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Pretensioned Beam Example
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Pretensioned beams are typically manufactured by a vendor in a prestressing yard. Structural engineers select appropriate beams (for example hollow‐core slab sections and double‐T beams) for buildings from load tables provided by the vendor. Pretensioned bridge girders (e.g. AASHTO and bulb‐T girders) can be designed by the vendor using special computer software. Students can gain an understanding of the behavior of pretensioned beams by analyzing the response of a typical pretensioned beam at each stage of its life. Example: Select a pretensioned Double‐T beam from the PCI manual and check it against criteria in ACI 318‐08. Span = 52 ft, SDL = 0, LL = 60 psf. 1. Select a shape and prestressing layout. From the PCI load table shown in Figure 1, select a 10DT26 with 10 ½” diameter 270 ksi low‐relaxation strands with one harp point (at midspan).
Figure 1. Span‐load table from PCI Manual (5th Edition) for 10DT 26.
000 psi 4287 3834 ksi ksi pcf plf unit weight self weight SW f'ci/f'c f'ci 3 3 30.CE 437/537.4 Span Mid Span x / L MCoef moment due to s el f wt ment due to l i ve l oa d 0. 0.89 17.9 37.000 psi in in in 4 2 strength @ 28 days 689 120 4 β1 UW 0.5 0.29 in = yb ‐ ys_mid Moments Tra ns fer Pt 0. Also assume that at transfer.80 150 718 80% 4.5 * SQRT(f'ci) Steel Strands: Section Properties Nstrands 10 φ ps Astrand Aps ys_end ys_mid 0.033 * UW ^1.53 10 3 in in in in in 2 2 number of s tra nds s tra nd di a meter a rea of s tra nd a rea of a l l s tra nds from bea m bottom Mat'l Properties f pu 270 Eps ε pu 0.6 0.514 in in in s trength l evel a t tra ns fer strength at transfer mod. Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 2 / 15 Use the following section and material properties. 10% of the stress is lost due to seating of tendon anchorages.400 0.0232 44.500 ksi ja cki ng s tres s l evel s ea ti ng l os s Jacking & Release fjacking / fpu 75% f trans / fjacking fpo Po Ldevel 90% 182 279 30.716 in 5.29 10.120 233 194.125 243 203 k‐ft k‐ft = 0.045 ksi tensile strength modulus max. s pa n l ength L Concrete: 52 ft SDL LL 0 60 psf psf Section Properties Shape 10DT26 A bf tf I yt yb s ecti on modul us Mat'l Properties f'c 5.38 ksi k in =f pu * fjacking / fpu * f trans / fjacking = fpo * Aps = fpo * φ ps / 3 tres s force a t tra ns fer devel opment l ength Tendon Profile Bea m end Tra ns fer Pt 0.500 0. Assume that the tendons are jacked to 70% of their tensile strength.0487 0.29 5.379 1.97 15. Calculate the tendon eccentricities at the critical sections (transfer point = strand development length from end‐of‐beam.153 1. and midspan).5 * (x / L ‐ x / L^2) = SW/1000 * L^2 * MCoef = LL/1000 * bf/12 * L^2 * MCoef M SW L M .7 0.4 Spa n eccentri ci ty Mi d Spa n e 10.of elasticity St Sb = I / yt = I / yb Ec Eci = 0.4 span. rec'd strain 28.71 in 20.
Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 3 / 15 2. Stresses at Transfer (all stresses in psi) Tra ns fer Pt 0. PS force a t tra ns fer Loss of Prestress (@ 0.0000082 * Eps * (1 ‐ 0. See “Prestress Losses” on the class web site for an explanation of the concrete stresses due to prestressing.6 * f'ci = 6 * SQRT(f'ci) 190 = 3 * SQRT(f'ci) = ( ‐Po/A + Po*e/St ‐ M *12/St) * 1000 =( ‐Po/A ‐ Po*e/Sb + M *12/Sb) * 1000 SW SW . Calculate the stresses in the concrete at transfer and at service.4 Span Mid Span concrete s tres s es a t: top of bea m bottom of bea m ft fb ft fb 64 ‐2069 ‐101 ‐1486 where: ft fb ‐50 ‐1666 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ Allowable ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ compression tension ‐2800 379 =‐0.4 L) Po 279 k e 15. creep and shrinkage of the concrete and relaxation of the prestressing strands.04 * (ES + CR + SH) *C rel a xa ti on RE Total_Loss fpe fecti ve pres tres s force Pe 3.64 2. Calculate the loss of prestress due to elastic shortening.7 * f'ci ‐2400 =‐0.76 34.06 * V/S) * (100 ‐ RH) = f'c/1000 ‐ 0. The allowable stresses from ACI 318‐08 are shown on Figure A‐2.89 in fci_CGS 1.8 168 257 ksi ksi ksi % ksi ksi ksi ksi k = fpu * fs_jacking / fpu ‐ Total_Loss = fpe * Aps = Po / A + Po * e^2 / I ‐ M *12 * e / I = fci_CGS / Eci * Eps = 2 * ES * Eci / Ec SW ela s ti c s horteni ng creep l to s urfa ce a rea ra ti o rela ti ve humidi ty s hri nka ge ES CR V/S RH SH C = 0.CE 437/537.05 75 5.30 16.251 9.0 3.12 1.
