li5lcr) li)f.rlthc cnd.. TiDy daorljtla dcvi(cs arc 11s('d lo ii(l hcadng b. always WhcrrlnkingnotcsdLrring ()t)ic poirns lbr thc \crrlcrrccs in i rcndir)l. dcslrcvc(l was sLrsfcndcd fof lhc.. ljsc your r()1r'! 10 (lctcnriuc whclhcr c. l l l . ofthc Lrnivcrsc i1 is. To pracricccnrcrycncypfoccclLrre. sli(l( or lfirrrs|nrcncy. r co l . wfjlc\ irrr_ Orc.sionilly ..i. cluc\ lo l\cltrfor. largcness Dilfcrent wavck'ugths p(xlLrcc vdf. l a n L tr i i h .csrrrldr!'d nn iclrr. sNrd a. All lhcorclic. a lectulc.48 Causeand Effecl is impossiblr fof Lrs lo conrt)rchcnd. picc '). n sounti. :lllhough il is nrorcdilticukl)((. \1. Soundr\'avcs lnovein only o|c direction./rri?/i(. T h e l d .1o wrjlc (low'r lisren to lhc Icctufc Soun(]. slylci 8 .r.l cn]1hquilc a. Becausc Lhcdr?plilrA!. (innpurc|s can bc f. ideas or couclusront YoLl lhus musrlistcnli)r thc gcrrcral yoLr will leclurc hnvc nn idcnol whal il iJ Filnl oLrlLhcbpic or titlc of the so \l.r. or displays pointsoJ lhc lcclufc. soundis prodLrced by air vibtatior\. r \ i o l i r i s N . irnilared 1 0 .l is likc l(x)kiug for thc nrain 1)ir\\ng('. L A bell rlmg in a vacuumwill lror produce and seDd rrc\\. visual and analyzeall l(illds ol (1." Takcnolcsas youf noles to lhc ncxl cxcr!itc.i lruc (1) or falsc(F) icco in8 l(r lhc letlLrrc.lrcscnrch Lr. b. soundqualily b. 2 . following starcnrcDrs T l. Son\clinlcs thc Jl)calicf preseDt. main idcas.r sl)cnker al llrc bc!inrling of thc objeclives l:irrnlly. diffcrcnccs a./7 ol lhc r.

lo iolos Jlp IeqM € Z.{q pJururltlip sl tl)lld '9 Jo 'punori3.ql q8norqt uPql rlP rql qinorql r)lsPJslr^Prl plrnos .llt )qr e leLIA4 8 rrP leLIA^ Z ZrSeuoqsItnJ uJo slr4j) tlqlssod rLLIos '9 auo|elndod pFo.arJI rnol uo .rP IDLIM Zrrueld roqloue Lro{!lJo fu.lo 'i)uo V llrtus e ucql punosrrpnol e s.{Soloutprttu. Jsne)oqlJulrPlr e uo{l luilaJJlpsptrnos Y lLrJLunrlsul 'JPnllldLLIE lLInouEJql ' 8 s1!sp ol prrr4tr s! 8u!.t{pmros rzls rq} .{rpr s! r^eM pullos E .^^ Jo uors edxr prnultLlor nJo slrqjr. llluucq iql Jo rtuos E lutl^ Z ZlrnlLr)J slql ul rJtlJlrs u! sDuB^pele)lilolouqJil aqlJo tlrtlrc lr-'ljlliluiq tql Jo tl(ros !)lP l!\lM l srNlod Nolssntslc ((rr p 1 'srtsodur()J iJeld l- z .rnduor .lJJJtll.{pldot p)uurpriSoldJq ueJ rtlnduoJ V ' I t 'J)!o^ u0onrq p rleJnollsol alqPJq rJ^JLIlll^Alilndulo) V ' 0 I 'soorlPrql suolleulqltnJ iuJrrJJIp sJ)r'rpoid Jo rPunts q)e.lq!\sotl rtll.polu Jo slruJ.rnpord lu p aSrEI 'st^P.^orslp iqr Jo quPr uo slJ)lli )ql rq lqilllu lPqM E ziJgds otln lJ^prl o1 ttiulo^'\ pLIutJrrl sisnPJlpq^A t auollsroldxJoJPds Jo slJ.{ePtlrc III^^sr)llldluoJ 'zI 'ount rlFo^eJ rnoi .ql Jo slJ.r.L3IJUJ.! 6t lrJJJll pu! rsnq) .

Lll)a'rcsc ()1(licl iu .ds lo nnothcr. e ? .c(l lhc ol Paci[ic arrrlalsoscallcfe(l lall-oul on a rlur)rlJ('f islanris. l h a l i ! . happdls btcatse. ()r ajrLint b.o(ling () onc concctls: of lhc li'lk)wirlg L Tirnclchfonok)gy) cl_ t() thc rrfcrrl inovcJfour thc iuiliirlcjlccls oJ(orrrl)LLicrs a. c r i o n .tcrrl)y largcf. Transitiou word! thal inlroduce c. aI'd theftfore. e a c h c l l c c l i r r l r r n r L r c c o m c l\h e c .crc apfrarcdir rhf sorall li\h notal)ly lhc lrrrr.i D d lcd.r inr. iDgcnrdquirnlilics ol fndio-iclivc S . dclifis plnnl\which livc i|r lhc surl..i |ry. x r 1 r . For cxanulc. B .r by sln. r c ( l c s c r i b c (i ln c h 1 1 ) r r o k ) g i c a l i l i s a c h a i n r c .uscs i clrrde ls . r prokEd br. f l 4 n n ( H i r r | c r 6 R o r ..(livc nrnlcfinls As n r('\ull. t\A\il'l\'lL.ux)vcJionrlhc (lirr(1cllccls or sccoDd.ll irrirrrals which iu lunr wcrc c. clli'cLs on onc |crsorl crnl ro lhc \pccilic (t lhc fl)ovc) (the revcfsc b. Lollic lo thc spcciiic a. yolr school lo lhc clltcli n1i work pli(c \rr.11iclc lbod. lor cx.T l t t l l t u I d n S l l t .1ry cllcds ol of_ Rcid lhc pnfagra|hbclow . ('i . 1 9 7 1 ) 1] 108 I n l h i s p a r a g r a p h l. For cxn1nfl(. Movc hom lhc sinrl)lc lo lhc irxlifccl ol conr|ulcfs i.rr(l dclc ninc which ol lhc alrovc|rnllcrrr| gar)ization is uscd: lrr 195.Iapiu. Thc cxl)lo\iorr IrxlLr. 1 l l c o r r o r ) c () the gcncral pcrsolr orr llrc world cllc(Ls Lhefcvcfscl) lo thc (onrplcx(lrevcr c. hldr.h as n storc. Spacc ol coml)Lrlcrs nl horncto lhcfllc(ls al nlovcfionr 1hccllccts a. i! indtlc.r. and rr . For examplc.. .fclnilcs.rc. d r d / . t. F ( nc x a n r p l c r l.r'f 2. A .h c c l l c c l so { a h y d f t ) g c ub o D l b1 c d . ' |t f t .?rr.T h c s e e l l e d s a f c i D t r x l u ( c d w i l h l h c w o r d \ t r o d r .rcr.Lr\l ll .o v c l r l r n lrh c s l ) c ( i l ic ( 1 1 c (o l \i a l u c ls h o . u s c ordcr becausc o f a n o r h c f .d b!.anstitLmtlt. ovcrthousands of s(lu.ero.rcc c. Movc lrcnr rhc gcncral nrovc1R)llr thc effccls ol (on]rulcfs(nr thc wofl(tin gcrr_ i.rnk. l l r c r 1 .rlcrl ol lhe scaithcscr'r.1clivc (iarrgcfolrJ radio-. officc 3. Olher words rhar calr inlroducc clf€ds iDc]Lr\(lc. -voLrr |nptf. .rrrplc.1 a hyd()genbolnb was lcslc(lal Ilikini.Ls.t1 thrs. You nrighlorgnnizc thal oDeidca lc. cxIccrcdradio-. Movc fron lhc llxlili( Lothc gcncral i . llcncc a nlr|nL)cr which arc aD inlln)flanl. i c ! : ^ n i r l o ! ] v/ .50 Causeand Effecl WRITING SKILLS Patter s of Organizdl[ot1 choosc a logicil or(lcr10 l)rc\cnlyolrr itlon'rirlion!) Whcn wriling n tJntrcr.td.7.

L I) LmoDzrupij rq nrq':Idot rnoinJr Irrrlsrsuor sllrrrs (rrllolro .{ tlutqrtur^) .lulnlrrrsruo )smq:) trtl.lM l)lrL'rronu)^L ro .{ Lrosl)Jll) slr ln(\P rlr.io Jlro tnoqurlrrM ro pFo.JT put )snDJ lo r4riDt6tupd tt 6u!UM Ig IIaJJE puP rsnP:) .'!(leiiiBrpd )ql ol ol lnrl nreM no.):rp(ls tsrq In)^.{ri^oJsrp.r)dpdIIt tnoqilnorLll rpnlrlrr()l qlinorrrpporqst irurllrrs r!(ftn qrrM lpqr c upts .^rll{l.M rsn snr()dL()tssnrsl( rrll.M rllo.tol -roJo ur)lrcdr.

it is referred to as a llreory(lbr cxamplc. rhc rheory of relativity).A hypolhcsis is a rcnLativeor problcmor an cxplanation temporary solutionto a scientific for why somelhing happens.scienlisls continually rcvisethcir hypolhesis aboutwhat it lookslikc.ot ilduttdl ldtyltor example. A hypothesis does not always prove 1o be corrccl. 1() sinceno one has everseenthe structurc of an atom. and it may have to be rejecled allogether or at least reviscd.For cxamDlc. . Ahhough a hypothesis usuallydevclopsfrom the intuiLionof thc scientist.When a theory cxplainsor unifies a grca! dcal ol inlbrmatirnr. it is basedon obseryations or facts.Archimedcs' principle of waler displacementor the law of graviry). As evidence is gathcrcd to suppon a hypolhesis and i! bccomes accepred in the scientific world. he or she formlllatcs a hjpathctis. CharlrsDarwin's hypothesis aboutevolutioncame10him whilc hc was riding in a carriage (hc wrote///I canrcmcmber theveryspotin thc road"). Progrcss involves conlinually refining hypotheses as new information comes lighl. il becomes known as a pritltiple. For cxample.bul Lhcideawas the prcducl of many yearsof studyand experimen(alion.chapter 4 Hlryothesizing Motion and Gravity INTRODUCTION When a scientist discovcrs a rclalionship that scemsto hold lruc wilhout exception.

ilLro ruots rls oqt Luo4 aruetslstrJJoUJ e uuqr {lMols rrou lleJ lllM sser8Jo rpplq V Duplslsrr rle It lullorslp nol JI 'scrPr Icnb.4 iH ls.&c^a uo ${aeJ} alll sl DlsPJ lPq.r P Pqsncl rq ri^ruiqM luql prN.M snolrP^paddorp.1.{qs.rFolslrv uollotrl ul Drlqo ue d'')i o] Iisss.M riJrlFq piqsllqPtsr-3uolasaqlleql soogl iulr rqt lllun lou sP.{uv a)uols P ro ssPJSlo apglq e'r)lsPJsllEJ uoltow ltoqv suoltoNauos 'Lloltoru lnoqd \rsrqrodiq.rq lPruroJu! pUpsr1()l0 o^^lrql prrdr$e rrr.sqo rH uollour leluozlroqpJrpnlsoslPrllolslrv 'tqSroM rlaqt ol leuoorodordptrds e qtlM llPJ sDafqoleqt puEsDaho lrltll LrEql sDalqol^erq lplll prolturatrp alorslrv DtspJllEJ 'i)JlrilrJdxr pJsPg pi^altaq puv {Pp.orlrle) pue s. rP IleJsc!poqllP lEql prulnurlrp l Slsrqtod.rllotslrv tul^ordslc 'srllls rqt p)pro)rr puB rrl8lrq B urorJslqSla.{ nJoM^aqt asneJ.{q Iprnleu 'l)i\{qo Dqr() rc (4 irruP) uirqt PUPrlrqM r roJ prllor sIP.Jllolsuv pug p P ^ olrq :BPssPdrLIl peru qutpbavuo4s tE durzrsrqloo^H .s.)iLr sl ))loJ s puBtsarte rq ot sl DofqouEJoJtets cql lpql paztsrqtod.H slue(ulli)d -xr rltlM turqt 8ullJlri^ lnoqtlM sgrpl tdo)J9 ot tuctuoJ tou seM orlllPD priiurl ll lpll) iJ'.M leql tuapuP q)rLIM slleJalrc$ e tPql JJs uer Juo.M sesrqrodlqs.qtlM stDr! 1l csnltiq.M 'uollP^Jrsqo pLlB )!8oJqll^4 llrJtslsuoJ $9r..r le tl l)r).

I r n ) i ) l ( n ro r d n s w c l \ i l A h y p o t h ( : ' i sl s n t c n l a L i v { lrr r ) l ) o s i L i o n . hc mcnning is llrc \nnrc as rl lhc fre\crr( lcrrsc w i l h r 1 .i/i/{.llhotrsh iLi\ l)ossitrlc M o n h y p o l h c s c sn f c s l i r l e dj r r l h c p r e s c r r s i t h c p . t r ' r. l ) l . u ( l n l . N r w l o r r c x l c r x l c ( lc . ' | L U S I N GE N G I I S H T O H Y P O T H E S I Z T t h i l f c t o l v c s . t c r . t ) o o r h o f i z o n ( . s r r x ) r h s L r d r c c g o | D u c hl r h e f t h n n o n c on\narcd co u l ( l p u s h r c lo n i r o u r h m 1 L r . l s ' . l l r . r b o d ) .. N . v)mclhing. r \ L r s c ( l (h l i r l i l . ( t / . ( r ( f .\: All bodies lbll at cqual ratcs.ll. lnron no loffc ) lu . . l i o r r .t in the Ji)nn .nrc:rs l)rcdirllrrg .1fr.. . r x l l o n t r l i l c ( l . i n i n n n ) t i o n Lrnless s ( . y r r U n f f r t r \ ( o .ll)' .tlrct.\Ir.)'r /rBxr.H c ( 1 ) r c l u ( 1 c t n r c c l w i r h r c s i n n n c c( l L i c l i o n ) .. Thc natural slats of an objcct is ro be at rcst and a forcc is necessary to keep an objcct in motion. lhcoLvis n ht|othcsjs lh.lwnys hnIl)crrl 1\lhc t. r b o L r l\ ( r n r c r h i n gl h n t h i r l ) p c r r c (itr r r h c p r c t i j . . W h u r n l L r L ..tl objects fall with a speed proportional to thcir .v r q . rs i.(crl)Lc(l Howcvfr. L r s i | l g l h e l t r t L L ' l c c n s c i\ cxpfc\\r(l i\ i l i r r L r r cS . ror\\l)lclc C.. r l s o( l j s l r ( ) \ c ( l A f i n o r l c ' s h l l r o l I c s i s . r .l is gcn(r. ()1 l|ngnlclrl n scnlcrrrc scnlc|r. r I l ) c r r . ) . r l i l ( r ) ' sj ( l c : r s . s c i c n l i f i cq L r c s l i o nA l . v . ( . h i s r ) i l w . \ r o f w l l l h r I l ) c r r h y | o r h c s i z c .r. r i c .. t h c o f y t h n t . ilsclli\ rl\tafs lhc h!Polh(sis ir rruf nIt)cnrwilhin ir scrrtrrrrc.J. . c o r \ l J f l s | e c d r v c D i l n o l i ) r c ci s . .54 Hypolhcs. speed will continue to movc at a conslant even if no force is applied. 1| l r i . n r co u l \ i ( l c 1 i ) r ( ci ( l \ ( ) n j l T h i \ l h c o r y i \ v r u n i v c n a l l _ !n c c c l ) l e ( il t i \ r .zing C a l i l c o . r x i / / ? r ! r ' r ' i 1 (l f c q L L e n L L lhc i\()r(1s T h c l o l l o w i n g n f c c x : l n l l ) l r so l h y l l o l h c ! ( s l | 1 ) n rl h c ( i ( t i n g : /?t. 1r l n ) r i o n .rld'J wci8h1.r vs c (ill r L c r c h i n g c . / / /T 1 h .i l w i l l c o n r i n u c 1 0 n n ) ! c n L . . r r r s r w j l l r ' r r r r a j i 1 ( \ 1 . onrrlir cs n hylnrlhcsis s . r li 1 \ ! i l l h . ( x l ) i r f i ) o r i o nw i L l r c r r l . l ) t l i e d H a l f a r ( n t L I y l . u o L ) j c t l( l o c \ n o l w n s r c q u i r c d { o I ( r ( l ) l h c o l i i c r l i n n r o l i l ) n . rhil allhouglr NoLc (lllcslLoLl or. it II an object does not meet with resistance.H c r l r n r ( h . b o { l yI ) u s l r ( lo n . lt) l irll)lc lcrrsc.

.)t|p lp IIut or srrrlqo srs|!]) rPltl nlDlrLrl)rroJ IFIU E rq ieor )rrql q 'srr\lcrj Lrcql r)lsr+IIEJ slrou '0 z 's.tosrrcdrsillr lo qrDr ur q ro p rlJlrf.ll!stuil srnloiD . q 'uluiq rqlJo ipls lrl iL0 Io rrorlrl|lll P rq ()1lq:lnolll sl iilcniiup'l D t 'rniipld rql rrlPlr)J lr.rLlls L()!soldx. sall)l .lrlt i^)lli)].LrpJlzt)rrjor s! lrll q)tllM uopuo'l !r! 'N r 00:9 pur-i s.josJ(l^lululr):) c ! llrrr.foiqr ro slsiqlulirl oqr iulpopun 'LldPriluiud ilulMoll([ rLIl '4dt.r.'(06t ur olrlsulSurqlv iq plroM iLIl Jo uorlnrllB rLIl ol lqSnorq su^{rdrroor srqt Jturl rlnlosqe ro IE:)rolr pup DPdsrIII 'rttln snql'AIuJrqJlprlu!l oqr ^Jllurpl s!)r)ql 1r^rtDIr.todv u! slsatlrodtHD 6u!/I!uapl q ! / q 0 9 'lorilsiloll) 'JsDqJ 's8t3 ittqJ olullloJ slt"'JLu l)Lto llt-i 'slJultn lr. )10 uo srsolr:)lrs'.Murq rlrqt ol IEl()luodord tou iril^ $nllrq rllrll isrlr?JJq Dlrllx) tluortq tAPq ^errr$ngsoulc 'uJuq Lrptunq rlll i)uos olrql r)iirLrlslrlL'rq i^uq sislo(lnxi puu 'sullldl(D 'stlpq^^ 'sllrutJdrJt .'iu sjrlii uollllq Jllus{I) 8l troqLi oroq slM Dsri ILn iql q 'zz6l tll i.Joup(l l$:jlel )ql.{q uouulltllr rlJrl Lll .rcts pJPl\3 . saruawdsw sasaqtod[H 6uttIt] apl gs SurzrsJqtod.l rq uur ro JLtr rPqr 0odlq P prr)prsuor -Lrrs.qr 'srs )rDrrpur or srlt. si)ild.r sr .{eturlsntu.(rorql illrsg:jlg itll lr g sr"'M tqqv'lr0l)llsor.t6b.lriJuv so'l u! 't{'v oo:0J Lrrql sl lt .n )lsnlu 's)tv Jlpprw iql iiuJrnc q su qjrrs 'sJstJsrp 'ss.{Ptu .'l(l Y'l s! oollPrSrw ill() Llrl)rl slPrLr!uu Jo luJuJ^oruluuosP:)s.q sprtg r(t uns ..).qlPor UPI:ipg P Iq Prsodoidrs.Llotloru plft)/ oolDrrlp nDrqJlp e rl )srr^tun rqr lo lled riq()Lre ur iJullr^Brl lroiue e uo pirrnrro rng pilrid(lPq rl iruI rql rrrsribi plno^{ que.JoslLrrlotur? lorilsiJ 'u.ql Lrolrlrfi{ iur Jo ro 'rrlltolrc01.rlJ 'rulrlqrrt) iql sl olerq Ir.4iiiui plr! rilt0or iLlt IIPijltlltlultro) 'll3J p u)qM o.{H .ljt ol P)sn rL).{lll IroI ^4rN u! r1jir00il lc sulScqrlueS llPqlfi! B tsoddlls all sl a!\lll rvHM rr! .o suotllltu olu! pipoldxo 'iupol)srJAIrIIl ill] Lr!tultslxJ.)Jll Jsllu) lllilllu t^lsstrxS l(xlJ .

There must be life on Jupiter. Identifyitlg Probabiliry. To say.c.. There is probably life on Jupiter. Thcsc words.. It is unlikely that there is iife on Jupiter. It is impossible for there to be life on Jupiter. There may be life on Jupiter.rL. Th€re miSht be life on Jupiter. 1rllravel in wavcs.c .Ic prnl'.cr.'lhcrcis lilc otrJLtpilcr'.rlily i e. There ls life on Jupiter.fcvcryintl)orlanl. There could be life on Jupiter.. I Ligh! .. fie Iirsr sentcDcc probibililyrnoslslroully ar(l cach rLrccccdin! cxprcsscs sentcncc cxpresses i1 sliglrlly lcssslrcngly. The accumulalionof carbondioxide ir fic air is bclicvrd lo bc warnin! lhc earth to a clangerous level.56 Hypolhesizing o Ptobability Hypotlrcscs arc oftcDcxpressc(l wilh woftlslhat jndjcalc lhcif tclltalivc Da(ufc or unprovcn status.r lh.. There arc many ways rLrcxprcssprobabitily. is enrircly "Lhcrcmay bc lilc on. @ 2 .)..lLrt)ilcf.I. tr .. There is no life on Jupiter. differcnr fronl sayinil ln rhc li)llorr'ing lisl..Circle rhe word nr h ord\ thiI lnJ(.

ro^\ .{eu ^trlrquqord sqrJ^ tsnu ilpolu lprlr sqrr^ .lo iJeFnsiqt uo iJul^ouro ijulllrp stLrolr0r()J i)rv t asrlxuleijilulpoldxr /ilturlol^ srusr?nb s)plt s. SUDJrLL.r!lsLro.hJfiqoxo\ s'r'rrts DNtqvau sDlnd!u0)crv I aplro^lrLIl punor! insnpul SLrlzluoltnlo^rj plloM rql Jo Lrollelftkxl .I).13t 'tlltLptar'4ol]14111.{pu -3t 'AFe:rIutS'lulrtj.rt|.\/r .{dlcq iluorou IIrMsupd pro^\ral{lo pue saxU dlo.SprlMorrl y dutntng [..Mru .rrlrl arler snoDlJlrDp zaJcqdsoLutP Jql ol Ir\tLuJurl slrolsoldxr .tu. ' .{ e) orqt nea rrlnl0.{qr rtuos Lrrilllltrprlllor pup ilurpuedxi sr rsrJ^run Jgl trqt rlqrss(xlsr tl Z \4JU.{ sqrr^ Jo rrqunu rqr rsErrlrr .s r rc. ' ( . r t rt o r \ r r t D | J .]JJa '^tol)q sr)uil0rs rlcd luu trlt Jo sr)Lrilu)s Jo UrinPd iLIr ilulMollol )q plnor)o'irq t4litu'tq tfu&/'rqtrr&/ t)LItl. l.^4 i)tPInturol .{)^uo) rLF ueltt.'15?1a1put2 2u!utDnat 'llddrat'pttp')ttddr't2tllttqtott tsu)l:)) ahD4r'atD^LtrDat Dluaa"L'pnp0t. r . )qt sl l zqt.qt st / ! tp SulsEc.\r.A o.ra^ Jrll rltr^ pJsn. )q.rqll.{llerr8 oslp lnq sp.{llllrnDi{ E slupor!)s)LIt'nultlil )ulllrilrs ol 'sriqto qrnur E s..{ilse^up r/r.ullurLrrr(ls trtprder rq or slsnuJrrs rllros iq lqijno4 rrp srpslnd ' ( t< Butztsrqrod^H . . .q rM srrlndruor '. .rjn.{lllrqeqordjrSuorts rfl?/4 lupolu)qJ p/ror puD 'nlljlut'A:wu slt2poLlr rlltJo rsn Jql qtrM pJssrrdx. r l r HurplrEdxr rq ot srp:rldprvJ^run . n t .I x[Jrd rql ]eqr SulMoul tsnf irelnqp)o^ rno.IPiino nul(uru. = atu + -).t 'eldrupxr roc r!\oui ro. ..)q)st 9 tsJlreJIlllu ruo4lnolleJ o^rtJsolpsi Jrlt iiv'g zLllrztJql.Ln?r)o iL0 rrv '€ zLlliuiiqtJo uollulor)qt ijLrlMols )rlt rJV 'z aDLrltxrijlrl(uo)rq !ulrlf Lrlsr?puP(l isnol]Lri.]qf ! I '{retlpJraq qrrLjJsar sl ilrsiqo lcl0 srsJSSns luJrru:) ' b 's.1r 'sqD^ Mru rpntJut setduexa uooJ ol sqrr^ qsrl8ull rJtJro ^uEmor p:pppeq.r^1.r BuruErur)r.4 0t q.{Jlilrcpl oo.terlrxne Jo dnoril p arp slppoW tt! qbqordlo slttpovt6ulsn 'nPpol p:IuPrrpun Jo i-ru luql sip^\ ur JlErrr pup ullrsrp ol rlqp..i pupdxa.

rdr.d j . reJlc.rrolhcr' lroln orrcpclsoD 8 .d.tlrlollr. S o L l n di s l ./ o{ lhe extrcrimcnt l Thc rcsulls n.\ lh( in corl?xr. a.r. n i n g ol .lLbclt nr'llchcs vocabulary ol lhcsc scrrlenccs' in c. through translucenl-allowir'g liSht to pass through l.ch ()1 ls it is Lr\ctl word lnca|lirg thc ilaliciTcd lhcorywa! corrcct thal orLr rc..rTr'x. rcr. lenglhcnc(i .i r l r h o u g ht h c r ( . f v i d r .J 2 . 1./rr. Marin docsno1spcakEnglish.rrd.'dl. ( o r 1 .rL'.r7i. clispr{)vcd U) Pn'vctt onc hour l() nll(nvlrnrclor qucslrolrs w.tavrdl.vcl ln()Ll8lr in his 1oanorhcftluivcrsilY 7 .r plillcsLhcsiUlral Lrsing a v a c r l l .. fidio. Metal and woo(l irrc ol)aqtrc.rctin. Thc lcsson lr' shorlcDcil a. 1 i n r h c n r c . l nl ( l b c .su(h.. r l r r j t b t t . d i c l i o n a r yi l n c c e s s d r Y Ldr?r-: over. SlLrdy u s i r g . l g c lirr sLu(lcnls Ik)wcvcr.l]r.s:. 1 . r t t t 1 l . I palicrrt a bkxxl rL'ccilc(l Thc hosl)ilnl without i r l . t h ( . a w. tLth.-r.'4n. 5 .. rdllrjc.t. s r ( o n ( l l n l r s u . r r l r j irr w. i D g l y .1il or n rcpearcd l h t i o l l o w i r l gl ) r c l i x a n d l h c n t o n r l ) l c l ct h c l c n t e n ( c \ t r t l ( ) w Prefix: trans'.fn)rrn.fbulrr)llhclrctir. Light cr)ergycan bc r.s . beyond.vcsi il c.a\ i\ rrue ol r. antl .rxl.Ld.-f. lor hcr. lrllcr(srrtvolv. Circlcthc lcllcf of lhr nnswcrll].Jir.rlling is rlcccssary ManyEnglishwor(lsLrcgilrwilhlhclelters.. r ( n l a r ) ' v r c h v c r b r h e y o l i c n .? 2. rcj(t. across.Ijlnssand w a\$ atr t!!1Jg4494!-so yot| will hav( lo /.criolr.58 Hypolhesizing o l E r r g l i \ hn \ . Mrny livcsarc sivcd bY ki(infY ().

illplturlq oql zI Jo srlrlso.rlrnrj ul prlsll Jrr?\ sJlucll .^ -lsPi ilPrlpur dettl :)\1 t'o s)ull/rlrazuaI 6g ButzlseqrodiH .ql iqr /rart.ql prrr./rl.tttuuu/is iltrol]s ! IgnlD o 'p<rrrrlr4JriM srllr]it oMl JLI]rsncJiq rl)lerll poo:i 0 sgM itllud lllqlool tqJ zl 'stroll0Dtdxr r!rLF LIIJ^^ trr.rdur ! 'I! opir ot puLIr/\^ pue llrJtulr)dx.{xo plru rrrilorpirlJo srsr4/r. sJllq(xLlolllv < I iltllsn P tllrl^os 'q 'lllq rqt dnisr )rn qsnd ol i.LlI t 'srlrlor ls.r irll isrloJJq ptsDtFl tri.r/r'l.li).r1o rirllrrrr rtur.r Prllrld u l)illsn(i q 'rtl!^ iU iluolu lpoqllEs.lo sllllsi.{llPrrHololttlril prrLIr^PP rroru r(l tunru.)dxi iL0.lPiq z Jo to4Ja.4 sJlll Jllqoluonru (l11tDl'.]rl\ q 'lllquMop prlrlls rr rrrtl^^ /./orri rLIl 0l u isliAJJ q l)rllo) 'riPro lr-i)lliquq(lll" . I)rul iql 9 ^lr^llrD P .(s rqr iq pilru([ rq uPr ri)leM 8l prillreq) e fr^o.lP^ Lrl Lriil^xo ol lriiio.ix.rj.l Ipoq q 'quoJ L() Jjrrr pLrr-)l lstiJrul ilql dll Jllrlu PItv P!l! Jdoln! 8 pr iiDslp q PiirSLj 0 )nu c nurqqN'q 'rr0.trr'/srol nDA llrrlull.rrDr rnol Lron"u!ls).'JUo slql Lreql.1 riliqJloJsJl iql II dl\$t()llPlrl u iJltulslp q 'J ot s!r.)tsil ol ppLIrM tl llu iulrliitr 'r-i rLilniJilrl q 'lunbrrr! sipls st Plp(rtLrllutlet\J!!f iqlJo uiilsiP iql (I llc lt0t!.sltliPrls Jtll 6 (ll]i)o r.!0/ s! ll 6l IIrM rrcrlPredis D uorleulqurcJ 'q 'Lrr3.ldrd pu!^/rt\l 9l qrosqe q llo i^!n e !ru JLll sJtrlllodrlJlq^{ JplxouoLu lroqiu) lr. JqI z Iq lrro rrroMt.3r. .(lr^orPr|rl 'runrlL'J Prrr riqlei4i l(\ Iq prsnuJse^{r4rrrr srH ! 'sl\od I)^)l 'r sr rrnl)Illrs )ql f /r.) rxrlr rLIl lPql ilunsse ol /r..ui.r.r .lr.

lo rcvicwrhenlalcrinl i)f a tcsr. The accelcration is alsorelalcci ro rhe massol thc objccL.rc outsi(lc li)rcc acts on il.lfyou genlly.lhc forccwill sl)ccd up.it is easy to get i1$ ntove. hirslirrlc incnia.s noi consislent with his view ol a balanced and synnnerrical Lrnivcrsc. rhc .on thc olhcr hand.or (hangcdircctiotr. Ilyolr puslrit ha|licr. BL lhis kic. the lessrhc acccleralior.hoformulalcd lhc lhcorics ol nlorior'1. Mass. Thisplinciplc is called thc law ol inc ia. ln hcr. Newtor) Dorcd lha!ilyou discounl tbc fictiorl involvcd. Morcovcr. Ncwt(rt dhcovcrcd that thcrc is a relati(nlshif bctwecn li)fcc at)d pusha swiDg accclc6lion. whcr)a fo(e actson a body. Ibr cxarnplc. you only necd 1o read rhe topic scntcrcesfor a \Lrmnrary of all rhe nraiDpoiDli.Il you usc an cqLril amounr ol Ibrce lo pusha bicyclc nnd a lr6ck. A lcDnisball.] NcwtonnudiedhorizonLal and vcriical nrorirn.ccclcr.cringoD irr horrycvcr.lhcfe is nnorhcr .or Ncw()r)'s lirsrlaw of r)toliorr But Ncw()t's curiosity was nol satislic(I. sk)w(lown.no li)r(cis . Newton Explains Motion studic(i motioD. A trucL.rslcf rhan lhe lruck.or changc thc direclionol lhal body.60 Hyporhesizing Fitlditrg Main ldeas A goodway kr rcadany tcxrbook is ro brackcl or highlighllhc topicsenrcDcc ol cachparagraph or section.l rcstwill fctrraitr ai reslrnd thata bodyin nlolbn will rcn)aitr in nloti(rtunlcss son. tbc anl(nrnr ol lbrcc is direcdyrelaledto the amorin! ol accclcralion. Notethal hcrc lhe topicscnrcnccs are LrsLrally Iirrlndtowardlhc crr(ls ot' the paragraphs because thc infornlali(nr buikls!| lo a conclusiou.a bicyclc har nluch lcss. slop. Hc wondcrcdwhal causcs a chaltgc in nrorion. by ilsclf w.whi(h is thc quanlilyof malleriu a body. Firs!Ncwloltsrudied thc qualiryof inerlin. il willrnoveslowly. Hc olrscrvc(t ihil dre forcc acling on a body comcsfronl anolhcr body. il will!o faster. of lhe rcn(lcncy ol a L)ody ro fcsisl change in its shlc of mori('r or dirc(rioo.llion proporrioral ol a body is inversely lo ils mnss.Thc larger thc mass. A rruck has a grealdealol nass. Why docsa bodyal rcstbegir) ro nn)vcor a Lrody ill nrotion changc ils direcriolr? He dcrermincd dtal if a bodyis at rcsl. Thedireclion ol lhc accelcralion is in rhcdircclioll of lhe appliedforcc.New(rt conclr cd tlrala l)(xly. vcriJying and cxrcndin!thc ra[lierwork of Calileo and Cofefnicus. Finally. Newton's n'condlaw of |r(ni{rr states lhal lhc acc€leration ol a body is direclly rclaledlo lhc lbfcc ircliDg on il rrd proportioDalto inversely ilsmass.Newton explorcddle qlresrionol lhc solrrceol lbrcc. Re^ditlg Puisquarc brackcls arcund thc r(Dic scntencc otcvcryparagraph in lhc toltorving passage.hasa glcatdealofincrlia.lhc bicyclc will go lnuchf. Latcr.alsodctcfrnincs the aDnruul ol incniaaDobicclhir.ir was lhe grenrSir lsnacNcwr(nl [etrhoughmany s(ic'ntists r\. He lhcrcfofc concluded lhal whenevertherc is a forceplrshingin one dirccti(rr.

