Chapter #21: The Furnace of the Civil War – Big Picture Themes

1. The North thought they could win in a quick war. After they lost at Bull Run, the quick-victory approach seemed to have been a mistake. A northern loss on “the Peninsula” at Richmond reinforced that this would be a long war. 2. The South started the war winning. Turning point battles, which the North won, took place at (a) Antietam just before Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation”, (b) Gettysburg which effectively broke the South’s back, and (c) Vicksburg which helped the North control the Mississippi River. 3. Lincoln won a hard-fought reelection in 1864. He did so by starting the “Union Party” made of Republicans and pro-war Democrats and on the simplicity of the slogan, “You don’t change horses midstream.” 4. General Sherman marched across Georgia and the South and reaped destruction. And the South began to lose battle after battle. These events drove the South to surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. IDENTIFICATIONS Draft riots of 1863 July 1863, north, just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs. The riot lynched several African Americans and burned down black homes, businesses, and even an orphanage. It was the bloodiest riot in American history. Only the arrival of the federal troops halted the violence Charles Frances Adam The U.S. minister to England during the Civil War who kept the pressure on the British government to pay for destroyed shipping. Sherman's March Sherman was a pioneer practitioner of “total war”—his success in the South was attested by increasing numbers of Confederate desertions; although his methods were brutal, he probably shortened the struggled and hence saved lives. His goal was the march to the sea, to destroy everything in his path. The capital city, Columbia, burst into flames (Sherman’s conquering army had rolled deep into North Carolina by the time the war ended—crunching northward) Clement L. Vallandigham Denounced war, imprisoned, banished to South & then returns to Ohio illegally an anti-war democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, called him "king Abraham". he was arrested and exiled to the south., prominent copperhead who was an ex-congressman from Ohio, demanded an end to the war, and was banished to the confederacy Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson was a War Democrat during the Civil War and was nominated as Abraham Lincoln’s vice president in order to gain the support of the Border states. However being a southerner, his views were entirely contrary to those of Lincoln and often did the opposite of what Abrahma Lincoln would’ve done when he was in office. John Wilkes Booth He was a very famous Southern actor who assassinated Lincoln at Ford’s Theater with a shot to his

head. C.S.S. Alabama It was a Confederate commerce-raider, which escaped in 1862 to the Portuguese Azores, and there took on weapons and a crew from two British ships that followed it. Although flying the Confederate flag, it was manned by Britons and never entered a Confederate port. National Banking Act A United States federal law that established a system of national charters for banks, the United States national banks. They encouraged development of a national currency based on bank holdings of U.S. Treasury securities, the so-called National Bank Notes ("greenbacks") and established the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency as part of the Department of the Treasury and authorized the Comptroller to examine and regulate nationally-chartered banks. Union Party This party was created in order to help Abraham Lincoln get reelected for his second term. The Republican Party joined with the War Democrats to create the Union Party. This helped gain the support of the border states. GUIDED READING Bull Run Ends the "Ninety Day War” Know: Bull Run, Stonewall Jackson 1. What effect did the Battle of Bull Run have on North and South? The Battle of Bull Run was a cruel awakening call for the North, who realized that the war would not end so quickly as they had hoped. For the South, the victory at the Battle of Bull Run actually had a negative effect. The South believed that they could easily defeat the North, which was a high misconception. "Tardy George" McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign Know: George McClellan, Peninsula Campaign, Robert E. Lee, "Jeb" Stuart, Seven Days' Battles, Anaconda Plan 2. Describe the grand strategy of the North for winning the war. Union strategy now turned toward total war; Northern military plan had six components First, slowly suffocate the South by blockading its coasts; second, liberate the slaves and hence undermine the very economic foundations of the Old South. Third, cut the Confederacy in half by seizing control of the Mississippi River backbone; fourth, chop the Confederacy to pieces by sending troops through Georgia and Carolinas. Fifth, decapitate it by capturing its capital at Richmond; and sixth (Ulysses Grant’s idea) try everywhere to engage the enemy’s main strength and to grind it into submission. The War at Sea Know: Blockade, Continuous Voyage, Merrimac, Monitor 3. What was questionable about the blockade practices of the North? Why did Britain honor the blockade anyway? Ordinarily, they probably would have defied it, for it was never completely effective and was especially sieve-like at the outset but Britain, the greatest maritime nation, recognized it as binding and warned its shippers that they ignored it at their peril. Blockade happened to be the chief offensive weapon of Britain, which was still Mistress of the Seas and Britain plainly did not want to tie its hands in a future war by insisting that Lincoln maintain impossibly high blockading standards. The Pivotal Point: Antietam

