and I wanted a week’s worth of lessons that could be relevant to our high school classrooms. For this reason we chose to focus our lesson around area and perimeter. Calculating area and perimeter and what they represent is a topic we are introduced to as children, but may struggle fully grasping until the high school level. These calculations play a vital role in the classroom, not only in high school, but also in upper level college math when dealing with real life examples, finding the area under a curve and much more. This particular lesson is aimed at a ninth grade level applied geometry class and is structure in an interactive, discovery type style. Later in the school year this lesson would certainly tie into finding the surface area of 3dimensional shapes, developing a better understanding of why we use Pi and is a nice introductory into applications of statistics and probability on day four. Although examples of this project showed very brief unit plans, as our unit is only the length of a school week we have included more detailed lesson plans that give a more indepth window into the lessons. The day by day plan also includes descriptions of literary activities within the lesson plan (they are denoted in bold) rather than making their description a separate section and the content the lesson will include is stated at the beginning of each day’s description instead of having a separate section. Common Core Math Standards that we felt fit our unit includes: Give an informal argument for the formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a circle, volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone. Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition. Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent wholenumber products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.
Objectives
The objectives we hope to achieve within our unit include: Students will be able to calculate the area of a rectangle, circle, triangle, square and regular polygon. Students will be able to calculate the perimeter/circumference of a rectangle, circle, triangle, square and regular polygon.
Students will be able to define the following terms: circumference, area, pi, perimeter, theoretical probability and experimental probability. Students will be able to explain verbally or in written words the math concept discovered each day.
In order to achieve these objects, vocabulary of terms will be addressed daily and most lessons will include a review of topics learned the previous day that are needed for the day’s lesson. The unit is also full of interactive activities that will keep students interested and provide hands on experiences to increase understanding and retention. In order to test student understand constant informal formative assessing will be occurring in the classroom. This will be accomplished through class discussion, teacher observation and any class work collected at the end of the period. Summative assessments will also be used at the end of several lessons that provide the teacher with a check on student progress and allow the students to show what they have learned that day.
Accommodations
In order to accommodate nonnative English speakers, demonstrations and pictures should be used as much as possible. Specifically when demonstrating the explore activities what needs to be done should be explained verbally, demonstrated physically and in writing. Written instructions should be shown on the board, a PowerPoint or on a worksheet. These accommodations will not only be helpful for nonnative English speakers, but will help with native struggling readers and should simply assist in all student learning In the Reciprocal Teaching part, have ELL students work in groups with nonELL students (max. 2 ELL students per fourstudent group, but preferably one ELL student per fourstudent group). Have the nonELL students in this group read the material at a slow pace. Listening to the material read slowly by a native will promote faster listening/speaking comprehension for the ELL students, as English is what they will have to listen to and speak in an American classroom. In addition, x/EnglishEnglish/x dictionaries, whereof x represents their mother tongue, should be provided as they work in the groups reading the text. Reading slowly will help them with following along and looking up unknown words that are essential to the meaning of the text.
Day 1 Lesson topic: Introducing Area and Perimeter Material: a largescale wooden, hinged frame that fits all students to stand within, algebra/geometric pieces, assignment sheet (see below). Ask your students to fill out the Anticipation Guide. The guide requires true/ false answers on statements about concepts that the students should know prior to learning about this unit. Start lesson by asking the students: Can any of you explain to me what I mean when I say “area”? What about “perimeter” any thoughts? Have the students read and go through the chapter on Area and Circumference by using Reciprocal Teaching. The students read 12 paragraphs each and together they talk about, question, clarify, summarize, and predict what they just read. This is a comprehension literacy, but also at the same time a listening literacy as listening to one another and oneself while reading are important in understanding the content material. Next, do this activity outside where space permits: Pull up the largescale wooden, hinged frame, which originally forms a parallelogram. The students have learned about shapes in a previous geometry class, so they should know the name of this shape, but you ask them to make sure they remember. Now, ask the students to crowd together inside the frame. Next, ask them what they can do to the foursided polygon in order to fit more students (someone should be able to say “make a rectangle”). After making the frame in the shape of a rectangle, ask your students again to crowd inside it, and ask if they notice any difference. Ask: “Pretend that you have your own little circular “area” around you. Is it bigger or smaller than when we were all standing inside a parallelogram?” Area is the number of square units that covers a shape or a figure. When we say area, we usually mean surface area, which is a figure/shape in two dimensions. Perimeter is the sum of lengths of the sides of a polygon (explain these def’s to the students in similar terms). Ask the class if they know how they could use the measurements of area and perimeter (any realworld applications?). Possible student answers: fencing in a yard, putting lace on a project, estimating how much paint you need to paint a wall.



