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Chapter 5

Quadratic Equations and Functions

In This Chapter You Will


Learn to use quadratic functions to model real-world data. Learn to graph and to solve quadratic equations. Learn to graph complex numbers and to use them in solving quadratic equations.

5.1 Modeling Data With Quadratic Functions


What youll learn To identify quadratic functions and graphs To model data with quadratic functions
2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

Quadratic Functions and their Graphs


A quadratic function is a function that can be written in the standard form, where a0.

f(x) =

2 ax

+ bx + c
Linear term Constant term

Quadratic term

Example 1 Classifying Functions


Determine whether each function is linear or quadratic. Identify the quadratic, linear, and constant terms.

y = (2x +3)(x 4)

f(x) = 3(x2-2x) 3(x2 2)

The graph of a quadratic function is a parabola.

The axis of symmetry is the line that divides a parabola into two parts that are mirror images.

The vertex of a parabola is the point at which the parabola intersects the axis of symmetry.

The y-value of the vertex represents the maximum or minimum value of the function.

Example 2a Graph y = 2x2 8x + 8


Vertex ___________
Axis of Symmetry ______

Example 2b Graph y = -x2 4x + 2


Vertex ___________
Axis of Symmetry ______

Example 3a Finding a Quadratic Model


Find a quadratic function to model the values in the table. Substitute the values of x and y into y = ax2 + bx + c. The result is a system of three linear equations. X 2 3 4 Y 3 13 29

Example 3b Finding a Quadratic Model


Find a quadratic function to model the values in the table. Substitute the values of x and y into y = ax2 + bx + c. The result is a system of three linear equations. X 1 2 3 Y 0 -3 -10

Example 4 Real World Connection


The table shows the height of a column of water as it drains from its container. Model the data with a quadratic function. Graph the data and the function. Use the model to estimate the water level at 35 seconds.
Elapsed Time Water Level
0s 10 s 20 s 30 s 40 s 50 s 60 s 120 mm 100 mm 83 mm 66 mm 50 mm 37 mm 28 mm

Step 1 Enter data into L1 and L2. Use QuadReg. Step 2 Graph the data and the function. Step 3 Use the table to find f(35).

5.2 Properties of Parabolas


What youll learn To graph quadratic functions To find maximum and minimum values of quadratic functions
2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

Graphing Parabolas
The standard form of a quadratic function is y=ax2 + bx + c. When b=0, the function simplifies to y=ax2 + c. The graph of y=ax2 + c is a parabola with an axis of symmetry x =0, the y-axis. The vertex of the graph is the y-intercept (0,c).

Properties Graph of a Quadratic Function in Standard Form


The graph of y=ax2 + bx + c is a parabola when a0. When a>0, the parabola opens up. When a<0, the parabola opens down.
positive quadratic y = x2 negative quadratic y = x2

Properties Graph of a Quadratic Function in Standard Form The graph of y=ax2 + bx + c is a parabola when a0. The axis of symmetry is x= - b
2a

Properties Graph of a Quadratic Function in Standard Form The graph of y=ax2 + bx + c is a parabola when a0. b The vertex is ( - b , f() ). 2a 2a

Properties Graph of a Quadratic Function in Standard Form The graph of y=ax2 + bx + c is a parabola when a0. The y intercept is (0,c).

Quadratic Graphs
y=x
The graph of a quadratic function is a U-shaped curve called a parabola.
2

Example 1 Graphing a Function of the Form y=ax2 + c


Graph y= -x2 + 2 Graph y= 2x2 - 4

Symmetry
You can fold a parabola so that the two sides match evenly. This property is called symmetry. The fold or line that divides the parabola into two matching halves is called the axis of symmetry.

y=x +3

Vertex
The highest or lowest point of a parabola is its vertex, which is on the axis of symmetry.

y=x

y = -4 x +3

Minimum

Maximum

Determining Vertex and Axis of Symmetry


Equation Max/Min Vertex Axis of YSymmetry Intercept(s)

y = -x2 + 4x + 2 y = -1/3x - 2x-3 y = 2x 2+ 8x -1 y = x - 2x - 3


2 2

5.3 Translating Parabolas


What youll learn To use the vertex form of a quadratic function
2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

Investigation: Vertex Form


Standard Form

y = ax2 +bx + c

b 2a

y = x2 -4x + 4
y = x2 +6x + 8 y = -3x2 -12x - 8 y = 2x2 +12x +19

Vertex Form y = a(x h)2 + k y = (x 2)2


y = (x +3)2 - 1 y = -3(x +2)2 +4 y = 2(x +3)2 +1

In other words
To translate the graph of a quadratic function, you can use the vertex form of a quadratic function.