4. Why was the battle of Antietam "...probably the most decisive of the Civil War?" The landmark Battle of Antietam was one of the decisive engagements of world history; Jefferson Davis was perhaps never again so near victory as on that fateful day. McClellan succeeded in halting Lee at Antietam on September 17, 1862, in one of the bitterest and bloodiest days of the war; finding his thrust parried, Lee retired across the Potomac (McClellan was removed from his filed command—didn’t gain much). His numerous critics condemned him for not having boldly pursued Lee A Proclamation Without Emancipation Know: Emancipation Proclamation, Butternut Region 7. The Emancipation Proclamation had important consequences. Explain. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 declared “Forever free” the slave sin those Confederate states still in rebellion; bondsmen in the loyal Border States were not affected, nor were those in specific conquered areas in the South—about 800,000. Proclamation was “an act of justice” and calling for “the considerate judgment of mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God.” The presidential pen did not formally strike the shackles from a single slave. Where Lincoln could presumably free the slaves—that is, in the loyal Border States—he refused to do so, lest he spur disunion; where he could not, he tried. The Emancipation Proclamation was stronger on proclamation than emancipation. Blacks Battle Bondage Know: Frederick Douglass, 54th Massachusetts, Fort Pillow 8. African-Americans were critical in helping the North win the Civil War. Assess. By war’s end some 180,000 blacks served in the Union armies, most of them from the slave states, but many from the free-soil North (10% of enlistments in the Union forces on land and sea and included two. Massachusetts regiments—Douglass). Black fighting men had their hearts in the war against slavery that the Civil War had become after Lincoln proclaimed emancipation. Black fighters earned twenty-two Congressional Medals of Honor—the highest military award and their casualties were extremely heavy— more than 38,000 died. Many were captured, put to death as slaves in revolt, for not until 1864 did the South recognized them as prisoners of war (Fort Pillow, Tennessee surrender and massacre). Lee's Last Lunge at Gettysburg Know: Ambrose Burnside, Joe Hooker, George Meade, Gettysburg, Pickett's Charge, Gettysburg Address 1. Why was Gettysburg a significant battle? It was the turning point in the war. It was the furthest north the Confederate Army got. It stopped the Confederacy from moving onto Philadelphia or NY or going back South to Washington DC. It cost the South dearly in soldiers they could not adequately replace, and they were pretty much on defense for the rest of the war. It also came at the same time as Grant took Vicksburg, a second huge blow for the South. It ended any last hopes of the Confederacy getting help from France or England. The War in the West Know: Ulysses S. Grant, Fort Henry, Fort Donnelson, Shiloh, David Farragut, Vicksburg 10. Describe General Grant as a man and a general. General Grant was a very able general and wasn’t afraid to fight. He was not cut much of a figure but his military experience combined with his boldness, resourcefulness and tenacity catapulted him on a meteoric rise. He was also known as Butcher Grant because he took advantage of the great number of men in the Union army. Sherman Scorches Georgia Know: William T. Sherman, March to the Sea