1. The students are handed the pieces. They are allowed to play with them for a while. They create figures that they draw on paper. All angles in figures shall be 90 °. 2. The students name the three basic parts: The yellow base section is a square with side length a, the blue base section is a square with side b; rectangle has length a and width b. 3.The students are to work with the worksheet. The teacher must be careful in explaining the difference between finding area "by counting" and "by computing,” counting simply means finding the area by counting the number of pieces of each color.) 4. On the last tasks it is important that students lay down the figures before they start calculating. Thus they do they see how many pieces they need to make a complete rectangle. 5. The last column is the most complicated one. This is meant to be left to solve by the “smarter” students.
The worksheet is as follows on the next page:
AREA AND CIRCUMFERENCE BY USING ALGEBRA PIECES
Basic pieces:
,
,
Tasks: Lay down all the figures with pieces before you complete the table below. All the figures are rectangles.
Figure
length
width
circumference
Area (count)
Area (calculate)
2a
a+b
a+2b+a
a+b
2a
a+2b
a+b+a
2a+b
Day 2: This lesson is meant as a follow up to the first lesson of addressing area and perimeter. Here the class starts examining circles and what is needed to find the area and circumference/perimeter of a circle, aka discovering Pi.
Engage
Ask them what the circumference of a circle is? Show them a tube of tennis balls and the strips of newspaper. Each of these strips of newspaper is the same height as the tube of tennis balls. Each student will estimate how much newspaper they would need to wrap around the tube for and exact fit and cut this length of newspaper. Ask them why they chose the lengths they did. It’s possible all students will guess and no one will have a reason which is fine. Put this aside and address it again at the end of the lesson.
Explore
Have a variety of different sized cylindrical objects up at the front of the classroom. Demonstrate the following activity described before splitting the students into groups. Split up into groups of two by a determined class pairing of teacher’s choice. Give each group one of the objects. o Each group gets a three pieces of string and a pair of safety scissors Each group will measure the circumference of their object with the string and cut their string to this length. They will then use this string to measure the diameter. Then cut as many “string diameters”
from their “string circumference” as they can. o (they will hopefully get three diameter sized pieces and a little extra left over) o They should record how man string diameters they get for each object. Have them trade objects so they do this process five times (vary depending on time). As they complete measuring five objects have them come up to the computer to type their results into the chart below so that the class may see each other’s results on the projector.
Explain
Ask the students if they see a trend or pattern in the data. Hopefully when examining the data on the projector a trend of three diameters and a little extra will show up with each object. Begin a discussion on what type of formula we could now create for the circumference of a circle. Hopefully eventually the result that the circumference equals basically C=3D will emerge through discussion.
Then to prompt further discussion ask the following questions with predicted student answers included: o Does anyone know the formula for how to find the circumference of a circle? C=2πr o What do two radii equal? One diameter. So we can replace 2r by D. So C=Dπ o Does anyone know an estimate of what the value of Pi is? 3.14 So our equation is C=D*3.14, does this look similar to the other equation we found?
Expand
Based on what we’ve found here, take the next minute to adjust your circumference newspaper strips if you’d like to. For those of you that changed yours why did you do so? If no one has discovered the trick, ask the following questions: o Looking at the tennis ball tube how many diameters high is it? How many diameters wide is it? So our formula for the circumference of a circle is C=3.14D. So if we know the height is 3 diameters plus a little space at the top and the height of our paper matches this, what could we do to find the proper length to wrap the diameter? Then demonstrate while explaining: fold the height of the paper over until it lines up with the bottom of the paper to form a triangle. Mark a little past the line this forms to represent the space between the top tennis ball and the lid, cut along the line this form and your paper should be a close fit!
Evaluate
Before the students leave class have them fill out the following EXIT SLIP about what they have learned during the class period. o “In your own words, write a sentence or two about what you learned about π and circumference in class today”
Salt Container Monster can Airborne bottle Film canister Duct Tape Sprite can Cardboard tube Spaghettios Beets Mandarin Oranges Tomato Soup Tomato Sauce
Day 3: Now that the class has learned how to find the perimeter and area of several polygons and circles, this class will be spent solidifying that knowledge and doing an activity to give students yet another inactive way to learn
Engage:
Review area and perimeter of the following shapes using a preprepared PowerPoint or simply the white board. o Square, triangle, rectangle, circle (All of these the students should be familiar with from day one or two or previous classes. If there is confusion about a shape, address it before moving on.) Today will be the first day of introducing regular polygons. Show the students a regular polygon on the board and discuss how to find area while they supply how to find perimeter hopefully. Pass out the Zoo design worksheets and have students find the area and perimeter of each of the animal enclosure shapes. Below is a link to the Zoo design worksheet.
Regular Polygons Zoo wkst.docx
Explore:
Have students flip the page over for the next set of instructions that can be seen on the attached worksheet below. Also explain these instructions and show on the dot cam your own preprepared zoo design. Pass out grid paper, ruler, and protractors. It also may be a good idea to demonstrate and discuss the proper way to create a regular polygon using a protractor and ruler. After their zoo is complete they are to trade with a partner and calculate the area of their partner’s shapes.
