You are on page 1of 708

AD 636 392

FLIGHT TEST ENGINEERING HANDBOOK AFTR NO. 6273

United States Air Force


Edwards Air Force Base, CA

Jan 66
AF TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 6273 MAY '&51
CORRECTED AND REVISED
JUNE 1964 -JANUARY 1566

c•t
CD

FLIGHT TEST
ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

RUSSEL M. HERRINGTON
Major, USAF

PAUL E. SHOEMACHER
Captain, USAF

EUGENE P. BARTLETT
lIt Lieutenant, USAF
EVERETT W. DUNLAP

PIIOOUCCO
Br
NATIONAL TECHNICAL
INFORMATION SERVICE
US DIPARIIENf OF COIMUMC(
SPRINGFIRL. VA 22161

UNITED STATES AIR PORCE


AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND
AIR PORCE PLIONT TEST CENTER
KOWARDS AIR FORCE lEASE, CALIFORNIA
UNCLASSIFIED
Securit Classification
DOCUMENT CONT6 L bD"ATA - I&)D
(Sercuritp Cloedflcalon of title., body of obsfMect and indeaxng annotation must he entered when the overall report to claeallefd)
iORIGINATIN G ACTIVIVY (Corporate author) Ita REPORT SRCURITY C LASSIFICATIGH

United States Air Force, A4' Force Systems Command, Unclastflad


Air Force Flight Test Center. Edwards AFB, Calif 2bGOU N/A
3 nEPORT TITLE
Flight Test Engineering Handbook AFTR No. b273

4 OESCAIPTIVE NOTES (Type ot report and tnclitseve date&)


Corrected and revised January 1966
S AUTHOR(S) (Liot na•e. triot name. Initial)
lerrington, Russel H., Major, USAF Dunlap, Everett W.
Shoemacher, Paul E., Capt, USAF
Bartlett, Eugene P., 1st Lt. USAF
6 REPORT OATE 70 TOTAL NO OF PAGt9 7b NO OF REPSF

May 1951 687 30


as CONTRACT OR GRANT NO 90 ORIGINATOR*$ REPORT NUMOCR(S)

N/A AFTR No. 6273


•, PROJfCY NO

N/A
N/A OT
chi m ponT NO(S) (Any othmernumbe*hate Amay be eataneid

d N/A N/A .
10 AVAIL A0IL!TYiLIMITATiON NOTICES

Distribution of this document is unlimited. M

it SUPPL.EMENTARV NOTES 12 SPONSORING MILITARY ACTIVITY

Air Force Flight Test Center


Edwards AFB, California 93S23

3) ABS•RAC
methods of obtaining flight test data for reciprocating engine aircraft (including :'%:c
helicopters) and turbojet aircraft are presented together with various methods of-•JJJ
data analysis and data presentation. Correction of aircraft performance to stand&...•
conditions is included, as are detailed derivations of correction factors and
performance parameters. Numerous graphs and charts containing information required
by and useful to the flight test engineer are presented, together with sample data
reduction forms and sample flight test programs.

SReproduced from

besi availab!e copy.

DD IJA, 1473 UNCLASSIFIED


Securty Classification
U V

- -A, *a94r. .. I - -
!CLASSIFI ED
.' Secufit - Classification _______ ______________

LINK A LINK 8 LINK C


KEY WORDS AOLK WT ROLE PIT ROLE SIT

ght Test, Aircraft Performance, Reciprocating,


.bojet, Level Flight Performance, Climb Perform-
is Uescent Performance. Takeoff, Landing,
ircoptor Performance

INSTRUCTIONS
ORIGINATING ACTIVITY: Enter the namne and eddises im~sed by security clommificetion, using standard statements
I-: f ..t- sctor. subco nttracto r. gra ntee. Departum ent of D o- suich as:
.e it~tivi.y or other organixation (corporate author) Issuing (1) "Qualified requesters may obtain copies of stbis
a
report. report from DDC."
REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION: Enter the over. (2) "Foreign announcement and dissemination of this
Icecurity classification of the report. Indicate whetherreotb Dinotahrzd.
.... tricied Dots" is included Marking is to be lin acecroyrd.i otathrze.
with appropriate security regulations. (3) "U. S. Government agencies may obtain copies of
GROUP: Automatic downgrading is speciflied in DoD Di. this report directly hpor DDC. Other qualified DDC
*ive 5200. 10 and Armed Forces Industrial Manual. Enter users shiall request through
grtoup number. Also, when applicable, show that optional - i
kings hove been used for Group 3 arid Group 4 as author- (4) "U. S. ff4litery agencies may obtain copies of this
I report directly from DDC. Other qualified users
"T~ORT TITL.L. Endtr the complete report title in all shall request through
-,era. Titlesi in all cases should be unclassified.
,,igful title cannot be selerted without classifiea-
.. w title classaificastion in all capitals in parenthesis (S) "All distribution of this report is controlled. Qual.
,tateiv following the title. ified DDC users shall request through
ESCRIPTIVE NOTES; If appropriate, enter the type of ________________
*e.g., interim. progress, summary, annual, or final. If the report has been furni shed to thea Office of Technical
'ie inclusive dates when a specific reporting period is Services, Department of Commerce, for sale to the public, indi-
."a.cate this fact and enter the price, if known.
LTHIORS); Enter the niaoxts) of author(s) as shown on I L SUPPLJMKWNTANY NOTES Use for additionsl rexplans.
r. the report. Entei lost name, first name. middile initial, tory notes.
*lhtary, show rank and branch of service. The name of
*r-ricipul . ýthor is an absolute minimnum requirement. 12. SP.ONSD, iiiG MILITARY ACTIVITY: Etter the name of
the departmental project office~or labc'~story sponsoring (poor-
uti'otK r DATE.. Enter the date of the rep~ort we 4ay. in for) the research and development. Include address.
ith, year. or month, year. If more than one date- appear"
the ,eport, use date of publication. 13- ABSTRACT: Enter ant abstract giving a brief and factual
OF Th
PGEStotl ~ge unt summary of the document indicative of the report, even though
10TAL NUMBER OPAE:Tettlpg( u It may also appear elsewhere in the body of the technical ee-
r.-Ilw normal pagination procediLres. i.e., enter theIfadtol oeIsrqid, cnnuinshtsal
be attached
.NuiLt1ir-Nl OF REFERENCES. Enter thet~ai number of it is highly desirable that the ohn'ract (if classjkied reports
-;en~ea tilred In the report. ibe' unclassified. Each paragraph of the abstract ohdfl end with
CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER: It appropriate, enter
rplic bl numbet'r of thei. ontract or grant under whir-h
repol wa Wiliam
f ormati-n
en indication of the military security clasaaiication of the in-
in the paragraph, repreaented as (TFs). (s). (c). or (LI)
here is no limitniion on the length of the ubatract. How-
'k, & 8d PROJECT NUMB3ER: Enter the appropriate ever, the suggested length Is from 150) t,3 225 words.
itsrý detarimeni identification, such as project number,. 4KYWRS e od r tcnclymaigu em
vrolect number. system numbers, task number, etc.14KYWRSKewod rtclialymnngutrs
or short phrases that characterize a report and may be used as
ORIGINATOR'S REPORT NUMBER(S); Enter the offi- index entries for cataloging the report. Key worda must be
erl~ot number by which the document will be idiintifted selected so that no security classification is required. Identi.
onir'.l~ed hy the originat ing activity. This number must fiers,. such as equipment model designation, trade name, military
ý;ugur to this report. project code name, geographic location, may be used as key
)T IfER REPORT NUMBER(S): If the report has been words but will be followed by an Indication of technical con-

towthe aponr-or). also enter this number(s).

UNCLASSiFl[ED
Security Classification
NOTICE

THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN REPRODUCED


FROM THE BEST COPY FURNISHED US BY

THE SPONSORING AGENCY. ALTHOUGH IT

IS RECOGNIZED THAT CERTAIN PORTIONS

ARE ILLEGIBLE, IT IS BEING RELEASED

IN THE INTEREST OF MAKING AVAILABLE

AS MUCH INFORMATION AS POSSIBLE.


FOREWORD

The publication of a series of handbooks on the performance


testing and evaluation of all types of Air Force aircraft is planned
by the FLight Research Division, Air Force Flight Test Center.
This handbook has been issued as an interim measure to provide
assistance to flight test personnel pending publication of the new
series of handbooks. Chapters I and III of the original Technical
Report Number 6273 have been replaced by AFFTC Technical
Notes 59-22 and 59-47. These technical notes are on airspeed,
altitude and temperature measurement, and turbojet engine
performance. They represent updated and improved versions
of the original contents of TR Number 6273.

As a matter of expediency, the numbering of charts, figures,


and equations in the technical notes has been retained. This has
led to inconsisten>r in the numbering system, but, since appropriate
references in the text have been changed, it is felt that no confusion
will result.

The United States Standard Atmosphere used as the basis for


charts and tables in Chapter I is equivalent to the International
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standard Atmospher .. adopted
by NACA on November 20, 1952 and contained in NACA Report
1235 "Standard Atmosphere - Tables and Data for Altitudes to
65, 800 Feet", 1955 (Reference 6). The equations of this report
were used to extend the tables to 80, 000 feet. The properties
tabulated in Chapter 1 are identical with those in the A.RDC Model
Atmosphere, 1956, the U. S. Extension to the ICAO Standard
Atmosphere, 1958 (Reference 7) and the ARDC Model Atmosphere,
1959 (Reference 8). One exception should be noted: the sea-Level
speed of sound is taken as 1116.45 ft sec-' in Chapter 1, whereas
it was 1116.89 ft sec- 1 in NACA Report 1235, since the ratio of
specific heats, ,, was taken as 1.4 exactly for Chapter 1 and
implied as 1.4011 in NACA Report 1235, on the basis of experimental
values of souna speed.

