Español 2 examen final

Repaso Unidad 4-7 Avancemos 1

CONJUGATING VERBS IN THE PRESENT TENSE

Regular verbs, Stem changing verbs, and Irregular verbs

Present tense endings -ar verbs

o
as a

amos
áis an

Present tense endings -er verbs

o
es e

emos
éis en

Present tense endings -ir verbs

o
es

imos
ís

e

en

Stem Changing Verbs
• Stem changing verbs have a change in their stem when conjugated. • They are called “boot verbs” because they do not change in the stems of the nosotros and vosotros forms – they look like a boot!

Types of Stem Changers
• e  ie
– querer, cerrar, empezar, entender, pensar, preferir

• o  ue
– poder, almorzar, costar, dormir, encontrar, volver

• ei
– pedir, servir

• u  ue
– jugar

¡OJO! The stem change never occurs in the nosotros or vosotros forms.

e-i stem changing verb

o – ue stem changer

SER VS. ESTAR

Ser vs. Estar

Both of these verbs mean “to be” in English, but they are not used interchangeably. Also, these verbs are both irregular verbs when conjugating them. Let’s see how to conjugate them…

Estar & Ser

Estoy Estás Está

Estamos Estáis Están

Soy Eres Es

Somos Sois Son

To be… or the other to be…?

DOCTOR = SER Description Occupation Characteristic Time Origin Relationship

PLACE = ESTAR Position Location Action Condition Emotion

¿Recuerdas?

• “How you feel and where you are is when you use the verb estar. What you’re like and where you’re from is when you use the other one.” • Estar: temporary states • Ser: permanent characteristics

http://www.quia.com/ba/571953.html

DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS

Direct Object Pronouns

• DOPs can be used to replace direct object nouns
– Direct Object Nouns: the noun that receives the action of the verb
• Ex) My mother called the doctor.
– Verb: called – Direct object noun: the doctor – Direct object pronoun: him » My mother called him.

Direct Object Pronouns
Use these pronouns to replace direct object nouns in sentences.

Singular
Me Te Nos Os

Plural

Lo
La

Los
Las

Direct object pronouns are placed directly after the conjugated verb, or they are attached to the end of an infinitive.

Por ejemplo…

• “Quiero comprar zapatos.”
– Noun: zapatos – Pronoun: los

• “Quiero la camisa azul.”
– Noun: camisa – Pronoun: la

• “La quiero.”

• “Los quiero comprar.” • “Quiero comprarlos”

http://www.quia.com/rr/986846.html

IRREGULAR VERBS & TÚ COMMANDS

Verbos Irregulares

DAR = To Give Doy Das Da Damos Dais Dan

DECIR = TO SAY Digo Dices Dice Decimos Decís Dicen

Verbos Irregulares

PONER = TO PUT Pongo Pones Pone Ponemos Ponéis Ponen

SALIR = TO LEAVE Salgo Sales Sale Salimos Salís Salen

Verbos Irregulares

TRAER = TO BRING Traigo Traes Trae Traemos Traéis Traen

VENIR = TO COME Vengo Venimos Vienes Viene Venís Vienen

Verbos Irregulares

HACER = TO DO/TO MAKE Hago Haces Hace Hacemos Hacéis Hacen

TENER = TO HAVE Tengo Tienes Tiene Tenemos Tenéis Tienen

Verbos Irregulares

SER = TO BE Soy Eres Es Somos Sois Son

IR = TO GO Voy Vas Va Vamos Vais Van

http://www.quia.com/cb/850217.html

Affirmative tú commands are used to tell someone what to do. To form regular tú commands, use the él/ella/usted form of the present tense verbs. Some verbs with an irregular yo form have irregular tú command forms.

• • • • • • • •

Ven : come Ten : have Pon : put Sal : leave Haz : do / make Di : tell / say Sé : be Ve : go

Irregular Tú Commands

If you use a command with a direct object pronoun, attach the pronoun to the end. Add an accent if the original command is two or more syllables.

Commands with Pronouns
• ¡Cierra la ventana! (close the window) • ¡Ciérrala! (close it)
– add the accent to the second to last syllable
• ci / e / rra

• ¡Pon la mesa! (set the table) • ¡Ponla! (set it)
– If the command is only one syllable, no accent is needed.
http://www.quia.com/pop/567988.html

SABER VS. CONOCER

¡Conjuguemos!

Sé Sabes Sabe

Sabemos Sabéis Saben

Conozco Conoces Conoce

Conocemos Conocéis Conocen

Saber & Conocer = To Know

• Saber is used to talk about knowing…
– how to do something – facts / information

• Conocer is used to talk about knowing…
– people – places – things

To talk about meeting someone, conjugate “querer ” and use “conocer ” in the infinitive form. DON’T FORGET THE PERSONAL A Ex) Quiero conocer a Julieta.

Hints for Help

• Use saber if you see…
– infinitive verb – que, quien, donde, mucho, a que

• Use conocer if you see…
– personal a – capital letters – querer
http://www.quia.com/pop/565429.html

EL PRETÉRITO

Verb Endings

-ar é aste ó amos asteis aron í iste ió

-er/-ir imos isteis ieron

¡Cuidado!

• There is a spelling change in the “yo” form of verbs that end in –car/-gar/-zar
– car  qué – gar  gué – zar  cé

¡¡Los Irregulares!!
Hacer: To do / To make Ir: To go & Ser: To be

Hice Hiciste Hizo

Hicimos Hicisteis Hicieron

Fui Fuiste Fue

Fuimos Fuisteis Fueron

AFFIRMATIVE & NEGATIVE WORDS

Las Palabras

Use an affirmative or a negative word when you want to talk about an indefinite or negative situation. You must memorize the meanings of these words in English.

Algo / Nada something/nothing Alguien / Nadie someone/no one Algún / Ningún some / none Siempre / Nunca always / never También / Tampoco also / neither O…o / Ni… ni either or / neither nor

Nota Gramátical

• Alguno(a) and ninguno(a) must match the gender and number of the noun they replace or modify. • When placed directly in front of a masculine, singular noun, the –o is dropped and they become algún and ningún

PRONOUNS AFTER PREPOSITIONS


Los pronombres

N o s o t r o s
V o s o t r o s E E l l l l o a s s

Pronouns that follow prepositions are the same as subject pronouns except for “yo” and “tú.”

Ti Él Ella Usted

U s t e d e s

When used with con, mí and ti change… *with me = conmigo *with you = contigo