Explain/Expand:
The student’s will then be split into groups of about five and each student is given two minutes to prepare answers to the following questions to PRESENT to their group. o Why did you pick the shapes you did? o Were any shapes more difficult to draw or to find the area of than others? o Where could you apply this in your life, now or in the future?
Evaluate:
What is the area of the figure:
5m 3m 5m
8m
What is the perimeter of the figure above?
Day 4: This lesson will introduce a new aspect into the realm of perimeter and area: theoretical and experimental probability.
Engage:
Ask about what they think Probability is. (Chance something will happen) After discussion show an online spinner up on the screen that presents the theoretical and experimental probabilities as you spin it. Here we will do a THINKPAIRSHARE activity. The students will be given one minute to consider the following questions: After watching the probabilities change, what do you all think the difference is between the two probabilities. Why didn’t the theoretical probability change? What made the experimental change? After this minute is up they will discuss with a partner their thoughts for two minutes. Then the teacher will ask groups to share their ideas with the class.
Explore:
Show the class a pizza box with a shape drawn in the middle and a handful of 40 beans. Hand out notecards and have the students make a Prediction about how many beans will land in the shape if we drop them all into the box at once. Show a demonstration. Hold beans in hand 6 inches from box in the center of the box and open your hand. Explain that they will then count how many beans have landed inside the shape. They will do this 20 times and keep track of the trails in a chart they should make. Explain they should then take the average of beans in the shape after 20 trails. Draw chart on the board of trials, in/out as an example. At the bottom write AVERAGE. Pair up the students. This is done by teacher’s preference but assign one student to retrieve materials.
Walk around the classroom. Offer help. Answer questions. If they are struggling remembering steps, write the instructions on the board. If groups finish early suggest trying different ways of dropping the beans/try to get all the beans to land in/out of the shape etc. After students seem like they have mostly finished call to a halt. Ask what different groups’ averages were? Write them on the board. Discuss differences if outliers. What did the outliers do differently? How could we turn each group’s average into the probability of beans landing in the shape? Give the class two minutes and have each group find their experimental probability in percent form. Students may struggle finding the percent form. If so discuss as a class how this should be done. Ask students about finding the theoretical probability of the beans landing in the shape. Have them talk with their neighbor for thirty seconds about any ideas they may have. Share with the class. After it has been established that the area of the shape needs to be found, review how to find the area of the shapes you have chosen to draw in the box. Write the equations on the board. Have each group find the area of the shape in their box. When this is done discus as a class how to make this a probability. Have each group calculate their theoretical probability as a percentage.
Evaluate
At the end of the class allow five minutes for students to answer the following question: Explain in your own words the difference between the experimental and theoretical probabilities of landing on the various spaces on a spinner split into four parts. (Shown in the picture below)
Day 5: This lesson is meant to review the past few days involving perimeter and area. It is common for some students to need a real world application to understand math concepts and this lesson addresses that with a landscape service.
Engage:
• Start by having students find the areas and perimeters of some odd shapes made up of different polygons and semicircles (the more obscure the better). Students should already have the skills to do this. Be sure to include at least one shape that has a hole of some sort. After the students have found the perimeters and areas for each shape, randomly choose two of these shapes, put them together, and have them collectively determine just the area of this combined shape (these shapes should seamlessly create a hole without overlapping the shapes any). Point out that no extra calculations and measurements are needed other than adding the known areas, if no one else does.
•
Explore: • Have students begin the lawn service company worksheet. It has different lot sizes with
negligible areas for the house, flower beds, etc. that should subtracted from the overall area. The respective areas and perimeters will be calculated (the "cutout shape's" perimeter should be included in the total perimeter).
•
For the next step, the students will be given an average time it takes to mow a certain area of grass and an average time to trim/weed all the edges and perimeter of the lawn. The students will use this information to determine how long it might take to maintain each lot's grass. You charge a house on a corner lot twice as much for your services than a house not on a corner lot. Turning each lot's profit per unit of time to a fraction allows for a comparison on which houses are more valuable in terms of how much time is spent working on them.
Explain/Expand:
• When the students are done and waiting, they can work on interpreting the meaning of these results? (i.e. was the time difference significant? Is the price per lot too significant? Why might you have chosen to charge those prices to begin with?) Their last task will be to make a business decision using some of this data and some provided data. To summarize, there are four people requesting service, but they know they will only have time for two of them. So, they will determine to take on work from either (1) the local bank and a regular lot or (2) two corner lots. They will weigh their options including time spent and profit made to make their decision. And as a literary objective, they will WRITE LETTERS to each prospective customer either respectfully
•
•
declining or accepting their business. They will also need to create a memo for themselves that details the influences in their decision and as a reminder to see if they would still like your services at a future, more convenient time.
Evaluate • Some specific evaluations were pointed out in the above sections. •
Other key evaluations should be made throughout the lesson to keep the students on task. Most of the concepts of this lesson should have been covered in the preceding days. However, some of the later needed skills could be rusty so extra attention should be given when working on these tasks.