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Experiment No.

4
To analyze the process of Open Die Forging

Apparatus:
Hydraulic press, vernier calliper, work piece (specimen)

Theory and Procedure:


We know that the true strain experienced by the work during the process can be determined by

= In

---- (1)

Where ho = starting height of work in inches (mm); h = height at some intermediate point in process. At the end of the compression stroke, h = final value of and the true strain reaches its

maximum value. The force required to continue the compression at any given height h during the process can be obtained by multiplying corresponding cross sectional area by the flow stress;

F=

. A---- (2) = flow

Where F = force in lb (N); A = cross sectional area of the part square inches/square mm, stress corresponding to the strain in lb/square inches (MPa).

A shape factor is applied to the previous force equation to account for effects of the D/h ratio and friction as

F=
and is the forging factor defined as

. A ---- (3)

=
Where

---- (4)

= Coefficient of friction; D = work part diameter in inches/mm; h = height in inches/mm

Readings and Calculations:


Initial h = 3.0 inch; initial diameter = 2.0 inch; reduction up-to height = 1.5 inch; the flow curve K = 50,000 lb/in2; n= 0.17; Step 1: Calculate the volume of the work part = V = h ( ) d = 3.0 (3.14/4). 22 = 9.426 in3 Step 2: At the start of yielding h is slightly less than 3.0 in and we assume that strain = 0.002 at which the flow stress is Step 3: The diameter is still approximately D = 2.0 in and A = 3.142 in2. For these conditions, the adjustment factor is computed using equation (4) above as
2

= 0.1; F = ? at 3.0, 2.5, 2.0 and 1.5 inch respectively.

= K. n = 50,000 (0.002)0.17 = 17384 lb/in2.

=1.027 and forging force is using equation (3) is computed as F

= 1.027 (17384)(3.142) = 56077 lbs Now using the above procedure compute the force at h = 2.5; 2.0; and 1.5 inch respectively. The value of h = 2.5 is calculated in order to understand the computation Using equation (1), = In 3.0/2.5 = 0.1823, then finding stress
( )

= 50000 (0.1823)0.17 = 37438

lb/in2. Assuming a constant volume and neglecting other effects A = Volume/New height i.e. A = 9.426/2.5 = 3.77in2 and D = 2.19 in. (37438) (3.77) = 146102 lb. Similarly at h = 2.0; F = 211894 lb and at h = 1.5; F = 317500 lb. Step 4: Draw a load versus height graph =

= 1.035 and from there, F = 1.035

Step 5: Comment about the graph and other parameters