').T llr^'!uo.{rrruq'rlrlBolur rq.llsodcb.rrououl qStloqrty r .ql Lrlsli)I)olillllllrdx)iq uotlrrrtpro piodssll .rt i|qouotnc 0p ^qM iluol P io.{poqe Jo lruJpu Jql st prurut 't 'enrrur ^\pl rql sr ^^el prtrp s. urJLItLroLrDq r^eq no^ riuE noi trnq ziLult 'tr1o rsr^^ sroqsrnoi op. .)rP slelritPuI silqPt slleM itl)ltsel.LrolMiN 'uoJl)rrlp .uolMrN t Jo 'Iro^^ s.{Erut(ir ror slql IrEq Sl rlsndr)joj llrlrrrlrp 'no^ uo arol allsoddopuB 'lle/$e qsnd no^ uaql^ l3nbeue su€xe l! I9 Srrzis)r|odiH ..ro'lsrlSol ol lernleu pue IsJlrc^ iJLllp.r(l'lood r?Jo qsndnoi u)qM lllilllsrq.)rlprtlsoddo rLF Lrlr^ou ot no.( uo ilulllnd ll Ir.ql Lltnoqlle PUE Jo llu istrr.iq^ 'tiq rnoi lsutpS!lruq qs[(l rr{ r1o.^ 'lPl)os prlpunq oMl roJPIroMurrls)M rLIrJoilurlurl0 lErlldosouqd pue 'lP)ltllo(I II osle rnq pFo^{ r$n(rrs rLIl .{ srsnP) E nulurxi sl IIPMJql llPl .{u!u iiu$ululMs )ql lsulpiJpJJo IIE.rq c)roJ P lr)x) LU-)J n)rlqo ilqPl P lsulgiiPll ssird ro.iuEtt' PJrplllssrsuurrtrs J 'c^o(lr-' ({) esleJ riiPssed Jql ul uonPuuoJul rqt ol BurproJ]u ro (J) rrlrl sl scJ ilLrJs ilLrlMolloj iqt Jo qJccraqlJqMJleJlpul 'orlptt a& a4! 6u!publsr apun 'sJei'.{op ftlM pLrB t r siop roou Jqt )Lrlqt Do^Jl puv uolt).rotle Lrr)ilrrLli^ p'orpds UI p.{ri^i olqerlldd! rre s^'rcls.{ pup pupq Ji)qllnr l)pq ()1 ! uo n^Lrrltu(l .4 Srlql alllo JU'M Dolqo CUO sr.ror)e slrclDu|UJsrJ^lu )LIt lpql tdiJuol clll uoltoru lenrozlJoq qtoq rztsrqllris pLrB :)s.JBupqrlsrsrr ol .llr/\^rot rclror cqr Sulllrdord r)roJ rllsoddo pue lp br R llrxr lrrllt Llrlrl^r 'siscii slildxi tJl)oJ illl Mul slqt uo prseq osle sl IJI)or e Jo tu nl^orll rLIl 'lsll pue UUSUrXrt)ilqo pLrO)rS Jql'.l 'tuitxi iuns ot )ltsPI.{lln rolr p)rlr:)llun! s^/rEl r(liip.{ ol suiddull lEqn ))ltorr oslv no.rLFrxo{ EMg) o(u ot lruts no^ turll no^ !r(JcJJoJ 'rld!ucxc.{ Lr Il4 JJruu rno.rt^tlrl)LIl ul rriq.rrolMrNuo prsPqrrJM sPrPrsioJlne) ' a 'lsrrJrq1 seM LrorMJN '.])r(qo pLroJrlr U Lrc ll UOi)rOJ CtlSOddO lPnbr :^Iel prlqt SIq prlPts UOIMaN ':)JOJ U StJOxi DICLTTLI.4.

conpararivc L). rhir)king b.\'i. . Ncwlonrrlcrrrcdthc sizcof lhc plaucts.r. r. positi(rr afc slill spd(r/dtili.r^rr. yorr sln)er wcirr out lr(causc yor. l t . Thc p()lcsmrwas always on timc and bcganlhc lc(lurctr. According 1{)Newt(n.. i r hr L lrur rrr. nr()vcnrcnt a.. l. l i ' .rr(l 7.grrlesrrs$ whcn travclirrltiu sp. t r . Obiccts b.|r LISTENING SKILLS vocabulary in Cohtexl Circlc thc lct('r oi lhc nnswcf lhat L)cstnralchcslhc woKi as it is r. In ofcoppcr and silvcr wifc wcrc sLu(lic(l .'cilii'A. c . T h c d i f e c t i o n o f a c ( c l c r i l i o n i s o | l ) o s i t c 1 { )l h c ( l i r c c r i { ) n P u s h i n go f f n g a i r s l l h e s i { l eo f a s w i n r n r i n r | o o l i { . nrcaning of thc ilali(izcd irr ils o. r r .jmponnrl 8.lpproxinratcly lf('m day l(' (lay. abootthc origirr ol thc univcrsc.. . cxactlY a. L Gravilykecls lhc nnx)rr (O) |ath b. Yourwcight vdrieJ a. f \ \ r ) . pull rrooD. 4. t 2 . n c c ( i . a.at l). compulcd b.r. 5. NewloD's idcasinflucnccd rvorldthinkiugin licl(ls oLhcrrh. A rockct fuDctioDs o n t h c p r i D c i p l co f d r l i ( n r n r ( l r ( a c l i o r 1 . A c c c l e r a l i ( ) li s f r o p o n i o D n l r o n r a s s . Asrronaurs cxpcnenccr. I r t ) l c o l NcwLoD's s c c o l r dl a w . cxfcrinrcrrlin8 lall downwa bccausc ol tlrcca h'sr/1rvir. 9 . .rcc..62 Hypolhcsizing 5 . 2. A n y c h a n g ci n n r o L i o ni s p r o d u c c ( lb y a l o r c c . Thc fdld/ivradvanLlgcs ir. ( ) 1l a r . Scicnlisrs a.fc wcaringlhe w(Dtj Lrrand.c r\. l . I l o . r .i l n ( l L ) i r l .-rir rr)un{l lho onflh. rcpoacd . v \ . chaDges l). Ncw((D brli(vcd lhirl lhc ur)ivcr:.rscd in cachol Lhcte scnlcnccs.1 rr. r . 1 r tc x . I r ( . . ( ' . 13. \ i .l "t'. irrcrcnscs 6. i s s y r r l r r ) c r f i c .

{rqo.IUDuo:) rlrq.rPuor(rtrqM IPLIr sr urrlq()r(l SLIiuillDrp! sr srn)u iiurlpl liiqr IL )lsLrr s.roM nuol lo sr!r.lr r"t$.rp nol sp.l .r^ t\nru I0. irnlrrt i)rltot oJrsrlrotr sp sJroLr r:{pt I() ML'_I ' 10 Jlu^'t tr "uru sr pjo^^ c jt i(tlr^ .{rnrirrLI ur)^rlrq UOrl). sljrq\ ris iqr prqrPM.drl sr tl sLrol!r^i.{tt^P.r(l(le si(nlLl|^\ r\n 1)0u ssard solule lJe tuerl) l^ oul !)s eJnsseJd JueqdsorulP r^|r)P IIIe)lLuoq) cSprl^ oul )lJllurlrs iil|ol ! to l'lc(lrs.)Lllro) !. ) L t I J ^ oL uL r ro.rno.r) pUU.f u r u o o u 'r q l r ) \ r M ll .rdpun 'isrJrrx.r5 rqr llur..rlt .).\.()Mto surnr piuauoqsisn Allro :.{'rrr t r' l .lr tr "r".nrrri)ltrPq 'Prlr(t(ioLUiq rlrl'\)sDrsrpUr!lr.ro^\ rill l Iuur slulLl n"!r^\olr)t )rl-l_'riNll)pq r!r)Llt l)c)i l)l|!.rroN 'rJnp OzH/^{ xlur %06 LU8I € llEur rJrP^{ qrIM xtru luorrod Itrutu rusr8 ouo elllrnp puP elqeellPw z 'su()llul^i. .r r tlrqr\ rrurtt)rrt np27 )41 Uutpullts.rl 't"r".roll\ l)(x)ii ro .\ Ur ur.r(lqu rlo(lLUlr sL) srJ rP.. r.rPful.r. rLIt rlilruor or srll)u Inol .rJIL'irls )irl J^I]puL)u)^3 n_Lrlstl!!r noi 1!qr$ur(xlnrL'uoikur ijurljDru rq .\ lr rt lr )L'\i I 'strr^!Jq.)ql Iluo l.(l)rnl) irr.)ijul\'rl ll I lrrf rr.{'rn)trrrLlI 'rlr(xl uo lunu.'.rol l)UrJ IIJ^1 )sI or srstrlr0l) ol .)snlLnlt nol r o Pr^Jrqqu ^1oltl l).{ua1 P)(|./r rql f9 Surzrs)qtodiH . \ t r u r r r o r r L ' u u ( 4 u i q r r o l i ' u r p r o)! (i) i)slq ro (.t J 'rrrrl)rt .'c truuJ .rr\LrD:r nol \L' tiuol sP Ll^().rl.)sn rxrlr u)ql pue..rlllr uD)ro f L I r D r) qq l u r o .russi))i)u.lr ot ^.il)i)lrrt)(!r)rll rtl.rM I l).{!rufuD iiUr)lDl rLll'tirrrtrrM llrl{sr rotrnnEUr ).)r.is rrll rstr r! !iLrrqtitUos rtrrM pLr!n"Lrrrlt rLrool u)tsrllr)rruu.r./) )nrl sl sirrlrru)s nrllr\oll(f )qr Jl) rt)t.r/irrrdr P sr )rJLlI ' { l I puPs q luJ.)\ | li.)ql u r l L r .

Yqu cannol feel thc gravilatioral pull bctweenyolifscll and lhc personsillinli rexl lo you becausc il is lio wcak. 4. 1 0 . The ocean'stidesare caLlscd by cclipses. Aslronalltscxpericnccweighllcssl)css whilc tl. Thereis a strongcrforce of altraclkn Lielwcelt tltc slln nn(i lhc canh than betwccn lhc eardl and lhc moon.64 Hypothesizing 2 . 3 . Planelsarc hcld in thcir orbits by the forcc of gravily. Your masswould bc diffcrcDloD Mar$. their 7.r\ . 8 .rvcling in sl). j. Newton calculated the rclalivc wcightsof (hc planctsby studying gravitational pull. 5 ..1(c bccause they arc loo far from lhc graviLrti(nlal pull ol lhc enrlh ol lhe moor. Astronaulsweigh lcsson thc Dtoonbccnusc lherc arc no goo(i restauraDls lllcrc. The law of graviayis univcGaland applicscvcfywhcre. 9.

r lcnbi qlrM Iro^{ 'I I(x)qrsrrJLItrrr pJ))r]s stu)pnls rurcs lqM rrrcldxr ot srsJqnxilq p uuol slNrod Norssn)sIc Sa iurTrsrqrodAH .rillrtPu.ueJU[r8rs JLIIsJlPlJrlPql luJnrrtels HLrrDnlruo) P rlrr.r -/q/prr! tlllt .!\ rrrL.) iql 'in)lil)q.(q Jo lno (lorp\lurprrs ru()s trqMureldxJ 'sir_nrP qtr^rruituIl)dxr rlLr)pnl\ oluos.).sls.{|(ltuqr.s rtdot rnoi sr srsorllod.{LIMLT)IuMseMruqMJoi)ruuruluiJls 'turod rrlpurJqt !rorJ ttr)raJJlp iq lotr iulu fuPLLrLulls Mr!^rr or L()lurruoJul .'tt1trr.rrl(iu.qtod{rl rllt uoddns plrroqsqdurBerBd rLIt lo lsrr III Duolu.rM)j ro NrrlsL'.rro uo prsPq qdPrSPrPd c rlpM uocnpuoJ It t4trltfi 4dDr6orod e 6u!t!l/A 'l/osr.r.r notrri^ilprlM rullro) trolsnpL().{Lrpl!r fut^\urut(ixr or rrsrqrftitrq c Lruol ' s 'sre)Iaql ur llt)q rurt.r!r^{rou oP.u()s.{JrDl).t PiJurru/\^r(l spI()M LIo!rsLrDrl st4t.L ot .r.ql rTlrurlrrrns z u'rr(lu(ltioqsoLrt lr .q ucr ruq^{ zi)^Pq ao| r)prrr rLlt pllroqs iqr PIrx € t)ijji lurl^{ ztrrutro(hur tr sr.{11/.srqrcd.irP lrqr rrolJq rolprlr rlll rtErs ol siurpnts rrnbrr plnoqs slooqrstpql rq lq3rur rrorsnpuotr rlo^ loLri^!q oq^\ rsorll ueql Iooqrs ut rrneq op slPot leuorss{ord .)rl 'unsr)1.u rIL'ruol ru)rs \tLr)pr!s.r 'IllDurJ uotl'ldo rno.{q iqJ nrrrod Lrotssnrsr(I rql ur P)tEInulor s.r.ritl lrs r^eq oq^! noepnts tpqr rJdEcl rno.oop.qos Itltonhsltor ')tu)tl 'tu!] sr4l lo '.ttll rpnpur LrorsnlJrror InfirD$ rl llt^^ l0q^{ art tnoqP.{llsDl) op sr)qlo p ttrroJ spLrrr.rsnllopu.r)r Jql ot lraAIij tLliinoql lsiil(roIsirll surl Ieullitlt sl lr )snu)aq t!rutio(hursrrorsnl)uorv. tr^^ r^pq noi reqMJo i.{qrLItlo.{q P ujoc t 'looq)s p ruroc ' t ol srsJtJlocl.r0t turo(lLlruttr rilurMoll{)l i)!lt Jo i)Lro op lprr| i)rlritrris ijulpnl)u{)) V rrqlutru -i.{ ro] suoseJrr^r3'sr lEql .ldord Jtuos IqM ulet(lxiol slsrql(Xl.{q^\ r]ruldxJ ol srsrqnxl.r )u0M l) Plllotls 't)udrrrl snrlll)rrD.(q e uuol ' Z 'lleJ'.)rsuluolsnl)!rorpi^uqPlno ill l)nl)(ro) o rrnbrr t{)Lr sroPqdur:Jui!d ri)(lp(l riiiool u luq 'r!r.I{) 'rJLrrtuJs Jl(iot ll DL0 aletsiU I liLItl.ldxJ ot srsJqt(Xllq 'lsrt ! rrotP)rlr llrM's{u^\ rrqro rll ls)lloqqijnoqtlD'nLrrplrls luos trqMUrDI(ixJ ot srsrqnxltrq c rurot 'rrurrl pJr({\iqr urqr r)rs|JoHsr)^up.(llllqc 'sri)qro tlrLl^.rud si^lo^ulslq-LsrsDq(hLrJ.rdl.{ Lrlaletsnotr rsoddns'aldurexJlol 'Lr.lJpr.ripui.)(rilurs uorls V 6uulJi4 suolsnlzuoJ S11I>IS 9NIIIUM 'rcu rllq^\'.

L 4.Or yuu mi!:lrr Y"rr r)rrSlrl v('rrrhVnr'tl(si\i: lhat \lutl(rrl\ lnkc tLrrS\l\1'1rr\(rrI l\1r I'r(\sLrr((lrrg5 ro changcthc alti{ude ol young pcopleloward i rn. 2.t.is will ir hrvr? What cllt.Hypothesizing {rAsc\l lhJl lhi\ 'uL'i((l rr(((l\ Irrnl(r rsr'irr(h rr'lrl\r\( dJmilttll.r What can bc done abo l il? Whal shorld the readcrdo? .ri" rttut *" """4 slalcmentallswcrsc/rdof ll'tcscqucsli(nls: your conclutli|g Be surc lhat t. irrrln'rlarrl' t\ lry ir yuur hyPolh!.

yaq g raldeqc .q/!{ ln)ro s8ulpuPtsropuns!l^t sllqrrer$I Itqlo iq poolsrep!ntre iaql /lu)urllpls raqlo ro slssrllodiqs Sullelu llaqM ns alPru lsnll.L9 -_:r r 'possnrs!p Sulaqs! leq^ Jo slderuoJ 're lu rJJrp tql uf.|slsltlrolJs NOII)N(IOUINI [6nug tup.

otft A more specific than thei( common meanings. ol ol ils nrolior bul alsoLlccause not only becausc An objcctInayhavccDcrgy wour it is sloriDg waLch spriDg is . in ways thal are way. "what is i1?" sometimes a deliniiion is because a word or concepthas more than one meaning. and lhc cncrly or subslanccs in lbe releascd by cnzymes ro be thc c. whcn a For examplc. For example. cncrgy. For examplc. Communicalion other twolegged creaturcs processes. The Greek philosopher Plalo oncc defined man as a two-lcgged crealurc that has no fealhcrs. a definilion is required becalrsca term is being uscd in a spe(ial and erfltu. many lypcs ol ki|clic Thcrcarc js polcnlial cncfgy cncUy and nuclcarcncrgy. thc energy stored rhc wofk ol lo do slorcd i body.1r gasoline by lhe sparkplug 1. conccpls. lhcF polential inclLrding chcrnical and cncrgy. lhc harrds of it will do lhc work of nlovirrg When lhis cucrgyis rclcascd.andoil.likc urariuln thal is norcd in lhe nuclcLls .l)ilily (auscs harl)rlrcr has lhc Thc novenlcDl of thc it to nlovc. and pr€cise substan(es. necessary wherhcr carbon is a mctal or nonmetal dependson how yoll deline carbon Al oiher t.whcu a hammcr .Thislbrm ofeDcrgy cnergy. dclinition should be complete enough !o include all thc items in the calegoryyet narrow enough to eliminate irems that do not bclong. "Herc is Plat()'sman!" The problem with Plato'sdefinition was that it did no1distinguisha man Iiom betwccn researchers without feathers.mes.)do i1swofk ol propelling musl bc releascd Ibrward. on thc nnjl tlrat l(ilrclic (lo wc call kilrctic crrcrgy has li)rnl ol cDergy lhal work aD(lthcrcfore a lo cncrgy is lhc crlcflly of molion. its Dosili r of shapc.Thcrmalcnergylnay bc dcfincdasrhe kinelic crlcflly olnn)lecules whcrr 1o Lha!slrb:iLance is h€aled. definilions of is dcpendenl on ideas. clcclrical. Short Reading for as nranytypcsof cncrllyirs to lind dcfinitions Readthc lbllowingpassagc TheManY Fortrlsof EneryY a l(ncc slrikcs a nail.Juslasthewaichllnirlgrrccds in gasoline. polcnlialcrlcrgy is s()rcd Polentialcncfgy is callcd thc walch.which calrses a subsrnuce lccl hol. Mcchauicalenergyis cncrgy relltcd to the movcrlcnl ol objects Elcclfic Nuclcarenergyis LhceDergy cDergyis cDcrgylhat is l)roducedby eleclriccharycs.thc molcculesnove fastcr. thalis slorcd moleculcs nccds i lbod moving the hands. physicisis use thc lerms lL. nral. to be rclcdscd food.i! cxcrls Ellcfgyis thc abilityto do work. ol polcr]lial Walc| ilr a dam is anothcfexample cncrgy.A definilion answers the queslion. declaring. of cerlairkindsof abnrs. Chemical mcchanical.His critic Diogencs lcfl the room and brought back a bird withoul fealhcrs.

- .t16 rrJrr).4v u! r e )J.Dereq3 + ssel3 = urrrl 'oqM )11tlJ Llll.l|o pJlrs y 'sP qtrns 'srllsrr)))P. r\t st ..ry ANICA(] OJ.tl \ ).{8rau.lI.ouatu.\e LtrDs. u r l t J t | r o s ) '.lttt|u)t )lta\ .ll to'n4 toqt 'rplry'l1 u su.r.ltrit.rPqr y )I{t1. l r p r P \ r J q 1 s .Dn lt)tlLt)lad (b' lt) tD)|u)rt) Put srllslr.\i)/ 11 . l p 1 s J l l s u ..rpJ(l(lu sJLurtJruos sJltslrit)u.uuo L1 V p rrortrlfitrp p .HSI'IDNII 69 Sulul.p ot t:tltul.rrl)erprt) It 'tlo '|loal attUosDll ut p)ot! !t te4t lli.. nuat. Ie)luprl)itu ( prlrl)p rr)rq suq.lAo/trtl ot p)Nla.rur.lJ.rldruDxi sPIrc rpnpur rorl ssDlr strJosr)qriul Plnoqs {Jerrn" Jo Iiql{r ruort uurl rLIl r)P'l{rrrrurp ruD)ds Ir snl(ltur)l D Io tpql s)ltrl'Jlrpreqr rrollP)rlrssPlrlPrJurit)qtipnl)UrplnoqsLri)rtrurrrppoon^eleqlprlsrlJSnsrllolsr.Ju qtLi tt)uit"Dutl)t.r ^fuillr st t\li.lb lut:tla d4t tl r'.{8rJur )lrautI Iro^\ op 01 + llllqe = ^3reuJ ( rsPrqd lPuonrnr(lij(l r o .trl.uoloru Jo .Dnl\.at)u. s c ^ l d J ^ l t $ r l l u ! l r u J o u u o J J L l t.ls pLrP lL.t)|3 stJelqoJo tueue^our eql ol peleler (sl lPqt) .Qrltr ro :PInturoJ uolltutJrq ':ti.t IIo pup'pooJ + 'Ju!losed u! pJrots s! lpql iSrJuo IelluJxoo ISrJue lEJIruJqJ 'nIurnbrrl) qll^ SulLILrl$q isnLrt) )^nrlJr E sp rDrdllD srtlst.lro )NISN .\ur\rrt^i $1140lb tnut.)Lll) rl)qM ul isuDl)i^l)ulJ.

u:. not lre gifaflc(a spccillc Pallerns Sentence DEFINING + r(:s cH^R^cr."i ll*.* It***'] I**..lly not uscdwilh lbc lcfm bcirr!(lclirrc(l 2.11i(lc. Thedefinile ." I lA brrumrrer I I J D n s r l u r n e t rIl '' 1 condu*i"n I I" p--* f pr.) . dcfinitions girirllc). ' m e ' ) f " ' .) lhc (hrrrclcrislics enerSy + €nergy (hc tollowingi rcnrclnbcr N0lEr whcn dclining.:ll.crhrc rhr univcrsc.. al .rrndlener!! lnd! b( rlctnc(1 (Thcuseof thc modalol fossil)ilily .ir J who rhnL bl wh(h wherc tn nd trly Jurn.ausc rrc.| .($ure.] It'tmir'urrnpetcrtri.Irtre lJ u. fstudics I ri! p.r ) lPhysics I [A volr ] s r u r tI v '.tnerlt| oltllr ec lct.rrur(5 t lhua' i< rJnstLn(ri l arc P(rrol'ne.70 Defining asthc kineti. Th..i" ". J rnr.In.rr.J lr.. lir cxa|nl)lc.ili.rr LA lahnhLoryJ [. ".7dvindicatcs thn! rhcfeis nlorc lhnn defincs0nlcrhing.) oDcway 1() thcrmal ener8y kineli( enerSy cn(rlll ts slarcLl e erll! Patenltd! prcccdc (Sonlelimes th( class. Definitious bc.arLera . wc would (lclincd ltiraflc(irr arc general stalcnlcnts. gcncrnl).'r'.lJ IcxperimeDLs f r " x ' o n ...t'J [*lt.nLsr sPr.. prcsenl rcquirc 1hc sinple tcnscalld lh(rvc lo lrf. is usLr.r. l.

.rillto(ro.a irlr rnoqL'pUp lo.)ul(lii plnorlr.to ll .)ur iq.r n^Uo..)^ )rp siolcU. r p q t n _ u r l u sr ^ r r : r r f t l or g .rno.l^l.\\ JurlurJlxl slronrurJlrp uJllu^\ il. r)q^\ s)rlt)L'r(l juln)jl:)lo i. Jst)Ji(l J!l lrrlt n_ur.'.\ sl tPq. ^ l u i r lp s orlrurjr r l n ( r qU vp .tu). J(lLUo)..lr(il) .sUoll(lt. .)rrrLppru v t . .)t(dpUy .)f rl)p) rllr^.8 tprrsrlrr tp|lsrJr] 'IUIL'uo.. .)7rs 'Arorqls.tp iiutMollol plrpsuo tutlJl) pooiiiiLrr.{rLr1)uoriJL..'llrrlrrrl) LrLr sr urnrl)PN I 'snorriiuDp h.ql pnol) p sr n-{U.)rl tuo)qr u sr .rot ruouorl .lJ lt )lt?0ltrlrJltl) :)llDr(l\ .{trnrs rqt sr. t p i o l p o o i i .rL' tPrlM'qtnou. ! tpq^{Mou) rr1 lrql ir sr leq^ t.9 'irl:rtll:.\l 'irItrlror s)rlripp.))ill turrurlolsv s!oltlrrrJip .. ?^\rt{ rlosJi(l u sr lsrruouorilu uu..tood r()s i.ru no.! 'noruosDr. Jo '..t ssul) )rl) r.tlllrriIl 'lt plnoM )^oi(lrur puu lroi ^\orl ssrrr\rp uoltl(rt.(rorlll}trlu)r)s v I u z z r ( l r u r r r r i ^ I r s l q o L I ^ rL r r l r p w D o l i i r t t o r l s t r r P l ( i x i.')l)uruqr zs)suil J.z ___ lI .usr ^{oN rrorrrLrrril) r.qt:rrlrDtsqns p srrolplnsul uy .l JrtMl (s)rttstr)trl'rL'qr rlrrlls pup'rrlro rql s\Dt) iqr )Llrlr)pun 'sLlolrru(rpljr ^^o oj Jr Jo rt)t:) |t lulrrrJn_ sLlourullao Gutz/llouv I/ tu:u!tr(l .LrolllULJil).{uru s(losl. { l l c i rt o r q r .rol 9 y ! Ir.tpoq rrrllouIrrttqr0rPrlt 1p(rtl u sr )trlt)lr!\y .4)rll loU Itrl ol .1 punoriirLItuo rr r()ttr.(or(1u L|rrM tr Mo oJ urLIlrng |rpr iJtrorM ui^!Ll )l(lo l notrr1i)(1M.)Llj tprlts) st.scii u st )lrtrotl)u(xl.t Jo u sr srltrlrlul € l.rl:r ro lL'Il trnpuor plr srop lL.^rrr rql jo.J J] rlro )rp Poronrrd .lotsrrrllrprniJ )!uos rro xoq iql !tl l))tsr't tuoutu{ao 6ury to) '.)tqr:ltllrrpulrorr pup ]qij! sr tpqt sDiJ !I|| Upsr tunrtrH . rlrl s oltlLrljip..rtu)Lr) luu(lslrDrllpLIl lr^rp e \1.n r -Lrlt)p i.r r)tu)) rLll sr tpqt urcjqrqt Jo lrud..ur..r^.4uS '!urit .$req .ttolo)a.)^11!n"itr rsn IrrrLIr i r n J U o lr' ) u .)x)Usl .Ir) iLlj .'JqrcLrD ol ru.)rl(ts (tiJr()r 'rsuP 'l)rr 'p no' sr. r l u o ss r ! z r ( l p .'rlrrLru luJr D xtrr st Lu()rrrrn 'srrrJds rrl0o pur lrrrrrrsorlcH rlppurddp tuorrpnD uDsr rfr V .lilpr)irJ^ Lrllxr sr otLnuol u.s)l(lLltu\!ssflJ p)lr\1.{Lur i(ll orrqlrlnJ rp rrollr ]oLr sr Uo rLrrr)p )L|lrins rIol.qr sr unrq.t.

r r c ' u a r " ' r a J t r 7 ..l::..iili'l.gi"s w'o is uscd i" '. n e c e l l r d animal/ constanllY shapc 4.ilii u."*. Aas ol theair Ir is a tordrcls oLlocss .l*ir. A suPcrnova a blg nova RehTtitleClauses lhat conlai|s a [oLrn' (] a verb A relalrvc A clauscis a pan of a scntence nn)sL rvilh wlL' that \rher'' at wha wl?rf. "''. r ' I l ' . aorr"'ltaa a aze cdlzd' adl44d l/4aJ r:c.. ol in lht nLrcleLrs paniclcsTheyarc (ont'ir1((l chargcd aIc positivcly L Pfololls ^)'. Srtl]. l c r r r ' i|r ' r n r ' l r ' r r ' l ' i v e ' l r ' t s . "ni. i ( .. ' ( .iiiiili"". .1lii.riv.r*l definilionsolienillclLlLierclallvccIaustscon!aillinSlhccharaclcrislic\Lhaldinin glrishan ilcm lrom othclsin thc class r r" rr' ( r(h ol rh( I' ll' s rrrF'rljr' I i r" rr" Llsinq Riative a/d. " :ti':"il'll:li: ]l'l:ff. A amphibian ls I0. **''cal rcacri(n " t"]'::l:X'ili:i1l.1[l ils changcs L a f a m t .iliililxil i liii.'l'iil'il.'nrs u.'.' li)nnii r'hcvafesinrPlc lbnnor lileon carh arcbacrcria' l'.ii..rrc rivc and r. r .ha.72 Defining iooksiike a clock 8.lti::i:i"lllll'iliilll:i'ii'i.ai.lll-.s.orccrecLforrs thcloss rt ir\volvrs . J r ' . 2 . i..|\er' L''rnL' \ ' . *..':i. ot o'c or r. fil'i.llti'.1n.'.iil lgK. A Lrlack i. .rlzrz el an altn' l)lrllsolowcllrrl llraL holc is ar)arcniir sl)accl( hasa gf'lvitaliolral 2.ran.i. iilllli. llr[g / orgal1/ Irrcalnlng . t b .:"1':llHl'l'.'i.t" i. A conrPass is like a frogor a r"rllc 9..ii. pcopl! Sclc'rcc ro rcferrins when "t..r.)))l) 'l*'t"a **t"o u"l "* *"t"o*a * "*. l r L r g.. r ( ..1ii.0 pcrcenL . and '?'r 'rc a"."':fJ'li.:il.i"'ce dcfiDirions.r*to*t+ lh" ru."'.liilllil..