Properties The graph of y = a(x h)2 + k is the graph of


y = ax2 translated h units horizontally and k units vertically. When h is positive the graph shifts right; when h is negative the graph shifts left. When k is positive the graph shifts up; when the k is negative the graph shifts down. The vertex is (h,k) and the axis of symmetry is the line x=h.

Example 1a Using Vertex Form to Graph a Parabola


Graph y = - 1 (x-2)2 +3
2

1. Graph the vertex. 2. Draw the axis of symmetry. 3. Find another point. When x=0. 4. Sketch the curve.

Example 1b Using Vertex Form to Graph a Parabola


Graph y = 2 (x+1)2 - 4
1. Graph the vertex. 2. Draw the axis of symmetry. 3. Find another point. When x=0. 4. Sketch the curve.

Example 2a Writing the Equation of a Parabola


Write the equation of the parabola. Use the vertex form. Substitute h=__ and k= ___. Substitute x=0 and y = 6. Solve for a.

Example 2b Writing the Equation of a Parabola


Write the equation of the parabola. Use the vertex form. Substitute h=__ and k= ___. Substitute x=___ and y = ___. Solve for a.

Example 2c Writing the Equation of a Parabola


Write the equation of a parabola that has vertex (-2, 1) and goes thru the point (1,28).

Write the equation of a parabola that has vertex (-1, -4) and has a y intercept of 3.

Convert to Vertex Form


y = 2x2 +10x +7 y = -3x2 +12x +5

Convert to Standard Form


y = (x+3)2 - 1 y = -3(x -2 )2 +4

Example 3 Real World Connection


The photo shows the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York, which has the longest span of any suspension bridge in the US. A suspension cable of the bridge forma a curve that resembles a parabola. The curve can be modeled with the function y = 0.0001432(x-2130)2 where x and y are measured in feet. The origin of the functions graph is at the base of one of the two towers that support the cable. How far apart are the towers? How high are they?

Start by drawing a diagram.

The function, y = 0.0001432(x-2130)2 , is in


vertex form. Since h =2130 and k =0, the vertex is (2130,0). The vertex is halfway between the towers, so the distance between the towers is 2(2130) ft = 4260 ft. To find the towers height, find y for x=0.

5.4 Factoring Quadratic Expressions


What youll learn To find common and binomial factors of quadratic expressions To factor special quadratic expressions
1.03 Operate with algebraic expressions (polynomial, rational, complex fractions) to solve problems.

Investigation: Factoring
1. Since 6 * 3 = 18, 6 and 3 up a factor pair for 18. a. Find the other factor pairs for 18, including negative integers. b. Find the sum of the integers in each factor pair for 18. 2. Does 12 have a factor pair with a sum of -8? A sum of 9? a. Using all the factor pairs of 12, how many sums are possible? b. How many sums are possible for the factor pairs of -12?

Factoring is rewriting an expression as the product of its factors. The greatest common factor (GCF) of an expression is the common factor with the greatest coefficient and the greatest exponent.

Example 1a Finding Common Factors

4x + 12 x - 8

4b -2b -6b

GCF ________

GCF ________

Example 1b Finding Common Factors


3 2

3x - 12x +15x
GCF

6m - 12m - 24m
GCF

Example 2 Factoring when ac>0 and b>0


Factor x2 +8x +7 Factor x2 +6x +8

Factor x2 +12x +32

Factor x2 +14x +40

Example 3 Factoring when ac>0 and b<0


Factor x2 -17x +72 Factor x2 -6x +8

Factor x2 -7x +12

Factor x2 -11x +24

Example 4 Factoring when ac<0


Factor x2 - x - 12 Factor x2 +3x - 10

Factor x2 -14x - 32

Factor x2 +4x - 5

Example 5 Factoring when a0 and ac>0


Factor 2x2 +11x + 12 Factor 3x2 - 16x +5

Factor 4x2 +7x + 3

Factor 2x2 - 7x + 6

Example 6 Factoring when a0 and ac<0


Factor 4x2 -4x - 15 Factor 2x2 +7x - 9

Factor 3x2 - 16x - 12

Factor 4x2 +5x - 6

Special Cases
A perfect square trinomial is the product you obtain when you square a binomial.