The constants and conversion factors used in Chapters 2 through


7 and Appendixes I and Ii are based on the earlier "Standard Atmosphere
Tables and Data", NACA Report 218, 1948. The gas constant, R used
in Chaptir I, e.g. in the perfect gas law Pa = pRTa, has the dimen-
sions ft /sec 2 0 K. It is equal to thq product of the gas constant used
in the remaining ch.,ters anr" .,e acceleration due to gravity. The
dimensions of the latter dre ft/°K.
d,

WhiLe this handbook continue:. to provide, in generaL, adequate


instruction for conducting performance tests on turbojet and recipro-
cating engine powered conventional aircraft, Chapter VII, "HeLicopter
Flight Test Performance and AnaLysis", is in need of updating. ALso,
analysis is lacking in regard to high performance aircraft. Caution
should be exercized in applying correction procedures to flight data

i-c--
obtained with this type of aircraft. For example, significant errors
may be incurred in making corrections to climb data for wind gradients
and for weight because of the simplifying assumptions which have been
made.

The addition of a list of references has been made (reference TABLE


OF CONTENTS). Contained in these references is considera~ lesuppLe-
7
mentary information including data on standard atmospheres s , , a
review of aerodynamics prepared by the USAF Experimental Test Pilot
SchooL 2, and a comprehensive NATO flight test manual prepared under
the auspices of the Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and
Development 3.

ii
0
ABBMCT

Methods of obtaining flight test data for reciprocating engine aircraft


(including helicopters) and turbojet aircraft are presented together with
various mthods of data analysis and data presentation. Correction of air-
craft performane to standard conditions is Included, as are detailed
derivations of correction factors and performance parmeters. Numerous
graphs and ohart. containing Infozrtion required by and useful to the
flight test engineer are presented, together with sample data reduction
forms and sample flight test prog'am.

DISTIRIBUTION
OF THIS hOCUMZNT
IS UNLIMITED

UBLWCATION RZVnI

fknusoript copy of this report ha. been reviewed and found satisfactory
for Dublioation.

•R MM COOMAnO
U OG AL:

L-;'Colonel, USAF
Chief, Flight Test Division

0 AI 6273
TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF REFERENCE AND COMPUTATIONAL CHARTS ix

INTRODUCTION xiii

CHAPTER ONE Speed, Altitude, and Temperature Instruments -


and Calibration

Symbols Used in Chapter One xv


Section 1 The Standard Atmosphere I
Section Z Theory of Altitude, Air-Speed, Mach Number
and Air Temperature Measurement 7
Section 3 Instrument Error - Theory and Calibration 24
Section 4 Pressure Lag Error - Theory and Calibration 28
Section 5 Position Error - Theory and Calibration 48
Section 6 Calibration of the Free Air Temperature
Instrumentation 93
Section 7 Data Reduction Outlines 100
Section 8 Charts 118
Section 9 U. S. Standard Atmosphere Tables 265

CHAPTER TWO Reciprocating Engine Performance 2-1


Section 2.1 Horsepower Determination for Test Conditions 2-1
Section 2.2 Power Correction for Temperature Variation
at Constant Manifold Pressure 2-5
Section 2.3 Power Correction for Manifold Pressure
Variation Resulting from Temperature
Variation and Flight Mach Number Variation 2-6
Section 2.4 Power Correction for Turbosupercharger RPM
and Back Pressure Variation at Constant
Manifold Pressure 2-13
Section 2.5 Critical Altitude 2-17
Section 2.6 Engine Data Plotting, Prop Load, BMEP
Data, Supercharger Operation 2-18
Section 2.7 Fuel Consumption 2-23
Section 2.8 Engine Cooling 2-25

Preceding page blank


AFTR 6273 v
CHAPTER THREE Turbojet Engine Performance

Symbols Used in Chapter Three 3-1


Section 1 Introduction to Thrust Measurement 3- 1
Section 2 Turbojet Engine Performance Parameters 3-8
Section 3 Air Induction System Performance 3-15
Section 4 Staneardization of Test Data with Engine
Parameters 3- 29
Section 5 Air Flow Measurement 3-33
Section 6 In-Flight Thrust Measurement 3-40
Section 7 Water Injection 3- 62
Section 8 Data Reduction Cutlines 3- 66
Section 9 Charts 3- 68

CHAPTER FOUR Level F.ight Performance 4-1

Section 4.1 Densicy Altitude and Pressure Altitude


Flight Test Methods 4-1
Section 4.2 Aerodynamic Forces and Their Relation
to Eigine Power and Propulsive Thrust 4-2
Section 4.3 Spee i-Power Curves - Reciprocating
Engiae Aircraft 4-6
Section 4.4 Weight Corrections for Speed Power Data -
Reciprocating Engine Aircraft 4-9
Section 4.5 Configuration Change Corrections for Speed
Power Data 4-11
Section 4.6 The Generalized Power Parameter (PIW) and
Speed Parameter (VIW) - Reciprocating
Engine Aircraft 4-13
Section 4.7 Fuel Consumption - Range and Endurance -
Reciprocating Engine Aircraft 4-16
Section 4.8 Speed Power Curves - Turbojet Aircraft 4-21
Section 4.9 Weight Change Corrections for Speed Power
data - Turbojet Aircraft 4-28
Section 4.10 Fuel Consumption - Endurance and Range -
Turbojet Aircraft 4-33
Section 4.11 Flight Thrust Measurement Applications to
Drag and Lift Coefficient and Aircraft
Efficiency Determination 4-42

AFTR 6273 vi
CHAPTER FIVE Climb and Descent Performance 5-1

Section 5.1 Rate of Climb Parameters - Derivation 5-1


Section 5.2 Temperature Variation Correction to
Rate of Climb Data 5-6
Section 5.3 Weight Variation Correction to Rate of
Climb Data 5-9
Section 5.4 Vertical Wind Gradient Correction to
Rate of Climb Data 5-11
Section 5.5 Climb Path Acceleration Correction to
Rate of Climb Data 5-13
Section 5.6 Temperature Effects on Fuel Comsumption
and Weight During Climb 5-16
Section 5.7 Determination of Best Rate of Climb and
Best Climbing Speed 5-18
Section 5.8 Dimensionless Rate of Climb Plotting 5-22
Section 5.9 General Climb Test InfG.'mation 5-27
Section 5.10 Rate of Descent Data 5-35

CHAPTER SIX Take-off and Landinig Performance 6-1

Section 6.1 Techniques and Configurations for Take-


off Tests - JATO Operation 6-1
Section 6.2 Distance and Height Measurements and
Equipment 6-2
Section 6.3 Take-off Data Corrections for Wind,
Weight, and Density 6-6
Section 6.4 Landing Performance Tests and Corrections 6-15
Section 6.5 Dimensionless Parameters for Take-off
and Landing Performance Data 6-18

CHAPTER SEVEN Helicopter Flight Test Performance and


Analysis 7-1

Section 7.1 Introduction 7-1


Section 7.2 Level Flight Performance 7-3
Section 7.3 Rotor Thrust, Power, and Efticiency in
Hovering Flight 7-11

AFTR 6273 vii


0
Section 7.4 Climbs and Descents (Autorotation) 7-19
Section 7.5 Fuel Consumption, Endurance and Range 7-26
Section 7.6 Airspeed, Altimeter, and Temperature
System Calibrations 7-31

REFERENCES 8-1

APPENDIX I
Density Altitude Charts 8-5
Differential -Static Pressure Ratio versus Mach Number
(Supersonic -Normal Shock Condition) 8-17
Reynolds Number-Mach Number Ratio versus Pressure
Altitude and Temperature 8-18
Supersonic Mach Number Functions 8-20
Psychrometric Chart 8-33

APPENDIX II

Nomenclature 8..35
Physical Information and Systems of Units 8-46
Conversion Tables 8-47