Sullturlrriql ssinil ot .j] .!l noIJI rr iJursr.rFhupxr rol Mou{ .)^il puPsp.i iq ro qrur ilLrr^.{pD.suottlL!{ao6r1!bat) su(nPrc rrltrnu.{e.to rppr r(n tsrl P.ro.)Lr r()nruurpI rlElnrrroJ )lP'rbrpeur sr uouruurp iqt \Dor^qo sr tr p.no.rrlrrrq u i7 ..\oltor rrtt.JldurcxJlol 1l Jsli^ir or sr rlrldruor sr Lrolt$rl.Jord stsJtltlr.je )u1J4ht) teql ttD st lplutua ut 1)3 .)|un$ s puesJEe 6tqqltMleullue ue sl lueqd€te uv rlrnI'|cnb0 ou 0l .r rrs ot Ip^ poo8 V .{ 'lrlrrr4 ilu[rE)LLr rq] Morr) lpprrlp no.^ 'llltutLt1 uL1 st )ut4d4) r.(P r"x uu € rirpFq P z '({1..rp no.4sonnld / / s plrnos / JruJrJs / sJrlsDorP t €/ SururJr( .{ .as ol sr proM MrLr e Jo.)qt sprpqluoq sntplpddl'/ uorlol)..ulrler'6 snrr^u il litoloiit S lll.p p .ra^Ji )^r.{ Jo Jr )1rc Ol pJtPIir sl llJr .M iuo 0ltlryng tJolnqbtot s1'lIXS TNI(IVAU .{r '8 / lPiq s userur / trun / Juol!) 1 uorDurr D iq prfueqr lolr sr rnq dn spir(ls rruetnlns lslletl'r '9 IPr[urqr / / pooj rrllrEJnupu stuDld ss. :)s.

or sxo-: outside exogefious-due to exiernal causcs endo-t lnside endogenous-dve lo internal causes . 7. l. 6. lin oll)rclixcs thc ftrlkn^'ilrg Prefixes: ecto-/exo-.rc gocs Uorr 5i(lc Lo snlc il { rr. a littlc uni!. rclalcdwo|(lscnn bf nrislcading. r r l l r r rl l r | .lsLrring or anglcs din:rnces .ycr ol pr)loplnsnr ! 1 . iurilas woftl fans can sonlclinres or nrcalls cnomrous ahhoughnrlt?/r'r lcad you astrayFor exanrl)lc.r/r1refcrs l1) (nnclhing good lltla(c(l wofds 'ln) help you 1()remcmbcra ncw word For crnnldt.l wilh lhcir thc lcli bclow thc tcrnrs aL then ma(ch ancl lis(ed. maclo. a uriuuLc l)cfi{Ji1 l. il yolr krr()w lhat r0'tr' rrcaDs wilh drugs lhal //tdxl. . endo_. cxlcfDal intcnrnllaycrol l)folol)larln 5.nicto-i small microscopic-loo small to be seen without a microscopc nacro-i latge flacroscopic-lar9e enough to be scen with the naked eye a L eclol)lasnl 2.Slr'r(ly lhc rillhl You nrcinirllls. r p .ersc ol linrc c.d e n s c D L t c l c u s i. vou will rcnrcmberrhat a hotiza'1h l/. thc enlircr. fclaling hcal h .?rrirctnrdl rncansliny or v(ry snlalll Thc onlY 'rr(l lils the s('lrlcnce yolr hnvcgucssc(l is lo sc( il rhc nlcanins nlinakcs nrai(ing Iaragfaph. an insLfrmcnlIor mf.?4 Delining can gucsstllal the woRl . r r I . t .lnlsnl qLr.rDivcrsc b.frcr'. occasioually guar(i agirrnst iv']y lo very lnrgc.r very nrilrrltcorg.drrdrrleaDs poi(nroLrs. n1L'anings no1 tsc all thc will cclo. Howcvcr. i1 \ryillbe caty 10 rL'rrrc1nbcl lx)isorrcd rhe rorlff is thc line whcrc Lhcsk} sccrls10 And il you know llrnL or alcohol. mccr thc earlh.micro-. cndoplasnl L Nicx)bc ir. a l i r r g c .rrlilics ol to srrrall ll.

ul8uc aql .LII 6 Jo JtPl'poui q tl J.1.M 3 'prtrr prureurpr .Jrrlul ilou lot rrlptlrnouroql dot LroploJ .I) prrpnls oq.'Inotsed 9 csl9J e rsnpq uiDals B 'MOpUl.E .loq.b lunlpu Jo uollp asuoJ urlorq q ./ se.llxJ p Sululqtuo) q iirrllllds e 'l)l)nu)ruroleJol.rC .f 'sJJuelursrssql q)ea ur prsn sr se ploM pJzrJnplr III Jo Sulueetu lr Jo aqr saqrrP(rl $rq rPql re^ suP rql Jo rrnDl e\{) dpt\J #ayo) u! tkDlnqvroL gt Sulugrq .{ tslubqr qrLrarC ul sr8upqr aqt Jo rleu cql Z ESZI lerluJqr (p ruap .M 0q1Io oplsuleqt uo ptlglnurnJJp Jodr.z .uolslllo) uo-pprqarll eudsao € uollp^resqo q uollPlresercl E | 'urrols rql SuFnppesearrur purM rql Jo rirol/ rqI .{./orrry'rql r(q[trsp)pr srl8rcuf 8 'lrsrrlr.q rtqpqord(!) 'sptezp\ erg p1!r21od e srr!^ .JruI .{ollBLlv 0l Jo 'tuluo. = :spro.lolloJJql uers 6u!uuvrs p uoll9redrs q uo!leLrlqLuoJ 'IEltuj raSuorlsE salgur teqt slpt rl !.l.l lprrrlrrlr pr/p.{tooql loleul e sp.u irl) JrtJ -€ t uollPnbr Jqr ur r renrt rql Jo SuruEJnr 'ggll :sproM G letlder p roJ lool-rlJu.ro[IrJo oMl |loJJrlp sl .{lrltlun .l^ Jprsu!)lnssrld tql lle .^i arll ul rrlpl .rrr g -rr.r Jo uolllLluapv I :But^^olloJ Jq1punorpslJ)j)erqlnd pup ssalro s nulur cJlt]t ul a8essed Sul.pJddorprjlupjed(url eqt urqM .M ulcS s. J'nol 0r{l '.rno Jo tnsslluPuodu4 uDs! slslroJ puPSJJ^D sBq)ns'sEJJnosaJ agl .(.prddpJunsBMolltoq cql uJqM / pas9rrJulq )nI q rpr] tis P ' rl)lp u rqt J0 Arotslq ul qtnorqUgaiq pug/rrr aq ol pr^ord.Iro^^ :sproM!\r{) gr.

no clrcrgy is losl Whcn ra'cficasufc cncrgy. energy or Lhe gairs kiielic cncrgy. you liti up a whcn yotrr mrrsclc ctrcrg)is higlt. ol Lhc lixxi votl cncrllv Lhc chenri(al yor'r ire charrging rock. mechanlcal k o m o n c t y ] r c 1 o a n o l h c f o r l r a l r s l c n c i iI n ) r I o n c whcD encryy is lfanslbr'nlcd bociy ro rno(lrcr. inlo kincliccncrlly lcntialcncrgyis bcinglransfonncd lo 'nolhcf orrebo(ty Irotrr a lrarrsler irrvolvcs ofcncrgy the transfcr Frcquen(ly. has losilion a lrcc olr an applehanging rl lrnrc' At lhc s'rnrc dccrcnses ils hci8h1 bccalrsc potcnlial cncrgy falls. I f w c w c r c r o n l c a s u r ec n r c l l l l y n l l t h c c n c q ] y t h a t r c l n a i n \ n l t h c c n d . irlo havc eatc| polcnlial cnergy rock's inlo the chaDginlt Muscleenergyis translormedInto energy.76 Delining Reading E = lttcz For ex'rrrplc' Ir()rronc lypc to arrolhcr' or changc(l canbe iranslormed EDcrgy As rl {)l cnerg) or thc po(cnlhl ercrlly. wc iliscovc! thnt Lhc l o r a i i l n n r u u t r c n i i r r s i n l a c l s L r | l ) o s cw c l r r c f a r c d . c o o k c ( i .n r r d t h c r r a l e s o n r c ol (hi\ l o o d .it loscs Po' irr(rcrscs vclocily i1s Lrccause of nnni(m. yolr rock lili lhc As mlrscle cncrgy.

$ sD.LIl lo urlsurt u)qlv..r.ti'rJtrg(llrrrLrinni plrp s! qrns)qlr^\pJuuts i.qt lt '.xr rrll'.l(xr) )orltp.r)llo!Lr .t ]lrl(l\ J(l ilj)LtJ.rDr ru.()t or Iu rqt Ll urn-.st lt-..{iiriur t!.)r)rl^.\ pLrp r|rxorp lt otrrlssld qrrq^{ uoq.riltpW ...tiirrui lurll rH puu.).))d\rqt ol tuptsIorD srr puu lo l0nbr '.ssululo ! sl Jlrqt llqt.r!rurlr srrll sruolu .qt prllp) sr srqt ft) pillrrr]r^ru tnq rJqtolr! ot rtlroJ l].)qtiDlll lDrrruiqr .g8Z pill:rtsuolurp .I)suor )qt ruo.rc .)l)^o)slp sea u.ljp(l! tll(ls ulolu rLrnr(rolnl(ljo rrrnr!tpjt\ u uiqM l)illLa ss))oidu 'sluotu LLrnlupin iJL .r!i.\or(l rq ol trjoiqt s.uotlstt suoirniLr st l|.p)Urnq qllM sJtrrr}Lro) )Ltt.rJltPruJo llno) uo|!^rrsUo)Jo ^\ul .rr^uor ruorl )q snrltoe] .{il.rD^. ! rqt Lrr uiitlxo :')qr Ellldl)oo.r)ql to tqijr)^\leuriluo rllt lpnbr llr.r rrl iiutlln\ir lr) tUt\otltu in-rtrl Io pLru ill)r(lL'i i.r.iollsrp rlro pit.tt rjurtsrp lorr $.' *ffi mffifs @ * sez 'n''"..qrc:.nl! plno^ r^'l .r rr Uortp.'uollceer ulEqc ie6tcnN -s'-w & "4" ..ru!s rlll trnrpxrpun s.r r.r.Llt'\nlll .iJxl = j/.nxlp^r.r sr srrll sslru rqr ur I) )ijupqr ou sl lplol rr.l)^ i)r^ puu.l|rsr!FL' puLr.{n^rJuJ olul pinuurl) rq rrltprlr prl)tprr(t .rrq1rn"()r p)pl)pr.) jo lo tunorLru ttluo!up Jql slu)s).1 Jrll sl ll/.rutnq rrqx)upot rtur)r ruo ruo.lo wrt ro rrrptoLrsr Jr.urDru).r)\0or to ^^!l .rl(luDx.{'{ tLliit.raqlr trlrts Llnl u1 1jq1 (lnsr^riJ .()c rnupqr DL ssptu.i truuW 'sslrrr jo uo|Lr^r)sUo) rql Mpl iqt prllD.[rr l) I()]unor!!.ljpiur^uo) rq Lrpr.ri^ i)!l(i rrlul !rol)pr.rru.Jo slunotUl? sIo(r l)lnor -.n I w i ffi @ # : # '(lt!r(rl .r:)Lrr rql lo IonE^.{ijr.6t6t ptlu^ ll ur pi.....^.&.rprxorp Iuror u.ro.ur)lsurJ .n )rups )qt t tv siqsD jo rrd l)oo^ sr poo^4 c U)LI^^'.rodr.r(irl J tro0u]rbr snor(|ul slrl L p)srirdxt sp^\ l(lDLto)srrll .{n-rrrri ilrLtolp U !torn)ld\) )Llt p sisurli.rLlr\.)tiLrrl .!relJlnuts lLrql onD^.lprllrixrd su qrns) ss or(i Zt 3u!urJaA .iilJrLr..ur rlrl .(ID)LI puD.{D.lrliirl p.{(l pJrurl).{xo .priortsrproUpilp)r:) rrrsro^ut olUy tsrtu)q) rl)orrt iql ut l rq rrl{ll.ps.\rrsuor )qt piTuorllr pl tL.r .

ua.tia u. ol clrcrgy oillratlcrandLhccolrscfvation saidthal thc conservalit)n 5.tqa tr+Pe ta a*touen a't bol4 t/' *uile.1P cncrgyis lhc cncrgyo1posili(r] 2.. Encrgy Iiom onc LDdyLonnolhcr' tfanslcrled I 'aeXq. Eiustcin's provcd. Fusion placc to t.ke lor ltrsi(nr healor cold is fequifcd 11. lach olLheiollt.tr. of lhc human ra.cteur. rt-a. canbc lransiirrmcd l."p.g. hy(lrogcn t'kc\ is callcdflrsion When fusioD Lrlhldfogcnnlto heLium The transfornalion Inlo i'i uanticrred which mass ol aInount rrons bsc a tnall place.hed W l1 . b dc'Y ..'/t ba ./ .eur luantiticsof energy atoms htlirt|n lo Ionr aloms combilc are foun. Potcnthl to do.78 Defining can ol llssion fial is lhe cxactopposilc Allhoughit maYsee slnnge..L""Lu. Exlremc ill an alomiccxlrlo\ion on lhc carlb rcslrlts 12.r Lh€ ntcds nll ol sLrpflv 'nrr pu4rosts thal peacclul Ior l.l al itrc ceirtcrof th{: ntn. of 1l)litling reaclion ot thc slourcllairr rs d rcstrh o(ctrrs exprosron 9. S c i e n l i n sd o r r c ! r $ r r l e s o m e l h i l g i s r u c L r D l l le v i ( l c n c cc o r r l i f r n \l t @ o. ihc dcvelopnrcrrt into Inallef convcrlecl off clcctrons it givcs 8.t"usionproducedon thc crnh canaiso d lLrsrcrr origilal atnnic bomb Bu lhe prirrciple ihan Lrrc morepowedL.lhirrgs 4." "*rgv lilnc.litlg the Readirg.c lbr a iorrg wilh unile$tun. Fulim produccd LISTENING SKILLS Vocabulary i Conl?. lhe hYdrogcn jn is mlrch s4tich l)omb a hvdrogen rcsuhs er. whcn au alom is spliL. UnlikcnratLcr. proccss as rlrch hcal' of inlcllsc dili(nrs co Undcr alrn . EinstciD arc unfclalco c crgy was ncvcr ol nlattcr:1n(l thcoryaboutlhc conscrvalion 6. An alomrc afc conllrlrlcLl takcsplacc()Dlhc lLlnwllen two trraniufiarclns 10.. Circlc the lellcr of thc nnswcf lh'l bcsL r alchcs lhe in eachof lhcsc scrrlcrlcc\' woftl ns il is Lrscd mcaning ol lhe ilaliciTed l .crgy. I(irrctic of dcslroycd callllolI)ccrealc(l cner8y 3. yotr havc cncrllyis whcDyou lic irr lrcdlhinkjngol all (hc. tia"dk'rwA h4""1a.s'ing sLnlctentsis inconsislcnl try compr(hc[sion your readjDg passag( Tcn prcvioLrs in lhc informaLion thc i1 corre(lly arr(l rcslnting irr cach slatcnrcnl thc crfof finding bul il ('nrrot bc fronrorrelypc lo anolhcr.. Lllalcncrllycarrl)c encrgy demor\nratcs ol alorrlic ..

r ro rJqutnLtar UPJ no^ ssElr rJ+p sJlou rno.{prrsJrrnosJr rllo'fJ^rJsuo) lou sr l)nlJJ 6 pr^ordrul prlr.? )q tref JUo./.pt poo3 ! sl rl 'oslv Jo ' l q l 8 l r l u u i l t r D q o t u o 1 l s o o t D J cl p q l s i s u J ( l dJ o s p r o M i l i J u l s i J u r s n l)ro^V .z 6a SururJrC .{SriLriteUt Jprrr'rl J^\ prrrul P ss:tpu.rpDr8rItH[J P i8Jrug Z or srSuPqr SIDAIP uuoj Iqesn ssetP ol r :8uEqr @ .rlno^ Jr sruarr JLII rJllelJ.{8rauJJLLu spriu sla^ lP plro/!.sO rruilrelpts eseqrJo q)Er s)trldnrcr lsiq lEqr rr^lsue r$ J(J r'1rt lr 3 nrrrtr irt rlnrtrrl rqr Jo rcrsuJllrrdurotrrno.rr^4 puE LrrEd .rlf J^ .r\ uiqM lnJJsnssJlr.)tlt rrortrprror JLlt 1l Jo prz[rPBros'p r] p)z[rEBro e 'npiosp ul ser'J. tuoleroqplrql Jlnptrrq sDded rqt port tou plno) rM 'Z uortrl)uo) q ss../.i l o u L r lt r r u t r o ( l L U 6u!4r!^aroN 'q dn pisll s oJ^cs 'lrl. J T n D J IJ q l 0 1 L r J l S r n l o.{ MJr^rr no. { J J s o ) S u r o 8s r J u o o u l p q r p l | r l l r u r ( l J i ) l s r p D i d s) J u l s s . f u tt o ( r o l ) ' S u l l u l .4r sr DJ 9 pjcalrcq prc^ 1l rol P lur^r luJA 'turLuLrrdxr 'streqlJs rql qtrMprlrrJdid.sion P ! 'uortcrrdo rql )trds.r.rrrrt p seq tu)llpd .aS r)qumu Jo O rJnJl slLlt sl.({ 'ijrllulrlt ^{ollol J L u n J t s r ? ^ o ^l t u r ? ^ 1 \ 0uof no^ tu([ alllllno puts !D or iir rcu op Nq 'p)pt urEttr D s)rdor(lns s! stn)]l lsl ol 0.{q 'Luroj pr1!)tplrl p ssr lrrs srH t t4rrrrrru sD^'\ € J^ordur q J)npiLE 'tr&JUJJsn J.r 'q .InosJ lprnlPurno lqinoqt rrrrc sP^^rt.'ot .r'rrlr rr).4\ s.{3riuJ isn J^{ uiq^{ JsnpJJq I 'llD:)rr no^ dlrq 0l srloLr rnoi .rJtPl u r i ) q tp u i i n o t r u l M i s u r s i l u u r o l r l B n o u rr D r l ) r r P ^ i r l l r u l l l ) r n s r I P ( u l s n I n o l 'lpLurtlpjit j )irro).)pp. .1.{ U../44rrr.{ lsJr '.rJord P '. .{s9 silou iDl .ro l ( i t j x i s J l o u i n o .rnud1 aql bu!\1uttl epun 'JsDrrxr rxru Jrll JJIdruoJ 0l sJlou Ino^ poe J S nU J L I 1 J L I It o p u l J q L . ) J U J t U i lS ) i J i J ( l L r l i t u M o t . 'Jldrupx).LIM .(Jrlt rllds)O ( pJr']r ! '. J S r J ^ r o n 'drqsuowlJr rlJql lJuplJ ol 1lrl:.l.J4r pllos slr rrr rrlP.

oftler 1()dis{)rder inlo lhe air 7 .80 Defining L All cncrly rvtrllLrill) wind\ trl. won r nappcn li)r a long tinrc lr. hcnl crrcrgy changcs 10 mlrsl:lc crrcrgy WhcDyou rob youf hands. l c h o f l h e s c c r c a l i v cd c f i n i l n J | s . 1. l h c y a r c d c v c l ) p c d L ) y ( h c w r i l e f l o c x p r e s sa n o p i n i t ) 1 . ir\ a. Pcrllrnc cscaping diso cr a. mosclcenergy b. Encrgyalwaysflows nlovc Irom Narllral proccsscs a. KDowledgc is thc anlidole 1()lenr. Etlltttotl . Rdh t WdLl. woD'thappcrr . disoder the saltandpepper? Separate il ol the urrjvc|\c bcc. r ly o L rl h i r r k L h c wriler nrcanr and whcLlrcr yolr agrcc ivilh lhc wrilcr. r u n s d o w I l r i l l a. b.F o r c . Thc rnair idcaol tlrisl c c t l r f c i s l h a l c n e r g y I ) . o cr 1() L).l c l l $ 4 r .qy t .disordcr to ordcr of thc chnnlrc an cxanrplc lo kineLic crrcrgy t). er('. polcnllil eucrgy bc in a slatcol will cvcnlllally irl dlc lrnivcrst 8. kineli.lusc 9. Wc do not nccdlo worry al)ollll hc dcgrncration a. 10. cnn't Lrcdcslroyccl DISCUSSION POINTS or "crealivc" (lcllnilions Thcy do rrol li)llow lhc Bclow nrc vrnc nonscieDlillc I o n n l r l a f o f a s c i c n t i f i cd c l i o i l i ( ) l r i n n c a d . EvcfyLhiult b.

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more makingthestatement addsimpact.scan somclimes point not be a point. image For or concrete down to a specific regular smoker-loscs that a to say smokingis bad for your healthand anothcr smokedThc fol cachcigarctte and a haliminutesoflife expeclancy aboutfi-ve interesting' more mcmorablc. example il' providing for evidence as well as and morepersuasive. A chinese clartfya potnt is to Sivean example is worth a one example said that is woith-a tholsand words lt might alsobe staterncnt general abstracl or the brings An example explanations. and 10give evidence to explainor clarifya conccpt useexamples Scientisis ofa point lf the validity e to tes! se to suppo it. thousand to saythat thing it is one €xamplc.chapter 6 Exemplifying Heat INTRODUCTION the bcstway lo stat€mcnt. Exampl. After giving a definitionor makingany 8en€ral provcrb thata picture says of it. may therc a canbe found to illustrate no example Short Readitrg below and underlinc examplcsof how hear affc'ls lhe propReadthe passage efiies ol matter. a2 .

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We pasteurizemilk and cool( meat heat' othe. ) of a coll(cPt very hot or cold This is exemplified when we touch something and feel Pain' to kill harmful bacteria and '.'1 co'tcxr thc Lrv i(rcntiricd bc ornv carr oricn anti ..t.ni". turns red' lhen orange' increasinBly higher temperatures' br. for example.'.?.pt...i1. and then white at Ilon.il.84 ExemPlilYing the coldrql nldtttr' Tempentur(nlters of m('rc'' a 1tnrdilraIlr a ltw wor(ls a \cnlcncc' ntoy. thc faraglaph) is poured into it A glass may break when boilin8 waler he pr'r"n/rc d '..LtJIeitul Thesizeol t1nobJet:t /d' (lLrcwords \u(h ns /'"xd'4"' tFx.tunpcrdtLttt is.organisms that cannot tolerate ' .molcs are nol alwayslnnrk((l wilh .tton ii.s Thcabilit\tol'a fittat to rctiJ/ which can Heated wires €ause excess €lectrlcal movemcnt' damage machines' n\1+xrdlttlrtltntr!lc\ sDtdll !!nsiliw ln ca'll11drttli|tll ' l"irilllthihllt drc vcr''/ asl)c(ls is usc(llo cxplainlhc vnriolrs cxarrl)lc ')rlc nt.'.untt'rise i..t".in.qn "*on.i:.' ).Jrrr' allcctt TtfiNraturt t1lsa "/ pressure insidc lf a closed glass tube is heated' the increascd will cause it to break r|irlr its lckl'ttrtltur(' c/itrrlti4' vdfi(.''.'.

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Vilamins witllolrL h'1rln Lloscs in large bc takcn a.ril'..ognizing l'' ' r l 1 ll 1 'l]'l:.maPl€. EnergY .two or thrccscnlcnccs gcncral slatenlcnr.l".. A baromelcrneasuresalmosphcrlc lerrperarLrrr' alrsolrtlc c. aynal o changer 5.r.( r(r-rl\r'rrrrr'(rrr' Rz. @ doscs may bc harmfil ir cxcessivc 2. Exccssivc ri(kcls discase prcvenls Lhc c.l g"n. lucLear energycomesfrom sJrlilting aloms ganlma rays b.i fl rn( L ( LrLlrrr.and poplar 1rces.oro. itr() nrcchnrrical of gasolinc en€rgy tne cncmical cotrven! a. . Several lhal lighl travclsin w'rvc! Albcn Enrslcirlproposcdthal suggested Huygcrrs as Linypa(i'lcs.u. clemcnts.l( circlc(l' nlay L)c Onc. -' ' i\ ' Exanples Er'l t'l h(\ . urunur. (x llholons light is lransmilled is lhc .. wilhin our solar is lilc on anf otherplarrcl that Lhcrc l. Tlle Cclsius prcssllrc b.cnLi'ue.(rr. vilamin C car lo di\casc suscrpLibililY incfcasr A may of Vilamin arrourlls b..h arc all manmade an(lberkcliLrln termium californiLrnr. Thcrcis liltlc l)ossibili(y lilc' (i) ucrcurv and vcnusarc !(x)ho( rc slrppon systcnr' in our solar Y Thercarc onlv ninc plarrcls Plutoarc cxlrc rcly coldnn(ldark arld Ncplunc. Alomicrcsear.'rur'lr(!rrrL.. Radianlencrgycomer ir lhe fonn of nrnligh!' x rays' or to anothcr' form from one maYbe coiverl€d c. A carcngrne energy b. VilaminD by diftcrenttypesol rlrcrnxrnlclcrs' L Tempcraturcmay bc mcasured lclalivclenll)cr'lurc' lhc and Fahrenhci! rolnclcrsmcasllfc a.''. Encrgyhas nany lomrs Lhenucleusol uranilrln or lllrlo ilrlrl a.r''rtr'-r \r . A Kclvin thcfmolncler lncasLlrcs 4.86 Exemplifying arc living lhings lbat fced of{ other livirg lhings lhr minlctot l)lanl 3. mall]ltlrition lo explain thc nalurc of lighl Christian lhcoriesha!e becn prol)osecl 4. Einslcilliuln. A machineis a devicethat lranslormscnergyfron one form lo anolhcl . Symbiosis relaliorrshif live wilb antsin a symbiolic licc or aphids prcl)ared clcnlc'rLs oi arLificially thc dev€lopmcn! hasled 1{) 6. Parasilcs 'ausirg them lo dic lrom livcs off apple..oexislcrlccd livinf thirg\ lbr LhcifnlulLraltreneliLPla'rl 5. The food wc eat is convcnedinlo cncrgy in olrr bo(lies c!rcrgy inlo eltclrical encrgy mcchani(a1 .

|oH roJ.ued)rd) pl)p rlrolq)orp^H z '.u r n r i l P M l e ) rorcr)u. ol p)sn ugotu 'suolDnrtsu! ul 'Io^e^. or ptsn oslP sl rt w} (:IPrtur rou) puP sno osroorre appollrerlrl uoqrPrJo sroclE^ rql ' E 'uolredsu ue aroJ. Jog -.{tlssrrru aql .{llensn ts a puennaTs slpn lppedsrt pesnrre qepolue$qr'srlruM .q ( J l i ...tduPx.!:l?." 'plno|sot)^t4 + ls w arE ssrrdxJ ol prsnoqPaIP .MoLl.IoJ .Jxrt uBrJl 1!qro u! uPuler ol allleles aq7rc! ?eulbtultu aqtm / rnoq rad selJru 00O'8IJo peadsV 'rlqlssodLu! sl asleSulq].xlx.uolsoldxaaql aqtsnu leuljostad lEtluesseuou J[v lo eeJ! eql utort pawrrtb\a 'uolsoldxe aqt Jo Eere aql ruo{ prtrnrv^a aq mfioqt lawrtosred lPFuassauou IIV 'Ittlr.tn1t't s(e*x 'r 'scstqluJrEd Lll qit^ aql ul.{lluenbe{sl //rorlj SBulurs.l^esnoi'rerdEqlu le4ssataN lo sttpow 49 SuttIdrurxr .{llssarrr Joslepow slEporurlsrlSuE.^!sspdtql uI .{lrplnJlued .ro{."i.{lgssaJru -(rus$!u$p^Fro) uaqM Fata/Wt? po 4@ 7.{uP ll prru leql selcltul 'illuanba4rsou readdP Suors&a^ p sassardxr isrr.^lssPdaql Jo 3ulMolloJoql Jo q)ea oL ttlssataN osnpup lsru ppe'saJualuas lo slopow 6ulsn 'SulupJur aurps rql .8Jql t 'lpoq iqr ur {)rnpord) slpr poolq crrqM 3ulra3 lBquor or ipoq cqr roJ € 'plre rlrnJlns pare4ua)uorqllM sprrolqr unlpos 3u9p3q lq (.{rllqPqoxl tuols ss.1^ JPrluqJtl 'uosPas. pq saJurluos oMl rsrql .vrr!o^.fup eql Sulrnp :/"ep^E^5 peraM/tr 2q nno4t dotr slql 'uoll?pu)uuro)Jr eleJepou ojolrlsl //.s E scssaldxe srullrtuos pue.'?^1t^ s!4t t! ryat D aq $ u anql '.&lllqpqordssrrdxrolprsnrreslpporu.

/rl with Nee\sitv l-"rrnulnr( scu(c|lccs Fotuulaling Sentences i)clow rlirr of scllLctlccs.. I./o?.j.til. inhalalbnbcconles in thc r.i .1"n'ot" rr'\ bcinsfK'rLit' lr'\m irrjccli(nrs thc trcli)fc slerilizcd are ro( beirlg 7..\..l:il a.\'"' ."'i"' can Lrcaddcd 10 mnry for verbs iD thc silnpie pasr lense ald lhat thc nrflix fu (s'll1r' 'df{tr'h') advcrbs rhcm frr.iii". r. ) clLrt lo its Inean'rrg you arattnd ' t | | i r ' lhe r .c h r"r c\rrr'li' v"rrr''Lr'lr -".."ilil. cdrctl/) ro orakc ".. rhc rarliation lalx)ra()ry' in thc 4.ii. Thc blfi1JJon('rtirr n('l bcrnF rcSLrlarly calilrralc(l are nol Lrcing dcviccs monilorinll i.lcvl(ci (rc(\'r\c rirlillr''n 'i i.)llowin!th( filtLLrn po...i. L'l lh( Ir\t \'\i(c.slv(.j. * " .r$ing r_l?d..i:l e"'l'l has arr'c'r (r"dl') and rncsui'lccr . Th( cxl'l. .c . Thc Daticnts READINGSKILLS Buildirrg vocabulary will s(tneLrrnes of ndvcrb Knowingwhelhcra word is a noun' vcfu' adicctivc' :'ilxiiliii: Ji.i.nNC. .rlli.vtu'ul|k.rl * 'ili . ' rearth ' .i 'n|\|a\ttaL'|at1^/d]Iw.:.r "r ''r"u rrr"r 'r' 'Lr[[i\-"' rr{ l 'p.l|s.r...i\ivc I Thc clcctricityis not shul off 'U.|. The Dccdlcs fltr' thc agailrst inmunizcd arc rrotbci."'.... l : ...l' LfuuLld..kd..iii.Ai.\fr^11(rlv 5. Ue JrUu ar... l('jl(Llft\r '1r(1ni'] 2. .ll'.ll. iita t"..88 ExemplifYing 6.""'" u r"lltiws l]l11'll o".l'il.il.give! . . A firc cxlinguishcrh nol availablc lllilrlnlfLr arc 11. 1.. la j kflrrlher '-" ' ' 'l"'lr(.lll In lrc pos sincei! appcars an action.rtn'.'li.aan \. an cgg cell ilr lhc larllalc (fcftilizc) I)y a slcrn (ncvcrnllow)lo conrc i r l c o n l a c tw l l n w a l c r L Thc faccPiecc scal on aD oxyitcn breathillg ( n c v f r r c l c a s c )l n a l l u l l s a l c a l l r ( ) s l h c r e c v c | 1 l diflicull.' d l h ( \ l r ( r r r ( r ' r '"v -f llL..:#'f H'ffi: **#ixi:m.r':".'..ltl.|c'hll .g 8..Ih.. For humanlifc ro bcgin.

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2. carried 4.The submarincwas complctclys bnerged b. onc cxamltc ()1conveclion. cerms are irririr& wilhoul lhc aid oia microscope. covercd b. cxposcd t. takcsin b. The sun fdlidteshearand light. wies were ins Lated ro preventthe trans{crof clcclricity or heal. a.led in a vacuum because transmil il. 2. when there is . the nuclearreactorwas er?itlirgradiation. sunk there are no air wavcs1. b. b. one example ol radialion. unable1()bc sccn 7. To open the door. sirnilarity Scdt ing passagc Scan thc lbllowing ilt !hrccminutcs or lcss and pL( Lrrackets aroLlnd tltc followiDit: l Oneexample of conduclion. a. liquids and gascs a. differcDce a. tum tb. uncovered a. unablc lo be dividcd a.90 Exemplifying Vocabularyifi Context. Keep in mind lhar cxamples nslrally comc dircLllyafler delinirions or gcncfal Reading Ho$. Altcr the fire.ordl. Citclc rbe letter of the answer lhal bcsl malchcsrhe meaningof the italicizcdword as il is usedin eachof lhesesentcnccs. b. absorbcd a. Flrids are Dor rigid aDd caDflolv from onc conlaincr ro another. gives oll 9. How doesthis heal lransferlake place? . giving off 8. Heal Is Trafisfetred Hcal is the energythal warms our housesand cooksour lood.) l.ihc lcst should bc rcpcaLc(i. Sollnd cannol bc . 1l is lhe lransfcr ol cnergyfron a warmcr body to a coolerbody. enter iithe water and could uor bc sccn. firn irrerl thc kcy in rhe lock. abrorbing a. l.and 3. b. b.1drrprrill bclwccn lcsl results. solids 6. a.