An expression of the form a2 - b2 is defined


as the difference of two squares.

Factoring a Perfect Square Trinomial with a = 1


x - 8x + 16
2

n 2 - 16n + 64

The Difference of Two Squares


x - 121
( )( ) (
2

4x - 36
)( )

5.5 Quadratic Equations


What youll learn To solve quadratic equations by factoring and by finding square roots To solve quadratic equations by graphing
2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

The standard form of a quadratic equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a 0. You can solve some quadratic equations in standard form by factoring the quadratic expression and then using the ZeroProduct Property.
Zero-Product Property If ab = 0, then a =0 or b=0. Example If (x +3) (x -7) = 0 then (x +3) = 0 or (x -7) = 0.

Zero Product Property


( x + 3)(x + 2) = 0 (x + 5)(2x 3 ) = 0

Example 1a Solve by Factoring


x 8x 48 = 0
2

x + x 12 = 0

Example 1b Solve by Factoring

2x 5x = 88
2

x - 12x = -36

Example 2 Solving by Finding Square Roots


x 25 = 0
2

5x - 180 = 0

x +4=0

Example 4 Solve by Graphing


x 2 4 = 0 x2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0

The number of x intercepts determines the number of solutions!!

Using the Calculator


Solve: 1. Set y= and graph with a standard window. 2. Use the ZERO command to find the roots -- 2nd TRACE (CALC), #2 zero 3. Left bound? Move the spider as close to the root (where the graph crosses the x-axis) as possible. Hit the left arrow to move to the "left" of the root. Hit ENTER. A "marker" will be set to the left of the root.

4. Right bound? Move the spider as close to the root (where the graph crosses the x-axis) as possible. Hit the right arrow to move to the "right" of the root. Hit ENTER. A "marker" will be set to the right of the root. 5. Guess? Just hit ENTER. 6. Repeat the entire process to find the second root (which in this case happens to be x = 7).

Using a Graphing Calculator Solve Each Equation


x2 + 6x + 4 = 0 3x2 + 5x - 12 = 8

5.6 Complex Numbers


What youll learn To identify and graph complex numbers To add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers
1.02 Define and compute with complex numbers.

When you learned to count, you used natural numbers 1,2,3, and so on. Your number system has grown to include other types of numbers. You have used real numbers, which include both rational numbers such as and irrational numbers such as 2. Now your number system will expand to include numbers such as -2.

The imaginary number i is defined as the number whose square is -1. So i2 = -1and i = -1. An imaginary number is any number of the form a + bi where b0. Imaginary numbers and real numbers together make up the set of complex numbers.

Example 1 Simplifying Numbers Using i


-9 -18

-12

-2

Example 2 Simplifying Imaginary Numbers


-9 + 6 -18 + 7

The diagram below shows the sets of numbers that are part of the complex number system and examples of each set.

You can use the complex number plane to represent a complex number geometrically.
Locate the real part of the number on the horizontal axis and the imaginary part on the vertical axis. You graph 3 4i in the same way you would graph (3,-4) on the coordinate plane.

Example 5 Adding Complex Numbers

Simplify (5 + 7i) + (-2 + 6i)

Simplify (8 + 3i) - (2 + 4i)

Simplify 7 - (3 + 2i)

Example 6 Multiplying Complex Numbers

Find (5i) + (-4i)

Find (2 + 3i) - (-3 + 5i)

Find (6 5i) (4 3i)

Example 7 Finding Complex Solutions Solve 4x2 + 100 = 0

Solve 3x2 + 48 = 0

Solve -5x2 - 150 = 0

5.7 Completing the Square


What youll learn To solve equations by completing the square To rewrite functions by completing the square
2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

Perfect Square Trinomials

Examples x2 + 6x + 9 x2 - 10x + 25 x2 + 12x + 36

Creating a Perfect Square Trinomial

In the following perfect square trinomial, the constant term is missing. X2 + 14x + ____ Find the constant term by squaring half the coefficient of the linear term. (14/2)2 X2 + 14x + 49

Perfect Square Trinomials

Create perfect square trinomials. x2 + 20x + ___ x2 - 4x + ___ x2 + 5x + ___

Example 1 Solving a Perfect Square Trinomial Equation


Step 1: Factor the trinomial. Step 2: Find the Square Root of each side. Step 3: Solve for x.
2

Example 2a Completing the Square

b Find . 2 Substitute -8 for b.

