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Learn to use quadratic functions to model real-world data. Learn to graph and to solve quadratic equations. Learn to graph complex numbers and to use them in solving quadratic equations.

What youll learn To identify quadratic functions and graphs To model data with quadratic functions

2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

A quadratic function is a function that can be written in the standard form, where a0.

f(x) =

2 ax

+ bx + c

Linear term Constant term

Quadratic term

Determine whether each function is linear or quadratic. Identify the quadratic, linear, and constant terms.

y = (2x +3)(x 4)

The axis of symmetry is the line that divides a parabola into two parts that are mirror images.

The vertex of a parabola is the point at which the parabola intersects the axis of symmetry.

The y-value of the vertex represents the maximum or minimum value of the function.

Vertex ___________

Axis of Symmetry ______

Vertex ___________

Axis of Symmetry ______

Find a quadratic function to model the values in the table. Substitute the values of x and y into y = ax2 + bx + c. The result is a system of three linear equations. X 2 3 4 Y 3 13 29

Find a quadratic function to model the values in the table. Substitute the values of x and y into y = ax2 + bx + c. The result is a system of three linear equations. X 1 2 3 Y 0 -3 -10

The table shows the height of a column of water as it drains from its container. Model the data with a quadratic function. Graph the data and the function. Use the model to estimate the water level at 35 seconds.

Elapsed Time Water Level

0s 10 s 20 s 30 s 40 s 50 s 60 s 120 mm 100 mm 83 mm 66 mm 50 mm 37 mm 28 mm

Step 1 Enter data into L1 and L2. Use QuadReg. Step 2 Graph the data and the function. Step 3 Use the table to find f(35).

What youll learn To graph quadratic functions To find maximum and minimum values of quadratic functions

2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

Graphing Parabolas

The standard form of a quadratic function is y=ax2 + bx + c. When b=0, the function simplifies to y=ax2 + c. The graph of y=ax2 + c is a parabola with an axis of symmetry x =0, the y-axis. The vertex of the graph is the y-intercept (0,c).

The graph of y=ax2 + bx + c is a parabola when a0. When a>0, the parabola opens up. When a<0, the parabola opens down.

positive quadratic y = x2 negative quadratic y = x2

Properties Graph of a Quadratic Function in Standard Form The graph of y=ax2 + bx + c is a parabola when a0. The axis of symmetry is x= - b

2a

Properties Graph of a Quadratic Function in Standard Form The graph of y=ax2 + bx + c is a parabola when a0. b The vertex is ( - b , f() ). 2a 2a

Properties Graph of a Quadratic Function in Standard Form The graph of y=ax2 + bx + c is a parabola when a0. The y intercept is (0,c).

Quadratic Graphs

y=x

The graph of a quadratic function is a U-shaped curve called a parabola.

2

Graph y= -x2 + 2 Graph y= 2x2 - 4

Symmetry

You can fold a parabola so that the two sides match evenly. This property is called symmetry. The fold or line that divides the parabola into two matching halves is called the axis of symmetry.

y=x +3

Vertex

The highest or lowest point of a parabola is its vertex, which is on the axis of symmetry.

y=x

y = -4 x +3

Minimum

Maximum

Equation Max/Min Vertex Axis of YSymmetry Intercept(s)

2 2

What youll learn To use the vertex form of a quadratic function

2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

Standard Form

y = ax2 +bx + c

b 2a

y = x2 -4x + 4

y = x2 +6x + 8 y = -3x2 -12x - 8 y = 2x2 +12x +19

y = (x +3)2 - 1 y = -3(x +2)2 +4 y = 2(x +3)2 +1

In other words

To translate the graph of a quadratic function, you can use the vertex form of a quadratic function.

y = ax2 translated h units horizontally and k units vertically. When h is positive the graph shifts right; when h is negative the graph shifts left. When k is positive the graph shifts up; when the k is negative the graph shifts down. The vertex is (h,k) and the axis of symmetry is the line x=h.