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rlal{)r. tc.fh(r.thc flow is alwayslrom hoL1ocold. A doublc-iilass b. facts. Oyy[cn i\ r a. darkcolorcd a.ln one with (lark rvalls.lcs on Lhcprinciplc 6.92 Exemplifying and radidtiolr-arc The lhrccmodcs ofhcal transfcr-conductioD. On a lrip lfonrthc canh to lhc nxxrnyou worritlpass a. window tha! trapsair is a 4. .runny (layls . poor a.luct(lr L. in lcmperalufe.n rlrclal. Lr. increasc a. canh ab$rbs hcal h a. cqLralrzc 3. convccLion. hor b . when lhcfc i\ a (ii5pirity lo lwo conditions: First. is in your Lcaarc m()vjug L Ii lhc molecules @l. A h o u s ew i l h w h i l e w a l h w i l l b e lh.r b. lood il is a irrsLrlato| t. For examplc. if it is Lmcthal wood is a bcltcrinsulaL()r availablc handle than nrctnl. Opening in lhc lcmpcralurc b. cold -1hc 8. b. hcal is Lrauslcrrcd ouly subiecl and secold. poor' insr. The mon comforlablc clolhing oD a nor. and radialcs b. itood cnl]. it coDlains rhc lctlcr ol lhc nnsrver lhal drawn fftnn thc infonnarion by circling bcst complclcscach of thescscrllcnccs yoLrr vcry rapi(lly. cold thc thc door bctwecn a warnr room and n col(iorc will aausc 2. b L r td o c s n ' l r a d i a l c i l 9 . lighl colored 1 0 . A scicDrislmusl bc ablc Lo draw conclusionsfionr Lhc lh. good ol' that causes hot air () riseo|cr. b. Dlauifig Co clusions. Sin(ecork hasair pockcls. is conclusion that wood would nlakc a bcLlcr ir a kritical |ot l:dnbc iDdicatc what conclLrsions Afler rcading thc pfeviorspassagc carefully.poor a.. An air'conditiolcr lhltnrgh 7.

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6.l ate tnc same. discoveries Thingsyou wonld like somconeto iDvcn! you would like Io explorc Placcs you $ink sciertins will neverkDow Things . 7. 2. casessuch as oxygcn cannot bc solidificd. Thcy can alsobc nscdlo provc or subslanliatc qucstion. a changeof statecannotoccur wilholrl addingor sublEclirrghcnl. lndicarewheiher eachof lhc Ibllowillg slatelnenls Understanding rrue (T) or false (i) accordirgto the iDformationin lhc lecllrre. 8. f t. Hcating a liquidcauscs 7. All substances nlelt at the sane lempcrallrrc. Machines Machinesyou wish had never bccn invenlcd you would like to havc wilnessed scientifi. 6. 5. 2. Scienific factsthal still amazcyou. dre molecules k) novc laslcr. Fog is an cxamplc ol evaporation. Equilibrium exists whcn thc ralcol concicnsatj(. poinl. evaporalioD. Alcoholis a volatile liquid. A volalile rubnan(( r5onc rhJt ir <talrlL. 9. Thc coDdcnsalion aud thc ralcol 11.94 Exemplifying your poinl when wriling uDfamiliar. 5. cvaporallon of cvaporntion. L 4. L The convcrsion of a sdid lo a liquidis called 4. Explairryour answers l. Clouds areformcdby lhc process DISCUSSION POINTS cive one or two cxamplcsol cach ol lhe followirg. point is lhc samcas the boiliDg 10. an ar$wer lo an cssay Takenotesasyou iistento the lecnrre"The Changing Sta!cof Matter" aDdthen us€your rotes to completethe rext exercrse. is the Lectrrr. ody a few substaDces can (onvcrLIiom one physicalslalc lL. 12. you would not want !o live without.

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chapter 7 Giving Evidence Smoking. lhc qucslionis alwaysaskcd.ura(y.tcplcd tha! lhc posilion plancts prediclcd somc a(. carbon.After all. alwaysslriving to get closcra|rd closcrm thc theories can seldombc prcvcn bcyonda doub1. ro demonsrralc thal diarlror)ds and graphilc inro graphitc. Bul all it thc ol lhc wilh because that cxplains be when anolhcr theory cnrcrgcs "proofs" are !cnlative. point.ro discarded Copernicus lacts. lrulh. Bnt scientific no one can stand far enough oul in spaccto observcthe planelsrcvolving aroundthe sunl 96 . Thirteen cenlrries later. Then. planets His and the sun revolved aroundIhc carth. likt lhe seasons ol lhc ihings that Ptolemy's thcory could thcoryexplained planels. lhc Polish scicntist Nicolaus morc plarets thal his revolve around thc sun by dem(mslrat'ng "provcd" that lhe not. P()lcnryp(Dostd In thc sccond claudiLrs mosl suppo4ingrvidence. (cntury. P(rcf or eviclcncc Thc rheoricslhat arc acccptcd arc lhosewith the co bincd \aith reasoning.Drugs. "whcrc Oncca hypothcsis Davyon(c l)Lrnrcd diar)l{txls is lhe cvidcn(c?" Thc Bri!ishscicnlist Sir Htlnrphry igoorju!lthecxpc|rsc. in 1905 the relrograde or backward molion ol lhc ca(h and Albert Einsteinshookeveryone up by sayingthal motion is relativeand that on your point ol whetherthe sun is moving or rhc ca(h is moving depends view! And on and on wc go. lhcorywas a. Hc a(lchis arc both crystallizrd is usuallylhc rcsult ol obscrvation or cxpcrilnenlatior). and Alcohol INTRODUCTION hasl)ccnprcposed.

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. Even the onse! of a smoking_related illness is not always sufficient !o €nable heavy smokers to quit. .98 Giving Evidence illnessis nol . cnch ol vrhich gcrolrsio your health.lways suiilcient to enablehcavy smokerslo quil smoking-related infomlation madc availablclo the Public since 1964 in 1985 thc all thc Despite Lieauls Association enimatedthal thcre were 250. . suffer withdrawal symptoms il they attempt to stoP. . dtld birth dtJtel! !11aki1!l bilNeen Therc i! abaa correltitian pregnant women who smoke a pack The evidence indicates that greater likelihood of having a of cigarettes a day have a miscarriage. aflenbe ne phlsirdlb'trndPsrtltolalitlllr tl41utla1t0n thcit hdlli! S|/.000prcoralrrre Luig American per year' in the UDited Slales smoking duc !o USING ENGLISH TO GIVE EVIDENCE passagc is thal snokingis darrof the previous The main poinl.. /?dr is supporlcdby evidcncc.or hypothesis..Thc arglrmentis bascdon four stalcnlcnts.(Note that scicnLilic ailtlktlls Smokifi!is rdatedta fian! heartand citttLldlor! like indialcs at ilr lontrt (s wilh wo s (Evidcnce is iicqlrcnlly int()duccd rcllcc(s lhc "trrrproval)lc"nalurc wor(l This ralhcr ihaD lhc stronger frrvas hypolhescs... . tli. . . . .ltts Snlokin!is th! losts1nilicaktlhclatin rcslittltot. Research also confirms that the tar in cigarette smoke is carcinogenic.) Smok€rs often..ake^ markcdwilh a cluc wofd and ollcrrcan orrlvbe (Evidcnce is not always idcntilied by drc conlext of lhc paragraph. opirr()n') evidcnccnlusLbc Incl. .v It can damage the tiny hairs (cilia) that linc the brcathing passages.) of nrcstscientillc Ix has been demonstrated that nicotine increases the rate of the llear!' . . .

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. walcr fipcs so rclimcs b. 1 AI(oholis dangc|1)us is . I D a c r o w d e d r o o m . |lr.rc rrot hot lhcnrlchc\' 5 . 5 . B c : l n p l a n t sr c ( d l i g h LL o t L u n g r c c n . a. ft l-rt. AlunlinLrln clcn]cnts. b. n d c x h i l t o x y g c n W h ( n . Mosrsulrltanccs combu(roir. a . 7 . Oxygcn suppons on i fire makcsil bum morc brighlly..l Jr( . build up a $lcranccft)rill(reasing b. H u m a r l b c i n g si n h a l c o x y g c a r r d e x h a l cc . is onc ol rhc nr{)sl abr.. B c a n p l a n t sn e e d l i g h l t o \ u r v i v c .) Alcohulinr)iriAiud{m(nl. Nilrogcn a firc will prl it oul.rlc'1h"1 0) M.silvcr. b ... scvcrflslilcnlcnls Elaluati g Er'idence. BlowiDg b. b. Alunrinuru gol(1. A l u r r i n L r in fron bauxi!c. c a r b o n d i o x i d c g r a d u a U yr e | i a c c s t h c o x y g c n i r L h c : ' i f a . A may {auscrlighlblindncss Lackof vi|amirr and fish liveroils. coDlract d. frcczcal diffcrenl tcnrpcratlrfcs c.lft1tr. c. c. sr. l i g h ln r c l a l . Alcohol cnn blur your visiort. d.r(i Llcrr(.r \i. Alcohol addicLivc. doesnot supponcombuslion.i00 Civing Evidencc 4 . n . .cggs. nnnrullts ol nl(ohol. d.dnj|l A riu.'r. is pr(xiuccd a.rndn|rl b. T h c s l r n i s n o 1 a s h o l .Circle answcr fof cach nrcrc thaD onc tbc p(rlxxitiou.l L watcr expilrldswhcn il freczes. Thc [rehinl.f in lrjl'l'rrF AD over&)sco[ vilamin A can be roxic- . A l c o h o l d o c s n o l a f f c c ld t i v i n g a b i l i t r . b . cra(k in vcry coldwcathcf. an(jco|pcr' wcighslcssthaDiIorr. 2 . a. AllnriDunr ()1 poir)r allrnlinuDr is 660"C.lc . Ioresl llrcl are worsc in a s!fttrg wind. t h c l ) L l l r l\ ( n ) r rd i c s . a .Tinc. H u n r a n b c i n g si n h a l c c t r L m r d i o x i l e .Altcrcachofthe following l)roposilions givc or nrPl)ol Iof cvidcncc statcnlcnls lhnt lbc IcLlcrs ol lhosc rfe givell. b c a n l e e d i s g r o w r r i n r b c d a r k .Thcrcrnaybc li)r drivcfs. o r r ( l n ) x r c l e b . VilaminA is lound in buitcr.rnyi ur. d. Thc rrys offiesun wafln whal they t(Nth lrtll . T h c s f a c c b c t w c c n l h c s u n a n d 1 h ec a ( h i s c o l d .l'. s i l u s e d1 o b c . vira|ninA is csscntial a. Alcol()licr ((. walef icc/cs at o" C. Difi$cnl slrbstanccs when frozcll. A l c o h o l a i l c c i sd r i v i n g a b i l i t y . Smolhcring {i)ra healthy dicl. . ..

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Falsc frcmises gascs and li(lLlids prclniscs. all gasesare liquids.102 Giving Evidcn€e traDvnilrcdby bi(x)d All It is somelimes 6. thisdoesnot sharconc characlcristic olhcr ways. Therefore.ttalley's Comcl will retu lo dre ea|lh irr Lhcyear 2062 8 .llhough docsnol lbllow froln thc thc conclusion sanlc irl mc. 2.lrcnol sonlelilrrcs cor'rclusiolrs. discr. All metalsare rclid. lhcrc.Carborrnronoxidcis a poisonousgas. Il ir is a bifd. Deduclivercasoningcan somclimes two examplesi Herc arc All stud€nts are lazy. a chickcn is nol a bird. everyone here is lazy. nlay bc lransmitlcd vencfcaldiseases and nearthe earlhin 1758. it can l]y. Conet passcd 7 . Thereforc.and it is 'lot a gas. All liquids can flow. ' I h e . Therefok.ul l. sulfur is a liquiclTh€reforc. by blood.rss t. Archimedes principle i! a major scienlillcdiscovcry The displaccment Thereforc.Thereforcaulonobiies causcair pollr. A chickencanno{fly. Einstein Thereforc. Autonobilcs givc oll carbonmonoxide. Everyone here is a student.e'dnr('ltc. lhc cvidencc nol lbllow funn does thc con(lLrsioD ADdsomctimes why llle conclusionis falsc h cach of thc lbllowing. Someclcmentsarc gases. Lheplacc 1o make a major scicntilicdiscoveryis iI the baLhlub and olhers are liq ids 6.kangaroos. EiNtcin was noi a Soodsludcnl. All gasescan flow.sul{ur is a nrclalon 1wo lcc! all 14'alk pcnguins. Halley's 1986. 1910.and ostrichcs 4.k' "r( ihc prnrcipleof water disltacementin the balhtub discovered 5. lbf.n they are lhc (bolh canllow). Sulfuris a solid. canalsoleadlo lalsc lrduclivercasoning nol lypical of arc lr()t fcPrcscnlalivc rhc cxanrples SonrelintcJ cnoughcxamDles. People. Sulfur is an elemenl. AIDS is a vencrealdisease.lEl4.e l u rr cl.' e y n (rrb(f.rtiorr- lcad lo {nlsecorclusiorrs Using Reasoi g.aoyoDewho is not a good sludcnl k a gcnius l. . Therefore. was a genilrs. ln lhe llrsl cxnnulelhc oriSir)al coD(l(rti(nrs? at su(hridiclrlolrs How did wc arrive (onclusiolr$ cxanrple. ln lhe sccon(l prcmisc leadto lalsc is false.

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improvcd . chaDgcd a. () acceleralc 7. l. l() lubricate 10. lo 12. to 6. !o gravilate lubricale 8.r o 1 6 . 1o IL to spccLllatc 1 5 .t o 1 7 . ' l r h ( . 9 .)rmuhte -of D()l) lhc Iinnl by addi|8 thc sLrlllx changethc lbllowinilvcrbs() noLllls -c if ir cxins. () irlsulate t . r r r r r l \ L r (L Vocdbularyin Corlexl.104 Giving Evidence 5. r r scrrlcnccs word as il is uscdin cacho{ thcsc ol lhe ilalicized meaning I The droughl drerddcondili()ls lfi thc larmcrs (. r() climinate 1 0 . 3 .tlr4pgtan 2. \l r ( l ( . r r ' $ \ r l l r . 8.r o [.l o ll. $. . Circlc thc I r L r ( r.

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$rilL undernaDdiDg. inhalirrts.l iL. Drugsirrenol l)crrtti(i'l h. Always skirn a lcxlbook chapterbclbre readingit 'losely' Il you folloh'lhis you will rcad fast€rand wilh greatcrintercn and colnprehcnsxrn' proccdure. and highlysusccptiblc pay for lhc high cosl ol to cfinrc rhc Lrscr'to leads it olicn heroiDis addiclive. hcrcin. cocainc.rJnl"L' hnrmful. Hcft)in alc|!rrell.rgcr's ils scriotrs ag.lrc d. Wtren you need 10 write a rcsearch you need malcrial the 1ibraryto scc whi(h contah the fird difiicull Onceyou havc a gcncralidca of dlc thal YoLr L skim any passage wilh betlcr you be abl€to rcadil lhoroughly contenland organizalion.nd chronicinsomnia"Cfnck.r06 Giving Evidcnce g Skinmi is a rcadingskiLllhai is useful in a number ot waYs: Skimmi g for mairl icteas l.opiuma|cl mor|hirrc)arc consi(lctcd Narcolics tv\lcrll' 1he ncNolrs oD dcl)rcssnnts They a(! as ftrrDling or habil . a v€rv shon irr addicled inrcnsely . iL lrcqucnll-v Likc pcriod of 1imc. and evcn(lenth lo infecli()D. anlphclarnincs.tarijuarra Al lhc s'lnre Lrscrs in nlany lccling happy a lrlcasrnl. and hashish? barbi(uralcs.1Dd arcaddicLivc. lhc tr\cr tan Lrcco']rc bc(drr\c ilangcrorrs is cspecially is snroked.rnrfulbtlt Lrsually are o((asi(mallY c. a\ a |nin hos|ilil\ is Lrsc(i b! morphinc."a lonn hypcraclivity pcriorl car ca se paranoia. lh. '1 syslcm' Lhencrvolrs fro(tLrcrrrg (or "cokc") is a dr!! lhat stinlulalct Cocainc lo|lg ovcr ' qlrong sniffing cocainc sc|lliari(nrs |itwdcr alr(l ol well-being leeling . Drug\arc alwirys lolcnliallyh. mcnr{)ry. nL'lbcaslLrmcd il shoulLl "h'f(l drLrS\" (codciDc. relicver. llrLrgs irr lhc lassilllci af(r discusscd drllgs 2. Anolher oblaining addirLc(l becor c nn)rphidc patients rcceiving occasi ully. Lhalallcr tllc Lrody sLrbslarrccs Drlrgs. thc lime. b. paper. ol cocairclhal le'(ls hcroin. nafcotic thc drug. which ol 1hciollolving rnll(jnc. lclh. Re6d{ng The Dakger of Dtugs cllcd\ ol any Thc plcalirr!l chcnri\lry. PcP. 27 !o review skinnrirrg l€chniques qucslio'rs: and dlcn answcrLhesc in rhreenlinutes Siim the followinglassage is Lhenlairr cal I Whichof thc lbllolving a.m'lnltrnn'r' nar(olics. Seep.skim rhc reterenccs vou lind in Z. ir canaltcrflrndbrrsthat may alfect alrohol' lraflrlirl lharr L)e lc\\ miy iLs cl{ccts Although oflhc Lrscr' span andallcntion i! hanllcls or any drug. miDdairdbodyand fr(xlLrces nn)ljvnl1()11 coodinaLiorl.rrgic thc LLrcr mnkcs vigor.r pairranLl decrcasing relicviDg ovc(lore BccaLrsc lnrDr cona.insl carcfully bc weighc(l drug should lt fclaxclLhc an(l (lcL)alcd discusscd is a diug rhat hasbccn nlLrch l.

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ql rr^o qtuo) rqt p/og t 'rlrqPJ ualoo^ euos tlrl^ quror )nseld P 4. { r r r r .rrLkur qloqr')IsuorlrrrrP r^lniutu qrr^ DlDtllr)rloN p P lDlLrrLLr irlloN srrtr^nJe IPrrsiqd 'qruor aq101 p.rt(ixE . r D r ls rl! ilrrrruot.tur^a l\rl r^oqPiLll Io uuol lrllDrrdJLll oslD rre !l]l^^slrrilrq J^ltp.tv 'l rql r^nErJ(lLul :)qf prsnsr qr)^ )qr lo tLtrol sr (no. r / ' P ) r l ( l t u s l l l0tll l)tlilns s )^utl lui(ltlu qt l l l r .lirM r)qrPr s(lilsJo ! ueLIl lsllP sP ss))ordt ruto{]'d oi suotDatlo 6u!^!9 tl I Surlururl.' t r o r r q r L l i r r l o . r tllrl t r n f t L r! l r r s u l { 'rrql)lol )rr^r )ql iql rrl Jo sPLrJ .4 !|t|oqs. pitrllol )lP p l r Dr ( n { ) i ) l ) i l u l s / r .lrris ruo qri)^ .'& z 'rlqel E uo rrded Jo sarald ArJl]} a6utt. ) l ) s n u l ) l r J o l J L l l L l u l i i i il r l t l o l l ) ) r J p l o p u e ( u r u o )P ) A I n i s ( l r ) .r$Ji 's{lr)^ )^rrurlltlrr itll ll" r -1" lr'\'\r'|'l^ z | (lJlsrl!ruors llf rurlrit)rrn \\Dor(1 irll ur sqraA 2^4ohdutl ElttzluaoraA u o t l i l u t ^ t o q sl l r r t u r r r d ) ) r r r p o f t l t t r s r l ) t L i l u rM L' \l r L r i ) lq r r P ) r P q l r ) r l o N .lre4lP aq plnoqs rrded aql sueddPq lpqn^ rnrrr4d pue redEd Jo sereld.t)tlttd J^ELI qr.li(l roj suonrJrrp rttl )r! ^\olrtl 'ru)^ Jql Jois!lil lLl)sil(l II (uol.() :p)tDls rr^.o 'p)rFIurr lr)lqns 'q(llliiprpd \r ll ^llPnsn ol rlqPr.)Jird suollrrrrP.^ r^rrrrrdrlrlLrD l(nr s)op ( rmDlr . \i ^ l l o r r ( l L ! | l ' t z I sq)aA 2itllbJaawI 'LrollrrrPP r^tii x)Lr srop ll rsnurrq rrlJ) Iu.

. (hror)ologically Ntrnrbcr thal is in thc orderin which lhcy happcll. oul) and absorbs 2 on this (L'ml)ulcr 2. Typc thc {lrsr line. alter dlsconnectlng Remove it is csscnlinl() Aftangi g ltefis Chronologically.l14 Experimenting 4. J / 4 The oxyiten-richblood retllrus 10 thc lcft sidc of lhc hcan. Il is easylo prini a simple mcssage Turn oli lhc computcf. Place a conpass ncar lhc wire blrl away frcm thc nragucl. 5 . When cxplainirrila l)roccss. slcps describc irr(licalcd order. In the lurgs. Press thc pRrNr . Movc dre magDel back and Ibrth !hrolrgh thc coil. Thc lirstslcphasbcerr bclowin chronok)gical cachgrollpol slcl)s in eachlisl.thc bbod is pumPed ol lhe body through lhc arleriesand rclurrrs1o lhe hcart lhrcugh tlre venrs.{ A m o v i n g n c c ( i l c i n ( i i c a t c s Chcck lhc compass cnn l h a t c l c c t r i cc u r r c n t i s f l o w i n g l h ( n r l h l h e w i r e a n d t h a l n r a g r r c L i n n producc eleclricily. Tun on thc compulerkcy aftcr typing cach line. lhc bkJodgivesup carbot dioxide (which we brcaLh(' oxygcr. the bulb .. Prcssdre RETLRN key beforc lyping eachlinc. L Thc hean pumfs blood!h()ugh thc hunaD body.) lhe elecl clty. 1 ( )s e ei f t h c n c c d l c i s n r o v i n g . The right sidcol thc hcarlpumpsbloodinto thc lur)gs out lo lllc rcsl From rhc lefl sideof thc hcan.

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lfioiL.tcrr. vcrbs folbwcd by inlinitivcs: tail .tf rep?4.lcof thrcc lormsl lo tlctecl). Etnstein began studlifig the photoelectric effect. dctectinl) 3.ly modal . Thc rd Thc vcA d.thc vcrL)bci]i.{rsl may only bc followcd by aDinlinilivc withor.the experiment.rt bc tblbwcd by a gcrund or ar) il)fiDilivc wilhoul to. takc ol. Hcrc nrc son)ccxanrpl0si Elnstein began to study the photoelectric effect.. wriLing: Bclowis a lisl oI somcvcrbsthal arc usclulin saicntilic l. Researchers .116 Experim€ntidg verb Fofms:Infi ithtesand Gerun* whcn ol)c vcrb {bllows anothcr. Astronomers oDselv?dLhe stJpefnofa explode. Researche$ pldhheal to /epdd. or 2. the se(oll(l vcd) can ln an English scnlcrrce.Thc vcrb p/. the experiment. an iDfinilive\tilhoul lo ladvanc. Slud(xlt{of En$lishas a secondlangllage{icquenlly lirr(l lhis conlirsins How (lo is Lhalthc fiNLvcrL) you cic'l.tr nlust bc lbllowcd by in infinitivc. a gcrund \advdncikg.r)l.? iletcnrri. L an infinitivo 1loirdvrnce.( wlrich forn ol lhc verb10 !sc? The arlslvcr rllay bc lblk)wcd thl lbrnr of lhc sccond For cxanlple. dclact).rcs by an ioliDilivc or a gcrlnl(l. Astronomeru orssrved the supetnova exploditrg.

qr rsuPr)q slllrill] iiu!)!rprr |rlll'r .'I rlllM (i^lrrLrrlur t lslr .\r1t rPiq or 1l 'ilunrrqiill rqt rtus .ttll ts)utt.tnl.rni rrt\ IIl^1 Iq p. 1 l \ .rt) 3ut.^rrrulJLrl l1l BLrtluJutrJdx{ .r) ll ot srp|ru(l urFltP 'sJltril!lJs istql surol qraA 6tt!soo4) lo q)ci ul qri^ )qt Jo rrlroj DirroJ ilql jo lrllrl .\11tl.rtJ)Ir'r.o8 plnot I'.)(lxr rM { iolsol u rsol o|q purr .lu \lDlrw z lriltP o rr ip or '(l r)l^rp iitrl(nlll(xurqI 'l 1)lLr.r'a : Iu rrponlll iql 'suo.r)Ll(lnnrlc .(.p rruIu rtstuu :spunri3 {q pi.\lunriiJ ri).o8 uet I :l!qutl! sitllo)iq isn pir'()) jltLF Illtrn sisurrld uorlr !rl r!r)qt ijtrlsr Dlt)L'rd ol sl sruloJ qliA tsiql iJlsPtu ol icM Pooit V ilI rrrilnr lni oJ l(lurnnu '{rl r r q l l i ^ .ril* ttl']|'rl(lL!!!i rr)d-urnrrSP {q f. ' l a t r l l r ls q l i ^ .rltut btttlxpq bu!lqrntt 4)nn rLItl'1rMttrrexr)tqL11lu1 Lru.r/vloll(!s(lrr.q D pilr.o8 ieul I'.{!t.l ollol sqrr]\ t r!liinu (ll)q t.\ 'z :or nn)LIrt/'a s.{pnls peddols aM piuueld I'e^Up ol paredotdl'5^!lp oi pturerl I ' e^!rp ol ot II!^r I'o3 rqSlu l'.supe.^()rrori(10sru \1.tttrrtrt!t.{pntspDp!o^e3^r '8ullpnls peqsluu a^{ '8u!.r s$r^ is.

Lr. word r(x)lr(.. cxist b..e-unpleasant sound d. cvidcrrcc.\rooL mea.n(1 f(ntcntt)cf ncw worcis. In lhc 1920s.n h(lp you n((luirc. Thc rool ol a wofd (sonrclimes callc(l thc r/(r. Thc roor is lhe pan nn)sr likclylo itivcyou a cluc to Lhcntcaning ol thc wo .r. Thc wourd sloppcd a. wilh or wilhoul prcfixcs. Mnny aninalswoul(l_ ..l$. 1oexin 6.ll8 Experimenting 4 .1osludy 7.e (suffix indi€ating noun) photoelectric-pertaining to the emission of electrons when a substance is exposed ro light photo. indicnrc READINGSKILLS vocabulary Building I-ikcIrcfixcsaud sulllxcs. b. The caietcria oIly alk)w\sll|dcnrs _ a.r/o-. lo inLlicate rharill gilirxics ivcre|1rdri]l{.nr..or) -sor. 5 . lo vrDrare cxriu(L it rheywrrc not bfcd in raprivily. l). G.or both. vibraling 8. 1.eLo. moli(D. bleeding whco prcssure was al|licd.(root meaning rd rd) -dfl.)is lhe bascl|1)rrr whi(h il is fonned.rr.. An Er)ijlhhwonl nray bc buill lionr onc or nr(nc|1x)rs. L. slL ying whcn thc rrainwenr [)y.(root meaning electficityl -ir (suffix indicating adjectivc) F . IIcrc afc sonrccxatltplclil ty/rchrcnize-to happen at the same time syr" (prefix meaning togetheror t lith) -throno. began _ a. to blccd on Satrrrn's ln(xD Tilnn. b. Somescientist\ bclicve that lifc mighl a.llilco'swL'rk inspircd Newlol _ a.(prefix meaning . 9. snoke b. to snokc 10. wc lclt thc house_ a.s.r.tring timel -ize (suffix indicating verb) drlsdndr.sulfixcs..(toot 'lreanilrg light. -ele.ry b.

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wilhout orcicr l). t.sun. jn a linc L). a.lrnlrrc(l lir thc.rn) a.dri.) I Who wasWilliamCilberL? 2.120 Experimenting Vocabularyik Cor?l?xl. Thc blucl)rinl li)r lhc nra(hincry wasdrar. a. itr o|1icr ll. in thc sanrc b .cxccJrl Ji)ror)ccrror. Thc bridgc wasJl/r/.trrltrll/. The cxpcrimcnts wcre conductcrl t i t n u l l t \ t l r o i l l . is a li)rrc of narlrfcthal m. Oil and watcrrclcl eacholhcr.fnddd lion cablcs sup|]ortc(l l)y loivcrs. scparalc b.1.s rais0{l in(l l{)\ry(r((1.r. hlLng b..rc(l 5.a rubbcrcraser.gDcLi\n. Duringthc cclipsc.. rolalcd [r. lhc calth.our ol liuo 9.h ol lhcsc scnl(nrc\. Thc hands on lhc dialplydl. sct.j/drr a new r:r(li('. firlicul(rus b. ndium..nilcslsitsclldiJlcrc|llyin . in(orre(( 7. lhc kcy wor(ls.thc (onrl)u(cr r\'ns progranrnrcd to list Lhcm4t fdrrorr. corre(t L). Thc possibilily of Iifc exisLine clscivhcrc in lhf Lrlrivcrlc i:./Lonr. placc a..1 \ )1 L o n ( l o r ra r r ( l R o n r c .1|1ILu(l (Firsli(lcntjfy lhc answcrs to lhcscqlresli(ns. Circlc rhc leucr o l l h c a n s w | | l h . rcvcrscrl 6./. i|lrrcsling L Maric irndPicrrc Cufiewcrc al)lclo 6. rcsisl 2. a t t h c s a r n ct i n r c Scohning Scanlhe f(tlowiDgfassagc in rhreeminutcsarld put nluarc brackcrs. 1 ( h c \ l h ( nreaning of thc italicizcd wo(] as it is r|sc(l in ca. a. .t cithcrcrr(1. a. l L ) c s lI n .oo(lcll pcncil. crc.clivc clcnrcrrL.ncicnt Grcckrown of Magnesia. Whcrcis thc magncric Nonh Polc? L Whal dki MichaelFirndayan(lJ(xcphHenryl)orh(li{cov0r? Readihg The Magic oJ a Magnet Whal is lhc magic thalenablcs a magnel lo pickup irn ir{)llrrailliut rr(n i1r. or a coplcr |cnny? M.nd nnx)[ wcr'c d1itrr.lc 4. To nrakeslrrcthc rranrcs wcrc choscn l)y chan((.d as rhe gasprcssurc rv. a.