Complete the square.

Example 2b Completing the Square

b Find . 2 Substitute for b.

Complete the square.

Example 3 Solving by Completing the Square


Solve the following equation by completing the square: Step 1: Rewrite so all terms containing x are on one side.

x 8 x 20 0
2

x 8 x 20
2

Example 3 Continued
Step 2: Find the term that completes the square on the left side of the equation. Add that term to both sides.
2
x 8x
2

=20 +

1 (8) 4 then square it, 42 16 2

x 8 x 16 20 16

Example 3 Continued Step 3: Factor the 2 perfect square trinomial x 8 x 16 20 16 on the left side of the ( x 4)( x 4) 36 equation. Simplify the 2 right side of the ( x 4) 36 equation.

Step 4: Take the square root of each side.

( x 4) 36
2

( x 4) 6

Example 3 Continued

Step 5: Solve for x.

x 4 6 x 4 6 and x 4 6 x 10 and x=2

Solve each by Completing the Square


x2 + 4x 4 = 0 x2 2x 1 = 0

Example 4 Finding Complex Solutions

x2 - 8x + 36 = 0

x2 +6x = - 34

Example 5 Solving When a0

5x2 = 6x + 8

2x2 + x = 6

In lesson 5-3 you converted quadratic b functions into vertex form by using x = 2a to find the x-coordinate of the parabolas vertex. Then by substituting for x, you found the y coordinate of the vertex. Another way of rewriting a function is to complete the square.

Example 6a Rewriting in Vertex Form


Complete the square. Add and subtract 3 on the right side. Factor the perfect square trinomial. Simplify.
2

x2 + 6x + 2

Example 6b Rewriting in Vertex Form


y = x2 - 10x - 2 y = x2 + 5x + 3

5.8 The Quadratic Formula


What youll learn To solve quadratic equations by using the quadratic formula To determine types of solutions by using the discriminant
2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

The Quadratic Formula

Example 1a Using the Quadratic Formula


x 2 2x 8 = 0

-b (b) 4 (a) (c) 2(a)


2

-( )

) 4( 2( )

)(

Example 1b Using the Quadratic Formula


x 4x 117 = 0
2 ( ) ( ) 4( 2 -b (b) 4 (a) (c) ( ) 2(a) 2( ) 2

Example 2a Finding Complex Solutions

2x2 = -6x - 7
-b (b) 4 (a) (c) 2(a)
2

Example 2b Finding Complex Solutions


2 -2x = 4x + 3

-b (b) 4 (a) (c) 2(a)


2

Quadratic equations can have real or complex solutions. You can determine the type and number of solutions by finding the discriminant.

-b + x=

2 b

4ac

the discriminant

2a

Value of the Discriminant

Type and Number of Solutions for ax2 + bx + c

Examples of Graphs of Related Functions y=ax2 + bx + c

b2 4ac > 0

Two real solutions

b2 4ac = 0
b2 4ac < 0

One real solution

No real solution; Two imaginary solutions

Example 4 Using the Discriminant

x 2 +6x + 8 = 0

x 2 +6x + 10 = 0

Methods for Solving Quadratics


Discriminant
Positive square number Positive non-square number

Methods
Factoring, Graphing, Quadratic Formula, or Completing the Square For approximate solutions: Graphing, Quadratic Formula, or Completing the Square For exact solutions: Quadratic Formula, or Completing the Square Factoring, Graphing, Quadratic Formula, or Completing the Square

Zero

Negative

Quadratic Formula, or Completing the Square

In This Chapter You Should Have


Learned to use quadratic functions to model real-world data. Learned to graph and to solve quadratic equations. Learned to graph complex numbers and to use them in solving quadratic equations.