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California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Automated Titration System

Noel Mendoza, Chris Tabarez, Brian Swager, Frank Bonilla, Jonathan Sanchez, Olaleye Olayinka.
The Engineering industry is moving towards an automated future, especially in the oil and gas industry. Most of their processes are automated to reduce error and less human contact. The ATS1 project is an attempt to automate the process of titration. The system is controlled based on the pH level set by the user. The design team was charged with the task to design a system that will respond to a changing pH level and maintain stability. The goal of the team was to design a professional effective system that can enable a user control and test their titration system. The ATS1 project consists of various design components and couple subsystems that were implemented by the ATS1 engineering team.

Diagrams Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)

Results from Testing

Importance of pH Measurement
The major use of pH in industry is process control. Controlling pH helps ensure products quality, reduces corrosion and scaling in plant equipment, and protects the environment by helping waste water dischargers meet regulatory limits. Process pH control limits are often empirical-derived from experimentation rather than theory. It is less important to know why a particular pH range works than to keep the pH in the desired range. Subsequently, it is important that the person making and using pH measurements understands how the measurement is made, how to calibrate the measuring instrument, and how to recognize and avoid probe

The goal of the project was to design and implement a system whose concept can simulate the engineering industry at a smaller scale. Our desired features were to control the pumps automatically, obtain a user-defined pH value, control the flow of chemicals, while holding a contingency plan at all times should process failure occur. As an example, to change the pH value of water (approximately 7 pH), a basic solution would increase the pH level meanwhile an acidic solution decreases the pH level The design of our titration system is the culmination of hardware, Chemistry, Computer and Electrical Engineering.

Conversion and Relationships

Integrated Circuit Board

Definition of pH
pH is the unit measurement used in determining the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. A pH value is determined by the hydrogen ion concentrations in the solution. If the solution has an excess of hydrogen ions, it is said to be acidic, and if the solution has a deficit of hydrogen ions, it is said to be alkaline.

Voltage to pH Relationships As hydrogen ions (H+) Theoretically, a perfect sensor migrate into and out of the is said to have a slope of glass matrix, the outer surface 59.16 millivolts/pH at 25C. of the glass electrode generates So for every 59.16 mV charge a millivolt charge. developed by the glass electrode the pH value At 7 pH the potential changes by one pH. difference between the inside and outside of the glass electrode is the same thus If the sensor was placed in a 4 giving a 0 mV signal. If the pH buffer solution the sensor sensor is placed in an acidic should develop a 177mV solution a positive millivolt signal ((7 4) = 3 x 59.16). will develop thus giving a lower pH reading.


Circuit Board Schematic Program Methods

LabVIEW Interface with Arduino to create the PID controller State machine in Multiple Steps (IF statements)/(Sequential Method). Programmable Logic Controller Fuzzy Logic Controller. Adaptive Program (Advanced programming).

Industry Acid and Base

Acids are prepared by Caustic soda is highly caustic dissolving hydrogen chloride metallic base and alkali salt. in water. It ionizes once to give a It ionizes completely and this Hydrogen ion. makes it a strong chemical The pH of the HCl will be base for pH titration. lower (more acidic) because the H+ ions will fully ionize.

LabVIEW Block Diagram

Calculations of Concentration
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2 O You can see from the equation there is a 1:1 molar ratio between HCl and NaOH. If you know that titrating 50.00ml of an HCl solution requires 25ml of 1 M NaOH. We Calculated the concentration of Hydrochloric acid[HCl] based on molar ratio between HCl and NaOH. Moles HCl = moles NaOH MHCl x VolHCl = MNaOH x VolNaOH MHCl = x

LabVIEW allowed for a seamless human-machine-interface (HMI), control logic, as well as data process and acquisition. Using the LabVIEW front panel as our HMI increased the visual awareness of our control process. In addition, the LabVIEW block diagram offers a graphical approach to programming and provides an alternate way to solve complex problems compared to text based approaches. We implemented the Arduino Uno board to serve the purpose of taking in analog and digital signals meanwhile outputting digital signals in order to provide communication from the components to LabVIEW. Concentration must be specific to the pH range to control for optimal performance. Based on our experimentation, we identified that by selecting a specific pH range, our titration control system performed at a more optimal level. We were able to achieve this by narrowing the lower range value (LRV) and the upper range value (URV). We then concluded that titrating at a range from 3-9 pH yields a better result as opposed to titrating at a range from 0-14 pH. Furthermore, controlling pH at the full pH scale (i.e. 0-14) becomes more difficult.

We want to acknowledge Dr Salmon Oldak, The International Society of Automation (I.S.A) and Emerson Process Management Rosemount Analytical.`

MHCl = 0.50M HCl