) p o J t r ) .). ) l J i L l r ' r l l . ) r sl ) l | P r r o r rq ) r r { t ! r I r r M ( x l) r o L u L P n t L I rniLrl0Lrr'i. ) q ) U o \ r r L r \ r .{rpcrD.)lrL. ) r i l l r l ) IZI Sultu)Lugtdxg . r u )) L t l l ( ) s i l r l \ r n x l ( l o ( l t ) L ' r r l 0 r .r r M o ( li L | ] ^ l o u l r o .)lr.^trsur)\] uiJrtD or (lrL:) ]'(l!11 )rlr.'1'|urHq(l)\of u!. r\l I f ^ \ l r r ^ ! q \ l s r r r ! i .) c) sfiiu )tt:)lrijpur r(t or uri\ i)q ucr uo.rirr. r r D r r I L ' 1 r i ^ D i i L r r . ) r P ) o l s . r l | | r s D r lr l l i D i i q r q n n o q ) l v r r r u{ r x .)l)I|.r1$] l \rl l l c r l l I r . l o r l r | n o \ | r r P L l u o r r! q r t .ro r. J i l l r r ) r L t l l L l] ! 0 0 0 1 r ) ^ o ) { r u i q r r r r n r f r s f r . ) ^ r \ ) l l u i l ) r f \ r ( i r I u . r o r s r ) rL | l l u L . r o )! r o . N ^ . ) 0 . r J r\ruLq1.l|I()D)Itl uol' paz!lau6eurun uor!p€z!lau6eht -) -: .)q1 l ) 0 r L r ) I ) q rI u n o r r ' r ) l c ' t \ f i r r t t u i r r u D i L | ] r )u r M r ) u )\ r . r tr u r l r l ) .\lur')P'r!r. { ' s r .r lt D . ) q r . ! \ Lr ' t s n ( i! | L r i r I o I u u r i r l 1 i ) q r r i I r c .{uI rql U sJs er (ln )ql to iriol lj (lrlrri{lud lrrls u slrqrnslDl)ru l)uiJpLU lo sDrr(lpJzrrruiJcl||Lrn p. ) q t { l l r ( L r 'r). r \r l r l ' ) ' p U ] o Jr .). u i i ! L t I o $ l r l r r \ l ) ) t r f t ( l r r ^ r ) ^ D q n o l J I '\rptij l r L r pr ) ( l ( l o ) ' r ) q q n r ' f o o M rr! sD)lJr s ! q r r s s t u r . s r . r n _i!L t l i i u l i p n t s . r c ) .rtI r l o s ) l l i u i l c L u ) r I s L ) s.r! \. n r i i r r rs r .)rli ruLI r)ut . ) t | o r \ . ) L tlln ) { ) r ). r ^ ol ) .)lriuLr.rlr Lrrr^4riq l|orlrruuorrrlt'a€8t uI 't)rlprr rL| )rlt lo . ) t 1 l ! s r o r ) r r ) q r o q . ) q .)ln-ip ) l L r ) t 1 ) l) r l .r {n t tM ' . n r n u r IP suq .)rr? surp'rr')p rs tt uiqM pirrrrui-L'ur sr uor rqr'priirrL'rru iUrf.{ ur1r. ! 1 r l l r ^ 1r ) r o t l r l . r u I l o l r ( I r r u o .iq prrr^o)\rp IrcqJlWuDrrLt\rtiJlrg il\r")rrrPrlfur|s pup rusrtiuiJDLu rPM.)LI. r ( ' )t L ' r l l ' i ..L[ r. { r r ^ r L l i l n ' ) q ) l Vs l f u D u rr l r . r r L r l n ) r (( ! \ L ' ^ ) r l u c i J l N l l i ! l r q l r L r . r . r . t q u o t P l ) uu t r l l . ) r PL rU t l r MU P L I I Ii .{]lrutr. r o l ) r ) ps . ) u J ! ( r ^ \ r u o ^ \ r 1 l ! L l u r f r ) ! r r r L r i r u uP r L r r l l M r c q l D L ' tr L | ^ ( l I i r r I u r L l L r .l) ( o o L r L D l r l MD r L i p s silrir!fur lf)riJ )Lll l r ) l o 'li)uJurrl )q l r ! r l r l ) .trr l).{r1L s)\')l 0r)r (qriL))l)q1 l I o . I . )o r ) l ( l P U J .{Lt^ sr l'l(lxr srLll r !c uorr rql'prtLrDr rrrrtPur Du r(xr t)r(1 rM r. r . r . ) u i r [ L ts Jr ) ) u e ] \ q r l { . ) l o .rur. ) . ) l u L t lL t).)u)Lrv rqr puc.)rrn"u(r IlrM ro. r l t r q ! 7 r t . t .Lll. ) f . ( ) r L r ^ l P r lr Ji r t I u r t l r D u ) r q ) r L l . r o N) r l l u r o . r i) ^) r ^ l ) u ! i l { ) J r l l r ( ) N) l l r L r J u t t r . rr { r . r l o t ll l l n o s p U u r l t .t rqt. r i M . \ \ D ( h L r o r . r L t tl t r ( x j p i ] D l o \ r r q l o u u p r ) l o ( { L t L r ) rr q r ' ) 1 1 ) ( { r l l r o \ p r L L ' r l l r o u! r l l r ^ \ q r c r ' s r r u n L r l t r r n o t r ^ c q P l n o ^ { r ^ 1 ' \ l r u n L ' u ro ^ 1 r . ) r I P u r o .rLIL'l'l\r 0 0 r ) l n L | ' q r n o ! l ) L | |L i q ( l \ r q .lo surcu)p )!)!ileru.rir\ )M . l p r\ u rU(rl lrrt ro^r(l ' |l](nL r|. r ) ^ o ) s l l ) .ri^ir. u n r L Lrrq t i . l t l)uL1 r. s r .: i L ) s . ) r . r J t o L ri . ) s '!)l)o.rr^r(r \ r l o r { ) I ) u i i p r ^ j r l 1 ) ( lq r n o \ .)l(xl )l|.)r]l$ l. r r ^ o r s r l ) P t n o ^ {r ' P ! . f D L r r N r ) r ' s r u o t \ i | o l i 0 ' \ r r o u o j l ) r r L r n L r r J r )^ l r t r l r ) q l . tr l i i n a ) ' l r r q t r l ! u D r l l r M^ r t ur p. ) LUo.)l(xlqlnosrqr tr)ilo(l quou rqt ot prtrllltD sr drP r..)1lD(l i)qr lo rtorl qlrro\ tt ot Iit:)pr]lpsr (lrtrir(lpa rLIt l() rt(nl quou rrtt PUD'l)trijour rr. n l r . ) .nrJurL s. \ r l d 'rrqu) q)r) t r P i r l ! \ i l ( x l L I r n o \' ) . ) r l rl ) u f r ) q r o L p r i l ) ( J r \ i l o ( r r J u o u ( | ^ l r .s.)u J l i s ! l ) 1 . ! \ \ r ) r ' ! l \ ( l n s r ) r l r o l ) u L ' u { j . ) ^ us ( lr \ r r u J r .)ql()0V rustrilrileLL ! rrl lllc]lr)u.rf \uroLUoP i\iLI rlrqM rurp'u()l) ^trrrltrpur l') dr' . ) L l rt o A . r ! s r . 'iuolu l\rx.r t o . r u r r i t L r ( ) ) .

a magneijc field forns aroundil.(achcd electrons. The Dlagncric polcsof lllC eanh arc l()cal('(l al lhc t)rcciscly gcographical Nonh arxl SouthPolcs.]l ilt nriiDetic fieldsarc produccdby elcdric currcnrs.Scicnrisls bcticvclh. Electriccrrrrentsp(xluce nragnelism.rc s(. CoDrpnsscs wcre uscdby thc ancient Grccks. All subs|arlccs are somcwhal magDclic. Thlrsa nr. This o(curs bccauscthc wirc conrainsun. 7. Melalsaregoodclcclrical condLrclorr bccausc lhcy conlainnrany t 2 . 2. Wc know thrl lhc eaflh is a ntngt)ct bccausc il hasan iron cofc. poleslbnl arc alikealtrad cacholhcr. 5 . A norlh nolc of a nragnclc. Whcn n corfcnr ol elcdricily i\ passcd througha ronductor. U derstandingthe Readr'rg. . 4 .) or falsc 1F) accordinf lo lhc l)r.ttcredilr diffcrenl dircclious. t 0 .gncrir field may be induccdby an ctecrric currcnl. bu1elcclrjciry cann('t Iroducc magneli!m. Not only docsa movingmagnclic fiekl induceelcclfi(ity.lnct. A nagnct can cxc( ils ldcc across ill opcn spa(c.122 Experimenting Tiry found fiat whcn a magnctis passcd througha coil ot wire.rr eleclric current in dre wirc. ID{ti(ate whclhcr eachof lbcscscrlcnres i\ lnre (7.cvious passagc. il p()duce\. T l. Magnclic 3 . crenlingan clcctriccltrrcnl.rnnol(xisl scpararcly liour . A magnctic ficld movinf nearlhc wirc pnllsthcscfrcc clccrron\ atong thc rrilc.This is the rruc nagic ol n ntagncr. v)L h pole. A picceof iron is magnetizcd whclt ils (lontaitrs . bL lhc opfosircis also true. Willian Cilbci sLrltljcstcd rhal a contpnss('cdlcpoiDls |lo h at)(l soulhbecausc lhc c.rrlhis a Dral. Magnels can prodLrcc clcctlicily. Thc carth'snlagnclic ficld rcvcr{s ir\cll pcrio(ii(ally. 9 .

rrrl ol li)^/lot uu(rr)rl(xl iq.ruJ '9 jo luirLllrqt Jo .rtr p)uil.r(l luql IrrltLr suoltulAiJqqP )sn noi qijnoqlur^r'si)x)lr ijullut u l^4/.() iirlidor iq ull )tsL'M to^irr 'oslV '.u(.tsll n{).asu r!! 1 /rasrl.L z .qr prrprlrssspt).tr'(9) IuuoIBr^ei3 sr srsDrq(l rsrql J0 rtrpr Ur frqursrp rrlot iql r)qtrq^\ rle)tprll 'irnrr.()rls )qt JsnP)Jq Dalilrls ul d)a)l 'spjoMJo sru.{ 'tu(I.r1. rnlrrl )ql ol Ui..)l ll Lrl uorrc(uolur It uo p)s!g ar1tr21 a4t gulpuDfrapun 'aslJrrxr lxru rql rrrl(huoJol $lou rnoi isu rarll puD.4^przrrrll-'lr rqr sitl)relLr rs.rno:I rLIL.r ot llniuJlpiq ^utli ll rulrru -ulun sl raltr..(t ro iJ(|rldor irc no.t"uxro.{ so srxnr rlpt 'rlLrllls.Jr. 1 s ( r o t io ^r!( l l s o ( i i s n u ) ) q J i J r 0 ! l )o u s u r l r L ( ) l u( r V I P nru.rr:) tx?lroJ u! trrtry1qfioA S']1IYS DNINAJSIT tZI Surrunl| rid\f .r l ) ) l JJ ^ l l u l J J t r / .q reqr rJMsrp .rlrtrj srsnPr ruql rrrct 1\tL | 3- '(E) rrl)LriJDLrr (N.lu-rrPou q rilnrt e 'rtclo)clIUDnLp)ltrt III oIx.rr.)rroj tsJlo)^^ I..qr lo rrn)l JLII )lr.ilicilJ itlt^ sluMly POr.{jDurilDrur 1t llur:r.s rsrll].rrFqro plrD 'srrurlr.W Ur rlcnbqurr .{l .{illqM sit(xrrnol iiul(1.rl L|lturlirig { .L < lrurl) u p:)sn :)rsuq 1l .lq() 'uoolu rL| 'uns .. u t r t .rLl rqr ^lic)lJ rlu^^ 01 l.r 6u!4bJ-aNN itLrulrroP (l J/rlrji)n)r| Ll ' s u o ..ro!riil (l snolJstlo:) 'srlur\l)rll.r Jo )i)ul ltL'tU 'rrn tsrn)t rLIl p)lrlts )lt)rpiir) lll D qiirorlllv t I scM i$rc) l'ilriTrrp ru uoll)PrrP q )Illslp u sJliuqr lorulDlr r)rlJo !o^Jr. iru suclur{lllluJ lrrdo q JI]'P 'puuoM)qlP.r(l[r rLIt J)ol l laritlrLr I] iiutqiosqurdrl)rc no.toIM r1otr ol tcll^^ tuo iirUnil !o tolt 'suJpl)qt uo alcJlu. .rrssrllr c '996t Lrt Z .e.rq fn) 'srr.r ll prrr)ourlluir!.ri)i)roc .)J!lo) )l(lc )q or ruu^4 noA o)lllrM J^uq no^ lcrlM pui-ri.1()LlrPr ur rqt Jo SLrruerLll Prsn sr lr sa p().44) rD)p'rulcra ro'(Ns) irrpno liuorrs -olr.)lulPr(rru|u tu.

lchstcpis scparatc an(idisrincl nnd lhat nothingh. rlr. I r . L Arrangc thc stetsin chronolo|ical ordcr. 4. t 2 . Thc nn)stinrportnnl The forcclhnl holdsat(nns and nn)lccrllcs loltcther. Makc Knnclhing by hand. -t.s becn omillcd. 2. dcvclq)ing lilnr.usc pllnrls. nrighr want to cltoosc frontthc lbllowingsoilgcslionsl I l'L1y a ganrclioln aDother counlly. or. thc chicken rhc stcprhat saidto l)l|rLhcchickcnin rhc pot had accidcnLally becnoDri(cd. jA . UDli)flunarcly... DISCUSSION POINTS () lcllowslUdcrrts yoLr Givcverbal difecriorrs ro conlttcrc somcl)ro(cdurc.\jn . 7 . .r(frrllv \. Thc l L Thc basic iofccol chcnrisrry. Thc Iixcc thal a(fact\ bLll(locs nol rcl)cl.l appcars iu radioacrivil).r!c. Pl..rrc i n i l u .1 |ircc ol fnpcr. 10. Pcrlbnn nrractivity suchas changiDlt Lhcoil in a (nr. ) .l(tr.124 Expcrimenting jarcc.l slicks tapcto. oncc pfintcdir rccipclhat in(ludcda slcp that saidro rcnrove lolil.rn \'\r tall (. Onc lidy w()lc rharshchad tbtlowc(l lhc rccipe carctully bu1wasvcry confused whcn shcknkcd in hcf pol for rhc chickcn aDdcouldroL lind i(l As you prcpare your ralki L Lis!all lhclrcps in thc proccdlrrc. 5 . fepaifirU a ra(jio. Thc Iorccthat kccps in ortrir. 1wo lorccs that lirnclion only inrj(lcirrr Jtonr.n ncwspatcr from thc Nl. ( t r . rn . L Pcrli)nn nn cxpclirncnl not discLtssc(l in lhis class. 2. i r . r j .l| ll n(\c.Dothcfcounlry. l)laner\ Thc lor(c th. T h c lar\'c thnt hol(1s p()rons lollclhcr. A goo(lwdy is lrr cxplainhow this inlornrali()r l() concludc rljlhl bc Lrscd. Make slrrcth. Cooka dish lion . Thc k)rccLhatis n|()rgly lcll bec.fc so largc. Your lopic sentencc will bc r natcmenlof lhc l)rrrpose of yol|| lalk. T h c k)rccth.

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when mathcmatics was regarded by somc. 126 f . mathematics is the languagc ol s(icn(c. Wc havecomca long way sinceancicnttimcs.like plato. when numbcrslikc seven or thirteenwere thoughtto havemagi(alpowersfor goodor badluck.chapter 9 Calculating Liquids and Gases INTRODUCTION To a largccxtcnl.as myslerious or supernatural. and when mcmbcrs ofcertain brolhcrhoods werepu1to dcalh for rcvcaling mathematical//sccrets"that arc commoDkrowledge today.Thc a€curacy ol predictions depcndson the accuracy of lhe measurcmcnLs and (omputations uscd in experimentation.

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drug thar is 2.l. Defittite A icles (lrr) rn. Lofclcr 1osonrcrhin! rhat is uniqrc a planet. .ounr. d. hrerlan indefirit€ article (d or/rr) v\'hcncvcr rc({rsmy i n d r e I o l l o w i g s c n t c n c c sN .1nd t<lsLelcss llas. th€ earth an era. Radioa((ivc sobstanccs cnrit alpharnys. lspccillc) .So|]rc conr )()D rLscs ol rhcllclhitc a(iclc irrscicntilic English afcl I lo spccily of fcfar() sonrelhinll has!llreariy nrenrioDed (Noricc th!1t Lrccrr lhnL lrc is uscdlhe:iccoud aDdall succccdin! linrcsa DoLLn is r)lcnliorc(]. bctarays. Wc krrolvl(xhy rhar_ t. Thcfcwas irrsLrlli(icrrl _ light.lLrl( or uncouDtablc siDglc nollrs. d .in(l 8. so wc insl. thc Middle Ages l.) In 1986there was an accident at a nuclear reactor in Chernobyl in thc Soviet Union. Oxygcnis (oloflcss. o t e v e r y b l a n k n e e d sa r a | l i c l r . o(lorlcss. _ 4.l rrou n\ nr)(1 wilh.lled ircnsarc not madeof 6. iron. encrgy. x is rlnrught dlat L In comparison. Elcclric alwiys nradcof !hss. lighl in the lalrofalory.operation he was famous for.jlhcf. I Sif A]exaDder Fleminlg discovercd o L ' .and glirs\cr nfe not 7. lo rcfcrro somcthing srccific Thc do€tor performed an operation.j cxplodirg.u I r |cnicilliir. ! . The reactor was shut down. (gcncril) The doctor pcrformed the bone marrow t. The accident awaken€d concern for the salety of nuclear reactorsall over the world.r r etJ rurn -!old "ro u \ L L lr \ . 2. causinBthe spread of dangerousradialion.ll0 C d l (u l d r i n g Usitrg Indefi ite Articles. modefntcly d(tivcnrct.ransplant. cxlfn Iluorc$ccnl qlrasar mry bc zinc is _ hearis gilnxy rlrari.y L)c Thcdclinirc nrticlc Lrsc(l wiLhplLr.

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'i.1 honc and rcvi('w lhem from linle 10 lime. (lccilircr' decalilcr haviu! 6 nnglcs L singlc colof g ..l12 Calculating lha1reclrr yolr know will ofien. I 2 t 4 5 6 8 iii l0 100or rk 1000 d binary pcnrallo11 a . Thenwrilc thrcc ro fivc of rhcsewods o1r aD indcx cardor picccoi papcr.lnr j.r cutr a cif(lc irr hnll' (1.1nrs krlogrirrl milligr. l0litcrs k. \ . r r r r . . Study lhc lollowing lisl of prcfixcsand lhcn nratLhthc lcflns al the lcftbebw with lhcir nrcanings al lhc rigbr. Makc scntenccs wilh eachword or lhink aboulln)w you woLrkl Uscir. a chronic illness Carrythc cirrdor papcrwilh you and usc spare monrcDts lo rcvicwlhc wor(ls.s . whcn yoLl ( r r L rr . 1 . \ ' t l l r . c t l ( . l0(X). IL r ( l j r .lilcr . +ol .. stu(ly ol righL lfinnglei b .r.nrcrcr.niDgllrl nsv)cialion: chronic-lasting a long tim€.1 h r \ c r i . . .lhoseuscdirr yoLrr Iicld ol sludy. r ( ' r r h . l . i \. YoLr will nol useall lhc nrL'anings Iistcd. l ( . I i v c .rr.Write 1hencaning of cachword a[(1 a phrasc how lo Lrsc lhal showsyoLr il and will providca me. .and olhcrs1ha1 be usefulin your general vocabulary.1 i ( l c (lli g L I c h. havin! 4 rj(lcs lirc lh. .involving 2 di. r . Nufiber Pfefixes. \ .

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oul.k Dccdlo cxerla lorccof 100Pounds oul ofthc walcr.whilc hasa dcnsiry lhnt ol is lhan sahwatcr fora_c ol per cubiclbol. f r o n r a o f c o r k t o p .||? whal Makes Obiects .supl)osc as Archincdcs'principlc. upwJ forrc is 62 polrrrds downwarrl and rhc buoyarrt on rhc rocki! 100DoLrnds lo lili thc fo. HcdctcrnliDcd or plrshcd ()1 by lhc obicct lhit is Nnowrr disltaccd tbc flrJid up by a forcccqualto thc weiShl a l1)ckwciFhs100 DolndJ. w h i l c o r h e r sw i l l r o 1 ? csLab' This concc|l wi:ls bLroyarrcy objc(lsllonl is callc(l Thc forccLhalnrnkes who alY) l)l.which explains .rr(l For cxamflc.l'alcf rhewciShlol rhcliqLrid by divi(liDg is conDuted Density ol 62 has:r densilv frcsh waier of 64 toun(lsper cubiclirot.il disl)laccs has.h wcighs62 poundsThcrcfbrc. in a liquidis L)noycd inrnr$scd thatanyobiccl placcd.whcn lhal ft)ckis subncrgcd thc gravilaliorlal PLrll I cubicf )r ol watcr. llenct th( buoyanl pourxls lrcaler (r iir otcarr floal thc 'i)r n swinnrcr why il is easier frcshi{ater.ls(lis_ Archinlcdcs obscrvcd t).or horr nuch it pushclupwnrd.ll4 Calculating Reading Flo.f a n g i n g w i U f l o a l .whi.dcpc'(lson rhc Thc buoyanr is lesslhan that ol lhe li(lui(l of lhe liquid.A body rrill lloal if iLsdcnsity dcnsily grcalcr' Icc i! lcs\ (lcn\clhnrl is il will sink if ils dcrrsily in which it is inrrncncd. in walcr. y o u m a y h a v e p l a y c d w i l h o b j c c r ! i n r h c b n l l r L r r l rn p l a n i c w h i l c s o a f d i t h l k ) n r e do n lhc b a r o f s o n p s a n k 1 0 t h e b o l l o m o l L h cl v a l e r p i c c e 1 ( ) a lr oceanlincr.lcr'w. lirrccof 100 minlrs62 poLr|rds lofccof a liquid.ycd ilr lhc Archinrcdcs lishcdby thc llrcat Crcek nrillhcnlaticiaD lhat whcrrhc got inrc his l)athlub w. W h y i s i t t h a l n a n y o b i c c l s .1volunc of I cubiclirot.r1hrub.so icebergs thnt of u'nlcr' fillcd with aif so lha! lhcir dcnsilyis lessthan many spaces bv irt volur c salr\.o l i t i n g t h a l r l r c A s a c h i l d .you woLrkl (of l8 In rhe watcf you would havc ro cxcfl . lvith lloil(m lhc surhccof fic occan Sleclthip\ irredcsigrrcd walcr.

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lrc lJ.ir.flcf I l. nr.tllc Philosophy discovcrics 6.?y'red lionl b. Thc noukeyswcrc.llls lhal 'fc ..{uc$d b cllccl. rcleasc(l in a. A ln)gor lLrnlc b nrrroulldings a. of cvall(xa(iorr 9. Thc co.rlh( lilill nol krr(nln ol thc al(rniccxpbsional lliroshirlla./. SlLrdcnts llr ]()ur lcnvcsl)acc\ lrp wilh lhc inslruclor. airl thcrc wcrc l('irrsil would go highcr. r-Iiial ir. ar (t) a r(ason c. Absol]i!r pftxJl of li(nrc concep(s b. Dumcrotrs was dll. t) dividcdt)y toLrr by li)ur n. ren{cfature !(. nol desirablc Note-Taking lollo\'virril a .l/a.lL bcsl nt'lchcs ' lcncc\' thcic sc ill each ol word as il is us((l o{ lhc ilalitizcd mcaning Jlilrhl lhc:jl)acc l{) carrcel wasd &rrdrin thc dccision 1 Thc wea(hcr cvcnr tr. 10. nn)velrrfilcd rro lorccsuclri! lri'ri(nr obitcl will continuc L A nn)ving a.rnlivc in cithcra land or \en drv/.1'. causcs is colldc|rsallon.k1?r' 2. cxParrd cxpcrincnls.rspos\iblc a goodidca1orcadovcr yolrrnolcsrs s(x'r1 Il is ahvays l(x)ldn 1a1l\ thatlhc in\trlrclor ffequc|llyconl)lain lakingInLcs lcclure.li. denicd is undttaifiahk l2.lllnrlivc analysis Ifccisc. as lollg as D ln orllcrtDal loil snill c. ll yolr arc havirg troublekeeping ruorcbook as yoll lakc nolcs. rcvcbc a.lhc ptrl)ils b $irink a.!le 4.rc. Succcss b achievcd a. A scicntili( Irr{{iv. Aflcl Lbc leclllrc ad(l () yoLrrllolcs dcl.136 Calculating LISTENING SKILLS Lhc vocabulary in Cofircxt. Ncwlou's lilr scvcral ccnlllrics civilizali(n b clirproved a. All lhc i/trrlxr?l/dr?s b clfcds a. ol your cyct idrtllt-r. cnck)scd (vcn 5.( 11. 7. nol Possiblc a. nlulliplicd ol Wcslc r ar)(lscicncc d/iLlP. Thc price ol gisolinc \\at qtktdrtt\ltd. inlllrencc(l lo L)c InLIsl Irc . ln brighllight.citclc lhc lc(lcr of lhc arrswerth.

r Mt . r r i d ( u rL tlls)ijrrprl.siltlJaloru tuql .no1.^ poonsr :) o€lz.lllSSilrl Jql ot luLl()lt.Jo i)jnl!.tlt)).{rsn r.'ot)l atnlosqu )rntL. trssJl(l unlo^ ' J r r r l r .'rdruJt v I '{xrz ol pDtll)il sr t Jo r[rnlo^ rq] lou .sciJ illlJo ^nrrlrr )qt sl rt ) ru tpllt pi)Kxk)rdur^lr)l pn).{ L I r v .l')^pLli(l sc3ruo uiis a^.rt II|s tat 3u!lPInrlP:) . r r ) . L r p r p | r o .siltuLI) 'rrnturJdulil 1lrol l)itllir .L I 'llp urrql uirs a^.oJpuno^v^q pil)^o)srp su. \r q t ) . r o l I s D r i l ! .]o lol^ull)q .Ipsl suile Jo unlo^ JLIIlplll piri^oJslpsJllDqf ' 9 'prleitl urq^\ pUp(lxisisut UtDlri]:).liAUl s1spilu. pllr .\p.lqt .ls()l rroriq o. { s p u o ( x s ! t i L r u o r ) ) r t i)L F L t r p r I l r r o s l r p ) r u l r I a L I M n ) l r n r l \ | r .orppilo^v ' I 'iirlqtoLr ot )iullqslll^r 'L sDil uJo ittlnlo^ i(lt') o€lZ. { o l r D)I]o) ostv pl ru rno.] s.t s)ln)il{)!Lt. ol Il ' z .] ' I I o€zz 'funore r1\or ol rjr. {r r q l t u r r t t . ( s f u n o s t r . u ) l r . l J q t o t t u r l r o ( i u r rs r t D r l l p r o ^ { r p r l t r u D l u n tolrLrp) LrPicrll noI LriLlM lxlv . r M ' f u r o D r rs t rs s r n n _ n o t r p o u ) r n D .) o] tD{qlrsst sJsu3.l 'z I 'rroA 0lrq ol srn)rrrno.)s. { t . srrP5 I{)ror^Dqr8 rtqlr)Iltur]t )qL. { U e r ' .lu tuqt p)^or{tsturutl. u o q d L l l . u o l r n o i i j l r r q t .rr(ixr..lr(ku)l Jo c urunD ol i)lrlp rrrM st\l)tsilldluqr illur)rr lrrlllrlorrsuM]l € I nufll{ r(! r ltu. r l ' r pr r ^ ( ) p r .ls't 'ro1 sp srpLDlD-L ' i t t o n u o ( l ( l o r r D) ^ p r t n o . { ! ^ .r(s arout rl|nbi.o )t!tnlo^ ll . { l t p ) l . t l ) U u .4. J u t po l s u o n s r n b lsprl rno.{lUo 's 'i.{ Ur qsJ.I t4t qulpuDtstapun ' J s r J l a x rl x r u r q l r t ) l ( l L t r ( ) r ot srlolr rno.{ rsn UJqt .^.q.s)lltulJ(huil laMol ly O I 'sJln)iloru li)qrt|n(r iluus Jql lult()r s)spllllc Jo s)tunlo^lcnl)J Jo 'srsi)rllo(lAq luln)alorlt rqt sp ol piJlal st .loLI)prIiqtrq^{ rtD)tp\tt arnpa.rnDrl)ql r rrooDrurolur ({) )slp}ro (J) rlul )rll ol n^Ur}uo)r sr srlr:rlu)rPrs i'rllM('ll({ rLIr.\ Mul suiJtslLJ . rrnDJl rqt ol u.()(k)l(i il.{ plrlr J(lol lxru rLIl ot 0o si^oru ssplr iql o j ) r l p u P l s r r p u nt .

urcmcnls hu ridily. volumc. Why do you (hink n)nrcancienll)coplc n)agical. lhings as lo sLrch lincar nlea:. wi!h all thc ilcms in lhc samcli)nnat For cxanlplc.rse L Somepcoplc havc suggene(l or octoltrs limlrs as an trrrber ol hrd 1he snrnc wc Suppose havetcn fingcrs. Thc ancic|1Hindus inrln)nanl? concell so why was lhat by lhc Afabs.f is unacccl)t. which wns lalcr adoftcd devebl)c{l 4.?/ilft Thc samcscnlcocemay t)c rryrillc'r to pditlt.) wc th( (lccimalsyncm bccalrsc lhnLwe r.Physicist? (Thinkbcvond irl yonr (lassroonr? of calcuLlLc 2.tltc senlcnccEll'.ll8 Calculating DISCUSSION POINTS a arra\trononlcr? nced\to calc(rlale? wha! are somethingslhal a biologisl a Scologisl? chenrisl?. I WellA lbert. wcrc (onsi(lercd lhink. siTcand tcmrcral wciShl. rbal is. (o Dc runthcnralics Lrcliev((l 5. drl ddr. it is |rclcraL)lc whcncvcryolrhavca lin olilenrs. (hink nriSht wc svslenr do kird of nulrbcrinr \ldb? Whar vou a thrcc-ioed havc? Lhcconccpt ol rcro. What colrldyou mcasure re.rL)lc .c(airr nrlnllJcrs Why do yoLr myslerk)us? llrckY ol trnluckY? lhal is. did vouqet it yet (!( WRITING SKILLS to wrilc thcrl irrfarnllcllornr. stNillni\.

lnoqSnolql .sltrl terll asn pup 'lsed Jqt rplJao .'tuerldrlr uB J o l L l S l i M i \ l i l l l n J l e J ( ) 1.{Fp|rurs .Dle^i qll^r raulptuor lJpnb.relpr\ eqt u! lles Jo dnr p JIBqe^lossrpuaql .\oqrrlloN .ssiJojd It lnoqerUlrrdsog 'ilLDa olloJrLIlJo ruo lo..sa^Iosslp l! Ilxun lles eq1 rlls .rl ro ?) uosrad tsJli iq) LrlrllrM ol 3uro3 oJeno.{) uosrid puo)as1(r.itlr^^ ol Jo.{Jr epi)ap utql .i{ltr ltrxunparrlls spn lles EqI .relpn eqlulllesJo dnt p JIeq e^losslpuaql .lrrsJlJ .l '(!roos prre'ullot'ilqt'tl 'rilr'ay')uoslrd pllrll ro.rqJrprr'lql 6€I SurPInJIPtr .eruPp pue ?ru!/t{s.rJrltoorus ralspJ IeuDrro sr sJldurExrrs:rll Jo qrer ^.SuDuEp pup .{Juolslsuor ILrcs oq plnoqs eJ'ql qder3erpd.(ro. M o H I 'uloJ It asn IJlleJpd !l(luilurud ino.J)!oA r 0)9 pue a^lssedpup pJrqlpue'puorts'tsJ!l :stsuetsJXIu lt tsneJeq:jursntLloJ Irrcsli)Cl sr qdoliJ0J0d oql 'qri)^ illl Jo u|loJ r^r]eridufl .uolJd pup islrJl tlPlrdoJddelsol! sl Jsurl rjntnJ ro 'tuasDJd Jl ur .pr^lossrp se.3ullulEd sa{I ua g pqt upql peal ol :srurluJs pup .s.\oq rJlloN . suolt)rrlpiju!^13 qdBlSDrori r?atFM suolpallo atow Duuyil .{p^4 llrr.8uuru!^is .J'tp^r qll^{ reu!€luor upnb"euo p pellg J .{r^lii ol rnplo lrJliolol(rq) ur r.ruroJIrllprpd Sursn.())ir'prrnsp u rq ot spiiu Jle)lpul qJuJ tpLIM uJdrls t0L0.ro'AJltrlslsLlo) til rtrLll UJLIM sJuroJeqLldgr8grDd aqt irru)l) q)nu .euo p JIId .rllsllollgred.{upur .lulEd ol sJrlll urlJg 'e)uep ol puE /lulr!\s 01 lulPd ol sarlll ueJJg .{ruslntsr ro.sl ro'pil).l! sdits llr-'rtns rleW prlldltlnrrr . ^toq Jo rldrupxo SulMolloJ iqt lo loo.