Graph y = - 1 (x-2)2 +3

2

1. Graph the vertex. 2. Draw the axis of symmetry. 3. Find another point. When x=0. 4. Sketch the curve.

Graph y = 2 (x+1)2 - 4

1. Graph the vertex. 2. Draw the axis of symmetry. 3. Find another point. When x=0. 4. Sketch the curve.

Write the equation of the parabola. Use the vertex form. Substitute h=__ and k= ___. Substitute x=0 and y = 6. Solve for a.

Write the equation of the parabola. Use the vertex form. Substitute h=__ and k= ___. Substitute x=___ and y = ___. Solve for a.

Write the equation of a parabola that has vertex (-2, 1) and goes thru the point (1,28).

Write the equation of a parabola that has vertex (-1, -4) and has a y intercept of 3.

y = 2x2 +10x +7 y = -3x2 +12x +5

y = (x+3)2 - 1 y = -3(x -2 )2 +4

The photo shows the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York, which has the longest span of any suspension bridge in the US. A suspension cable of the bridge forma a curve that resembles a parabola. The curve can be modeled with the function y = 0.0001432(x-2130)2 where x and y are measured in feet. The origin of the functions graph is at the base of one of the two towers that support the cable. How far apart are the towers? How high are they?

vertex form. Since h =2130 and k =0, the vertex is (2130,0). The vertex is halfway between the towers, so the distance between the towers is 2(2130) ft = 4260 ft. To find the towers height, find y for x=0.

What youll learn To find common and binomial factors of quadratic expressions To factor special quadratic expressions

1.03 Operate with algebraic expressions (polynomial, rational, complex fractions) to solve problems.

Investigation: Factoring

1. Since 6 * 3 = 18, 6 and 3 up a factor pair for 18. a. Find the other factor pairs for 18, including negative integers. b. Find the sum of the integers in each factor pair for 18. 2. Does 12 have a factor pair with a sum of -8? A sum of 9? a. Using all the factor pairs of 12, how many sums are possible? b. How many sums are possible for the factor pairs of -12?

Factoring is rewriting an expression as the product of its factors. The greatest common factor (GCF) of an expression is the common factor with the greatest coefficient and the greatest exponent.

4x + 12 x - 8

4b -2b -6b

GCF ________

GCF ________

3 2

3x - 12x +15x

GCF

6m - 12m - 24m

GCF

Factor x2 +8x +7 Factor x2 +6x +8

Factor x2 -17x +72 Factor x2 -6x +8

Factor x2 - x - 12 Factor x2 +3x - 10

Factor x2 -14x - 32

Factor x2 +4x - 5

Factor 2x2 +11x + 12 Factor 3x2 - 16x +5

Factor 2x2 - 7x + 6

Factor 4x2 -4x - 15 Factor 2x2 +7x - 9

Special Cases

A perfect square trinomial is the product you obtain when you square a binomial.

as the difference of two squares.

x - 8x + 16

2

n 2 - 16n + 64

x - 121

( )( ) (

2

4x - 36

)( )

What youll learn To solve quadratic equations by factoring and by finding square roots To solve quadratic equations by graphing

2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

The standard form of a quadratic equation is ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a 0. You can solve some quadratic equations in standard form by factoring the quadratic expression and then using the ZeroProduct Property.

Zero-Product Property If ab = 0, then a =0 or b=0. Example If (x +3) (x -7) = 0 then (x +3) = 0 or (x -7) = 0.

( x + 3)(x + 2) = 0 (x + 5)(2x 3 ) = 0

x 8x 48 = 0

2

x + x 12 = 0

2x 5x = 88

2

x - 12x = -36

x 25 = 0

2

5x - 180 = 0

x +4=0

x 2 4 = 0 x2 = 0 x2 + 4 = 0

Solve: 1. Set y= and graph with a standard window. 2. Use the ZERO command to find the roots -- 2nd TRACE (CALC), #2 zero 3. Left bound? Move the spider as close to the root (where the graph crosses the x-axis) as possible. Hit the left arrow to move to the "left" of the root. Hit ENTER. A "marker" will be set to the left of the root.