. Mcr. Check the flexure strength under overload (at ultimate conditions). say within 5 ksi.6 * f'c a l l s ervi ce l oa ds fb all ‐1578 where: ft 324 228 ‐3000 =‐0. The total strain in the tendons is the sum of the strain due to the effective prestress force (Pe) plus the strain in the concrete at the CGS due to the failure loads (see Figure A‐4). and the strain distribution is a function of the internal forces. The internal forces must be calculated iteratively. then calculating the tensile strain in the concrete at ultimate (similar to a normally‐reinforced concrete beam). must be greater than the moment due to factored loads. The stress in the strands can be calculated as a function of the total strain in the prestressing using the equations at the bottom of the figure. Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 4 / 15 Stresses at Service (all stresses in psi) Tra ns fer Pt 0. and must be greater than 1.45 * f'c 849 = 12 * SQRT(f'c) 849 = 12 * SQRT(f'c) 849 = 12 * SQRT(f'c) ft sustained 51 ‐134 ‐ 89 a l l s ervi ce l oa ds ft all ‐33 ‐568 ‐541 ‐3000 =‐0. The available flexure strength. as assumed for rebar.4 Span Mid Span crete s tres s es due to: s us ta i ned l oa ds ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ Allowable ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ compression tension ‐2250 =‐0. then when the overloaded beam does crack it will fail suddenly. Mu. since the force in the prestressing is a function of the strain in the prestressing. The stress‐strain graph for prestressing strands (see Figure A‐3) is not bi‐linear. When checking the flexure strength using hand calculations.CE 437/537. This last stipulation is to ensure a ductile failure: if the flexure strength (φ Mn ‐‐ which is based on the assumption that the concrete in the tensile zone has cracked) is less than the uncracked strength of the beam.6 * f'c sustained = ( ‐Pe/A + Pe*e/St ‐ M *12/St) * 1000 = ( ‐Pe/A + Pe*e/St ‐ M *12/St ‐ M *12/St) * 1000 = ( ‐Pe/A ‐ Pe*e/Sb + M *12/Sb + M *12/Sb) * 1000 SW L SW L SW ft all fb all 4. φ Mn. The strain at the CGS due to the failure loads is most easily calculated by first calculating the strain required to “decompress” the concrete. it’s convenient to start with an assumed value of the stress in the prestressing that is close to the ultimate tendon strength.2 x the cracking moment.
0058836 in = Pe / (Aps * Eps) εs Pe ε CGS Pe dp c 0.01 in in = ‐Pe / (A * Ec) ‐ Pe * e^2 / (I * Ec) = yt + e must be < tflange effecti ve depth to PS depth to neutra l a xi s s tra in i n conc.2*M + 1.06116 0. 270 ‐ 0.65 + ( εCGS ‐ 0.89 0.8.2 x Cra cki ng Moment ACI 18.4 ‐412 412 0.06762 269.4 Span Mid Span e ε due to pres tres s i ng decompres s ion ε i n concrete a t CGS 15. MAX( 0.29 0.04 / ( εPS ‐ 0. Deflections due to live loads are also checked against the ACI allowable deflections listed at the bottom of Figure A‐2.003 / c * dp ‐ 0.07186 269.007) ) omp.00067 23.2 * (fr/1000 + Pe/A + Pe*e/Sb) * Sb/12 SW L 1.000 728 0.6*M 5.06530 0.90 698 580 616 ksi k k k k‐ft k‐ft k‐ft = 0.00 1.00588 17. force i n concrete Cc Tps Σ FH Mn φ φ Mn = ‐ 0.60 1.000 776 0. a t CGS at ul ti mate ε CGS U 0.85 * f'c * β1 * c * bf / 1000 = fps * Aps = Cc + Tps U U Adjust NA = Aps * fps * (dp ‐ β1 * c /2) / 12 = MIN( 0.3 ‐412 412 0.00058 21.0086.65.002) * 250/3) ) U = φ * Mn = 1. Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 5 / 15 Flexure Strength 0.01 0.90 655 544 591 0. Check Deflections The engineer must calculate the camber of the beam when it is erected and the long‐term camber of the beam so that the finished structure performs as intended. εPS * Eps.9. 0.003 = ε s + ε CGS + ε CGS Pe Pe U U tra in i n PS at ul ti mate tres s i n PS at ul ti mate ε PSU fps U U U = IF( εPS < 0.CE 437/537.2 1.2 Mcr Mu = 1. .