. the percentof your weekly expenscs lhal gocstoward 5.How to calculate recreation. 4.140 Calcularing 2. How to calculare Paristo Tokyo. How lo calculatewhat i! would cost you to drivc lrom Ncw York 1o san Francisco. 6. pcr (milcs lhe speed or kibmctcrs hour) of a flighl frcm l. How to calculatcthc hcight of a lrcc. How ro calcula(e the dillcrenccbetwccnthc amount of time you spcnd studyingand thc amount of time yolr spcndrir'arching lelcvisionin a week.

lo ruiLUdol)^rp:)qf E)uIuY puP ooorna Lrlsrsllurtrsrrlllo ^L'eLn puE 'lllu.rrL{ro ro 3ulrpLts e iq 1nq uosrrd ouo Iq poLtslldluoJrp ]ou )rp srur^o)srp lsow 'r8prt^^out rrJrrurr)s uorsupdxrprdprIlSu!sprrlrt rqr or 3u!peil Jo 'uollp8ltsr^u ! Jo sqtEd^\)u srs)88ns.rodot srJlltoSulll^ul'slPurnotur spoqlJrclPlu)nr!JdxJ rliql rrod nsILr.rrP rpqlsrsurtqrr^ lurrrJirp.|r^(Dsrp Ll)pg srlnsrr )ql r^oldstp ro {lii^ ot stroullridxi urro.)rP uo uetu E lnd rPql Drlbrd rql pup rrrndulor rqr.::. l.(xlrr prix )rrtou l)(re : -_i.rslsrldo)cl lltun a!ttq rl ll plrp sJ^l)sul)ql Illprr x)u plp r)rrrlJs uJrpour'rr^i^\oH tuJruLrorl^u:) 'irolslrl lnollSnorql lnoqe srlri^o)slp Iuurrr )pu(u r^Prl siiulrq uL.rr^oJs!p pur.Mle Su^\Slrll suipl rlrLll tulls)luntulllo) 1OO puP si)l.\'rollotiLlt Eutpta\ UoLIS 'Suruodr rlunrrp'ror8rllrlur uocln st uolteJrdoor.) slro!tu^risqo il lt 3u!uodiJ prl.)rlr )5!s\frliirr.rc o:)ulrg'Illog slrrN UIJrsulE u:)qtv Jo lro^{ rqt uo prsEq sE^\ 'rtclu'Pxr roJ 'iSrrur rlurolP Jo nrilurJotr^tp qret uo Bo!pllnqsrrurrersJrqrl^\ uo!rPLuroJulJo rSuEqrxr rqJ )j.Lunq NOI.lrlrp ]rJrlurps rpilB Jo srtdlllexr rr(tro :.MouI'slrpt)!rELu)LFPttlJo sBurpuU r'JJAJTD luJlJUP Ol aUOp StrP.ro/\s.tfl 'tsro :]qt Jo strrr^.L)n(IOU-LNI a41 artt lo u161tg 3ullrodeu 91 ratdeqr .)lJs'iPpot srur^o)srprrrqr IeIUo:) rlr(ll errp pue s:lulpul.to tdlr slql suoJJr rurpuJdrp uoolr rql llnot rir^4 tpql sltrrurr^.j ot sqt8url 1err3ot rlrrM srslr!)LlrlP tr 'sr8v ilpp!t rL| nt pFo/\^)qr tl()| Irtl)os rr]r)s r lt prLl'srprroBEqlid )rlt srirr.

lcsarr(i li'rnnlrs. !(\v. nndcach(el1 becanrc s|(. Dr. l-hcn(rngcr c(lls survilcdirl(l lhcir chir aclefislics rrrlc passcd on to thc ncxt gencrili()n. or.142 Reporting Ho$' Lik Begah To discovcr hor'v life bcgan.The snnpl€sl formsof life appcar in 1he]owest or oldesr rocks.sincc thc ol{l(st formsof lifc wcrc all sealifc.Thercfofc. ro lhc rlcvclol)rncrrl ol hLrnriln btirrgs. llrc thoughscientins can Ihnl thc carth billion rocksthat showany lraccol lilc arc lcsslhaD.1 (l hcariINinrl)()vc(l in br. wny. Gra(lLrally.icr ol pl.ins grclv aDddcvcli)t)c(i. Irinallv.y 1olonDa nrinurc ofgnninrr (rfiginal Al1life hasp()bablye\.cl(rinoft(xlay. m.t billion yrars had passed on 1heearthwhen lifc origir. Thc cafly cellsLcpnxlLrrcd simplyby liivirliDg irl lrvo.which m.]ny sci(ntists bclicv(liJcl.tcd.rrisnr sonrcthing . \/z V .bLrtin sonrcmir.. archacologills sludyfossils.rlc. f(sporr(lcd to ils sLrrrolrndings.0(X) \t)crics {)l or rypcs.. wcre nor all nlike.llypl.inlizc(l in i rtil{crrnl lirnction. ()ldcn (al.r1(.ol\.000 s|c.nls rn(l 1.zbilll(Dvcars old.br. Forsils irc rhc rcnr.fhisoirc'ccll(d org.r(lc ()l slii nfc (()rrlt)o\c(l u]r ol n conrl)inatioli of (clls. Alier .cg.sorrc wcrc betLcr Prolrably lhosefifsl1i1ly organisnrs nbleLo oblainf(xri or adaptlo coldcr*. alx)Lrl 2.nls !rxl dninLrl\(l vi(lc(linlo Lhalnra(lcnranya(lv. rcprodrlcc(l ilscll.rr(nc lhan 2100.cradudllyorgdnismsbccinrcnroreindrnorcconr|lcx. lhc scnscs ol sjghl.200. nn(ltx)ssil)jlirjcs i|r(rca\cri li)r(l(vflot)ing r)cwirr(l v.rrr(l nrLlsclc so or).n(csl)ossll)lc.in ccll\.rins ptants or imprirls of and animals of k)ng ago rhar havc bccn t)rcscrvcd in Lhe Al ea h's crust. singlc cells becanrr altached to oncanolhcr.fic(ls1)r( ics To (i.(uloLr! nxtccrlc\ happcDcd ro cor:bincin lhc occan of ilr cl.alrrs. inrclligcrrcc lci(l rrg auiural(and 1)r'ogfcs\cit._v halc bccD Iikc lhc b. .nrrnlli!ing (hingsarc Ir1.c(ly horv.'lixlay.rrirnalsy'ravc dcvclopc(1.Lilatc is 4.ns.r long Limc.an(lsprcad throLrqhoul thc oce.6 y(rfs ol(1. ll)c righl kirr(loJ Wc do rrot krrow(r.td lrornrhal single ccll.rr l)o(lics (clls.bloo(1 (clls. cclls. Thc Hri]dLral nriitraLion Lhcocciln ro thc lnn(lrvas anolhef nraiofrrrp ol Ijlc l|1)rlr evcntu.n i lhc sr.

.dr$lurrrs rrr prsn .(0lrrnb:){ lsotu aql sr tsuJl lsed Jldlursrql suorDelsEd!(xlrr ol prsn rrE $surt turr:tlO IIIOd:IIT {}t SulrodaU OI HSI'I)N:I DNISN .Lad pedole^ep e^Pq :asuai Uts d (trnlnJ iqt olul cnu|uor.Lu 3uo1 c rreld or)iL't r^Erl soortrp rsJlll) 'sut.rrLIlEr Lolllprlo) e sttodar r)u)llrJs slrll) [u]t lsltl)5041 [tq]jq d 4nD tP tou tM sutstutJqto peerds 'pernpojdrr 'p.puodsrr 'MrrB 'rtp :)sw tsDd )tLlwts (prlrldllror plrp rrp ote. :2surl Parad tspd p4Dut6uo elt ur4tt ttyDaaU o passtd pttt stral uonttqS Z tnottDt.to{tr}qJ gr{rr rsvd Nlr^r9 y s{oJ3q q:t#t'ldwol Noulv Nv pe^lo^e seq :asuattrr{)rd tlasau 'rtoldruo)u1 (ilur^lo^r sr.roru sl rrclDs rql rsnDJJqpasnsl truqj r^rssDd Jril) ualrrtuzq lxdu t4 at o pAsSvLl .lXtrr9lltllXpltltq )lt4l a.nor|) pt)irdsputl full p npordat squryunortns s! al papuads'[^\t16 alD ttuttlito ptlti )t1oi\J NOrrfv aaraldwof v '.llqpqord lll.ssed pe|].tar'^:|suatFDdnldluls ( uortrp up Lrpql.JII 3t tpqt oslesl Lroltrp slql) llns ' ' ' 'll pulquo .NO NY prssed ara^r :uti)J ir^tssDd'tsunDdaFuS ( uoll)e rqr lo rrlru(lFi( rql uelll llrPuodrul.Mpup'Mou crpld Sullpt sl 'cLult spqteqt uonJsup sl slllt) Io polDd l?r)^o rrpld LI'IBT 'ptdolzirp aAtLl slttunuv 0aa'002't pup stuDld 00a00. u04t afiw atbpoJ {a saDads lo eaDrds NOIIf.9ul]u.1aa\t .Y qAIgldWOf.loql.l6uls tb\ aLdl pe^p^aMDqotd stq |Ju ttv pa.J.

6.:::lX:":i":.:r. '!.d (. " i.] and tme aJ hequen'v t.. ' rhe universe l\ whcn the idea came ro nrm' carriage his in Darwin {had been riding} fotl..id(| n(* di"r'veri<t I l I A G I V E NT I M E BEFORE A N A C T I O NC O M P L E T E D REPORTING TENSE) ( P A S TP E R F E C T ' rarrhed" rhe bamh lnad elph'dc'l Bv lh€ I m..'es .i"'t"a t"unched iiJifJ"'""'flliSl'"1'""'""' iRili*iH*f :3i?lJii"ll whil' in the Galapagos' Darwin {was workinS} on his lheorv ' ' ' l f u t r 5 b i l l i u n) e J t sJ .xJ.v rr.'. no."di tProPosco l In'd-'' hi\rheoNorc\orurr"n ACTTON OR RECENT AN UNCOMPLETED REPORTING T E N S E ) PERFECT (PRESENT I Bi('loFFr\I l'"" n".)dre Menelude. A^ei..'::.iiliii..:. i."..'***'v ab*. n.l 't'ihn!' ac r Jrcq"lntli'1'cicktitk do nat ot dis"t\std ... y".llv. llj orren ' tttead) . h a ) b e e ne x p d n o ' n F r n c c i r < r n e p r i u n ..Mittd NOTESr\her tepotfto ftheub?r th.? .. wc rh( riht srurn'\' ii.ad u\u. 1. He/She I I I I f I It""I often arleady \el om .t44 RePortrng SentehcePatterns (SIMPI-E PAS'TTENSE) REPORTINGA COMPLETED ACTION l o u b l i s h e dI Da*'' l.:..-"r'*.".tu rckftnce Haw'|*'/'t'l"."".fc I.ii. recentrv slill nor usuallY I I I n.

'ollpsreri Lrorltrru S I lnoqL'(rprdd'r)

L'PIUlsrll rLIt 'Pl1) siPri

uor rq z irc lPql s)jroroo (pUrt) l'l,Lls la utnle )4J \ltuM)

\ t r \ \ ' r l I { L r .i lq l

i

aryw

ur^{rPc stlrEql I 'uontrL' arFi.lr.r,1r.l tr.lqns

J q l J l J I r J J r . / S l l : u o l l J c J ! 1 1 J r r J o r . rl d r)lqns Jql.llJnr,r,sl rlllrlllJs v sisrllluJrcd ul qrJ^ )ql J0 JsLrJl lsed tl(llllls )LIr Jo (lol )^lssP(l ro J^llJc iLll lrqll) llastll 'L()rr)p prrrl(kr o) p s.qrr)sirp sJrlrrllrrs isiq r.lo Lpua 2s zI lsfld a4uls 24! 6ulsn

a r u o j J ^ r t J Pr o i ^ l s s r ? d I I L l l l ! s l q

luqM u apisnsl )srrDl 'tsPd rqr ul rltrll)gptds
r-) rrotiq srn))o tpllt oolt)e uu suodi).llul0 rJlrJlui)s l] lo riqtullu i)ql illlM

)qr ul 1lsl q r^0ru.roi^lssu(l zur.()l sl osrrir lpllM u zprsn
'uo!l)u Jlil(ruo)Lrl Lr?suo(lo]tr-'Llt J)uiturs Lrlo iiqutlrr )qt itli^ z ro i^rtrp )L|] ul rl rl q iuUot J^lssu(l t pisn sr )sul)rreqM rl
L ( ) l t ) c | i l ) l ( l l l r o ) 0 s l r o o i r l u q l r l t l ) l l l i s e Jo riqllIlu .)ql i]!rM

I

'yNc D su rlrl rlllibq scq-Ipoq llPtunrl llr) )liJols lo siln))lolu Mr) o rl)1,{,r p io ',{slpp u 'ruu LtP'orrldlo| !-ilutlll tor^rl iJr^a (9) slsolrrtr l)rllc) ssi)ord ol JlDq trriirrlrr^rp ,{q DnPor(i.rslli) (/) o^^lLuroJ u uJsllrr rrrlliirlPp Iurrru.Pr 'rtnJrl')u' rql sl oorlPrLuolrr! )qr sr vNd leqr pu'r rl'lrJlorL'nLrtrols Nulfurur-uolcuroJul urrq pPLI pueuoslPM $llrDf ,{q prlPlrtlurol vNc IPL PrPs,{)ql(9) Iruf sr)Lr!.u trro.ql e '{(arl ia (E) pr)PrrJlrnll r|Drlolu vNc )qr lo rrnl)nrrsrql iJlllpiuiJrr sru).{roi (t) (plre rl)lrnL()qu)vNx puE (prrP rqr p)lpnrsslstiiototq to rrnrDLr rql ({) srrrlrnu iprr! rlrt:)nLrJo rrrltrnuoqlixo)p) NnotuP.t]pl DsurDlLIor vNc .lJltral pJlleJ sDldol,{j lorluol rLIl sl l!tl1 sn)pno e qlr,]^',L ,{lqE)returr r)rrillrl P Jo pis{xhuorrru sllrl (z) rrnlrnrls trl .IDIILUIS DrLltsqns prr] sluPlo ol slPtullrP oPLunLl .rLrsll)r Jsftll req) pLIP'sllJr lo.pPLu:)rn'snurJq (uorlsllrsrupSrc iql Jo .uo srlI (l ) rrurDsJ()slr4 SuIzPruP lirt^ P rPqr rldtnrs ]',13 ) !lHl
'JSI]I:)XJ

pul' LldPIilDiDd rqt pcrd 'srsrrJ lsDdEut[lltuapl rr0 .lildluor Lr)10 3or^'\oll(I glI Suruodru

r46

Reporting 4. About 165million ycarsago,gianldrnosaurs on thc carlh. 5. About 4.6 biuion yearsago, lhc earrh 6. The first living o?anisms ha1f. 7. Thc fossils ofNeandc(hal]nan
b c l w e e n 1 95 1 a n d 1 9 6 0 . 8 . A b o u t l 8 m i l l i o u y e a . s a g o . v i o l c n l c a h q u a k c sa l o n g C . t i f o r n i a ' s S i (livc)

(tu m).
1 r ( j r ' d u . c ) l \ , l \ i ! l i n Si n

(discover) in Irrq

(rotale) Lhcrrorlhwestcm Mojavc
D€5crL about 25" clockrlrse.

The PresentPerfectTense
To describe ar incompletcor rc(cn!ly (omplctedaction,thc prcscnrpcrlcctlclrsc pcrfcct tc,Dse is used,The fornulas for forming Drcscr'rt arc:

= has ot hate + past participle

= hds or have + ,een + past participle

Using the PtesehtPerfe.t IsrJe, Eacho{ihesc scntcnccs dcscrilres aDirrcornplctc or recendycomplclcdaction,Insc( cithcr dtc passivc of aclivc form of lhe prcscnt pcrfecrtenseof thc vcrb or verb phraseiD parcnrhescs. I. Ait l'ol]i:rion ha4 leeo/r/'3 (trccomc)a major probtcm irr

z. vany studies

/taue leelt natle

(makc)ro dcrermine thc

cilccls of smogon the 1ungs. l. Morc thaD a hundred clcmenrs (slillnot find) for dre conrmon cold 5. A salellilcof fic planet Plulo

'U"Inr.)u1l \ r x , . , r r r l . r r ritr\i \ r i , . n l t r q t r l o r d ! l no l

stLr)rLrr.dxJ rrLIto (Lru(trrd) srrqp pnPrnrrsedsrno'l.t1l ,trrqt.ruls sSurql stsrlLrilrs iiur^n rrqto ruo{,.(llrocurcr siJLql 8r ^n rPqt (.terlsuo
,llr.p)

llrrlulr.dxr rql

rro ro tr?r(' i)qt ut (pUU)

rel pllqt iql Jo tsuui^or jrded Jql s,93roN rl'l puoDs .rlt Jo D^o:)

Lllolr iLIt uo pup r?l lrido rqt Lrlle.rr rql uo siJ.3r (,{Pl) rr'l\) iql ,{qll)P.rirc)

srlu'(Iu):)p) prlqlrqt plrP'qtol)qlr^\ (ri^o)) pLroJis iql 'uJdo (o Brl)

rLItuitlM rrdP({qll^^ (D^or)

r!l tsrLJ
rH lioirll slLIt ol tlprrrs!p
r p i l l o ) s r ) L t u l cl s l t u : ) l ) sL l p l l ! t l

nll vcl,),)rqlur tfllru (,r)Lrl(l)
l L l r L U u a d x[ Jr p ( L r u 0 t r J ( i )

;)ql 899t ul LDqj ^i^tuH LuPrllr^{ plr! LrolMrN :rop(l stsllllrl:)s teo.lij iql ilulpnl)

,{q LrortDriLriij snoruDtrrodr J0 ircntlt sllll lurlu pi^uJrp lr()4 sDJsurpUL) pnrrl ruo{ llsnorLtctuo(ls(itBtiutii) srlp(rs puusiJorl reqt()^rJliq)
NOrrvugN39 snogNYINods 'rldurilurudtol^,\ollot DL0 Lll srsaqturred trl sqja.^JLoJo isurl lsed t)rllo) iLF ]lrsul .2srrJ Itbd lra o) a41 6ulsoo4J lasual qulsootlJ

-nr il&)rd ,{uuru

(pliq)

'rusrue o rJLIlo iuP Lrcrll
silurql ilor^q olll (,(ol]s;)p)

snrr.xluErrnH ' 6

tu.^r itrl'lniirr

(rJs)

r rr0:) s,Ir PH 'Lroourql uo {rl orr
s]slllrJrJs',srP),(lLreur toc -/

srrr)rtt (^\orrl)
ollrr (o3 tsnl)

.trqro
:)]IIIJIES J P ! T U . L I P TI U Jq]OUY '9

/tI

Sutuodru

148 Repo4ing Forming Se tences Thnt Repon. f o r n r i r s e n l c D f cr c | o r t i n { c a f l l o l t h c l t l ( ) ! \ 1 | , r
I

b i r t h o f l h c l i r s t r e n - L u l j eb n l J f . / L D l t ; r i r d I

I978

the fu.ul l"X lul,z I'al'//

2. dcvrbpmenrof trincit)lrs ot gcorDc(rvr FLrrtid I At(:.ndrir. E{vpL / 100 u (l L classjJication oI plnnl\ r (l .ninrits I C.rotU\t_tnnnc|\ I S r | c i l ( . r r / l7)5
r e ( c i p l o l L h c N o b c l P r j z e l o f ( l i s . o v c r vo l | l u L o n j ) . n i t Maric Curic / ljr.rlr.c r l9l1 5 . invcnlion of frintinlt rvirh rov.blr lf|( I pi-\trcnS / Chin.r / erevcntD cculury 6 c o n l r o l l e d n l | c l e i l rf i \ s i o n o l U r . I i U n r r E I r l c o t ] ( , r i I I l . l f / 1 9 . 1 : 7 . l i r s t I a n d i n l to n t h c r ( n r n / A n ] t f i . a r r I , ( ) i c r t A l ) o o r t 9 6 ( . ) 6 . ( l i s r o v c r yo l ( i r c u l . r i o n o l b l o ( x l / $ / i l l i . | l r t r J n . ( ) , , L n g l . r ( t , 1 6 } j 9 . l l r s ls p r c cJ l i g h t / Y u t i ( l n c i f i r ) I S ( ^ c l U I i o ] l I l 9 6 l 0. dcvclol)rncnt o l l ) o l i o v . c . i r r c , . J o r r . rS s. r l l i , A n r ( r j c n / t r 5 4 l . i r ) v c n t i o no J j r l c a n ( 1 c s ( ( r l).tr n r t ) 1 t - h o r , r ! t i l i s o n / r \ n r ! r i c i , 1 8 7 9

",a,i

kaa a thqk4l

,4 /g7S

READING SKILLS VocabularyBuilding l|lCrc.rsing youl vocaLr i;ry docs rror lrnvrLolrr,t((oIrt)li\hc(t whllr \i|lir)it,]l ,r ricsk with fntrcfs, boolis,.1nd tJ cnn) r .nrl of strrrL ol n()t(,tr,rl)rl l)cnfll\. )oLr

l i s t i n gl b u f o r l i v e n c w r \ o r l s , l o r ( a t . k c : r ( t ! d I t . g c o l t i ! c o r L r n n r i [ t | t $ ],(ju havc whilc vy.iting ill i lirrc r h c l ) i r r l ( o r i d r , ) l l i . c , r j ( t i r l N, r t ) L r so , r c!fI w r i r j n g l o r l c l ( , v i so n . o n l l c r ( j n 1 \ r o r . ( 1 . t r r r q u c l t \ t r o n n L L r t ) . t r ( r i , ) ( lw \ i t,c n m r c l ) ( ) d U c r i v c1 h . 1 Io I c $ , c c k l v s c s s i o | r ! i t t r , r l o r ! t i \ r . 'li) s l l r d yl h c w o r d \ , l i r s t r c . d c n . h ( ) | r r n d i l s | r c . r I i | 1 ! . ( C h f r k w j t h r i l j d i o r r r r f o r a n a r i v c s p c . k c r i f y o . l r L r n c c t u i | . b o u r p r ( ) ! L | r r i . l j o n . ) T h ( . | . r ] r . i l ( cJ t ! c \ c n t r D c c rw i l h t h c w o f ( 1o r i n v c n l i n i r l r . r : t i n . f l , c o r l V c r \ . r L i io nn! v t r i r h v o u ! \ 1 ) rl { l u s c t h e \ , ! o f d .T h i s t c c h n i r l L r lc 1 ' i l li ] r . r c n s cn o r o n l f v o L l | ! o r , r t r L ] n r ] , 1 ) u.r t s or r ) L r l 'lucDcybypfovidirgyouNithanopp(ntLrnilyrot)ri(lrc..\trerkjrr!,rvc|whcrr y o u h a v c n o o l r c t o t a l k w i l h . C o n \ i d e rl h c r \ ' , r v n u n v t ) c o t ) l r( c \ e n n , r l i Y c sl)c.ker\t) l i ) r . j o b i n l c r v i c \ \ ,o r , I r n r ! u n r e n l \ \ . i t t ri r c . r h c r o r t r o s \t , ) frep.rc lhcmsch,es l h i n k i n g l h f t ) u g h r v h . l t h c y l ) l . n l o \ . y . W h c n t h c l i n r c t ( ) rl h e c o v c r s . r l o n . o i r r c s , t h c y . f c a b l c t ( r c x l ) f e s sl h c n r s e l v e s nn!c rffrcrilcty l)(rnLrsc thct tr.vcillrcn(t). f o r n r u l a l c dl h r w o r d s i n l h e i f I n i r ( 1 .A s . r ) o n n . t i l c \ l l c , 1 k r r .v o u w i l l l ) c n f i i l j i o | r this habitof"fraclice ralking" imnlcaslrribty. tn orhef wordr. r.tk ro )r)LLr\cIt lB r trcsure() do il in Englisht)

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cfalledthroughoul rhc rwcuticrh ccnlury. adjuncd 10. lnrcrcsun! b. discovercd rhe cxa/cr./ro dcserllifc and can So wilhout wrlcr tir long b. 6. dominaled 11. died 7. The subjcct ofaborriolr hasbeen.. cs(apes b.nd lhercwill pft)bably ncvcrbc complctc agrccmcDl. dispx)vc Skimrfiing Skim lhe followirlgpassagc in lhrcc miDutcs or lcssnnd lhcn arlrwcrlhesc L The main lopicof rhh lassagc is a.. b. Einstcin's lheorics havcf. It sraicd to rain when rhe nir wasrdrrldtfl wilh moinor(. dcvckDs 12.rrhlidr? in compurerlcchnologyha! accelcralcd sircc 1980.ofJupircr. A butcrlly eyolles lion a careryillar. thc search1o discoverbow hlrman Iifc cvorvc0 b. Tlrc. disputcd pe ormcdexpcrimcnts ll. Ncwr(nr to cdr/ir/l? wha( Galilco had |roposcdrl)oul a. verify b. a. lailcd b.s moons 9. Numcrousrpecl!. Iillcd b. The camcl is dddpl. L Galilc{..r of aninals are in danlcr of beconrirr!l extincr. a. lived a. habilals 5.150 Reporling 4. Alicr the bombing. thc scx lile ofan oyster . Arislollc's vicw of cvoluli()r c. lh€ ciry was rebuih by rhosewho rrryivc.rr?l/dr/rj/r/ lbr a lonit rinrc. a. a. lhc lile of Charics Darwin d.

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rl Danvincallcd his Lhcoly sclcction.lsnr)(1 f(lnlc(1 Lo oLhcrt() s ot ltti.i l i s l h c r p i r i o . Da . Over million\ 0J yrirr:. ln thc nrlrgglc 1(r cxi\tcn. changc. and nanrLrl s{rlccrion.rrh h.eanwoulclbc s.!in fonD l. or thc oncsrhntnfc L.rnrh. y upsettin!wns lhc (onccl)ttltil thc atr(.r thaI thc lvorld rcpulililnr iu I987 rv. r i o r . o n c b a s e do n p a s t s l a t i s l i c s and (ufferl rreDds.r. will slrrvivcThr t)roccssofDi LLfnl\clict.to1ttrc titrcsL. n c d u c a l c c o l pinion.Heknewthalmdnyofganisms pro(hr(r m(ncofllfrin{ rhnn(a1r ir.LIrcstftrr 5rrrvive in coldarcn\ Plants that rcquirc the lcaslann)u|l ol rvatcr survivc in rlic (1c\( r L Fishth.' H! argurdlhal thoscspccics thal arc thc nx)n Jit. nlanyreligious vicwsirboLrl thc origir) ln a(l(1ili(rn. For exampl€.nnoL n ljvr. thc o. Airimnls with thc \r.lLr. D i s t i n g u i s h i n gF a c tf r o n O p l .s occurrcd innulncrablc linrcs.s devclopcd lrcnr a single. sfccics Iar loo(1. For cxamplc. and spacc.tcd. ar oysler can sparln 100milli(n rlgs. only lhc llllcn. \{ cr.ins irc nninr." or the "suL!jv. lhcre is compelitiorr amoirgthe indivicl. nllthc (lillcfrr)t s|crirs oj lilc Lhnt wc know tftlay havccvolvcd.152 Reporling As a resultofhis obscrvations.r!to.e.I l r .. "nallrr. s.rn atilero adnpt.r n li]]rct11 nll Lhc\c cggs sun/ivcd. IlUl nll tltc cvidcn(ewc ltiv( lodayconlifnrs Darwins hyl)othc\j\.dUal (lcvclopnlcnl.l1r clninrc(l rlrnl man hascvolvcd Jioma lowcr li)f|r ol lilc and th. rhcoryoflhc c!olLrlj()rr oJ humar lifc. l l i q v c r y i n r | o n a n t l o f e c o g n i T c l h c r l i l l c ( ' l l c c b c l w c c n f a c t a n d o p i n i o n w h c n r e n d i n gs c i c n r i l i c 'rralcrial or lislcDing lo n scicnlili. b u t i t r c m a i n s a n o p i n i o n L L n t i il l can bc proved.. l)arwirr's ideas wcrevcry corrl|1)vrfsia1. .llc. will) |. In 18t9 Ddrwinplrblishc(i his findings irlThc oi4ii1 il St. r .000. thrcugh{r.rrly [. lcclurc.l ccll.or the Lrcst rL)lcto (or)r|cLc with olhcr specics in the cnvironnlenl.t rould adoptlo lifc on land bccr|ncthr fifsl lnno rnr. rhnt is.llsin.000.r in lacrnll lit orrLhec.975.ity survive. H o w e v e r .lufated wilh oy\LcL\t Sincc.r lict]rcyr!crr in l:onllict (t rni rkiri(1. it is a.s 4. will prcvail.(i(. !!. origiu. o f m a n y s c i c l l L i n s lhar thc rvorldpopul. l y b c .rnrrh.ln) v!ill jn(rcnsc b y 1 b i l l i l n l i n r h e n c x t l w c n t y l i v { : y e a r s .\tofsol hLtntan PanicLrla L)cings wrfc rclntcdlo alcs or nlonkcy\rnilliorrs oJ yenfs.Iy jrcol)lc wcrc sho(kedal rhe idca lhfl hLrnr..

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l y . lonu lcriod ol. t .. it is bcltcrlo rcadthc rr()lcs rh()Ugh onccn wcck li)r rhrcc wccksthaDllucc tinlesin otrcsilling. .t-rcnn rccall.sriyc a. o n l r i b l i o n l v a s r h i t h c s t l r d i c da l l l h c c h a r a c l c r i s t i cn ! r onc timc. w ' \ r . C " r ' . a. a important 9.Fof cxnirl)lc.nDd lhctr Usc yotlf no(es to completc lhc nextcxcfcirc.. 2 . lcastimponalrt 6.csl)ccially t)cli)rc a lcsl.rnl whitc flowcrs. a. I ' r .lhc highcrrhc pclccnlngc ol lhc nratrrinl you will rclailt.r announced 1othc world.h(1l spa(ing thoscrcvicws will helpyoUlo rcnrcnl)cf ovcf . . largc b. t \ ' r .lcmrinc whcrhcr cnch of thc following(aremcDrs jn lhc is truc (I) or falsc(F) accor(lirrg to lhc inti)fr)ration wcrc F t.. l M e n d e l ' s u n i q u c . a.Ii)r l(rtl. supported b.154 Reporting 5.l { .lintc. r .1y rccall . .. . trackward 7. 1 .s domindnt aops. mostimporranl b. Antoine Henri Becqucr€l's discovcryof ridialion was rTgrrtcd. T h e A u n r i a n m o D k c f c g o r M c r x l e l p c r j i ) r l n c dh i s c x | f f i n r c n l s i r r r n c s e v e n l c c r r l lc l entlrfy. abLrndanr 8.rand paved rhe way Ibr the work of Marie and pierre Curic. The nlorc lrcqlrcnlly yor rcvjcw. W h c r r M e D d c l s e l f p o l l i n a r c dd r c { t A r g c n c r a l i o j l r c d f l o w c r \ .brca(l baskcf'because whcaraDdcorn arr the rcgion. The sbrs ar€ too nrfiercrr to bc collnled.Thc Scjcllcc ol Gcnctics.Aly). n r . h c c x p c c l c d !o pftrLlucc llowers $at wcre pink or mixcrt rcd and whitc. dis|rovc(l Note-Taking Notcst.n gcncralion flowcfs ivcfe pink. . if you rcvicw1hcnoleslhrcc lintcs. The midwesrernparr of the Unilcd States is sonlrtimescn cd rhe . All the fi. 6 . Uhderstafidingthe Le.nd fcc. .t.e]ot substantitlted rhc hypothcsis. you nr. Usc your nole:i to d(.. h c produ(edred Ilowcrs . The ocean'stides are characterizcd by aliernaringfonvard . The resullsol the expctin]. raprd b.s ntltcltas 20 pcrcent or J0 pcrccDl nt{)rclhatril yoLtrcvicwlhcnr lwicc. is. .kcn in class shouklbc revicwc(l lr()rn linrc to linrc.ture.I t o w f l . W h e n M c n d e i c r o s sp o l l i n i l l c d r c d a D d i v h i r c f l o w c r s . Takeltolcsas yoo lislcD to tllc lcclurc.

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x-rays. a]|. 4. thc firsl hlrnan hean lransPlantor tcst'lubc baby thc discovcryofpenicilliD. Mounl Evcrcsr.The remailder of the paragraphcan cxplain how or whr or both Your of thc discovcryor cvcnt mighl tell lhc sigDi{ican(c concludingsentencc .or dre Parrama lhe construclionof the Pyranrids. 5. wrile a rcpo( ofa scicntificdiscovery l 2. $c invenlion Beginby wridng a lopic scntcrccthat answtrs thc qucstidls wh. 6. 3. \'/hal wlkn. of rclalivity thc dcvelopmcnlof thc atomic thcory or lhc thcory or lhc airyhne thc computcr..156 Reporting Writing a Report You nliSht choosconc ol lhcsc: or evcD1.d wlrere. Canal lhc Sucz Canal.or racliunl or thc Solllll Polc fie first landirg on lhc moon. ofthc lclcphone.

{{Jl.toqs 'czllensl^ol rrrsPr sJTeur 'uollJunJpue rrnDruls stl .{{ ro /sluJlua^oul v up Jo stlnsEl /suoltlpuoJJqrDsJp leJlsiqd'scBueqJ IeJ!ruaqr'luJurlrodxa ^elu lI plro.'idord qtrrq.nseq 11 rardeqr .\{ Jql Jo .{r r rur:t.rl.rJuerprddest!Jo lr Sulllplep uo!ld!.^ttruttstp ro sJllstrJlrprEqr rqt IIsl oslp IEru uolldlrlsrp rdo)sorJlr! Jo JdoJsrlal e qBnorql uaJs sl t€Ll.)p ol rSesspd Sur^rolloJ rqt pD.JJ!p st rxolp upJo lda)uor Jqt 'rldllrpxr rog rl Bulqtrrsrp lq prutpldxr aq upJ Sulqtrluos Jo ntpu rql 'pornpord sI ro 'slror\ 'sllrlrrs 'salsBl'spunos 'slool tt ^^otl-li)rfqo uE Jo sr.NI aslanwn a4J 6qq.LSI '(zuoltisod 'arzrs 'JFinlErJ prqlrsrp rrp roJ) \rPls pric uns JqlJo s.rnletJ .! 6utpt ad .\ s/lslluJl)s p JJnporlul ol sJ^ras uolrdlDsJp V NOIJ)NOOUJ.rrscpe tnq /ruolE uotlrurjrp p ruo{ dselSot tlnrr.

