Chapter #20: Girding for War: The North and the South – Big Picture Themes

1. After Ft. Sumter started the war, keeping the border states were Abe’s top concern. These were slave states that hadn’t left the nation. Throughout the war, Abe would make concessions to “keep them happy.” The border states never left. 2. All along the South felt that England would help them. The idea was that King Cotton’s dominance would force the English into helping the Southerners. This never happened, largely because Uncle Tom’s Cabin had convinced the English people of slavery’s horrors. 3. The North had the advantage in almost every category: population, industry, money, navy. 4. Both sides turned to a draft, the nation’s first. The draft was very unpopular and many riots broke out. IDENTIFICATIONS: Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln, the candidate for the Republican Party, won the election because the Democratic party was split and picked two different candidates. After the election, the South seceded from the Union as soon as Lincoln was elected. William Seward William Seward was the Secretary of State during Johnson’s presidency. An ardent expansionist, he signed a treaty with Russia to purchase Alaska for $7.2 million. Despite initial opposition, the purchase, known as “Seward’s Folly,” was later discovered to contain valuable natural resources such as oil. Edwin M. Stanton Abraham Lincoln’s Secretary of War during the American Civil War. His effective management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory. The Alabama It was a Confederate commerce-raider, which escaped in 1862 to the Portuguese Azores, and there took on weapons and a crew from two British ships that followed it. Although flying the Confederate flag, it was manned by Britons and never entered a Confederate port. Emancipation Proclamation It was a proclamation issued after the Battle of Antietam on September 22, 1862, and declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states were now free. This made the Civil War now a moral war for the North. Trent Affair An international diplomatic incident that occurred during the American Civil War. On November 8, 1861, the USS San Jacinto, commanded by Union Captain Charles Wilkes, intercepted the British mail packet Trent and removed as contraband of war two Confederate diplomats, James Mason and John Slidell. The envoys were bound for Great Britain and France to press the Confederacy's case for diplomatic recognition by Europe. Merrimack and Monitor These were the first two ironclads used in war. The Confederates used a former US warship, the Merrimack, and put railroad rails on to its sides. In response the Union created the Monitor and arrived on the scene in the nick of time. For four hours the Monitor fought the wheezy Merrimack to a standstill.

Anaconda Plan It was the Union’s war strategy and it planned to form a naval blockade of the South, capture the Mississippi, split the Confederacy into two, take Texas, Arizona, and Louisiana, and capture the largest Confederate City: New Orleans, and capture the capital, Richmond. This plan was like the Anaconda, a snake that wraps around its victims. Border States They were Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. These states found no reason to secede, and ended up staying with the Union. These states were crucial in giving the Union a better advantage politically and in the war. Appomattox This is where Confederate army, Robert E. Lee, surrendered to the General Ulysses S. Grant to end the Civil War. Lee accepted unconditional surrender after the devastating blow to Richmond city. Election of 1864 This is when Lincoln is reelected for his second term during the Civil War. During this time, however, Lincoln was so unpopular that the Republicans joined with the War Democrats to gather the votes of the border states. The Union party nominated Democrat Andrew Johnson as vice president. GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Menace of Secession 1. What practical problems would occur if the United States became two nations? If the United States became two nations, it would have to split or share the national debt and the federal territories. The two would also have to resolve the fugitive-slave issue and the Underground Railroad. The separation will also give an opportunity for European nations to conquer the all powerful United States. South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter Know: Fort Sumter, Col. Robert Anderson 2. What action did Lincoln take that provoked a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter? What effects did the South's attack have? Lincoln, instead of sending military supplies, provided the troops at Fort Sumter merely food to sustain them. However the Confederates considered this an invasion and attacked the Star of the West. This attack enraged the North, starting the Civil War. Lincoln immediately began amassing an army. Brothers' Blood and Border Blood Know: Border States, Billy Yank, Johnny Reb 3. How did the border states affect northern conduct of the war? The border states actually contained a white population more than half that of the entire Confederacy. They states would almost double the manufacturing capacity of the South and increase by nearly half its supply of horses and mules. The strategic prize of the Ohio River flowed along the northern border of Kentucky and West Virginia, and two of its navigable tributaries, the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, penetrated deep into the heart of Dixie, where much of the Confederacy’s grain, gunpowder and iron was produced. The Balance of Forces Know: Robert E. Lee, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson 4. What advantages did the South have? The North?