4. Right bound? Move the spider as close to the root (where the graph crosses the x-axis) as possible. Hit the right arrow to move to the "right" of the root. Hit ENTER. A "marker" will be set to the right of the root. 5. Guess? Just hit ENTER. 6. Repeat the entire process to find the second root (which in this case happens to be x = 7).

x2 + 6x + 4 = 0 3x2 + 5x - 12 = 8

What youll learn To identify and graph complex numbers To add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers

1.02 Define and compute with complex numbers.

When you learned to count, you used natural numbers 1,2,3, and so on. Your number system has grown to include other types of numbers. You have used real numbers, which include both rational numbers such as and irrational numbers such as 2. Now your number system will expand to include numbers such as -2.

The imaginary number i is defined as the number whose square is -1. So i2 = -1and i = -1. An imaginary number is any number of the form a + bi where b0. Imaginary numbers and real numbers together make up the set of complex numbers.

-9 -18

-12

-2

-9 + 6 -18 + 7

The diagram below shows the sets of numbers that are part of the complex number system and examples of each set.

You can use the complex number plane to represent a complex number geometrically.

Locate the real part of the number on the horizontal axis and the imaginary part on the vertical axis. You graph 3 4i in the same way you would graph (3,-4) on the coordinate plane.

Simplify 7 - (3 + 2i)

Solve 3x2 + 48 = 0

What youll learn To solve equations by completing the square To rewrite functions by completing the square

2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

In the following perfect square trinomial, the constant term is missing. X2 + 14x + ____ Find the constant term by squaring half the coefficient of the linear term. (14/2)2 X2 + 14x + 49

Step 1: Factor the trinomial. Step 2: Find the Square Root of each side. Step 3: Solve for x.

2

Solve the following equation by completing the square: Step 1: Rewrite so all terms containing x are on one side.

x 8 x 20 0

2

x 8 x 20

2

Example 3 Continued

Step 2: Find the term that completes the square on the left side of the equation. Add that term to both sides.

2

x 8x

2

=20 +

x 8 x 16 20 16

Example 3 Continued Step 3: Factor the 2 perfect square trinomial x 8 x 16 20 16 on the left side of the ( x 4)( x 4) 36 equation. Simplify the 2 right side of the ( x 4) 36 equation.

( x 4) 36

2

( x 4) 6

Example 3 Continued

x2 + 4x 4 = 0 x2 2x 1 = 0

x2 - 8x + 36 = 0

x2 +6x = - 34

5x2 = 6x + 8

2x2 + x = 6

In lesson 5-3 you converted quadratic b functions into vertex form by using x = 2a to find the x-coordinate of the parabolas vertex. Then by substituting for x, you found the y coordinate of the vertex. Another way of rewriting a function is to complete the square.

Complete the square. Add and subtract 3 on the right side. Factor the perfect square trinomial. Simplify.

2

x2 + 6x + 2

y = x2 - 10x - 2 y = x2 + 5x + 3

What youll learn To solve quadratic equations by using the quadratic formula To determine types of solutions by using the discriminant

2.02 Use quadratic functions and inequalities to model and solve problems; justify results. Solve using tables, graphs, and algebraic properties. Interpret the constants and coefficients in the context of the problem.

x 2 2x 8 = 0

2

-( )

) 4( 2( )

)(

x 4x 117 = 0

2 ( ) ( ) 4( 2 -b (b) 4 (a) (c) ( ) 2(a) 2( ) 2

2x2 = -6x - 7

-b (b) 4 (a) (c) 2(a)

2

2 -2x = 4x + 3

2

Quadratic equations can have real or complex solutions. You can determine the type and number of solutions by finding the discriminant.

-b + x=

2 b

4ac

the discriminant

2a

b2 4ac > 0

b2 4ac = 0

b2 4ac < 0

x 2 +6x + 8 = 0

x 2 +6x + 10 = 0

Discriminant

Positive square number Positive non-square number

Methods

Factoring, Graphing, Quadratic Formula, or Completing the Square For approximate solutions: Graphing, Quadratic Formula, or Completing the Square For exact solutions: Quadratic Formula, or Completing the Square Factoring, Graphing, Quadratic Formula, or Completing the Square

Zero

Negative

Learned to use quadratic functions to model real-world data. Learned to graph and to solve quadratic equations. Learned to graph complex numbers and to use them in solving quadratic equations.

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