the moment diagram due to prestressing is as shown below: L/2 L/2 eend emid e’ Tendon Profile Poeend Poe’ Moments due to PS Double integration of the equation above: x ( E ci I )Δ = ∫∫ − Po eend dx + ∫∫ − Po e' Δ midspan = x dx L/2 Po eend L2 Po e' L2 + Eci I 8 Eci I 12 . Equations to calculate the deflection due to prestressing can be derived from the moment distributions caused by the prestressing forces.CE 437/537. Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 6 / 15 Deflection due to Prestressing. Δ = ∫∫ M PS dx EI For a beam with a single depression point.
2 f c _ top = ε c _ top Ec = K x Ec f ps = ε ps E ps = K (d p − x) n Ec 1 K x Ec b f x = A ps K (d p − x) n Ec 2 1 b f x 2 = n A ps (d p − x) 2 bf x2 + n A ps x − n A ps d p = 0 2 Using the quadratic equation to solve for “x” gives (and letting n Aps = A’. bf flange dp K n Aps strains concrete stress x NA The first task is to calculate the location of the neutral axis. “x” inches below the top of the flange. the concrete below the neutral axis (NA) is neglected because it is in tension and cracked. In the figure below. for which the compression forces are balanced by the tension forces. then the cracked moment of intertia (Icr) must be calculated. K = curvature = strain / (distance from NA). The transformed section shown below is constructed in which the area of the prestressing is multiplied by the modular ratio of steel to concrete. C =T 1 f c _ top b f x = A ps f ps . Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 7 / 15 Cracked Moment of Inertia. and dp = d) − A' ± A'2 +2 b A' d x1 . bf = b. x2 = b The cracked moment of inertia is then I cr b x3 = + A' (d − x) 2 3 .CE 437/537. If the beam will crack under service loads. n = Eps / Ec.
Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 8 / 15 Effective Moment of Interia. The beam may crack near midspan (at 0. For pretensioned beams.4L for beams with a single depression point) but it will not crack under service loads over the whole length. Ie is ⎛ M cr Ie = ⎜ ⎜M ⎝ a 3 ⎡ ⎛M ⎞ cr ⎢ ⎟ I + ⎟ g ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜M ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ a ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 3⎤ ⎥ I cr ⎥ ⎦ The situation is complicated by the presence of prestressing forces. the stresses due to dead load plus a percent of the live load equal the decompression stress plus the tensile strength of the concrete f bD + f b% L to cause cracking = f bdecompression + f r f b% L to cause cracking = f b e + f r − f bD . Ig) depending on the relative magnitude of the cracking moment Mcr and the moment due to applied loads. Equation 9‐8 in ACI 318‐08 can be used to calculate a weighted average of the cracked moment of inertia and the uncracked (gross moment of inertia. Ma.CE 437/537. The effective moment of inertia for the entire span. Ma = the live load moment Mcr = the portion of the live load moment necessary to cause cracking Cracking is imminent when at the bottom of the beam. Ma f bL M cr fT − f = 1− b L r Ma fb . where the decompression strain = +’ve strain due to Pe Writing the equations above in terms of moments D M cr ( f b e + f r − f b ) S b = Ma f bL S b P P Define the total stress at the bottom of the beam as f bT = − f b e + f bD + f bL then P f bL − f bT = f bPe − f bD and M cr f L − f bT + f r = b .