000 rnilc\). A naf nriy be fc(l (thc(or)lcn). lhc surfacc rcurperaturc is aboul 11.000.livcty cool comparcd 10 lhc inlensc hcal ar the ccnler.t exi\rs on thc carLh. Thc sun dcrivcs ils cncrgylionr n pfoccss of fLrsion in whictrhy(l()gcn at(nrs arc c(nrvcrled inlo hcliurnalonlsuDdercxrrcur(hc. hol cnough to rlrrncvcrysolidto vapor.whitc.Lali((ltlrc Milky Wiy.or l)l!c (lhc horrcn).LrUl fcl.1 Irillior ycafrl gilixy (t l0 L)illion Our sun is pnfroi rn (no|'ln{)us slirs. Thi\ proc(ss crealcs a lrcnrcndous noisc. row oi Lrcach ball\. and cvc|rts. thnL il lhcy wcrc lo bk)w up t(xlay.ln) conLaiD! ncaflycvcryolher kind ot itonr rh. conccpls.n bcilr!shivc licg n lo cxIlofc lhil USING ENGLISH TO DESCRIBE Scienlilic writingiDcludcs dcscriflbnsof frocesses.rt.000.Iqc olour lclcscol)cr aId (oLLllcss t)illiorrs l-hc crrorrllryol sl).on ditions. rhc suDha! a (linlrct(rth.I58 DescriL. bur nrccalrrolhenfil b{cnlrsc n)U (l (locsnol lravcllh()u!th cnl y sp.ing The Suk anrl Other Stars The run ii a slar.Slnf\virry in sizclronrsrlrall(r thanthc c.l il is 1olivc iu nn ngcwhcrrhLrln. Son)c erc\{) tnf irwni.ll of cxrrcnlcly hol liscs. the abovcpassagr dcscribcs vnne ollhc trtrysical.1 lighl-y(a|1 (lislnn(c fr\nn lhc !.000" F.t .000.a d a mass thal ii about110.y.rcc t.nh kr largccDoU{h pirl ot oLLf to Iol(l d lroo(l n)lnf systcnrl Thccokrfof a stnfirxli(.f is t11( liglrt lravcls ir)(nrcycar. is qLrilc l)ryorr(l hLrm. Thc sun is thc ofiginalsourccoJ ucirrlyall ouf cncfgy.aledaboul 9l million nlilesJromrhc c. of nbout(rrrillionnrillion r ilrs (6. aldnugh il .cc. A lighl yc. lhcir ljghl ivouldfontjn(rc 1() [)esccnlfo r lhc cnflh li)r.nh.000 tiIncslhc mass of lhc c. pruJrcnics and chcmical of Lhcsun . How cxcitirrl.I1 is a flrming b.lLr('.Il is ulosrlymirdcot hy{irogcn. In .cyond.ln LorirprchcLrsiorr.n(l prc\sufc.nh.rlh. Thc fanhcs( nnfi arc L)illions oi light.t is approxinraLcly cqualt(r l{)9 ol our ca[hs lincd p ]ikr .lcsils tcnr|cr.y(. fl rclion.|\ . ycllow (likc oLrfsLr|). .(ldilionrhcrc nrcl)illior)s ol lraLlxics withir)f. Lo. sLrl)slances. OLrr suDis rrolcvcncspcci.w.llv largcor [rrighr conrpnfcd lo othcf nnfs. Thc ncarcsL sLnr is 4.

lI1s 'lttuzt aqt tD 1oa4rsuatul aqt o1partdutor lan ltr^tlol2l fiq hd'^ p4 J aAa1 ot plps tu4^ruint at 46noua aru!)t1t atlJ II lhaIt $ arntDt2dwu seseSSuttljeu 1oq :uo\$aduortn$tUd lleq:eduqS 'sasr6p4 [t)at2i]xt lo tq iutu.kba |pnturxarddtr sl lDrlt DQululp tt sbq uhs a4 qxJee ruo{ 9allru uorllrut t6 :u0rD)01 .10 uoltttod ' ' ' ' \LtDt 24Julor! s21!uuolltlw €6 lnoqt prlpro.Solp^q ^llsotlJ :uolleotl o lLlrl DqJ '4lJW )Llt U0 S)SIXA lp41UtAlD lo puq nqp fta^a lpvau su ttuai ostDt! 4lihaq\r 'Lt26aqtqlo apbu tttsoLu s! U NOIIdtUf.qluq \rDeq to ^ot tt t4 dk ptuu t4u'a )t1olo 6aI al l.ttoul reqlo lla ^lreeu + u.W s! uns)tlJ NOIIdIUf.I ralueJ o1 poledluoJ JooJ Jodp^ ot p[os ^Je^J uJnt ol qSnouD toq J 6OOO'tt:atwtt duDt D.S!Iq lVNOIIf. NNI ssEtu s/quee x 000/0€€ ifrrw leleruPtrp s/quEe x 601 :ralawDlo '4ltDd)tlt J0 stvuttql sawlt000'0tt lnoqv5l lDtltseru b pult .tWEIHf.tDll D st n NOrdr{:)s:Iq tY)ts.(Hd 69I SulqlDsaq . Aetaua Jno lo ertnos :tJubuadul 'I6raua tno IIDtlurtu lo nasputiua .sulolE u.SAq1Vf.

| . //r/ir1is sutiiccrj!..r'> l'... u r d f:rs''lfn.r."" .. 8 4 8I n e l ( r ! I I h i € h .160 Describing Se tence Pt7ttefi1s D E S C R J B I N CC H A R A C T E R I S T I C S 1 8 .J f'"""n I f. r ) r. Lil:i: J Lf]:ln'''J L:. n pI..lnsparenl of opnqLrc? silvcN.. ts il n nrilc long?50 nliles?1. Nnn.t tnt\. J i .".R. n .".. ( 1'lheGlJndcdnyon}h"'"{.rr.|. t)ul it docsnoLbfirrs an inage ro nrind.'"-. | '' I rr-'r". llnh'ct\dl\..**" J l.J L:h:. e r d r |u . 0 0 ul .r+r* Iii*i.. r. f 1-"..r-l lil..enrimcrcr.l'. i I t.I" ". r .j The 1 ' ( r | u r c I u r 1 . J l:. ( r c r n t .n"n. rs il lunrinous or dul1? brighlor dilnt rr.'. I i ."...| I.{tihitttr. I rF ..rol.'l I a . r ..000 milcs?l(X1. II | n .nd bciutilLrl 1rl1\ vcry lilltc.cr.. .. J r c 1 r u u F h .c..||h}''r{s.lrc."" Iil. ol mullicolored? Adjcclivcs mlrlt bc objedivc.y. whiLe.h.*. lo havc.:l'i:.. I o""a s"..rr d.'. LTh( J lrhe\Dn | | .iptii ! n $incc tn u!!rll\.t.D(lroncrcrc.j i! a rcllLivc Lcmr.r. Liri:.'".J 11J"1. Thc word.hti d.rtt it \cLlD..k. u d .:Theptut.r I Irhe\ir.r to be .trldyr! dcscribcs how you feelnboUr sonrclhing.. ScicnccdeDlnn(ls ()t)iedivilynnri prrrision jn ils r1rscfiptions.il''J Li.000 Inilcs? Thc rvr)r(l br.jiui:i ) Using Precise Desciptiors.rout. To dcscribc a corrrct as lanra\Lic or loru. b uts! it$. Dinrc sions\holrt(tlrc .r:l::''.. r a 5 .Tltt t)st ernntt tt\t utc.dr . LJ rhi.ts Dccdro bc sl)crili(.. J .*."".t \hlttlc t. i e). p :pe J MJunr Lrcr.!t li!. .... ') l. Scicnlir.

qilh sanuxa{pv rlqeilpru 9 :)rtsnD)tz rlqllsnq(u{))02 .\rlr.rJ 0) s rorrr.^lt)ilp!iJLtt.'Jii!rril pllor)s r.o 9 lr.ro) ssrl sr lrrls t 'rilooJ Jre !rnsiql Jo srriPl rJlno aql € 'rrit 00E'<sr uonuE) pocr) Dq.ir.4tuqt Moqso-[ suorldu)sJl) 'llrV]' tlorl lcli'ur.ro.rqLi lcql sa^ltta{pv tttlAr tiulqlrtsad v srilllporu.{)!ll sp.' i.)sLripSl rlIulo^ /l ssi)l.I() rrqlr)si)P Jsrlsl).iVrrn IptirrLr lrl ro'sjl/.]i10/ u su tl)rls q.4JlPoru ol pisn irLisi^Jrrrlpv ur\ou)LIrrl))r)r!lriLIllr si^|)ilpu qslliluSsLrnolr 'iJlpo(r.{q prLU.ri^ n(rllillll ! rilll[ itt()) ro (lu]t0 nrrl/.rrr1.'suqslirrs to sllrJpnls ol nlrlsnjuo:l SJLLIIIJLTrcSJJP SJ^N]iIPE )S)LII LrDl )rP Burru.ro1)o 9l rlqrx)u€I pr3!l zr tu)rudsuurt ll ilriJDrJ 0l LIiJnor'6 rFoorus S ilqrpi € rlquurruPLl z rlqnlos'l 'snlrlrrco{lr 'siq!)sJp puulsrtpun rJLll JUo rl)sD nulqlru()r iluuu )q.L )rtrtrriljsLll prsrliru st.() pro.M:rrll ol rlqtsso(isr? 'fro.r.ro /r turpprl.IoJ aul.rPlos 'Lrrlllnoru lsrqliq rlll sl ls)rr^a trrno!\l 1 '9 '.[ z 'I n Slrol P Lrp8iq quPr uo {r'I I 'JlJIlurrrs rrolu lr r)Ptu IlnoM lPq^{rlPls J^odursrP iirrrMollot rlllJo qrei LIrr^tuorM srreqa rLrlturrl)c l)uus)u urlDls I9t Butqlrrs.iDluidru)l JruJrns 'r^ln).ro'rsu.()M.!\ r$rrurrrs rll si^lNrlpE IUPW sqri^ or .r MolloluorLrliirq v I IlrMisdrl)i.l .4'\ 'l)roM u sl rrlJlpolll _rJqtoo9 s)IJIP0LU .c .pw) pa.q!)sip r?rLrsP pirPld rq siP^{le plnoqs s.Moll(I ro.Io rsn iql )^lo^Lrl rrrlJo suol(llr)sic 'l)ol)..{!^'\P stlltu 000't sr troPtrol '0000't rql < Jq) I sr Lrns lo .rtllpol^J .

. .ll is iD thc proccss nLrclcus b.?irlr. Circlc rhc lcllcr ol lhc inswcr lhat Lrcrr is. r r r r . .rc a (onltncL((i aclioD: dehydrated plant: plant that has dried up magnetized rocl(: rock that has been made into a magnet diffus€d light: light that is spread out cauterized woundr wound that has b€en deadened by burning or searing Look at lhis cxaurplc ol lhc Many vcrbscan lonn cilhcr -i?. A J. A . disin!cgra!fd 4.i rh.162 Dcscribing Adjcclivcs rhal arc ibfincdwith lrj ircqLrcnlly i]rdicalc ir cc(airradior)rhnris fcflbrrncd by lhc noun or occlrrsro the noun: grinding machine: machinc that crushes substances into small bits recording mechanism: device rhar records sound refining process: process that purifies mctals revolvinB platform: a stand or surface that turns Adiccrivcs lhnl arc la ncd ivilh fd 1i(quently indi(.j .q or -cdadjeclives. rr .. Walcf rhal hasbcc pLrrilicd is .\i. . ' r . A substaDcc dral conrbiDcs nrclals rvilh oxyScn agcnr oxidizjng agcnt b.n l. r insLrlrnrenr a.rprcssinll . er ' r r ri d i r . dislillcd walcr olbreakingapan is a L A DuclclLs th.? arr{idilulrd. conrplclcs cachof thcscrcrltcl)ccs. J t .disrilling wntcf a. r . s . | | r I r r Ir r . .. calibraring inslrumcnr b. adjectivL. . rr. Lr. 2. \\l1i(lt rrc lonncd lionr thc vc$ ro dlfut. r j | . ' r( l | . t r . .L . l c \ i .llccl is n 6. calibraring inslrumcnt b. calibr. oxidizcd tr. co. disinlcgf. A gaslhal hasbcenrcdu(cdin vohrmcby prcsslrfc gns gas .s .ting rlLrrlcLrs il.l . . calibr..llc(l |. conprcsscd b.h r . iullrrmclll a.: to dllute: xo weaken or thin with water or another liquid dlluxing agentr agent or substance thal dilules or thlns a liquid diluted solution: solution or liquid that has been diluted or wcakcned Usikg Adjectivcswith -ed and -ing. .

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flil(r objc(Ls. crnniLc is.rlk.n igncou\rock.or vcrt) $a1can carryan objccl). lhc blo(xl(locsr)o1 ii. 7. your locabulary rrosl As K)or].. Hcnn)l)hili. mnfbl(.'Ihcgascs irc lfnppc(lin thc alnx)sphcrc.t. Thcy cnril radiali(nl.rL leastl5 s.lg Altlrcughi! is not a good idea () inrcrrlrpl .r.nd (h. is. Ir is i|lhcrilc(1. 5. Thc grccnhousc cllcctis thc w. a4nnedlE/ 'alaaq lki. Cal(iunr lound ir thc sheUs ol marincanimnls. Pa( ofspccch. The bronlosaufus was a largcdinosaur.(Tcsr ir by lookingLrf .adj.rrcllircs. !. L 4.1 rcadiDg or lcclurclo look up Lrnlhmiljar words.a!oi(l short.rr(l lhc corrcct mcaDiDg aDduscol thc word. ll nlso 6. whcrcdid iLconrcftonr?). ccfcbfunl is lhc ]argcsl ll corlllols Lhcscnscs.IL is har(lnn(l \hirry. conlrols thc musclcs. (lor l)11)1x y. It is fourrdin linrrstonc. chcck .s andrechnical manlrals conrain a gloss.!:1.l.1s is largccnoughso thal yoLL c. lle lh"zl bceaj p/aaaJ. suchas r. olsclrlcnccs.164 Describirg Writing SmoothSentenes. Thc ]rro{css i\ graduil.Ir is r a(lcol sc!cril kin(1. ladiecrivc).rsjrivc vcrl).lnt A lisl ofthe word'smcanings. (Lr. chop|tr scnIn eachseries irl()flnalion lcnccs.ry of tcrnrs.i ol is n rilvcty |ncl.ln un(lerstand dcflnilions. I Uranus is the lhird largrn planel. . (noun). READING SKILLS vocabulary Buildi.) 1ofiDdthe oDcrhal is approfriatc manylexrbool.L a/4d aj le. Rooror dcrivatiurof rhc word (Lhat is. 2. Choosconc lhfl iri conrplctc cnolrgh to covcrrhc wordsyou will nccd. 5. lr is orbilcdby mrny lhiu rings. rnliL mofc rirlinlio]l QLrasiN galaxies. and u. lt livcrl in shallowlvalcr lr arc planls.fnrilrf ol Lhccarthl)y gascs.i /5 taklltle. UM%2.ryt Sincc your going book bcforc ro ir diclionary. ir wcighcd.) A gooddictionary con!ains a ld ol inli)rmalioD that will hclp you L() !rndcrst. Synonyms and antonyms. (lisc:r\(.rlrv. lcw wor(ls.ll hn\. colrrbinc bitsol rclnlc(l lo nchic!c a smooficrllow. or phraser conlaining thc worlj. anLl Scnlcnccs (lt is import.Il is l.at tinrcsyou rvill rrccd!o conslrlt a dictionary to chcck thc nlcaniDg ol an impoflaDl word. When wriling dcscripliont. 4. Lrsc aD Englidrlo EnglishdictioDary.LrolrL thirty Lons.x 4lr4s. QLrasars arc sl. to look rhroughthc (lcllniliorrs 'ir you. l! may includc l 2. (irlransirivc vcrb).r. rhancD(irc -Ihc pan oi LhcLrrailr.

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166 Describing 4. Cosnrcrays are dangerous to human beings. a. space b. eanh 5, The sun's rays arer/fered through the atmosphere so that we don't receive their full stength. b. scrccncd 6, In warm climates, water is sometimes heatedby Jolarcncrgy. a. sun b. electric

grcwdarkon thc 7. Theea(h'sshadow eclryslthe sun'slight,so ir suddenly moon. a. blocked b. absorbed 8, ln a desert. fte temoenture altemates between extreme heatand extreme
cold. a. varies D, nscs

9, 'lhe fogdiJfuted thelightsfrom the street waspoor. so tharvisibility a. spread b, concentratcd 10. Some l rdr mounbinsand craters canbe se€n from the earth, a. moon b, sun 1 1 .The plan€tMercury hasno ralelr?r. a. moon 0, atmospnerc 12, Thespace flightwaspostponed dueto ddvsBe weather conditions. a. favorable b, unfavorable

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A goodtechnique for textbook reading is to readthetitlesandsubtitles andturn each into a question. Forexample, fromthe title ofthe passage below,you would "ls th€ moona nic€place formulate the question, to visil?"and thenreadto find your the adswer, Thismethod will helpyou to focus on themainpoints, maintain concenFation, and readmorcrapidly. il Skimfie followin8 ro Iind its mainideaand thc kind of informallon passage contains and thenanswer these two questions. Try to do it all in thrccminutcs. L what is the main point of the passage? a. Themoonis a niceplace to visit,but you wouldnl want Q livethere. place b. Themool!is not a dce to visit,and you wouldnl want to live lhere, c. PoeE don't know anything aboutthe moon. don,tknow anything d. Scientists aboutthe moon. 2. \,vhich of theseiopics is coveredin the afticle? '. a. rhefirsr ]andhg on rhemoon phases b. Lhe of rhemoon c. dre climateon the moon d. how the moonaffects the eafth's tides

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168 Describing s h i r c b y i ( s o w n l i q h l ; i l r c l l c c l sl b c l i g h l o f r h c s u n . u n l i k e l h r ( n n h , L o r v c v c r , r h e r € i s n o a L n o s p h c r ct o d i l l i r s c l h c l i g h t a s d n y b c c o n l c sn i g h t a r d n i g h Ll L r . r s i n t o d a y . C h a n g c sf r o m l i s h t l o d a r k . r n d d a r k l o l i g h l o c c r r rl l r d c l e n l y . The llrnar sky is black. (BIuc sky on lhc eadh is t)(xlLrcc(l by rhc staltering ol b l u e l i g h t i n t h € s p c c l r u mb y f a r t i . l c s o f a i r . ) o u r l r c x n j t r l i t a n n r c v i s i b l ci n l h c d a y l i m c , b n l y o u w o u l d h a v c t o s h i c l d y o u r c y c s f r o l n t h c u n f i l l c r c ( l s L r n l i l h rr o (rr wivcs oi irirnn)lecLrlct S . incc T h e r ei s n o s o u n d o n t h c n x x r n . S o u n d L f a v c l s t h e r € i s n o a i r , l h c r c i s l r o t h i n g l o L r . r l s l n i ls o t n d . L c a v c y o u r l r . n s i s l o r h o n l t . A l s o , t h e m o o n i s r r c l a n r a l n c l l t r c w n y l h c c a r l b i j . Y o L rc a n l c a v c y o u r r o m | n s s T h c m o o n i s a s a t e l l i t co f t h c e a r t h , r c v o l v i n g a ( ) L r r x l L h c c a n h o n c c c v e r y l r v c r l t y { r i n c a n d a h a l l d i r y s .T h c n r o o n i l s c l l f a l c s , b u 1 i l d o e s s o v c r y s l o w l f . T h c r c l b r c L h c r . m c s i d c o l t h c m o o n i s a l w a y s v i s i l r l e1 0 L r s .l - ( )g c l l { ) l h c r r n ) o | r , y o l | w o u l d h a v e t o l r a v e l 2 4 0 , 0 0 0m i l e s ,a d i s l a n c e J sc i f c l i n g lhal isnboul lhc snrrlc t h c c a r l h a 1t h e e q u a ( n t c n l i n l c s . I t i s c l c a r t h n l i i y o L rw c r c n r a k i n g a t r i p k ) t h c m o o n , y o u w o u l ( l n c c ( i l o | d r k s1'otll(l f i r c r c L h a na l m l h b n r s h a n d a c h a n g co f u n d c r w c a r . l l s a ( l v c r s (( o n ( l i L i o r r v makc it vcry dillicLrll bf a visilor lronr the cirlh.

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by lhc Inoor], 2, Thc lidcsorl (he eaflh arc cnuscri lhnu orl 3. A pc$oDwould wcilth lcssoi) thc rrnx)n bccaLrs(' il 4, Thc moon hasro walcr or atnn)ifhcre (.rxxgn8rnvlry. 5. I1rvouldbe difljclrh lo havcan aryur('rltwith nnneoncon Lhc 6. Thc m(xrnorbilslbc canh aboutoncca nronth. 7 w( dlsn). \'. rh{\Jr f .rJ( | l, t"',... old. 8. Thc canh is 4.6 billim yearu 9. Thc rcmpcrarur€ on thc nroongocsul) 1o200"c. 1 0 . HLrmnD b e i n g sc o u l d n o 1 l i v c o n t h c n 1 d J n .
Plants coLrld no! grow on rhc moon.

lhan lhc c.dh h.s. oi Lcmpcralurc 12. The moon hasmofe exlrcmes

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I L Thc tail of a coDret . Thc farrhcslplanet{rom lhc su is Uranus. poin6 dircclly loward lhc slrr. 1 0 . in. 4. 7 . Jupilcr may be a ball of gaslhal h shrinking. T 1 . hdicatc whclhcr cach oflhc li)llowill8 slalcnrcnts rrue (7) or falsc (l) basedon thc iDformaliol in thc lcclore. Recenlevidcnccshows therc may bc lilt on Mars. 2 . Thc a. Vcnus is the cbscst plame!to the carth and thereforcdrc onc can seelhc bcsl.lima!e. Marshaschanges 5 . 9 . scicntisls J .. like lhc carlh.leroi.170 Describing is U dersta dihg the Lectale.is mLrsirinrr. No planel has morc thaD lwo salcllitcs. Thcrc is morc likely 10 bc lifc oD vcnlrs than on any olhcr l)larlcl dLleto its modcralcclimate. Thc suD'sgravity kccps!hc planetsin orbit. Thc rings ol Sa n revolvc arolrnd lhc plancl likc salellilcs. "nxl nf Bririslr arr'r Bfout.

ql r(qprJnpord.se8 snouoslod e { JJITU Sletlcql prlq lPuJnl)ou E z sdlqJlelnduoJ rlslu 01pJsn.Uos.rJlut e tnoqlrM ilqlsnu! tsrltureq are rtuos .tuelnurlls.iulllets&J.rrnDus snotupJ'l)rfqo ue seq)nsSulqleuos lDllsrli)'eruEtsqns.4^ Drlqo ro )ruelsqnse Jo uortdrDsop runualrs V 6u!q!.{ .llli)ruap Jllleltuuorrp .{ MoLl{l.9 lelulug pa8iirl-lnoJe uro{ sruroJ lernteu p slullp ploJ pue rrJJor LrlpunoJ.rFlqtsrup pllnr 9 sp pcsn ':iultooj^ddeq e sr)npord .!.bsao S'NDIS CNIIIUM (alr.ropo lrrn s .0t rlrrlll Jo IInJsl .uleqJJs Jruos.!!lurpl SJNIOd NOISSnIST(I SJJJI 'aJeds 'vr .s roJwlF{I €r (aprtprq uaq.tJnpordploqrsnoll B I I lalldnl pue quPr rllt uD^4liq pol9)ol.€l raqtsnolll aleu ol (rnJlns qllM prlPoq ro) przllreJln^ .letulus uprlrJvue .lrueldp .{c^pqpuBSsslrrno.tuDlde .I 'r! .lptulup iialqlDsrpslunl i)iel urq|suolldlDsrp Jalrqasaqlluo{ Lualr qreo .llur. zl Jo 'lpp ^jo^c tl rsn nol .aJI u oJ luppunqe lsoru aql .l :suo!lsanb Bu ^olloJ ar{lJo erxosr:Msue {llensn lll.( ot uollur^ullo .cplxolp.1 rlP rqt salnllod reqt'rullosoSlo Sulurnq aDlduroru! .ado)so.l)elq g rrntqtdLucl urooJlD plnbll sl teql Jpl u D / .luBld.uoqle)JouuoJp.{ p!( ieH ieH) rplxo snolllu .8nrp p .mu.'bdrur sl aslrlrun Jqr Jo rsow 'queJ Jql u{' ' ar rrp sJtDnJtJW trqt guJlJLU PUPI 'lno urnq tPql srPts Jre sroJlrw ' z I ltI SurqrDsre .lrqu .{ ruo slql lr8 no.llq .uop no^ JI pup..t Jo sdoliqt tuori sa^etlslpe'Jrllel 3lq e rou 1J!.oulqJeur.qlprller.suosers pue sderrelod spqlr .{poqll1o.( s .6 Jo Ilrurd rno^ l0lool 'tr.{Jlturpl sluopnrs /l1oll rno.^ lt ot surddpq lpqM zJtsPI zlBus alrJJ zlool 1r s:op MoH) zs)lsrrJlrprpqr lerrslqd sl! erp lprlM .srJll xalpl aql tuo{ sJltroJ.(q rpput .s!3 ssrllolor p .{q {ulql tunlsseto(l ro unlpos qllM leJlo llo Sullloq.a)ustsqns rllspl.

172 Drs(ribinP ) (whit is il Innri('rll H"w LL\'\il Lr(h rvc ( lr. and as waler. Mcrcury is one of a fcw elcmcntsthat was knowD in a|cicnl chin. and wi ng a Descriptlotl ait. such asrubbcr. or carboll dk)xidc Your lofic scll(cllcenliglll bc is a tyPcofcxlclldcd dclil)ilkjn) hl your PafagraPh. alllminuol.r'ithoxygen. (ci Mcrcury is usc(l labar). -39" Mercury boils at 3t7'C.6timesas dcnse does rot combine readily \..bul it does react wilh nitric acid lo fonn mcrcury nitralc and with srlfuric acid 1()form mcrcury s lfale.rr.silverymclal lhal is a liquid al (x)m tempcrallrrc. Whcn mcrcory combineswith ccrlain metals (such as silvcr. slraw. sard.lt may bc oblaiDed platc$ pholographic for lhermomclcrs. mercury sullidc by hoalinll Slales.frcczcs is 13. zinc. and lhc southweslcrn callcdan amalgam. at C. a dcfiniti(nr(d lolrg dcscril)tior) is 10 answcras many of the abovcqucsliolsas yoll can. saltwalcr.Ilaly.r(l(n\l(s 2. or lio) thc rcsulling alloy is unilcd Mercury comcsIrom spain. whdl Jrc rtschcnricdl as walcr ol slrch wilil otbcr subsran{es il in con(acl comes or react whcn oxyger?) 3. subslancc ofa rlalllral wrilea dcscripti(nr . whcre is il found in nature?How abundanl is it? nrcrcuryand (ic_ thc substancc Rcad thc following paragraphwhich dcscribcs lcrmine \ir'hichof lhe abovc qucstionsil aiswcrs. one wdy to concludc is oscd how lhc subslallce describe wood.loolh fillings. India an{l Il Egypl. Mercury is a luslrous. diamond.

.puo)rs p Jo uolpp.\{ lgqA\ lpqt uolldunsse rqt uo prsPq sl puE /rrnlnj ..qt tr!p.l )!ue)lo.{luo upr srrqlo .r luJr.rcd 001 sl rrnlpu Jo tot^pqeq ernlnJ aql Jo uorlrrpald ou 're^a^ oH ^^orrourolulEl Jo eJUeqJ lusriad gz p JJunouup .\ pue /salpnbqUpa /sruP)lllnq qJns se slatspsrp lPlnleu Jo uolDlprrd aql Iq pr^ps aq plno lpql so^!lJo lrqtunu oql .rpxJ roJ.aldu.^ rorulSuc eql .{poq uPurnqaql uo-peq puspooS qloq -str{Jr s]! lrlprd ()1 alqeoq lsnur Snrpn^ou e sdole^ep oq^{ lstruoqr rql .{pul lseJJloj aqt 1^llllqeqordJo surrrt ul prtrlpJrd :q .aseaslppJlull { eJpru38 reqlous ro Ellqdoureq Sulllrequl pllqr rplDlupd €Jo pooqllqll rqt DIp d tsnu lsl8ololq rqt pup lruro) PJOllqio tql plpJld ot spJJu Druouollsp rqJ .€Ll 'suope^rJsqo ^€u uo paspqsuollJlpaldJuger pue NnfpEol lpeal Jq sde^{plsnur lsllurps Jqf ulPtr.roplsuo) 'lsu!p3€ soiltslno lJJtotd u9) rA1lJlpald ue) a.a)ua!rs Jo plalJ iJr^a Jo Upd p sl uoltrlprrd 'suoltdnl.tl)!qJ^ Jql uo rJqlga^{ Jsr) pE Jo sl){Jr rql lrlpard ol slqp aq lsnu ta}Jot e suSlsepoq.rJp ot pelPlDPr 3q upr asdtrrr up l{lrlErDJE atlnb p4rtprrd aq uer sluJ^r ruros .ld ot sl uollpSllsa^ul rulluelrs n€ Jo leoS rqt NOIJ)N(IOUJNI raqpahl aqJ 6q1rlpard 71 raldeqr .

no wind will blow lt oul. il was reportedthat a vcrlical post cast a shado\'r'.yoll woliki find Lhedaysand nights equal cvcry placeyou went. But therc wcrc ancientGrcekswho had known rhis rwo thousandyearsearlicr. . lf you light a malch on aD airplanc. Allhongh the eanh is spinnirg at a spccdof over one lhousandmilcs an hour. On March 23 and Septcmbcr2I. thc GreekastroromerEraloslhenes noted thal at noon on thc first day ol summcr. rhc North Polc lihs loward lhc sun and lhc northcrnhenlisphcrccxpcrienccs summerwhilc thc southerD hcmisphcrc haswintcr.from April through Septembcr.ils rays shonero rhc botlom of a veflical wcll irl Syene.They saw shipsdesccnd ovcr rhe horizon and oblervcd lhe curvedshadowofthe canh on rhe moon during a Iunar eclipsc.This ycarly rcvolnlkD.Thenthe Nonh Polctills awayfromlhesun and I he seasons are rcvcrscd.callsing!rs to havc day and night. the post could not have casl a shadoyr' at roon.Egypl.Ye1. The Wo . fiflccnlh. the North Polc is not lcaning $ward or away ftom thc sun. WhcD thc snn's rays arc nearly overhead(ro1 whcn lhc earth is closcslrc lhe slln) aDd lhc days arc long. is moving at thc samespced. rhe side ol thc cardt facingfic s!D will have daylight.aDd the sidc turDcd arr. iDclllding tbc atmosphere.five hundredmilcs !o lhc norrh. in 200 Lc. lfyou travclcdaround the canh on thcsctwo dalcs.174 Predicting Short Reading Readthe folbwing passagc and find threc prcdictions. causcsthc scasoDs.or rotatcson its axis.orce everytwcnly-four hours. The eanh also revolvcsarouDdthe sun oncc cvcry year. The eallh spins. plus lhe tiltiDg of fic earth or its axis. wc do nol feel thc movcmcnt or thc wind bccausceverythingaround us. For example.and sixreenlh-ccnlutyexplorcrsIikc Columbus and Magcllan provcd it. on the sameday in Alcxandria./ay fron thc sun will havc nighl. great amounts of the sun's radialion arc absorbcdand thc wcalher is hot. If the earth had becn llal. The cffectis similarlo riding in aDairplaui..l Tums The eanh is round. Thcn. At any given lime. rir'hen thc sun was at its highcs!. Thc air moveswjth you.