AFTR 6273 Viii


LIST OF REFERENCE AND COMPUTATIONAL CHARTS

0 CHAPTER ONE Page


CHART 8.1 H(G/gsL) versus h-H(G/gsL) 118
CHART 8.2 M versus Ta for constant tic and constant Temperature
Probe Recovery Factor, K 120
CHART 8.21 Compressibility Correction to Calibrated Airspeed 126
CHART 8.3 Hc versus Ve/M 128
CHART 8.4 Vtt versus t(, for constant M 130
CHART 8.5 M versus Vc for constant Hc
and M versus V for constant V
also Micversus kic for constant Ac 139
CHART 8.61 'Hic/ XSL versus Hic for constant Vic 203
CHART 8.62 X/ Hic versus flic for constant tat 204
CHART 8.63 Fl(Hic, Vic) versus Vic for constant Hic 205
CHART 8.7 Hic versus Pp/A HPC for constant a HPC 207
CHART 8.8 Hic versus APP/AHpc for constant APp 211
CHART 8.9 Vic versus AP p/AVpc for constant AVPC 214
CHART 8.10 Vic ,ersus A PP/AV for constant 6 Pp 216
CHART 8.11 AVpc versus Vic for constant ZAPp/qcic 218
CHART 8.12 AHPC/AVPC versus Vi for constant H 222
CHART 8.13 AV versus AP for constant Vi.
also Afc versus
and ,SH_ ersus AP
Aicffor constant
onstontH.lk an Ho 2
CHART 8.14 Mic versus AMPC/AHPc for constant Hic 235
CHART 8.15 AM versus aP /P for constant Mic
and I& H c versus P. lP. for constant Hic
also A X- versus A for constant Mic and Hic 240
PC PC 240
CHART 8.16 A MPc/A Vpc versus Mic for constant Hic 251
CHART 8.17 Mic versus A Mpc/(A Pp/qcic) 256
CHART 8.18 -) Pp/qcic versus A Mpc for constant Mic 260
TABLE 9.2 and 9.3 United States Standard Atmosphere 265
TABLE 9.4 Mach Number for various values of qc/Po 309
qc/Pa 5 0.893 (M - 1.0)
TABLE 9.5 Mach Number for various values of qC/Po for M 2 1.0 313
TABLE 9.6 Differential Pressure, qc for various values of Vc 321
TABLE 9.7 Centigrade - Fahrenheit Conversion Table 337

ix
CHAPTER TWO Page
CHART 2.31 Manifold Pressure Correction. (For change in Supercharger
Inlet Air Temperature) P2 /P 1, CAT 2-31
CHART 2.32 Manifold Pressure Correction (For change in Carburetor
Inlet Air Temperature) P2/P 1 , CAT 2-32
CHART 2.33 Ram Pressure Ratio - Ram Efficiency - Mach Number
M, Pt2/Pa, "qR 2-33

CHAPTER THREE
CHART 9.1 Relation between Total Pressure Recovery and Ram Efficiency 3-68
CHART 9.2 Total Pressure Recovery for Inlets with Sharp Lips 3-69
CHART 9.3 Turbulent Boundary Layer Thickness for Flat-Plates at
Zero Angle of Attack as a Function of Flight Speed and Altitude 3-70
CHART 9.4 Pressure Recovery of Boundary Layer Air Admitted into
Side-Inlet Installation - Turbulent Flow 3-71
CHART 9.5 Total Momentum Ratio for Various Scoop Height to
Boundary Layer Ratios 3-73
CHART 9.6 Total Pressure Recovery for Straight Subsonic Diffusers 3-74
CHART 9.7 Total Pressure Loss it. Compound Subsonic Diffuser Bends 3-76
CHART 9.8 MO versus Ptl/Pto - Normal Shock Conditions 3-77
CHART 9.9 Total Pressure Ratios for 2-Dimensional 2-Shock Compression 3-78
CHART 9.10 Total Pressure Ratios for 2-Dimensional 3-Shock Compression 3-79
CHART 9.11 Total Pressure Ratios for Conical 2-Shock Compression 3-80
CHART 9.12 Mach Number Change Through an Oblique Shock for a
Two-Dimensional Wedge 3-81
CHART 9.13 Totcl Pressure Ratio Across an Oblique Shock for a
Two-Dimensional Wedge 3-82
CHART 914 Theoretical Additive-Drag Coefficients for Open-Nosed Inlets 3-83
CHART 9.15 Theoretical Additive-Drag Coefficients for Annular Nose
Inlets with Conical Flow at the Inlet 3-84
CHART 9.16 Change in Cowl Drag Coefficient with a Change in Mass Flow
Ratio as a Function of Mch Number 3-85
CHART 9.17 Idealized Gas Flow with Subcritical Operation 3-86
CHART 9.18 Idealized Gas Flow with Supercritical Operation - Converging
Nozzle 3-87
CHART 9.19 Gross Thrust Parameter versus Nozzle Pressure Ratio with
Subcritical Operation 3-90
CHART 9.20 Gross Thrust Parameter versus Nozzle Pressure Ratio with
Supercritical Operation - Converging Nozzle. 3-91
x
CHART 9.21 Gross Thrust Parameter versus Nozzle
Pressure Ratio with Supercritical Operation -
Converging - Diverging Nozzle 3-94
CHART 9.22 Pt t /P versus Mach Number (Rayleigh
3
Supersonic Pitot Formula) 39

CHAPTER FOUR

CHART 4.41 Power Correction for Weight Change 4-.49


W ,LAW, b, M, H
t C
CHART 4.71 Natural Log of Initial to Final Gross Weight
Ratio for Range and Endurance Computations 4-55
W /W2 9 loge W /W2
CHART 4.72 Gross Weight Factor for Range and Endurance
Cromputations 4-56
W, zI rVr

CHAPTER FIVE

CHART 5.21 Rate of Climb Power Correctior for Temperature


Variation 5-35
MP/P, a
t a' VatTs
CHART 5.22 Turbojet Rate of Climb Power Correction Factor
H, MogW 5-36
c ' t

CHART 5.23 Turbojet Ratte of Climb Power Correction


Factor 5-38
W/5 ,H

CHART 5.31 Rate of Climb Induced Drag Correction


Factor 5-40
Hc, M, b
c
CHART 5.41 Rate of Climb Vertical Wind Gradient
Correction Factor 5-42
# V , C dVW /dh
H "C
CHART 5.51 Rate of Climb Acceleration Correction
Factor H , V 5-43
c c
CHART 5.52 Rate of Climb Acceleration Correction
Factor H , V , dV /dH 5-44
c c c c

xi
APPENDIX I

CHART I-I Density Altitude Charts 8-5


CHART 1-2 Differential-Static Pressure Ratio versus
Mach Number (Supersonic -Normal Shock
Condition) 8-17
CHART 1-3 Reynolds Number-Mach Number Ratio versus
Pressure Altitude 8-18
CHART 1-4 Supersonic (Isentropic) Mach Number Functions
M versus P/P 8-20
t s 82
M versus q/Ps 8-21
M versus qiPt 8-22
82
M versus pt/ps 8-23
M versus T/Tts 6-24
CHART 1-5 Supersonic (Normal Shock Conditions) Mach
Number Functions
M versus P'/P s 8-25
t
M versus PS '/P s 8-26
M versus P'/P 8-27
t t 62
NM versus ps'/P 8-28
MI versus TsiT 8-29
s s
M versus M' 8-30
MNversus V'/V 8-31
M versus a'/a 8-32
CHART 1-6 Psychrometric Chart 8-33

APPENDIX II

CHART II- 1 Nomenclature 8-35


CHART 11-2 Physical Information and Systems of Units 8-46
CHART U1-3 Conversion Tables 8-47

xii
INTRODUCTION1

No single or rigid method of date analysis and presentation has been set
down in this report. Rather, an attempt has been made to show various methods
of data standardization and plotting. The flight testing agency can best
determine the procedures most suited to the particular test, type of aircraft,
or "e of report desired.

Considerable detail concerning the derivation of correction factors and


performance parameters has been included. The function of these derivations
is not to prove the results, but to show the methods. When performance analysis
problem result from new type of aircraft, engines, or flight conditions, these
methods of deriving corrections and parameters may be useful as a starting
point.

Aircraft stability and control tests and methods are not included, but
will be the subject of a separate report.

Although extreme care was taken in the preparation of this report, there
is a possibility that errors are present. Please address correspondence to,

COMMANDER
AIR FORCI FLIGHT TEST CENTER
ZDWAS AIR FORCE BASS
EWARDS, CALIFORBIIA
ATTN: Flight Research Division, FTTER

AM 6273 xiii
SYMBOLS USED IN CHAPTER ONE

Term Definition Units


a Speed of sound, 38.967 JFa(°K) knots
a. Standard day speed of sound,. 38. 967
T-as(°K) knots
at Test day speed of sound,. 38. 967/Tat(7K) knots
aSL Speed of sound at standard sea level; 661.48 knots
6C Degrees centigrade
CL Airplane lift coefficient, nW/(pVtZS/2)
CLic "Indicated" lift coeffitient, nW/ItPsMic 2 S/2)
d Differential
Example: dHic = differential indicated
pressure altitude corrected for instrument
error

d/dt Time rate of change


Example: dHic/dt = time rate of change of
indicated pressure altitude corrected for
instrument error
fn Function of ( )
Example: Ps = fz(Hic). This means that P.
is a function of Hic. In other words, P. may
be determined if Hic is known.
g Acceleration due to gravity at a point feet/secondz

gSL Acceleration due to gravity at standard sea 32. 17425 feet/


level second
G Gravitational constant 32. 17405 feet 2 /
second 2 -
geopotential
feet
h Tapeline altitude feet
ri Geopotential at a point (this is a measure
of the gravitational potential energy of a
unit mass at.this point relative to mean geopot%;ntial
sea level) feet
Hc Pressure altitude,.Hi + AHic + AHicj +
46HIpc feet
"1-lg Inches of mercury
Hi Indicated pressure altitude feet
Hic Inlicated pressure altitude corrected for
instrument error, Hi + AHic feet
0
XVPreceding page blank
AHie Altimeter instrument correction feet
Hicl Indicated pressure altitude corrected for
instrument and lag errors, Hi + LHic + feet
A-lic,