The South did not have to win the war in order to win its independence, and merely had to fight the invaders to a draw and stand firm; it also had the most talented officers, such as General Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson. Also ordinary Southerners were bred to fight, accustomed to managing horses and bearing arms from boyhood. The North, however, also had the advantage of more factories and manufacturers. The Yankees boasted about three-fourths of the nation’s wealth, including three fourths of the 30,000 miles of railroads. The North also controlled the sea with its superior navy, and established a blockade that chocked off Southern supplies. Dethroning King Cotton Know: King Cotton, King Wheat, King Corn 5. Why did King Cotton fail the South? Because he had been so lavishly productive in the immediate prewar years and enormous exports of cotton in those years had piled up surpluses in British warehouses. British manufacturers had on hand a hefty oversupply of fiber. Also King Wheat and King Corn—the monarchs of the Northern agriculture—proved to be more potent potentates than King Cotton. North blessed with ideal weather, produced bountiful crops of grain. At the same time, the British suffered a series of bad harvests and were forced to import huge quantities of grain from America. The Decisiveness of Diplomacy Know: Trent, Alabama 6. What tensions arose with Great Britain during the Civil War? There was the Trent affair, were a Union warship stopped a British mail steamer, the Trent, and forcibly removed two Confederate diplomats bound for Europe. Another was the British’s building of the commerceraiders, such as the Alabama. These vessels were not warship within the meaning of loop-holed British law because they left their shipyards unarmed and picked up their guns elsewhere. Foreign Flare-Ups Know: Laird Rams, Napoleon III, Maximilian 5. What other circumstances led to serious conflict with Great Britain during the Civil War? The Laird rams, two Confederate warships being constructed in the shipyard of John Laird and Sons in Great Britain and designed to destroy the wooden ships of the Union navy with their iron rams and large-caliber guns. American rancor was also directed at Canada, where despite the vigilance of British authorities, Southern agents plotted to burn Northern cities. President Davis Versus President Lincoln Know: Jefferson Davis, States Rights, Abraham Lincoln 8. Describe the weaknesses of the Confederate government and the strengths of the Union government? The Confederate constitution could not logically deny future secession to its constituent states. Jefferson Davis, while making his bow to states’ rights, had in view a well-knit central government. But determined states’ rights supporters fought him bitterly to the end. Unlike Lincoln, Davis tended to defy rather than lead public opinion and was often in hot waters with his congress. The North, had a long-established government, financially stable and fully recognized both at home and abroad. Lincoln proved superior to the more experienced but less flexible Davis. Limitations on Wartime Liberties Know: Habeas Corpus

9. Give examples of constitutionally questionable actions taken by Lincoln. Why did he act with arbitrary power? Lincoln boldly proclaimed a blockade and arbitrarily increased the size of the Federal army. He directed the secretary of the Treasury to advance $2 million without appropriation or security. He suspended the precious privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, and defied a dubious ruling by the chief justice. However he acted with arbitrary power in order to preserve the Union. Volunteers and Draftees: North and South Know: Three-hundred-dollar-men, bounty jumpers 10. Was the Civil War "a rich man's war but a poor man's fight?" Explain. Yes, the provisions were grossly unfair to the poor. Rich boys, including young John D. Rockefeller, could hire substitutes to go in their places or purchase exemption outright by paying $300. The Economic Stresses of War Know: Income Tax, Morrill Tariff Act, Greenbacks, National Banking Act, inflation 11. What was the effect of paper money on both North and South? The federal Treasury netted 2.6 billion through the sale of bonds, which bored interest and which were payable at a later date. Banks that joined the National Banking System could buy government bonds and issue sound paper money backed by them; the war born National Banking Act thus turned out to be the first significant step taken toward a united baking network. The Confederate government was forced to print blue-backed paper money with complete abandon; “runaway inflation” occurred as Southern presses continued to grind out the poorly backed treasury notes. The North's Economic Boom Know: "Shoddy" Wool, Elizabeth Blackwell, Clara Barton, Dorthea Dix 12. Explain why the Civil War led to economic boom times in the North? New factories, sheltered by the new protective tariffs sprang forth, and the Civil War bred a millionaire class for the first time in American history. Newly invented labor saving machinery enabled the North to expand economically and the sewing machine wrought wonders in fabricating uniforms and military footwear. Producing vast surpluses of grain that when sent aboard helped dethrone King Cotton, they provided profits with which the North was able to buy munitions and supplies from abroad. A Crushed Cotton Kingdom 13. Give evidence to prove that the war was economically devastating to the South. The South claimed only 12% of the national wealth in 1870, and 30% in 1860. The Civil War squeezed the average southern income to two-fifths of the North. Transportation collapsed; the South was driven to pulling up rails from the less-used lines to repair the main ones.