IUd IVJIISH.{epaql puu plno4{ noi salep o.&l eseql uo plro/L{ eql Punore pele^erl no ( anll trl()) tql-s^rlp isilll llo pl()M s! uo!lJlpoid lt lD)tll)qrfillq lolr iorlr ro il)rLr iql il)llFln ir! suolllpuo) iql purlor0li^r-illol ilrlllun tru no.4t )utLtLtl^lliluD tv :urddeqlttM 3ulrttruosleqt tu!elJDsi uollr!p.7 ^ropeqs e lsPJ e^Pq lou plnor lsod aql leu uerq peq qlee eql 'ri^)^ oH i|.rrr))o()1 slql) uolllpooJ tl!0lltJJl tnll iulo) oslpll!A/t J)UlS't118 latu.Mnot aJuld ptlba sl46!Lt {JaAr Itub stttpa\t pull pltlo/Ano/i'stltp oN tt:.IqlIUd lISISSOdWINY Ienba s1q3!uPUP s.rd OI HSI'IDNE 9NISN .1uoll)lpJ slqll 'aup4tlDuD uo ')hatl $on rylDut)t ttt6! a(! lM pu!410u NOtrfI(!lud g'IsYsoud Y 't\$!Lt1^tJ4 uns)qt ttto4trtft paulit )p!s 111/"1 )4t pua Uiu[ap .{-.^rr4 tlh\ ut$ a4J6u11]t{ 4trn )4t lo /p!s .rl] suolllpLlol 'lui.IOdAH Y tno 1l^rolq III^i puln ou eueldrleup uo q)leu e IqBII noi (lrLLItJc suollrploJ rtlPllJ)Jl)nrl Jtuor II!.lll i(lo) plnoM ollJll]tlo iql'JltH) U iri.id Y NOITtrICAUd V I)I(IAUd gtI 3ul|rrpr.olrrrql ruu(nr s! rluD.^ sLro0lpllo) tql I J! 'Ltoaup ^ollt.ql uaq taaql punolltFp^ul nofJI NOII3Iq.Lls t )s111)rq )ou plnar tsadt4l IDLIuarq Pp4 tlub) a4]Ji ( pillulnJrq lollllu) tlonJlpird )ql )tll ^lsnol^qo-ilqlssod[l sl trol]!puor iLIr 'o.) NOIIf.

Iom werc n uted instntl olwas (Jot eran41lc. 3.xr fu. rrre {['i"#J .lil/e| lfrs(udled.siua rr ir hadbeen hidden.} pdssiv.r. PROBABLE PREDICTION acrir.". .1lcen.l.176 Predicting Sentence Patterns PREDICTION 4clryer Th€re lwiu be) an eclipse tomorrow /djsiv4 The eclipse{will be hidden} by thc ctouds. At1! predietia rht:ttit bdtedou d pon eonditia.d Jar hytotndiiil.:lf rhe eclipsc is hidden. the prcdictit e :. Snlce the wat did ot nd ld kt.hephoros {ff]ilt} n""" .t t.the subinlctiv.""r." . l f I w e r er i c h ..llcoutd I pass.". Iwoulal . Lmishr J p..)...y iral. Neverthelets. 2.irrvcr rf rheeclipse phoros werehiaaen.t (Jbt .t)t contetruc. the relatio ship lxprissedh th? settarcc is true. With iI clauset. Imishr J p.'s woutd have becn sayed.} HYPOTHETICALPREDICTION a../.. .. ) .. many tlv.. Lmishl J IMPOSSIBLE PREDICTION fwourdl dclin:IfI hadsludied.. Thc nolak would. could. If De war had ended a year €arlicr. $ milhr a u\.". Lmishl J Notes:Whcn witiflg ptedictiotls.rcnptnber thcIo awin L Thtrtturc tet$e with will is ustld Jor Wcdktiont thdt arc tikll. .tca dt bcltltfi e.4 It i1 rains.I jcould I have passcd. lhe pholos {will b€ ruined. we {will gd wel.n/.

)iJ.9 rq plno^^Pp)lrcqlnluripllrqt 'p)zurr)lsurl r.(ur.rpr )!lt p)telrurd p!q rortrur )ql lt .s..( llrM uousnqlo)'tursird rrD u.srqr lo LIrc:)jJLII:)qM)tD:tll\ttt .rrq(lnrLUrL's.€ llrM 'P)^csrq 'ulutilu)lroJ p not sr !)rnr r-i .Jn)r u lt 'IrltPl )(l lr .{q .r(1.M ')iD)s .(H) .JI I 'sisnul).rr^.toc o l .Urrolrp.lp.ru lt wvd w117/"a/4 'P".'rs(1ullo) lolr plrlo^\ 1l 'pruiJrsrp.lio.z Jlu s)lt^.^'l JI lo juoll DrlxJ LrDo^eq plno^\ )M lnoq ruo {rpq 'ri)lliq rrllnr qiu) purrlslrprnl plno^{ )^.! ruiJr lll^ iulSu) )qt lrnt r!lt lt 'lroq .t:}Llt 'isdll)r 't!litu.r )llJLIl rllt urort llrJ rl(tde )qt JI 8 '^^olil 'riirpll) )tl).q.oiJpt'roMI.]sop iilipl rrt prluq rsr .ln:))o torr ptp rlql uortrpuor P rroprspqsr t€qtilro.41 iJ(ILT UiI rn))O tOLr ^ollrJOiUrUluql iUO 'Sttuql 'ooltJlpiid l!)ll)rll(xl.rre)rl] Jl 8 'IUJJrlrJl.o))l.rpr rLIlJt t rFhrd nulur .\ .{l.r .lj ut ).f .uorl)rprr(l il(llss(x1rur ut ol suorr rrp)id lprnr$od.r!rlr rLIl iis u sr tl lt .tJrt pDLI. Ffwn arx .{rl u ol suolr)11)ir(i ilquqor(l )srrlt Jorl)u) iiiuuLl:r 'suoutrya.rr.lo isn ol l)p \rrr r.{xo 'dn prLunq . l D n u r t ( x l.)^PqplnoMtr ']r.st rpqr.z llr^'ls)^rl.LIl.lrnj nJl .rd.rrdor(l iti^4 J8puq rLIlJl t 'ijuluroru I1ur tqjrl.iiienrSrrpl iures rql rlo({s i^ JI t 'a P"/t"d --f 'f.9 lllM i.suo!1rlp2.iEp slrolr rln l)i^our .rVrr7r' ff a* b 'prrpr1ls ssPQ PIno^ i)M r/!1JI I .. l i u u q r p l n o M ^ i l l r u .(d) (1) rt(lrs\o(tlur ro IL'rltrqt(xliLI Jlqlqor(l sr slrolrrpJ.siqr jo rlrpJ rilupq) s ourva.t .l)l)! sr rpSns n I .s .q aqlssodwl qulpft ttoJ '^ oLrs 01 Lunt lll^ ulsJirll') o0 ^\oliq sdorpalllulJd[rrt.lt .{oLll jl .'F/$ afl lf 'ssr.)lr uu Lrr^liJ sr uo)u Jl I I|M lr 'piiollrrp . i i l '^.p drur pEqouprto^iql fr rl rrrrq )^!q ftno^\ l|z 'i^tossrp --dllr^\lr rrtP^\ol p.l)alultlsUl lrlur 01fJsn rq rru).td $u tltuapl /ZI SurD!prrd .'( 'Apn)s IllM i JM.\ Illtu iql l] 'DPl(lrlut pup.t llr^r! o15t ol pituiq sl ^.td lotlrLltodlH 6ulytlrlut.

tw Peoplcwould be hcahhier if The air would bc clcancr il Schoolwould bc casierif If human beiigs could lly. preilicli(xrs Predicti. ir 7 . If lhere wer. morc studcnBwould pass.I. If the eggceil werc fcnilizcd by spermcarryingan . A satcllite will go in1oorbit whcn it pcrhour. thc bcars If thc iroDbar wcrc cxposcd k) air.rrchromosomc. 6. 2. If thccompound hadbccnan acid. WheD \. it bluelitmusrcd. ctcthc&tbwing ir any l{)gical or im. yr'ill not grow il they L PlaDis niuogel. If lhc nandardswere lowcr. If ftc sarcllilcwere nol inrerruprcd.000 milcs The calciumwould mclt if yorl (rcach)a speed (hcal)it lo 845"C. 8. \_ . 7 . If we could conlrol lhc weadrcr.'Do irrcgularvcrbs. Many lives would havc bccr savcdif scicrllisls (predicl) thc rcrnado. Cot pletifig Sentences. 5 . of 18.ir would conlinuc iI irs orbil. lhc baby would be a girl. If I could go anywhcrc in lhe world. usingthc corrccl aginativc it t Thercwould bc fewcr tra!fic accidar:irs fea'pk dila I /)44'l a?tA &. (nrst). lf he ate a balarceddic!.178 Predicting 5 . Oeating C0nr verbform. If thc oxy8crl wcrc coolcdsufficicnrly. If compurers could makc brcaklbst. a2p (bc) dcfi(icnt in 3 . (hibcrnalc). he would be hcallhicr. way.r'inter coDlcs.ns. 8. (lunl)lhc (liqucly). Complelclhe lollowing prcdidi(nlsby filling in lhc propcr form of the verb in parcn(heses.

I s! L|olleluloJlll puFu eql Jo atu.ql Jo \7&a |-oa6 ot = ttfipap ^e{e a)i.'xlut.^tt 'siJu lras3u!^{olloJ II ru!slxo/l^3u!$r!!uaql nlrldruo) ol uoql tsn lltqt puP ritmr pIoM Jo lsll rql ^pnrs raqrisd aofprer /-oaa '-lrnp.{-tclnqeJol rno..lo plllLLlrqr iq t s! leql ssiull!uv € uo tqiSnorq Jnou u! ri^o pilrodsuprl surl ril9M 'sJttlll lLlilJLtl.'Al!r!rDrlr Jo pobil e s! r! isrpr)q nod roj p.olpttt quea ^Pnls aqt = tlooqao .{ll^nru ! sl pullu rlll Iq pJslll. rltql {)aq:. JJo.{ asu puP nol q}lM srtdgdtlotl lo spreJJsoql fu.a LmIDPrplll)sn(rl v sc poqlJJsaps! strolloruo.:stoou ptoll 'turqt )zlJorutt! puP sPro^l Jql iJll)r-'rdot Jlt irpds rno. Lll 'z ')rllilus Iq ?"/Wrttt2r\ lillleoM .r.et peal ol .sn sI ttlnululnlv < '.IIrS CNT(IVAU 64I Suprlprrd .{ JsetrJlrloJ qsll8ug}o uolDnpold pup uolsurqrrdrlrorrLIl ol ltsse alqenlP^ulue sl{rBlnqero^ )ftel V fualMd :aulqllrrg /fuqnqoto\ s'I. lleu ro fueu()llJlpe qllM s8u!ueetu 'sProMpDleJ ro slrpd plo.t$ = n66pt4ttsd pulut t-a4risd poolq pue u€aq eql Sul^lo^ul = tolrttst^olprDt slasse^ ueeq t.fuJ Jo 'ur{o rnlrr leql rsoqr illPlJJdsa'sproM ^^t o1 uolluallP lPd 9 g t € z I :.Mse q)ns stnl) Jsn 'qder8ejsdro cJriJluasaqt txJlrrcJtql uo{ s3ulucJluJltql ssenS ol .+tnpgo e^lt = $ua /puos :rlr.{rpssJ)rurrtr]M 'rnlBJds.lJt .Ie] 'sjcdPdalou Jo tql pJlas rlaql atlr^1puDsproM ro spreJLrcs3ulugcur lueuodrul lsoru InJosn '.

10. enllnicd of 8. L Madamc Curic irrplrad maDylwcDlicth-ccntrlrywoutcDto collduct ticicnlillc rcscarch. a. irrcgular pcriuls . Birds and airplancssccnrlo /q6. rcquircd 2.180 Predicring 6. The fieory thal thc canh is rhc ccnlcr of rhe Luivcrscis rbc cenrflc ulcory.a. prcdictions b. A devicedral mcasures heart movcmcnlsis a graph. a. parlial 7. A condirion in which thc hcart slopsbcadng is called ac anesl. @ srinularcd b. urctr 9. rTheseasons of lhc ycar recur in cyclej. Thc branchof maficmatics thar dcalswith ntcasllrillgat)(l survcyingthc earrhh mclrv . lhc law of gravity whcr) thcylly awaylronr the eanh'ssurlacc. ln rhe springthc high school applicalions to colleges. Thereis no ikfaLlibkcure for canccr. The cxperhnerrt was fionitored'ktreftorr. a.lch ol thcscsertcllccs. rcsist L The forecast was f(x dark cloudslhal wolrld bri'lg prccipitdtion. obscrvcd 5. a. obey b. perfect b. fuu of b. dcsilncd b. Wcalher/r/dc4sts arc molc accurate$day lhat) cvcr bcforc. dcscripti{nts 6. C]rcle thc lctrcr ol thc aDswcrlhal bcsr nratchcsthe mcaningof lhe italicizcdwod as il is Llsccl in c. 7. regularperiods b. 8. I l. . Vocdbuldry in Corltext. A melal rhal can be slrelchcdin() wire is dcscribcd as lle . fhe ragwas satuntedwith oil. a. hcal 4. a.

sLtllots ot spnolr rrrpird )qt Jo ujrp )ql l)(rc^Is ijllltficrlrrqt pilpntss.rrlu.tdrrcr ijr^ lt sr liioloro i(lr pue suorprrlppor^.\ rotrUoru ol rtqrssod lr r)pru srrlndtt()rrrrrolJrlr plrp s rll)tEs.I(xklo pipr^or(l)^pLIlooq srqt LrrsrsDr)xrlo jrqtunlr V 6u!uubxs ' pisnctr p i l u .rnlpr.L .rJllrp ur sritlreqr. p . rl l l o J o u o t ) r l d .^rlr ApLu nru 'iiunsDri)r()r rrqlur^.rtll ol sjt^ suL) :iutMolloJ )Llt ur.4n_r rr silerpcr I suriqter^{ rno puPsr^rlrnoslortuojunsrLI_L iLIlJo slrL11 nr).reau LueJrqtJosu Daql .neLL|Jp 1qlsDDtll p)snc) urrots rLIt a) I8I SutD!pi..qdsollne . L l L a l itqlJiJlrDqr q )lqern_oelpun p '.\Lruots ilrDS zt s i ) s s o t.rut srurllLriJ l0J rlqel)lp)nlun:)Lll ol ijl pUD lrrprrd rinlurr ^l.llt]olr^ pu!^a.r.I !uiddp.)$uprre (ln sptoM .rirrpew1!^ uo su^.rrl(lulJr . q lUolPtnLUnDe P ')lqlss(xkur 4 l t ) r r L ' n b !) ) P u r u r s p p .ssiur 'pnolr'iorqslllls irriJJp.trlUoruq u sroPluqM z Jtll Io stolu)ll)l ol4t r_tu a.r nl !te.uortsiub qrui] rot spro^{ lil i(x)rl3) .re sJn-upll) r.ti)rltL)i^{ lurlM .rq) q}q^{ llooq slsll rqt tuorJ iL0 Lrl slltrtuor ll0 ilqet itll Lrs)s lo Jo .)iooqrqt rip.^{{ (l rqr txru t rronrrp pue e sr{Ru slep ^lij tscd Jqt ne .\rprM IIv (l poE.pJtclnrlmrJpst luql ri^o Llrr|!(l lJqtDr^\ rlll sro[ulJlap lsriJol(xoJ]Ju rLIt lprauriJ uonultuoJLrl .\ Inl)st]st tDql IllIs n^urpprr J:)ll)u.rr.r(lsLrl pue sH(rliq piniJu]L s.iitruUurs rrollurrr.plro^.D ! 'rJtsesrp prlrr.q t r r t r r ) ^ .rts (Jinsc:)(u.xiput Jo Jo l)uq )rl) tc xipt rqt Ul sfroM iclus iqt r(l loo.{rl Iu)rtiqpLl({lu iplru itu s.rsrnorJo r.r)s ot s)l orru DIqt Jlu_L l)urtpup JlJussud . o r r .rllrssir(l . c i q r u r s .rl(lrlluJur llrtsst .uoltcrru(lul ptrcspn)MliI Jlqtss(xl t)Jlrs JUlJJds rlu)ol oI looq i)UalJJJr 0 Ul ('n nUtlool .\ Jo i)urr:rsrqt'^ppo.LIt iiL lpnls.riqtu.{iqt rl)ILIM ullrpro iql Lrls.l (.r(i ol sroll||!.rt tlJq rloru lotgnbJ tJlj rl0.rd .drurt rru lo rrns!iru rulll slu unrlsur uro.{c^4lp uuLLrnq suq. r .u uortPuu(ll !J(rlrrlllpt so^to^ur x. ^ r r d .r rrlltiq^^ rurLur)l -)p or \1)|]ol] prqrlpM s.{g . { 6u!pbau rqt sr tDllM € atrrll(isotu. \ l e s r s J r r n o s .\ .ro Ur p. siiurutD^. l x r o r I D r ) u r $ l ' I I i)slaDur 1l Ltoosnuqxi u ' L U r l q o r (^ r r l r l l i r .l.qupiilltol trrrs illt ruo.Intul:)d!uIq tDoqe tllilnorq .Lrclr9rldr)ird pup.srrorlsilll) .\ punorD iql uotleruojl IID rJLlll:J^.7' .p ot tlri)lllpr.rotL|l p st SuruuD)s LtJrl^.rs.

Thc inrounl oflvatc. lhis wanning trc|d will . or clouds./onc ullravi(tcl (hcnla gI()uP ol llrall'nlnde havctlclcrllline(l lhnL rnlc. thc prolcction () lircls lhc lcvelol c.182 Predicting PolesThc warrrr.lnrosphefc Thc strak)sl)hcfc. ilrslas hoLlca js hold nrr) rnorcwaicr c.rkl i|l lhc carth's.anlhc wcalhcrby nLrdyilrg . as mcasurc(l by . poirn.r 1(r1heenrlh'sclir ale fro|n nrarr'nladt lhrough tilrLh havcknown for a Iorrillinc Lhallhc Mcleorobgisls wasrcs. Wann air (.Rcccntly.rr wcatirer.rrn I't J . aboul 18. corrlajns 8asthat frolccls havc bccn d|1)p|ing ovcr Anlalcti(a con(cn0 atiorrs rnys.llcdthc salLrrali(.' Twarn firn.rcplnting nlovinglowad lhe polcs.c \Lrllar dissolvc fiorc watef thar . ou( wc havc rain or.Cn x)n dioxi(lejrr lhc is lhc to. l]asscs thc gra(lu.y t)ccirusing civiliz. is ozorrc deflcli(nr' ouc problcnr (hc harl ltll (t l|'()nl lhc stln's eallh a laycr oTotrc earth. fog. Thepoinl at which thc air carrnol the lcnrl)criLtlrc rvilh nloistLrrc. and lhcn yolrcin dislon im[)da['e ol hc ktrcw lhe bLrt a h nnrie aD(illor a scicnlisl was.JLr'( il r'. Opiriolr. !\.old air.snow bel v fic frccTir)g lenpcralurcs chcnricnl Todry lbere exislsa lhrc.vcrl (lrsnncr l(J do somclhing will bc alrlc whelhcrscierllisls ncxr ccntury.000 lasl i(c agcoccurred n1. irr thc wrilcr Mark Twnin orlcc saiLl. o.onlinuc nnd il n).Ikcl lhc en h .callcdgfccnholrsc A sccord proLrlcnr illlrnrc(l glass olll cx(cssivc in a firn(liorrs likclhe .rr(l whcrc il will iDcrea:ic to lllc dioxidcin thc air nray .rLx)n bLr l lassil nnxm.lly \ranllin!l sirrcc Thc eanh hirsbccn cyclcs of warnlingau{l cooling. havc sciclllisls ycarsa8o.licrcclling wjlhoLlt al lrilht hc. expands and rises. baronrelcr. 10 rel)ln(c lhe dsingwanD thc cqrrator thal hasmovcdtorvnrLl air on thc surlace vlindt Ean lvcn rrorlh.r.llr '(_!l\ h\r'1. The Anrcricarr rrruch asyorL Lhem as "Gct yourfacls flcasr.l lionl csca|iDg insulal(n 1() as aD rnysand aclilrlt Drcvcnt on lllc carlh rotrl(ifcachlhc ('x_ lcrrrpcratllrcs ol the almosphcrc. howcver. bcenof inlcrcsr Wcalbcrhasalways lhe \k) 2. Mariner!uscdl(r fore. dl wllcr is sqLrcc/cd lf nrffi(icrr! as dew. nloislLrrc.li{)n 0warcof (hc IbcL that olrr lcchrrical/irrdLrslfial Lreconrc wcalhcr nnd lhal lhcsc nllcr lhe tlral cor. (rt '1 lncl (i_) or fcpresenls drcse :. llcccntly. ll wc corltinue lrcnres lhcy do orrthc poirll bl. vapofin lhc air is nrxjlhcrpredi(L()r' (lisvtves thnn icc(l nnr. Armospheri.ir ncar lhc cquirt(n than do lhoseDcarLhcNonh aDd SouLh lhc cool As il cools il siIks.ncj i{ nir is salurillfd n wa n dny. ol coursc. It rcmainslo bc scenwheLhcr nboutil in li'Ic l1). an opi'rbn F l () melrand wonrcrr.Indicntewhclher ea(h (0).1lrllost)hcrc changcs (langc|(rus an(iifrcvcrsiblc couldbc vcry chrrrgcs ol lhc or'tll)|cr.rppcaring walcr is squeczcd oul ol Lhcirir' we sccLhis rhe €xccss drot)s.This uDcqLral by lhc ()latioool lhc ta'lh winds nrc caosed is irllothef indi(iLorof thc prcssure. l}rc ou lDinl.nd soLrth healnlgofthc carrhcauscs a1r.cnlcnces idcnlifyirg Iacls.llescarchcN at an alarnljrril (lcslI1)yirrg oTor)c the lhc ca h and arcfisinfl iion icals callcd chlo|1)llLrorocarLx)ns cllecl.rnrl)sphcrc Srccnhousc.r 1ea. Distikguishing Fdclfro.

'rrqtean^ar{t lolerlpul up sl rtnssrtd Jltcqdsorulv ' 8 Jo 'spulM sasneJ Lrollelols.tllroJ uns JqI '9 '.L 'sa^rllno slo.lJuolM AlJellsn E ^alll rsn?Jcqou.{uPW Z 'quer rr.JrrJIJs.il JgEaql rprulu. ^luo ueJ slslnolorD Jo l 'sDrraluasasaql q)er ut pasnsl se proM psztrlplt 1! or0 Jo 6uluerur Jo cqr srqrl€ur $aq lpql raMsue aql Jo relrgl oql clrllS lartroJ u! A|tlhqorot . ".)q rJ^ru 'II lll/LlsduloquptunH rrqlelM eql loluo) 01 alqp rq l.lqlllulur .roJpa aql a)uo 'zr 'uo!rnllod luozo Jteurtlllr) ol rlqp .^ou llu stsllurlJs ' 0 1 'salrir BullooJpue BulrulEAqiSnorqlsissedque.qJ ' a 'ulBrp ocueqoou ql!$ Iepol l{lum puEJE€lc €8t SurDrpeld .quE oql . rql.lllJo JlspMp alp stseJoroJ rJqlltM ' . 'iiunDur)seJ sl lSoloroelJurJo .r^rDnpordun q o^lDnpord P 'alurrJ s! puq rql asnPraq ra^u rlrN Jtll Suolec^lr rldoad.?"30 ST'II>IS 9NINAJSI'I 'postc^araq louupJ lr /soSugqJ clpullp s.E rq lr^alr lllM tiultser oJr llprM .

Lands rhat hrcrc useof irrigarion. Loacadcrnic sllcccss. le(turc. symbols. 5.Dor11 6. ollllinc or corrccl Don't woffy aboLrl usingflrll scntences. building up victiIn ha(i brrnpc{l his 7.the more you will rcmcmber. Thc r./to renrovcthc dricd painl. rccopy you can rcadwhar you wro(c. nexl €xercise.rn b.rdcrrs dridfor cerllrrics havcbccrlconvcfLcd 3.orrec! anylhing thal is not l:lcar. 2.ling wilh lhc iulo g.The computcr has a word processing]4l. and shorlcned Uscabbr€viali()ls.r'.roJl. Thc windshieldwas trrilcfe. Fill in anylbing 7. R€vicw your noles pefiodically. a perpclual 9. arrd many sul)porling dchils (s ch ns examflcs. pcrmancnl Hints:Reriew Note-Taking To sh. dry in a grcnl nLrnberof i1 can bc Lrse(l 4.espccially rcvi$. lron is a very ve alitu sLrb\l.1s artdrcntcnrbcr the nlaiD as pL'ssiblc !o hch you Lrndcrsland explanalions) poi1llr. capabiiiry all nlacl]inc$rcquirc fioli<rn nrachiDc. pcr{ccl grantrrar. brokeninto pieces h. aonccnlralc ou Duringfie fornlsolwo|tls lo savclime. skills arcesscrtial cood rrotc-lakinll followingl rcmcnrber lhe l. abundart b.trry." PracLicc Thcn use your nores10 complclc lhc skills you havc dcvelopedin this course.ld thc lcxlbookchaplcrwhcDcvcr wriling dowD thc nlain poinls. b. wcaringaway a. cuoughlo rcad. . b. hardcn€r of thc nrcunlainsidr was duc to lbc hcavy winds and rain. liqucller a. s()w a. !o kecpthcm errcrSy 0. I 4. 6. nn)isl a. possilrlc. hardcncd 11.nccbecause a. ro1fe. dclact a. many-sidcd 5. Reread left olrl and . b. write clcaflysLr you havc your nolcsas soonas possible aflcf class.I|crryoLrr skills./ whcrc lhc accideDl . No onc has cver inve]nle(l goin8. your rolcs. Prcrc. lhc Take noresas you Iislen Io lhe leclurc "Thc wondcr of walcr. bc{brca ten.184 Predi. r. The more yoll 8. Wc uscd . fo|m bLr!nrakcsurewhal yol wrilc is co|nplctc cvidcncc. Add.

{ 'sn ".uos a{pur .Hueq) nr. E .ils! lrte^ tu!^rl ruo{ claer Illpu!:juo tlps s.{ isn 'arntiaj a 6u!p utt tstzpu n 4t (8I SurDrpJd .j.zl ..1 uorrpuFpul rno.rrpnn 1()ulnq rlldsorule.1uar4Jlp llr^ rq IIr.r.uoq rno ^loq .f !t6' rq uopernpa ue Bulllo3.LreDo rqt luqt.ruoleUodsuplMoq .€l . s.€ pal o^ur aq nr^^1eql8urq1ruos .quer rqt ]o squ$-rnql lnoqp srr^o) LrpDo.u5^ors!p rgl)uclrs p .l suol)lparct o.qt ur punql sl ri)l€^^ ' z 'pJlprurlsJrr^o .q plnor rrlnJ.ijlH.. SJNIOd NOISSn)SI(I .I J 'Jrntrrl rllt-irr uolteurroJulJql ol Surpro))e (J) rsleJro (J) Jtul sr stuarurlEls8ru^rolloJ )qt Io qJpJ lrqDq.ueiJo 'tJI Ltrstslxi 4ll s. lu aJJrp cq llt^..M slrqeqBuqpes.aldoed.l I .rluql /.{Lu Jod. r8elup^pEslp arnrnj .suutql Bunll 'sroP r)epns pusl iql se lsn!s tllEI plrpsrrlptunolll sprlJ)ullnsLrpa)o JrU 9 'sluriurLLl silllupnb snouj.l1 .)rodrlU .qI ' t 'punotS.louJ JL el o) JJIe^^ J() Lrprro .ql 3ul.ql .Moq ssnJslc u aq p1no.ued.l9trpotll ot +)u rate^ splnblr loqlo ueql lr/uols sld)J pLrD stprq raleM 'saztcjJ ucqM spupdxr tl l! teql ul splnbll rrqlo Jo lprld.01 'plnbll&Dulprous s!.ral9M lpllt s! lluDcl srqlJoerpr (rlput nql 'ol9ulllr rql.qup.M lue-reJJrp s.9 .Moq. ?M ' I 'Jnlq ro LlnJ$ s! Iue..otojMJ)uo orJJ!) joteto uBrlox.{llEnsn sl jtlp.M Jql Jo JOIOJ lDlnleLr .I'^t#1f$:ftt#.M rurlurrlrp ()1srlou rno.ql iqlJo aSprlMoulp lulql I .< lUar4JIpJq llll|1uorlBJrunrrlrooJ ^^oq .!ro$l.^rllnq stslluclJS 'sruslup8to Ilr?ol llr)sal(j s! ll tsuuJnqtur^los lpsli^l(rn iLIl prllpJ sl .{{oq .8 .M lo r)Ll|-..z apprr cq llt^. [] Jo lsow 't 'arsJns t./ resM II!/d usruoM puE uaur leqM .

a r l ( l c o n v i n ( j r r g[ ) y l ) o l h t h c d c l . . foinl Ho\'!evcr. w h c n y o ! w i s h L o s c n d a n u r g c n l m c s s n g r .\'vl.f r o b l e n r s o l p r i v n ( y . Howcvcf. y s a r c l l i t c . p h r a s c . l a 1 t l i l $o l t h t l L t t I R : Att lt1.N o t c a l s o L h e p | . l i l r v i l l n ) r r l c ( l . by sureyoLr dcvcloflhe paragrafh suit!. and one ddy. 195 ( N c w Y o r k i I I . n ( l . l n dny bclw(crr irny lwo h o u f s . l s i g n . T h c f c n r c .h c w f i l c r I f e d i c t s t h . Orhcr rransitiorr n while.T h c s c w i l l t ) r r o u l c d i n t h e a p p r o f f i . Your conclusiorl exprcss a waming or hope fLrrthc Iu!ure. lltattttlll. Thcn orake alrcady wcar pants. . l o r y jnclLr(lc predicring nllr. r k c . cvcr) lhc ol(1$lvc(l l)y ()bot hirnrllirrg s t y l c b L r l n a np o s l m c n h a v c b c ( n k r r o w r r l o 1 1 i ( l l h c r r r . r i r r r j \ L r s ( t lt { r c x p r e s s h y p o t h r l i c n l n a t l r c o 1 l h c i n d i c a l c st h c possibilily. i]1llt! littttrt.f e w y c a r s l r c r n n o w . l i l c ( i N o r j c c h o w t h c p r c d i c l i o ni : i n r a d c i D t c f c s t i n g r ll a l ) o l c n l j i r ll i 1 1 ) L ) l r n r w o r k a u d l h c ( l i s c r r s s i oo o f h o w l h c s y s t c n lw i l l descriplion w i t h L t/ 1 / . Lltal $'ome rr you cansuppofl yourclaimbypointingout by lhe lwen!y-lirsl century.rw. E a ( h . ' 1 / ! w v c . 4 .and lic!. lmaginntivc on one of lhc Discussion Wrile a paragraph writing docs not demand suppoling nralcrial lo "provc" ./r' p. A 1 t h e l o c a l o f f i c e t h e f o r m w i l l b e f c d i n t o d D r a c h i n cw h i c h \ c a n s l h e n r a f k s o n t h c t a p c t a n d ( o n v c n s l h c n r i r r l o c l c . / u s t o J l h c l u l r r r c l c D s c r h a l N i g b t a f i s c .lriTc givingdcrails or exanplcs.dfkr witi g a Plediction or crcarrvc Poi s.tu tltc !. L f i c . l j o r r( ) L r r ( l l h c r a d i o e du p l h c r r c i r $ t r c l . l s . o l c o L r s c . Ldter.inrilr d/ l/rf P.any concrctccvidenceyou can providc will make yolrr parrgrtlh rorc cffeciivc or nlikc il you predict rhal mer and womenwill dress morebelievable.I n . r / r/ i D n T h c c x a m f l c f a r a ! r a p h b e g i D sw i l h L h t i r r l r ( X l L r . yL r cp o s s i b l c 1 0s c n d t h c l o l l o r v i n gp a r a g r a p ht ( i i r y l c s s : :l letleranywhcrc on carlh in onc ot . l ) u r c v c n l l r a l l yl c t l c r s s h o u l d n c v c r l a k c r n o r t L h a D p o i r t s { ) D L h c E . 11c10]" lon!.. t c d i r e .lIitr i.I h c r l l o ( l n lr 1 ' d / / / . A f l h r l r C C l . ( ' d i c l i o l r . For cxamplc.t h c d o o r ' t o ' ( l o o r d c l i v e r y r v o u l d c x t c n d l h i s l i r c l o n ' v c r . r v l t i c h n r i j t h l l ) c at nll sLagcs ol thc ofcrnlion. rvords for tvcnt .186 Predicting WRITING SKILLS Predlcting O n c g o a l o l s c i c n c ei s l o p r c d i c l r / h a t l h c w o d r r i g h l b c l i k ( i r l h c l u l L r r c . lhc nain idca ol could sum r.1 9 r ) : ) . r l h . i l .) o u v l i l l p u f c h a s c a s r a n d a r dl c ( c r l o f n o n w h i c h y o u w i l l w l e o r t y p c w h a l c v c t y o L r h a v c r o \ r y . t ) r / 6 R o \ v . a u d p i c k r d u p a t l b c d c s r i n n t i o nw h c f c t h c y a r e r r l x x l L r ( c ( i ( ) 1 rr L ) l i n k with rhc onc you inscrilrcd. T h e l r a r r m i s s i o r ri ( s c l l w o r r l d l n k c i r fornl idcrrtical f r a c t i o Do l a s c c o n d .

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