Wiict Altimeter lag correction feet


Al-Ip Altimeter position error corresponding to
APp feet
AHpc Altimeter position error correction feet
Kn A constant
Example: K 5 -" 52.86784
K Temperature probe recovery factor
OK Degrees Kelvin
m The slope of a line at a point
M Flight or free stream Mach number
Mi Indicated Mach number
Mic Indicated Mach number corrected for instrument
error, Mi + AMic
AMic Machmeter instrument correction
AMp Machmeter position error corresponding to AP p
AMpc Machmeter position error correction
n Load factor
Npr Prandtl number, /,'Ipd where d is the thermal
diffusivity
NR Reynolds number, pLV/,/-A-where L is a
characteristic length and V is axial velocity
P The applied pressure at time t "Hg
Pa Atmospheric pressure corresponding to Hc "Hg
PaSL Atmospheric pressure at standard sea level 29.921Z6"Hg
Pi The indicated pressure at time t "Hg
AP p Static pressure error (or position error) "Hg
PS Pressure corresponding to Hic "Hg
Pt Free stream total pressure "Hg

xvi
0i
Pto Total pressure at total pressure source
(for subsonic speedsj Pt' is equal to the
free stream total pressure' Pt. For
supersonic speeds, Pt' is equal to the total
pressure behind the shock which forms in
front of the probe and is therefore not equal
to Pt). "Hg
q. Dynamic pressure, q = pVt2/2 = 0. 7
PaM2 "Hg
qc Differential pressure, Pt' - Pa(qc is also
called impact pressure or compressible
dynamic pressure) "Hg
qcic Differential pressure corresponding to Vic,
Pt' - Ps "Hg
r Radius of the earth feet
R Gas constant for dry air 3089.67 felt2/
"K second
S Total wing area 2
feet
t Time seconds
* ta Atmospheric temperature 0C

tas Standard day atmospheric temperature


corresponding to Hc 6C
taSL Standard sea level atmospheri. Lemperature 15°C
tat Test day atmospheric temperature 0C
ti Indicated temperature 0C

tic Indicated tempera~ture corrected for


instrument error. ti + Atic 9C
Atic Air temperature instruf.--,ct correction °C
Ta Atmospheric temperatur..• K
T* 0s Standard day atmospheric temperature
corresponding to Hc °K
TaSL Standard sea level atmospheric temperature 0
288.16 K
Tat Test day atmospheric temperature OK
Ti Indicated Temperature °K
Tic Indicated temperature corrected fcr
instrument error, Ti + ATic OK

0 XVI
p.-=

&Tic Air temperature instrument


correction OK

Tt Total temperature OK
Vc Calibrated airspeed, Vi + AVic + AVicZ +
lVpc knots
Ve Equivalent airspeed, Vc + AVc or Vt• knots
1 Indicated airspeed knots
Vic Indicated airspeed corrected for instrument
error, Vi + &Vic knots
Avic Airspeed indicator instrument correction knots
Vicl Indicated airspeed corrected for instrument
and lag errors, Vi + AVic + AVicj knots
AVicl Airspeed indicator lag correction knots
AVp Airspeed indicator position error
corresponding to APp knots
AVpc Airspeed indicator position error correction knots
Vt True airspeed knots
Vts Standard day true airspeed knots
Vtt Test day true airspeed knots
W Aircraft gross weight pounds
Angle of attack

SAngle of sideslip
Ratio of specific heats, 1.40 for air
S ~Pa/PaSL

ic Ps]/PaSL
O Ta/TaSL,
Os Tas/TaSL
et Tat/TaSL
Lag constant seconds

X Hic Lag constant corresponding to Hic seconds


-A Static pressure lag constant seconds
-A SL Lag constant at standard sea level seconds
XsSL Static pressure lag constant at standard sea
level seconds

XVI II°.
0
t Total pressure lag constant seconds
XtSL Total pressure lag constant at standard
sea level seconds
I" Viscosity at temperature Ta pounds-
second/feetz
'AHic Viscosity corresponding to Hic pounds-
second/feet 2
""4,
SL Viscosity at standard se4 level 3. 7452 x 10-7
poureds -second/
feet•-
3
p Air denbity slugs/feet

Ps Standard day air density corresponding 3


to Hc slugs/feet

PSL Air density at standard sea level 0. 0023769 3


slugs/feet
Test day air density slugs/feet 3
Pt
a' P /PSL

a'•s Ps/PSL
Tt Pt"PSL
T Acoustic lag seconds

xix
CHAPTER ONE

SECTION 1

THE STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

The performance of an aircraft is influenced by the pressure and


temperature of the air through which the aircraft is flying. Studies of the
earth's atmosphere have shown that these quantities depend primarily on
altitude, and vary relatively little from day to day. Consequently, a
"standard" atmosphere can be usefully established by definition of a
pressure and temperature for each altitude. This standard will approxim'ite
the atmospheric conditions for any day fairly closely. By applying small
corrections to data acquired on a non-standard day, the data may be re-
duced to the standard day. This makes possible comparison of results
obtained on other days with the same aircraft and with other aircraft.

1. 1 THE UNITED STATES STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

For many years a standard atmosphere based on NACA Report No.


218, "Standard Atmosphere - Tables and Data,'" has been used in the
United States. Recently many organizations including the Air Research
and Development Command of the United States Air Force have adopted
a new standard, the United States Standard Atmosphere, which is
consistent with that of the International Civil Aviati.on Organization. This
new standard atmosphere is discussed in NACA Report No. 1235, "Standard
Atmosphere - Tables and Data for Altitudes to 65, 800 Feet." All charts
and tables in this manual are based on the US Standard Atmosphere.

1. 1. I Basic Assumptions:
The United States Standard Atmosphere is derived from the
following assumptions which closely approximate true atmospheric
conditions:
(I) The air is dry
(Z) The atmosphere is a perfeL diatomic gas:

Pa = YRTa 1. 1
In specific units
p O. 0 22 8 9 1 Pa 1.2
Ta
o, 9.6306 TP- 1. 3
Ta
where
Pa =atmospheric pressure, "Hg
Ta n atmospheric" temperature, *K
3
p = atmospheric density, slugs/ft
2
R = the gas constant for dry air, 3089.7 ft 2 /sec •K
a- = density ratio, P/PSL
(3) Hydrostatic equilibrium exists:
dPa = - P gdh 1.4
This equation is derived from a consideration of the forces acting in
the vertical direction on a small column of air of unit area. (See Figure
1 1)

P a + dP a

,- Unit Area X Forces in Vertical


Direction =0
W+dP & = 0
a
dP = -W
"• ~Wa dP -pgg ',dh
dP = - p gdh

Figure 1. 1

Forces Acting on a Small Column of Air of Unit Area

(4) The measure of vertical displacement is geopotential.


Geopotential is a measure of the gravitational potential energy of a unit
mass at a point relative to mean sea level. It is defined in differential
form by the equation
0
G dH gdh 1.5
whe re
h tapeline altitude; i.e., the actual distance from
mean sea level to a point in the atmosphere, feet
2
g acceleration due to gravity at the same point, feet/sec
H geopotential at the point, geopotential feet
G -- a dimensional constant, 32. 17405 ft 2 /(sec 2
- geopotential
feet)for the above system of units
Each point in the atmosphere has a definite geopotential as'g'is a function
of latitude and altitude.
(5) Sea level pressure is 760 mm Hg or 29.92126 inches Hg
(6) Sea level temperature is 15°C or 288.16"K
(7) Temperature variation with geopotential is expressed as a
series of straight line segments:
(a) The temperature lapse rate in the troposphere (sea level
to 36,089 geopotential feet) is 0.00198120°C/geopotential feet.
(b) The temperature above 36, 089 geopotential feet and below
82, 021 geopotential feet is constant -56. 50°C. (The latest
issue of "The ARDC Model Atmosphere" should be
consulteQ, for data above 82, 021 geopotential feet.)

1. 1. 2 Relationship Between Variables:


From the basic assumptions listed above it is possible to express
the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and density as functions of
geopotential.
Introducing the definition of geopotential (Equation 1. 5) into the
equilibrium equation I. 4,
dPa = -fGd.}I 1.6
Eliminating p by means of the perfect gas equation 1. 1,

dP:a _ G dH 1.7
Pa R Ta

Assumption(7) above expresses


Ta = f, (H) only.

0 3
Hence. integration of equation 1 7 is possible with the result
Pa = f 2 (H) only.
Finally, from the perfect gas equation,
P = f 3 (H) only.
For geopotentials below 36, 089 geopotential feet
Ta = (I - KIH) 1.8
T a SL

Pa = (I - KIH)5"2561 1.9
PaSL
4. 2561
a- ---- ( - KIH) 1. 10
PSL

where
K1 6. 87535 x 10-6/geopotential feet
For geopotentials above 36, 089 geopotential feet and below 82, 021
geopotential feet
Ta = -56.50oC = 216.66°K 1.11
a - 0.223358 -K2 (H - K 3) SP1. 12
PaSL
S:
0.29707e -K 2 (H " K3) 1.13
PSL
where
KZ = 4.80634 x 10-5/geopotential feet
K3 = 36, 080. 24 geopotential feet
From the above equations, pressure, temperature, and density,
plus several other parameters useful in flight test are tabulated in Table
9.2 for incremental geopotentials of 100 geopotential feet. In addition,

Pa in inches Hg and ý are tabulated in Table 9.3 for every 10 geopotential


feet. A summary of basic data is given in Table 9.1.