11. How did Sherman attempt to demoralize the South? Sherman attempted to demoralize the South by raging a total war. He would raid cities and burn houses down, as well as take apart railroad tracks and twist them into “Sherman Bowties.” He would also plunder the fields and pour salt on the fields to spoil the soil. The total destruction of the South demoralized the South. The Politics of War Know: War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Clement L. Vallandingham 12. Describe Lincoln’s political difficulties during the war. During the war, many were quite displeased with Lincoln’s term as president and two parties rose against him. Peace democrats were strongly against the war, while the War Democrats were very eager for the war. At the extreme were the so-called Copperheads, named for the poisonous snake, which strikes without a warning rattle; Copperheads openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and especially after 1863, against emancipation. The Election of 1864 Know: Andrew Johnson, George McClellan, Mobile, Atlanta 14. What factors contributed to Lincoln's electoral victory? The Republican party joining with the War Democrats and proclaiming itself to be the Union party. This Union party was able to help Lincoln gain more strength in the election. Lincoln’s running mate was also Andrew Johnson, a loyal War Democrat from Tennessee who had been a small slave-owner when the conflict began. Also the succession of Northern victories changed the atmosphere of gloom. Grant Outlasts Lee Know: The Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Grant the Butcher, Richmond, Appomattox Courthouse 15. What strategy did Grant use to defeat Lee's army? A soldier of bulldog tenacity, Grant was the man for this meat-grinder type of warfare; his overall basic strategy was to assail the enemy’s armies simultaneously, so that they could not assist one another and hence could be destroyed piecemeal. A grimly determined Grant, with more than 100,00 men, struck toward Richmond. He engaged Lee in a series of furious battles in the Wilderness of Virginia, during May and June of 1864, notably in the leaden hurricane of the “Bloody Angle” and “Hell’s Half Acre”—in this Wilderness Campaign, Grant suffered about fifty thousand casualties, or as many men as Lee commanded at the start (Lee lost half). In a ghastly gamble, on June 3, 1864, Grant ordered a frontal assault on the impregnable position of Cold Harbor and Union soldiers advanced to certain death. The Martyrdom of Lincoln Know: Ford's Theater, John Wilkes Boothe 16. Was Lincoln's death good or bad for the South? Explain. Lincoln expired in the arms of victory, at the very pinnacle of his fame—a large number of his countrymen had not suspected his greatness and many others had even doubted his ability but his dramatic death helped to erase the memory of his short-comings and caused his nobler qualities to stand out in clearer relief. The full impact of Lincoln’s death was not at once apparent to the South; hundreds of exConfederation soldiers cheered when they learned of the assassination. As time wore on, increasing numbers of Southerners perceived that Lincoln’s death was a calamity for them; belatedly they recognized that his kindliness and moderation would have been the most effective shields between them and vindictive treatment by the victors. The assassination unfortunately increased the bitterness in the North; presidentby-bull Andrew Johnson was impeached by the embittered members of his own party who demanded harshness, not forbearance toward the South.

The Aftermath of the Nightmare Know: Lost Cause 17. What was the legacy of the Civil War? Tested American democracy, it answered the question whether a nation dedicated to such principles could endure long; preservation of democratic ideals, though not an announced war aim, was subconsciously one of the major objectives of the North. Victory for Union arms also provided inspiration to the champions of democracy and liberalism the world over; the great English Reform Bill of 1867, under which Britain became a true political democracy, was passed two years after the Civil War ended. The “Lost Cause” of the south was lost, but few Americans today would argue that the result was not for the best (cancer of slavery was sliced away by the sword). The African-Americans were at last in a position to claim their rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness (the nation was again united politically). But emancipation laid the necessary groundwork and a united and democratic United States was free to fulfill its destiny as the dominant republic of the hemisphere. Varying Viewpoints: What Were the Consequences of the Civil War? 18. Do you agree with those historians who say that the importance of the Civil War has been exaggerated? Why or Why not? I think the importance of the Civil War has not been exaggerated because this war is the first and most likely will be the only war where American citizens fight against their own brothers. This is also one of the most devastating wars for Southern economy, which requires a long period of amends and restorations, along with the suspension of extreme bitter feelings.