increase the live load to 80 psf for this example. Deflection Immediate Deflections due PS and SW: e end 10.53 10.9 1.65 1.221 in in in in in 4 =SQRT(nA^2+2*b*nA*d) = ( ‐nA + sqrt ) / b =( ‐nA ‐ sqrt ) / b x2 x Icr Ieff: ti a for cracked s ecti on = b * x^3 / 3 + nA * (d ‐ x)^2 s due a l l l oa ds a t 0.4L fb T 838 2058 0.72 in in in = Po * e end * (L*12)^2 / (8 * Eci * I) + Po * e' * (L*12)^2 / (12 * Eci * I) = e mid ‐ e end Δtransf fl ecti on due to s el f wt Δ Δ LL SW ‐1.00 1.00 1. Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 9 / 15 To illustrate the calculation procedure for a beam that cracks under live load.29 7.850 psi psi 4 L fb = M *12000 / Sb = 1 ‐ (f b ‐ f r) / fb T L L Mcr/Ma Ieff defl ecti on due to LL owa bl e defl ect due LL 20.83 4.60 in in in 2 2 =Eps/Ec =Aps =n*A =dp =bf 2 120.17 21.00 in = ‐5 * SW/1000 * L^4 * 1728 / (384 * Eci * I) Icr: n A nA d b sqrt x1 from top fi ber to NA 6.83 ‐2.29 in e mid e' defl ecti on a t trans fer 17.73 in in = (Mcr/Ma)^3 * I + (1 ‐ (Mcr/Ma)^3) * Icr =‐5 * LL/1000 * bf/12 * L^4 * 1728 / (384 * Ec * Ieff) = ‐L * 12 / 360 Δ LL LL Δ max .00 in 229.CE 437/537.50 ‐1.508 in ‐1.
60 in in = ΔLong Term + Δ ‐ ΔErection = L * 12 / 240 max Δ .) due to creep Long‐term Deflections (in): Stage Release Due to: Po SW PCI Δ Elastic Creep Mult.00 0.85 3.52 LL in Erection Po SW topping SDL 1.00 1.00 3.25 4.72 ‐ 1.23 2.00 ΔErection Po self wt topping SDL defl ecti on tha t coul d da ma ge pa rti ti ons in 1.CE 437/537. Long‐term deflections due to creep can be calculated using convenient simple span multipliers provided in the PCI Manual (see Table A‐5.22 ‐ 2.10 ‐ 1.85 0 0 1.70 0.71 0.00 ΔLong Term in Δ after erection after erection ‐1.80 1.00 0.00 0 0 2.72 ‐ 1.72 1.45 2.00 1. Δ Total 1.72 ‐ 1.72 ‐ 1. Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 10 / 15 Long‐Term Deflections.
CE 437/537. Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 11 / 15 Figure A‐1. . Stresses in concrete due to pretensioning.
Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 12 / 15 Prestressing Steel: The following criteria are specified by ACI for the prestressing steel (Section 18. Deflections (ACI Table 9.5b. Concrete stresses under service loads (ACI Table R18.2 M cr (ACI 18. Flexure strength) φ Mn ≥ Mu φ M n ≥1.1. 0. Concrete stresses at transfer of PT force to concrete (ACI 18.7 f c'i 3 f c'i 0 . pg 287): Max stress due to jacking force = min( 0. Relevant design criteria in ACI 318‐08 . pg 290) 4.74 fpu ) Stage 18.104.22.168. pg 284) 2.45 f c'i 3.80 fpu ) Max stress at transfer = min( 0.5.6 f c'i P P 12 f c'i 0.82 fpy .60 f c'i P P 0. 0.94 fpy .2.CE 437/537. pg 284) max tension max comp. Sustained loads All loads wSW + SDL + LL Design Criteria max tension max comp.3.4. pg 124) max ΔLL = max Δ L 360 L = 240 after erection Figure A‐2. elsewhere at ends wSW 6 f c'i 0 .
Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 13 / 15 Figure A‐3. Stress vs strain for prestressing tendon.CE 437/537. .
After transfer & losses (but no gravity loads) 2. Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 14 / 15 1.003 dp c + strain distribution in concrete due Pe = strain distribution in concrete due to overloads e ε CGS P U ε CGS strain in steel due Pe : ε sPe = Pe A ps E ps strain in steel due to decompressing the concrete at the CGS: strain in steel due to the concrete at the CGS going into tension at failure: ε CGS = Pe Pe Ac Ec + Pe e 2 I c Ec ε CGS = Pe Pe Ac Ec + Pe e 2 I c Ec Figure A‐4. Gravity over‐loads are applied to beam until failure Pe Pe .CE 437/537. Strain in prestressing steel at ultimate flexure strength of beam .
.CE 437/537. Spring 2011 Pretensioned Beam Example 15 / 15 Figure A‐5. Deflection multipliers for estimating long‐term deflections.
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