1. 1. 3 Determination of Tapeline Altitude:


In flight testing, the exact position in space is usually not
important; altitude is important only as a means of describing the
properties of the air through which the test aircraft is flying. Hence, it

4
is seldom necessary to determine tapeline altitude. It is sufficient to
express the aEmospheric properties in terms of geopotential.
If one finds it necessary to determine the tapeline altitude, the
acceleration of gravity as a function of tapeline altitude must be defined
to allow integration of equation 1. 5. An approximate expression is
obtained by assuming that the altitude variation of the acceleration of
gravity from its sea level value is given by the Newtonian inverse square
law* r 2
g- gSL (r+-"T 1. 14
where
gSL = the sea level value
2 of the acceleration of gravity,
32. 17405 ft/sec
r = radius of the earth, 20, 930, 000 feet
h = tapeline altitude, feet.
Introducing this expression into equation 1. 5 and integrating yields

H = g (rh 1.15
G 7R)l
where
G = 32. 17405 ft 2 /sec 2 - geopotentiaL feet
Solving for h - H(G/gSL)
H 2
h - H (G_.) _ H2(-L) 1. 16
h-L (r - H G)
1SL

where
G/gSL I ft/geopotential feet
A plot of altitude correction factor, h - H(G/gSL), versus H-(G/gSL) is
given in Chart 8. 1. This factor, when added to the geopotential,

*rUse of the Newtonian in, rse square law is based on the assumption
that the earth is a nonrotating sphere composed of spherical shells of
equal density. This assumption is very good at altitudes attained in
routine flight test work (H 4 100, 000 geopoýential feet). For higher
altitudes, a more sophisticated analysis may be necessary. A method
which is good to several millhon feet is e.iven in AFCRC TN-56-204,
"The ARDC Model Atmosphere, 1956," by R. A. Minzner and W. S.
Ripley.
5
H(G/gsL), will give the corresponding tapeline altitude.

1. 2 THE NON-STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

Flight test data is always reduced to a standard day so that comparison


may be made among data obtained on different days. The usual technique
is to present the data in terms of pressure altitude. (Pressure altitude is
defined as the geopotential at which a given pressure is found in the
standard atmosphere.) Whether fi,:-zi in a standard atmosphere or non-
standard atmosphere, any given pressure indicates one and only one
corresponding pressure altitude. Therefore, reduction to a standard day
consists of making corrections for temperature to the value given in the
standard atmosphere corresponding to the test day pressure altitude (or
pressure).
The pressure altitude and geopotential are not simply related on a non-
standard day. if the geopotential is desired, it is necessary to make a
survey of the atmosphere to determine Ta as a function of Pa to allow
integration of equation 1. 7. Fortunately, this operation is seldom
required. However, the computation is outlined in NACA Report No.
538, "Altitude - Pressure Tables Based on the United States Standard
Atmosphere".

6l
SECTION 2
THEORY OF ALTITUDE, AIRSPEED, MACH NUMBER AND AIR
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
Pressure altitude, airspeed, Mach number and free air temperature
are basic parameters in the performance of aircraft. The instruments
used to measure these quantities are the altimeter, the airspeed indicator,
the machmeter, and the free air temperature probe. The basic theory of
the construction and calibration of these instruments is given in this section.
The actual methods employed in their calibration will be given in sub-
sequent sections.

2.1 THE ALTIMETER

Most altitude measurements are made with a sensitive absolute


pressure gage, called an altimeter, scaled so that a pressure decrease
indicates an altitude increase in accordance with the U.S. Standard
Atmosphere. If the altimeter setting* is Z9.9Z, the altimeter will read
pressure altitude whether in a standard or non-standard atmosphere.

&S = (1 - 6.87535 x 1O-Hc)5'Z561


PaSL

for Hc 4 36, 089 ft 2.1

=0.223358a- 4.80634 x 10 (Hc - 36, 089. 24)


PaSL
for 36, 089 4Hc 4 82, 021 ft 2. z
where
Pa = atmospheric pressure, inches Hg
Hc = pressure attitude, feet
PaSL = 29.92126 inches Hg

*The altimeter setting is an adjustment that allows the scale to be moved


so that the altimeter can be made to read field elevation when the aircraft
touches the ground. In flight testing, the altimeter setting should be
29.92 in order that the altimeter reading will be pressure altitude.

7
The altimeter is constructed and calibrated according to this relationship.
The heart of the altimeter is an evacuated metal bellows which expands
or contracts with changes in outside pressure. The bellows is connected
to a series of gears and levers which cause a pointer to move as the
bellows expands or contracts. The whole mechanism is placed in an
airtight case which is vented to a static pressure source; the indicator
then reads the pressure supplied to the case. The dial is calibrated to
indicate pressure altitude. The altimeter construction ib shown in
Figure 2.12

I l
II
II

Altimeter Schematic

The static pressure measured at the static source of the altimeter

(P ) may differ slightly from the atmospheric pressure (P.). For any

8i
O*

Ps' the altimeter, when corrected for instrument error, will indicate
the corresponding indicated pressure altitude corrected for instrument
error (Hic).

P 5.2561
PL = (1 - 6.87535 x 10- 6
PaSL Hic)

for Hic - 36, 089 ft 2.3

0 2 2 3 3 58 5
P e - 4. 80634 x 10- (Hic - 36, 089.24)
PaSL
for 36, 069 4 Hic4 8Z, 021 2.4
The quantiiy Ps -. 'a is called the static pressure error or position
error. The value which is added to Hic to determine Hc is termed the
altimeter position error correction. The position error corrections for
the altimeter and the other instruments will be coasidered in later sections.
The altimeters available and their expected characteristics are:
Type Range - ft Readability - ft Repeatability
C-12 0 to 50,000 5 Determined by
calibration
C-19 0 to 80,000 5

2. Z THE AIRSPEED INDICATOR

True airspeed (Vt) is the velocity of an aircraft with respect to


the air through which it is flying. It is difficult to measure Vt directly.
Instead, it is usually determined from calibrated airspeed (Vc),
atmospheric pressure (Pa), and atmospheric temperature (Ta). Vc is
obtained from a conventional airspeed indicator, Pa is measured with
an altimeter, and Ta is measured with a free air temperature probe.

*The instrument error is an error built into the instrument consisting


of such things as scale error and hysteresis. This error is discussed
in Section 3.

9
The airspeed indicator opei ates on the principle of Bernoulli's
compressible equation for frictionless adiabatic (isentropic) flow in
which airspeed is expressed as the differernce betw~vn total an6 static
pressures Therefore, the airspeed indicator consists of .3 pitot-static
pressure system which is used to measure the difference between total
and static pressures.
At subsonic speeds 1Bernoulii's equation expressed as follows is
applicable

P a ".5 12

where;
qc = Pt' - P-a differeniial pressure. (This is equal
to the free stream impact pressure or compressible
dynamic pressure (Pt - Pa) for subsonic flow )
Pt = frec streamn total pressure
Pa = free stream static pressure (or atmospheric pressure)
= ratio of specific heats
Vt z true airspeed
a = local atmospheric speed of sound
For air, 1.40. Equation 2.5 becomes

I + o.z(-•-)La - 2.6

For supersonic flight, a shock wave will form in front of the total
pressure probe. Therefore equation (Z. 5, 2.6) is no longer valid. The
solution for supersonic flight is derived by considering a normal sihock
compression in front of the total pressure tube and an isentropic
compression in the subsonic region aft of the shock. The normal shock
assumption is good as the pitot tube h-s a small frontal area so that the
radius of the shock in front of the hole may be considered infinite. The
resulting equation, known as the Rayleigh supersonir pirot equation,
relates the total pre.Ssu.e behind the shock to the free stream ambient

10
pressure.

at 2 aj +~227--ý
where
qc Pt' - = differential pressure. (This is not equal
to the free stream impact pressure or compressible
dynamic pressure, Pt - Pa, for supersonic flow as
Pt' 3 Pt')
Pt' = total pressure at total pressure pickup behind the
shock. (This is not equal to the free stream total
pressure (Pt) for supersonic flight.)
For air, l 1.40. Equation 2.7 becomes
2 3.5
2
--( (- - 1 2.
Pa 6 5 [7 (_V.)- Z2

This may be written more conveniently in the form


7
K ( .T
Pa [7iA ) 3 5 -I 2.9

where 3.5
K3 _ (7.2) 166.921

Examination of equations (2. 5, 2. 6) and (2. 7; Z.8, 2.9) shows that the
true velocity (Vt) is dependent on the local atmospheric properties, speed
of sound (a), and static pressure (Pa), as well as the differential pressure
(qc). Therefore, an airspeed indicator measuring dii.: *ntial pressure
can be made to read true airspeed at one and only one aLtt pii.,ic
condition. Standard sea level is taken for this condition. Tferefore, the
dial of the airspeed indicator is scaled so that a given differential pressure
will indicate a speed in accordance with equations 2. 6 and (2. 8, 2. 9) in
which sea level standard a and Pa are inserted. This sea level standard
value of Vt is defined as calibrated airspeed (Vc).

0I
I 2 "• 3.5m

CIL • +0. z (vc 2 -10.1 2.


PaSL aSL .2
for Vc - aSL, and
7
aL 166.921 'V- )
PaSL [7-aSjy Vc- -. 1 2.1
'S _L-).
for V Ž. a$L.

where
qc differential pressure, inches Hg
Vc :calibrated airspeed, knots
aSL : 661.48 knots

PaSL 29.9Z2126 inches Hg0


Airspeed indicators are construcLed and calibrated accord3ng to Lhese
equations.
In operation, the airspeed ind;calor is similar to the altimeter, but,
instead of being evacuated, the inside of the capsule is connected to a
total pressure source and the case to the static pressure source. The
instrument then senses total pressure (Pt') within the capsule and static
pressure (P.) outside it as shown in Figure Z.Z.

