METU School of Foreign Languages Academic Writing Center ODTÜ/Yabancı Diller Yüksek Okulu Akademik Yazı Merkezi

LINKING DEVICES
Linking devices help you carry over a thought from one sentence, idea or paragraph to another with words or phrases so that there are no sudden jumps or breaks between ideas. Below is a list of some common connectors: TO ADD/ TO LIST and above all also first and foremost firstly (at) first first of all in the first place

to begin with second(ly) next in addition (to) third(ly) as well as further too

furthermore third then later moreover subsequently most importantly not only... but also

finally lastly last but not least eventually following next besides

TO EXPRESS REASON / CAUSE because because of since owing to as / for on account of now that due to TO EXPRESS RESULT as a result accordingly as a consequence consequently TO GIVE AN EXAMPLE for example to demonstrate for instance to illustrate TO EMPHASIZE in fact indeed as a matter of fact definitely extremely absolutely

as a result of for this reason for these reasons the reason for this is

caused by results from seeing that inasmuch as

therefore / so hence

thus in consequence

such as e.g.

surprisingly unquestionably without doubt

certainly surely undoubtedly

TO EXPLAIN / CLARIFY that is (i.e.) in other words to put it differently TO SUMMARIZE/ TOto CONCLUDE namely put it in another / a different way TO SUMMARIZE / CONCLUDE in brief briefly TO SHOW to be brief TIME to sum up overall in short in conclusion all in all to conclude to summarize in summary finally that is to say

1

.TO SHOW TIME at first first second third as at the same time since later after (that) then when meanwhile next afterwards previously before as soon as in the meantime before before (that) at that time finally soon while TO EXPRESS SIMILARITY / COMPARISON likewise both…and correspondingly similarly equally not only… but also (just) as…(as) in the same way / vein / manner / fashion TO REPEAT as aforementioned as explained earlier also as noted before as mentioned earlier as has been noted as mentioned previously TO EXPRESS TRANSITION as far as as regards with regard to with respect to as far as X is concerned regarding with this in mind with the purpose of as to TO EXPRESS PURPOSE (in order) to so that so as to in order that TO EXPRESS CONDITION so / as long as or else (only) if whether..or not should otherwise in the event (that) unless provided / providing (that) in case regardless (of) TO EXPRESS CONTRAST / DIRECT OPPOSITION however conversely while but on the other hand in / by contrast whereas by comparison compared with / to on the contrary contrary to (this) as opposed to although despite in spite of yet unlike dissimilar on the one hand…on the other hand TO EXPRESS UNEXPECTED RESULT however nevertheless still nonetheless even so / though yet TO PARTICULARIZE distinctively else TO CORRECT rather specifically expressly in particular / particularly otherwise of course although / though regardless (of) despite in spite of in any case actually to be (more) precise / specific TO EXPRESS AN ALTERNATIVE alternatively instead (of) else otherwise 2 .