P. 1
ch-12

ch-12

|Views: 49|Likes:
Published by smilesofpavan30

More info:

Published by: smilesofpavan30 on Aug 28, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/11/2014

pdf

text

original

Introduction to Information Technology

2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 12: Intelligent Systems in Business

Prepared by: Roberta M. Roth, Ph.D. University of Northern Iowa
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-1

Chapter Preview
In this chapter, we will study: What is meant by artificial intelligence How expert systems are developed and how they perform How AI has been applied to other arenas, such as natural language processing and neural computing The concept and usefulness of intelligent agents Ethical and legal issues posed by AI
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-2

‘Intelligent’ Systems?
 Conventional computer systems

do not possess ‘intelligence.’ They simply follow step-by-step instructions to complete a task  If a computer system had ‘intelligence,’ it would…
 Deal successfully with complex situations  Learn from experience  Adapt to new situations quickly
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12-3

   

Why do we want ‘Intelligent’ Systems? To capture and represent human knowledge permanently To perform tasks requiring intelligence repetitively, consistently, and capably To document the performance of a task To conveniently disseminate knowledge and expertise to others

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12-4

Artificial Intelligence
 Branch of computer science that  Studies human intelligent behavior  Attempts to replicate that human intelligent behavior in a computer system  Employs symbolic processing of

knowledge and heuristics  Does not really enable computers to ‘think’  Does enable creation of systems with some human-like behaviors
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-5

 Expert Systems  Natural

Applications of Artificial Intelligence 

language technology  Speech understanding  Robotics  Computer vision

Intelligent computer-assisted instruction  Machine learning  Handwriting recognition  Intelligent agents

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12-6

What is an Expert System?
 Computer system that solves a      

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

problem as successfully as a human expert Incorporates human expertise Acquires facts about the problem Applies its stored knowledge and expertise to the problem facts to derive a solution Makes recommendations Can explain its reasoning and logic Successful commercial application of AI
12-7

Key Expert System Terms
 Knowledge acquisition – the process of obtaining knowledge and expertise from human experts  Knowledge representation – the method used to represent human knowledge and expertise in the computer system  Knowledge inferencing – the process of applying stored expertise to the facts about the problem to draw conclusions  Knowledge transfer and use – the communication of the problem solution and its justification to the system user
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-8

More Expert System Terms
 Knowledge base – stored facts and methods of how to solve a problem  Heuristic – rule of thumb that can be applied in a problem solution  Inference engine – processing logic stored in the system that correctly applies the stored knowledge to the problem to develop a solution  Domain expert – one or more humans who have achieved a high level of expertise in solving a problem  Knowledge engineer – person who develops expert systems
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-9

How is an Expert System Created?
 Knowledge engineer works with domain

expert to extract domain knowledge  Knowledge engineer encodes domain knowledge in knowledge base using appropriate knowledge representation  Knowledge engineer tests system on sample problems and refines system knowledge with help from domain engineer  Refinement continues until system is solving problems with human expert capability
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-10

 System asks user a series of questions

How Does an Expert System Perform?

to gather facts about the problem  System uses inference engine to form conclusions from the facts, including a measure of certainty about the conclusions  System displays its recommendation or solution to the problem  If asked, the system can display its reasoning and logic as to how it arrived at the conclusion
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12-11

Expert System Structure

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12-12

More on Expert Systems
 Strengths  Rapid, consistent problem solutions  Ability to justify and explain reasoning  Easy to replicate and distribute to non-expert users  Limitations  Can only solve problems in a narrow domain  Can only be applied to certain problem types  Cannot learn from its experience  Hard to acquire knowledge from human expert
12-13

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Other Intelligent Systems
 Natural Language Processing  The ability to communicate with a computer in your natural language
• Voice (speech) recognition and speech

understanding – system recognizes spoken words and understands their meaning • Voice synthesis – computer produces natural language voice output that sounds ‘human’

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12-14

Other Intelligent Systems
 Neural Computing  A computer model that uses architecture that mimics certain brain functions  Performs pattern recognition well  Can analyse large data sets and discover patterns where rules were previously unknown  Can ‘learn’ by analysing new cases and updating itself  Many potential business applications
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-15

Other Intelligent Systems
 Case-Based Reasoning  Uses solutions from similar problems and adapts them to new problems  Useful in solving very complex cases  Fuzzy Logic  Enables systems to effectively deal with uncertainty  Often use in combination with other technologies to improve productivity

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12-16

Intelligent Agents
 Software agent that autonomously

performs tasks on behalf of a user with certain goals or objectives

 Can tirelessly perform repetitive tasks over a network  Includes knowledge base and ability to learn  Can be static (on the client only) or mobile (move throughout a network)  Often used to facilitate search and retrieval on the Internet and to assist in e-commerce tasks
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-17

Virtual Reality
 Simulation of a physical

environment in a highly realistic way  Useful for communication and learning  Many potential business applications, especially marketing

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12-18

Intelligent Systems Concerns
 Potential to use the power of

intelligent systems in unethical ways  Who will be accountable for decisions made by intelligent systems?  Who ‘owns’ knowledge and expertise? Can an expert be ‘forced’ to reveal his/her expertise?
Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 12-19

Chapter Summary
 Artificial intelligence has produced a

   

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

variety of approaches to simulating some aspect of human behavior Expert systems have been most successful in business applications Natural language processing capability is improving Intelligent agents are very powerful tools in many of today’s systems AI brings many ethical and legal concerns
12-20

Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United Stated Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein.

Introduction to Information Technology, 2nd Edition Turban, Rainer & Potter © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12-21

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->