12
I I

I I IL
Static Pressure

I ~TotalI
Pressure J

Figure 2.2
Airspeed Indicator Schematic

For any indicated differential pressure (q ic) felt by the instrument,


.the airspeed indicator, when corrected for instrument error, wil
indicate the corresponding indicated airspeed corrected for instrumetit
error (V,,), or

= +,0.2 (2)j - 2 .12

qccic SL ZL 3c
- ( )5 -- 1 2.13
PaSL ic 1)2

i p , 13
wv

for Vic >- aSL.


In the generaL case, qcic will differ from qC as a result of static
pressure error. As a result, an airspeed position error correction must
be added to Vic to obtain Vc, the desired result. This correction will
be discussed in later sections.
qcic in inches Hg is given for various values of Vic in knots in Table
9.5. This table is also good as qi in )nches Hg versus VC in knots.
At the present time, the following airspeed )ndicators are commonly
used in flight test work.
Type Range Readability Repeatability
F-I 50 to 650 knots 0. 5 knots Determined by
calibration
059 50 to 850 knots 0,5 knots
0153 10 to 150 miles per 0.5 miles per hour
hour
Calibrated airspeed (Vc) represents the true. velocity of the aircraft
(Vt) at standard sea level conditions only. Vt may be determined at
altitude by a knowledge of atmospheric pressure and density (or
temperature).
The equivalent airspeed (Ve) is defined as

Ve = Vt F" 2.14
where a- is the density ratio, P/PSL'
Solving the subsonic equation 2.6 for Vt

Vt = 5aZ ( + 1)Z/7 2.15

The speed of sound in a perfect gas may be expressed as


a -!t Pa Z. 16
p 2•
Introducing Ve /4 for Vt and replacing a r by tPa/JSL:
r-2/
Ve - (C. + 1) 2.17

i4
I(-a:+!
Introducing equation 2. 10, the following result is obtained:
qc +)I"2

)i aS 2.18
From equation 2.14, Vt is simply Ve corrected for the difference between

sea level standard density and actual ambient density. This has been
shown for subsonic flight only. It could similarly be shown to be true for
supersonic flight as well.
This relationship between Vc and Vt is presented for explanation only;
a shorter method of obtaining Vt from the same required variables is given
later in Section 2. 5.

2. 3 MACH NUMBER AND THE MACHMETER

2.3.1 Mach Number:


Mach number (M) is defined as the ratio of the true airspeed to
the local atmospheric speed of sound
M - Vt 2.19
a
With the advent of high speed aircraft, Mach number has become a
very important parameter in flight testing.
For isentropic flow of a perfect gas, Bernoulli's equation states

Pa ,( + 2 202)
.Z

where
Pt free stream total pressure
Pa= free stream static pressure
e -ratio of specific heats
For air, I = 1.40. Equation Z. 20 becomes

-Fa = (1 + 0.ZM2 )2"2

This equation which relates Mach number to the free stream total and
static pressures is good for supersonic as well as subsonic flight. It

15
must be remembered however, that Pt' rather thar, Pt is measured in
supersonic flight.

2. 3.Z The Machmeter:


The Machmeter equation for subsonic flight is formed by inserting
the definition for M into equation 2. 6.

3.5
Ci= (1 + 0.M 2 ) 12
Pa - 2.22

Solving for M_ _

lvl :5 (q c + 1)2 /
5 Paa1_ 2.23

c" supersonic flight, from equation 2.9

= _166.9 IM - i 2.24
Pa (7M 2 - 1)2.5

Lquatior 2. 2-1 cannot be solved explicitly for M. It can, however,


:)e pUt t.he following form which is convenient for rapid iteration:
M
-/• /pqc +1,1 K4
-- ,~ 7-M'22
ý1 ) 2. 25

hil e r v

K4 1.287560
"The tna. hreter is essentially a combination altimeter and airspeed
ul.I.-ator des t,,ned to solve these equations for Mach number. .r,
ltinr'etelr capsule and an airspeed capsule simultaneously supply signals
'. a series of gears and levers to produce the Mach number indication.
"macrr.meter schematic is given ,n Figure Z. 3.

16
@1• Mach Indicator I

I I
SttcPressure

I I

I /Altitude Diaphram

[jI ADifferential
I a Pressure
L'(P t I)
P-ressure Diaphram

Figure 2. 3
Machineter Schematic

'For any static pressure (Pa) and differential pressure (q = t' " P )

felt by the instrument, the Mach meter, when corrected for instrument
error, will indicate the corresponding indicated Mach number corrected
for instrument error (Mic), or

q (lI + 0. 2M 3 - 2.26
Ps
for Mic 1.00, and
7
qcic 166.9Z1 Mic

(7Mic .5
Ps
for Mic 1.00.

The true Mach number (M) is determined from Mic and the Mach
meter position error correction which is a result of the static pressure
0error, P - P
a 1
17
These equations relating M to qc/Pa and Mic to qcic/Ps are useful
not only as machmeter equations, but as a means for relating calibrated
airspeed and pressure altitude to Mach number. Mic is given for values
of qcic/Ps for Mic ! 1.00 in Table 9.4. qcic/Ps is given for values of

Mic from 1,00 to 3.00 in Table 9. 5. These tables can also be used to
find M as a function of qc/Pa,
At present the accuracy of these meters is poor so that they are not
suitable for precision work, but as flight-safety indicators only. The
machmeters in general use are;
Type Range Readability Repeatability
Al 0.3 to 1.0; 0 to 0.01 Determined by
50, 000 feet calibration
AZ 0.5 to 1.5; 0 to 0.01
50, 000 feet
G09501 0.7 to 2.5; 0 to 0.01
60, 000 feet

2.4 FREE AIR TEMPERATURE PROBE

The atmospheric temperature is a measurement of the internal


thermal energy of the air. Therefore, it is a very important parameter
in aircraft and engine performance. Unfortunately, it is difficult to
measure accurately in flight. If the air surrounding the probe is
brought to a complete stop adiabatically and the probe correctly senses
the resulting temperature then
Lx= I + t.- M2 2. 28
Ta Ta 2
where
Tic = indicated temperature corrected for instrument
error, K
Tt total temperature, 0K

Ta = free stream static temperature, 0K

M free stream Mach number


For various reasons, such as radiation or heat leakage, most probes

184
do not register the full adiabatic temperature rise. It is, however,
acceptable to write

TIc = 1 + K £'-I M2 2.29

Ta 2

For air with = 1.40, this becomes

Tic I + K M 2. 30
Ta
The value of K represents the percentage of the a .abatic temperature
rise detected by the probe and is called the probe recovery factor. For
many installatiorps it may be considered a constant, but it may vary with
altitude and Mach number, particularly at supersonic speeds. K
seldom is less than 0.90 for test installations and is usually between 0.95
and 1.00. Methods for determining K for a given installation are discussed
n in Section 6. 2,
Equation 2.30 is plotted in Chart 8.2 as Tic/Ta versus M for
constant K and as Ta versus M for constant tic and K.
The frce air thermometers now in use are all of the electrical
resistance type. Their operation is based on the fact that the
resistances of the sensing elements change with temperature. To
obtain a signal from such a temnperature sensing unit the element is
placed in a bridge circuit. The circuit is designed so that the indicator
registers the ratio of the current flow in two legs which makes the
indicatioa independent of the source voltage sipply. (See Figure 2.4.)

19
R - Fixed Resistance2
C anrd C2 Indicator Coils

Figure 2. 4
Resistance Temperature Bulb Bridge Circuit

The indicator consists of an ammeter whose armature containo both


indicator coils wound so that the indication is proportional to the two
currents. (See Figure 2.5)

20
.60"/ ÷60

Figur .5

Construction of Resistance Temperature Bulb Indicator

The following instrument is in general use:


Type Range Readability Accuracy
C-lO -60 to +60 degrees C 0.5 degrees C + 0.5 degrees C
(or other range as
desired)

2. 5 THE CALCULATION OF EQUIVALENT AIRSPEED, MACH NUMBER,


AND STANDARD DAY TRUE AIRSPEED

2.5.1 Equivalent Airspeed:


The equivalent airspeed (Ve) is frequently used as a basis for
reducing flight test data for piston-engined airplanes as it is a direct
measure of the free stream dynamic pressure (q),

q q P
=Tp
Vt = •1E
l2PCVT e KV e 2.31

Ve may be expressed in terms of pressure altitude (Hc) and Mach


number (M) as
V
ITe a 2.32

This equation is plotted in Chart 8.3 as Ve/Mi versus Hc.

21
2.5.2 Mach Number:
The machmeter in its present form should not be used in
precision flight test work as it is not sufficiently accurate, Therefore.
Mach number must be determined by other means
If the true airspeed and ambient temperature are known, Mach
number is defined by the relation
M = Vtt 2. 3
at
whe re
Vet = test day true airspeed
at = test day speed of sound
The velocity of sound in a perfect gas is proportional to the square
root of the remperature, or

at Ta't. 2.34
aSL 'TaSL
where
Tat = test day ambient temperature, *K
aSL --- 661.48 knots
TaSL= 288.16-K
lience
at = 38. 967 Tat knots 2.35
and Vtt (knot s) ?. 36
38.967 fTat (°K)

This equation is plotted in Chart 8.4 as Vt versus Ta for constant


Mach number lines.
Inasmuch as the true velocity is seldom available directly, Mach
number is more conveniently obtained through the compressible
flow equation (2. 23, 2.,Z5). M is given as a function of qc/Pa in
Tables 9. 4 dnd 9. 5. Pa is obtained from pressure altitude (Hc) in
the standard atmosphere, Table 9. 2 or Table 9.3, and q, is found
from Vc and Table 9. 6.

22
9
This information is plotted in Chart 8.5 as Mach number (M)
versus calibrated airspeed (Vc) for constant pressure altitude (Hc).
Given any two of these variables the third may be found directly from
this chart. Chart 8. 5 is also applicable for indicated quantities
corrected for instrument error. In this case, the chart may be
interpreted as Mic versus Vic for constant Hic.

2. 5.3 Standard Day True Airspeed:


In the previous section, Mach number is expressed as a
function of pressure altitude and calibrated airspeed; therefore, at a
given Hc and Vc, the test day Mach number is equal to the standard
day Mach number.

Mtest = t Mstd Vts M 2.37


at a8
where
Vts = standard day true airspeed
a. = standard day speed of sound
The verity of this statement is evidenced by the fact that Mach number
is a function of Pa and Pt (equation 2.20, 2.21) and therefore can be
expressed independent of the ambient temperature. The standard
day speed of sound can be expressed as:

a= 38.967 TTas, knots 2.38


where
Tas - standard day ambient temperature
(corresponding to H c in the standard
atmosphere), *K
Hence,
S=
38.967 M jTas, knots 2. 39
where Tas is in *K. This equation is plotted in Chart 8. 5. This
chart can be used to find Vt. from M and Hc, M and Vc, or Hc and
Vc.

23
SECI 1ON 3

I1>51 lUNIEAT' ERROR T-HEOY AND CALIBRATION

Several corrections mus! be applied to the indicated altimeter and


aotrspeed indcator readings before pressure altitude and calibrated
airspeed can be determined. The .nd:ý ated readings must be
corrected for instrument error, pressure lag error and position error,
in that order. in level unwaccelerated flight there will be no pressure
lag, in v.-hi h (ase the position error corre tion can be applied directly
foll\,'ing. the instrument correction. The instrument error is the
si,l.let Aih
of section The pressure lag error and position error are
disc.u.ssed in seti ons -1 and 5.

3. 1 INS'lTUMENT ERROR

"Ti'he altimeter and airse(ed )ndicator are sensitive to pressure


.,J!"' pressure differential respectively, but the dials are calibrated to
rkeid altitude and (alibrated airspeed ac(ording to equations (2. 3, 2.4)
.rd (2.12, 2.13). It is not possible to perfect an instrument which
c.',- :ep.iesetit such nonlinear equations exactly under all flight conditions
As a result an error exists called instrument error. Instrument
'or is the result of several things:
{1) SLale error and manutfacturing discrepancies
(2) Iltv-,e resis
(3) Fremperature changes
(4) Coulomb and viscous friction
(5, liertia of moving parts
The calibration of an altimeter or 4iirspeed indicator for instrument
error is .u', 'iv conducted in an instrument laboratory,, A known
pressure ur pressure differential is applied to the instrument to be
tested. The .;sf rurnent error is determined as the difference between
this kno.,wn pressure and the instrument indicated reading. Such
things as frict;..on and temperature errors are considered as
tole ratl US !"!nL th'eV are
, not dependent on the instrument readings.

?2.4
An instrument with excessive friction or temperature errors should
be rejected.
Data should be taken in both directions so that the hysteresis can
be determined. Hysteresis is then the difference between the "up" and
"down" corrections. An instrument with large hysteresis must be

rejected as it is difficult to account for this effect in flight.


As an instrument wears, its calibration changes. Therefore,
each instrument should be recalibrated periodically The repeatability
of the instrument is determined from the instrument calibration history.
The repeatability of the instrument must be good for the instrument
calibration to be meaningful.

3 2 THE ALTIMETER

The altimeter is calibrated by placing it in a vacuum chamber


where pressure is measured by a mercury barometer. The chamber
pressure is varied up and down throughout the range for which the
altimeter is intended to be used. Simultaneous readings of the
barometer and altimeter are taken. The instrument correction
(AHic) is determined as the difference between the instrument
corrected and indicated altitudes.

A-ic = Hic - Hi 3.1

where Hic corresponds to the applied pressure according to equations 2. 3


and 2. 4. The results are usually plotted as shown in Figure 3. 1.

25
0W
+

@3
U

$4
o u
0U

Z.0,000 40,000 60,000


Indicated Pressure Altitude, Hi

Figure 3.1

Altimeter Instrument Calibration

To use this instrument correction chart, the instrument correction


(AHic) in added to the indicated altitude (Hi) to obtain the indicated
altitude corrected for instrument error (Hic)

H1 c = Hi + AHtc 3.2

In general, at the Air Force Flight Test Center, the altimeter


is calibrated every 1, 000 feet to 20,000 feet and every 2,000 feet
for higher altitudes.

3.3 THE AIRSPEED INDICATOR


The airspeed indicator is calibrated by applying a known
differential pressure to the instrument to be calibrated. The
pressure is varied up and down throughout the range for which the

2.6
instrument is intended to be used The instrument correction (AVic)
is determined as the difference between the instrument corrected
and indicated airspeeds.

AVic = Vic - Vi 3.3

where Vic corresponds to the applied differential pressure according to


equations 2.12 and 2.13 The results are plotted in the same general
form as the altimeter instrument correction the correction is plotted
versus the indicated airspeed To use this instrument correction
chart, the instrument correction (,Vic) is added to the indicated
airspeed (Vi) to obtain the indicated airspeed corrected for instrument
error (Vic)

Vic - Vi +4Vic 3.4


At the AFFTC. the airspeed indicator is calibrated every 10 knots
throughout the intended speed range

27
SECTION 4
PRESSURE LAG ERROR - THEORY AND CALIBRATION

4. 1 PRESSUkE LAG ERROR AND THE LAG CONSTANT

The altimeter and air.zpeed indicator are subject to an error called


pressure lag error. This error exists only when the aircraft in which
the instruments are installed is changing airspeed or altitude, as during
an acceleration or climb. In this case, there is a time lag between such
time as the pressure change occurs and when it is indicated on the
instrument dial. The effect on the altimeter is obvious; as the aircraft
climbs, the instrument wijl indicate at' altitude less than the actual
altitude. In the airspeed indicator, the lag may cause a reading too
large or too small depending on the proportion of the lag in the total
and static pressure systems. Converted to "feet" or "knots", this
error is often insignificant. However, it may be significant. and should
be considered in certain maneuvers such as high speed dives and zoom
climbs in which the inbtrument diaphragms must undergo large pressure
rates. Pressure lag is discussed in detail in NACA Report No. 919,
"Accuracy of Airspeed Measurements and Flight Calibration Procedures,"
by Wilbur B. Huston.
Pressure lag is basically a result of:
(1) Pressure drop in the tubing due to viscous friction.
(2) Inertia of the air mass in the tubing.
(3) Instrument inertia and viscous and kinetic friction.
(4) The finite speed of pressure propogation; i.e. , acoustic Lag
A detailed mathematical treatment of the response of such a system
would be difficult. Fort-.nately, a very simple approach is possible
which will supply adequate lag corrections over a large range of
flight conditions encompass tTg those presentLy encountered in the
performance testing of aircraft In this approach, it is assumed that
the pressure system can be adequately represented by a linear first
order equation:

IP(t) + P (t) - + P(t) 4.1

Z8
where
P () the applied pressure at time (1). This is
P. in the case of the altimeter and either Ps
or P,' in the case of the airspeed indicator.
the indicated pressure at time (t).
lag constant
This equation is derived by means of dimensional analysis
The lag constant for laminar flow of air in tubing can be expressed
as:
S(1+ Q)
D 2 VP E
where
/A -coefficient of viscosity of air, slugs/ft-sec

L length of tub)ng, feet


D diameter of tubing, feet
- ratio of specific heats, 1.4 for air
: :applied pressure, lbs/feet 2
Q instrument volume, feet3

A cross-sectional area of tubing, feet 2

Many assumptions are made in the formulation of the differential


equation and in its solution. The most important of these are:
(1) The rate of change of the applied pressure is nearly constant.

P(t) - Kt 4.3
dP
where K - a constant. This is a good a:ýsumption.
(2) Laminar flow exists. For this to be true, it is nec essary that
the Reynolds number iNR) be less than 2000, where

NR
NR/L p< PI_ dP
d-t-4. 44
for a given installation. In typical altimeter and airspeed systems,
a NR of 500 is seldom exceeded itn flight. Therefore, in laboratory
calibrations, pressure rates greater than those encountered in flight
should not be applied or erroneous results may be obtained,
(3) The pressure lag is small compared with the applied pressure.

29
This is generally the case; however, at very high altitudes this
assumption becomes critical.
(4) The air and instrument inertias are negligible.
(5) The acoustic lag (r ) is negligible. 2- is defined as the time
for a pressure disturbance to travel the length of the tubing.
L 4.5
C
where
L = length of tubing, feet
c = speed of pressure propogation in the tubing,
1000 feet per second for small diameter tubing.
In flight test application, the acoustic lag corfribution is usually small.
However, if T is not small compared to }. , this assumption is not
valid and a more detailed analysis such as that outlined in NACA
Report No. 919 is necessary.
(6) The pressure drop across orifices and restrictions is negligible.
This is true only if a minimum of such restrictions exist so that the
tubing is nearly a smooth, straight "pipe" of uniform diameter.
(7) The lag constant (X,) is a constant. This is not strictly true as

CW1 4.6

for a given installation. However, over a small pressure range, ?.


is nearly constant so that it may be treated as such in the solution
of equation 4. 1.
The particular solution to the differential equation with these
assumptions is:
Pi = -- t (t- 4.7

From equation 4.3 and 4.7.


dP
pi = P - X-c[P-4.8

Solving for k , the definition of the lag constant is

=P - Pi 4.9
dP3/dt

30
The lag constant for a given static or total pressure system can be
determined experimentally by comparing the indicated and applied
pressures for a given pressure rate. This can be done in flight or in
the laboratory. In either case, the test should be conducted over a
small range of pressures so that the assumption that A is a constant
is not violated.
When the lag constant at one value of /"/P is obtained, it may
be extrapolated to other conditions by the expression

" I -_Pz 4. 10
AZ ,/-2P1
which is obtained from equation 4.6. Usuaily, the test results are
reduced to sea level standard static conditions. Then the lag constant
at any value of /1- and P can be obtained from the expression
S• 4. 11
XSL AL P
With the lag constants for the static and total pressure systems
known, the error in altimeter and airspeed indicator readings due
to pressure lag can be calculated for any test point from the basic
indicator readings,
Due to the nature of the approximations made in this analysis.
is generally not possible to assume that the overall lag error
correction can be made with a precision of more than 80 percent.
Reduction of instrument and line volumes, however, can usually
reduce the system lag errors under any set of conditions to a small
percentage of the quantity being measured: in which case, more
precise corrections are not reqwriea for practica, iork.

4, - CORRECTION OF FLIGHT TEST DATA FOR LAG

4.2. 1 The Altimeter:

The indicated pressure attitude corrected for instrument


error (Hic) is related to the static pressure (P.) by tfie diiferential

31
equation:

dPs - GpsdIl- 4. 1 Z

where PS = the standard day air density.


For small increments, the differentials of equation 4. 1Z may be
assumed to be finite differences.

/%P s -GpsAHic) 4.13

where
ZNPs• = the static pressure lag:

hePs (PSI - Ps) 4. 14


w~here
PS static pressure corresponding to Hic
P s; static pressure at static pressure source
and t:Hjcj altimeter lag error correction:

A-Eic = (Hic - Hic) 4. 15


where
-{ic indicated pressure altitude corrected for
instrument error
1-ic2 : indicated pressure altitude corrected for
instrument and lag error
The lag constant for the static pressure system ( " can be
defined from equation 4.9 as:

P s2 - Ps _ s4 4. 16
dPsj /dt dPsý /dt
With the approxitmation that

dS dP= 4. 17
dt dt
equation 4. 16 can be written as
)I =- APl 4. 18
4.1

32
0
Substituting for ,Psj and dPs/dt

'•HicA= )ksdt
sdt 4.19

From equation 4. 11

Is/"]%L SL
,AsSL PaSS Ps 4. 20

where NSSL is the ig constant for the static pressure system at


standard sea level conditions.
For convenience in plotting, equation 4. 20 is rewritten as

Xs = XsSL ' 4. 21
;sSL )'Hic
where

?,sSL SL Ps
___ Ta 4.2Z3
Ta
ksilc '•ic Tas

The approximation of equation 4.23 is very good for the usual case
where the difference between the test and standard day temperatures
is small.
Equation 4.22 is plotted as the STATIC LINE of Chart 8.61
in the form
versus Hic for Vic = 0 (STATIC)
*XSL

(The parameter Vic included on this chart is used in the determination


of the total pressure tag constant.)
Equation 4.23 is plotted in Chart 8.6Z as
x versus Hi. for tat(°G)
).Hic
In summary, the calculation for altimeter lag error correction
(AM-icj ) at any test point (Hic, tat, dHic/dt) is then:

c id s dHic 4. 24
0-3dt
0 33
where

s ýsSL Xsi 4.21


ýsSL XsHic
with dHic/dt indicated rate-of-climb corrected for instrument
error, feet/minute
ýsSL = sea level static pressure lag constant, from
previous calibration, sec
>AsHic
from Chart 8.61 for Hic, Vic =
STATIC
XsSL

xS from Chart 8.6Z for Hic, tat (°C)


XsHic
The indicated altitude corrected for instrument and lag error is then

HicJ = Hic + AHicj 4. 25

An example of the calculation of Hicj is given with Chart 8.6.

4. .2 The Airspeed Indicator:


The differential pressure corresponding to the indicated
airspeed corrected for instrument error may be given as,
qcic = Pt' - Ps 4. 26
where
Pt' total pressure felt by the total pressure
diaphragm of the airspeed indicator
Ps static pressure felt by the static pressure
diaphragm of the airspeed indicator
With any lag in the total and static pressure systems accounted for,

qcic,= Pt) - Psa 4.27

where
Ptý total pressure applied to total pressure source
ol pitot static system
Psj static pressure applied to static pressure
source of pitot static system

34
Defining the differentia, pressure error due to lag (AqCic) as

Aq cic qcict qCic 4.28

it follows from equation 4. 9 that

q cicE = (Pt'E- Pt') - (PsL" Ps )


dP , dP
ti s 4.29
dt SCt s -dt

Differentiating 4. 27 and dividing by dt,


d' dP
d q c ic z d P t £I s 1
___ =_s .3
4.30
dt dt dt

Therefore, dqdcict dP s
Aq cick= - (X - dt 4.31

With the approximations that:


qcic dqcic dP S dP 4.32
"= -d dt ' • -C-K 4t

equation 4.32 becomes

Aqcc dq= (X - dPs- 4.33


t dt s t) =
With the use of the altimeter equation 4. 12 which relates dPs to JHic

and the airspeed indicator equation (2. 12, 2. 13) which may be differentiated
to give dq cic as a function of dV. and V. , equation 4.33 may be modified to
give the airspeed indicator lag correction factor (iV ) in terms of dV. /dt
in knots/sec and dH
-. /dt in feet/min as dH.
d V. ( Xs - Xt)GO t'I C
dv. X - - ) 4.34
c + 170.921 iV. I + 0.2( a.). ]2. 5

SL
for Vic
. - aSL ' and

iC, S t -i
dV -t " ++ (X-. Xt) G p dt ,3
4.35

224,287( Jtc )6 SL
aSL

for V.i aSL' whe re

35
AVict = Vict - V.ic 4.36

and V.xc = indicated airspeed corrected for instrument error

VicL = inaicated airspeed corrected for instrument and Lag error

This may be written as:


dV. (xs - x t) dHic
A~ict Xta ic +
+ 60 X' Ft (ic' V.ic 4.3 7

where
F (H., Vic)
Iscc- -G - - - 25 4
4.38

2. 84 8 6 9 Vicl1 + 0.2( i-c )2I"5


aSL
for Vic a SL, and V - l]
SL'
G
r~~7( aSL~ -i

1)c' .c 3738.11 IC) 6 [2( i2 iZ


SL aSL

for V.ic a SL' where os and p are measured at 1-. ic F 1 (H.ic , V.)
Vc
has been plotted versus Vic with H. as the parameter in Chdrt 8,63.

As in the case of the altimeter,

x = x sHi- xs 4.21
s sSL s Hic
Similarly,
x xt HU.€
H-X 4.4
kt = tSL 7-S. T'Hi 40

whe re4
x t Hic AHc Pas L
S- L 4.41
tSL $ s qcic

xt A at
Si - 4.42
tH as

Equation 4.41 has been plotted in Chart 8.61 as

kH.
H verý,us H for V.

36
Equation 4.42 has been plotted in Chart 8.62 as

versus Hic for tat(°C)

In summary, the calculation for airspeed indicator lag error correction


(AVicVp) at any test point (Hic, tat, Vic, dVic/dt, dHic/dt) is then:

Avic dVc
dt + ( Is 60 dt xF I(Hic, Vic) 4.4,

where
~'SLAab'X 4.21
s S sSL "'sHic

"A"t tSI, .'ticL -)it 4.40

with
dViC/dt = indicated acceleration corrected for instrument
error. knots/second
dHic/dt = indicated rate-of-climb corrected for instrument
error, feet/minute
-SL = sea level static pressure lag constant, from
previous calibration, seconds
ýtSL = sea level total pressure lag constant, from
previous calibration, seconds

X from Chart 8 61 for Hic, Vic = STATIC


"XsSL

)q from Chart 8. 62 for Hic, ta(°C)


2
-'tHic sHic

AtH- c from Chart 8.61 for Hic, Vic


")AtSL
F1(H ic, Vi.) from Chart 8. 63 for Hic, Vic

Then the indicated airspeed corrected for instrument and lag error is
Vic.# Vic 4 AVjc-j_ 4.44

0
3?1
Data reduction outline 7. 1 is included in Section 7 as a guide in
performing this calculation. A numerical example is given with Chart 8.6.

4.3 DETERMINATION OF THE LAG CONSTANT

With the aid of equation 4. 2 it is possible to compute theoretically


the lag constants for an aircraft pitot-static system. The lag constaTits
usedi for flight corrections, however, should not be computed, but should
be determined experimentally, either in flight or in the laboratory. The
computed lag constant is useful only as a rough check of the approximate
magnitude of the lag error that may be expected under certain flight
conditions.

4. 3.1 Laboratory Calibration:


The lag constant ( X) has been defined in a previous section as
P - Pi
"•= /dt 4.9
where
P = the applied pressure at time t
Pi = the indicated pressure at time t
This equation suggests the use of a laboratory procedure to determine X
in which a steady rate of change of pressure is applied to the aircraft
pitoL-static system with P, Pi and dP/dt all determined as a function of
time.

4.3. 1.1 The Static Pressure Lag Constant


The static pressure lag constant can be determined by the
use of an experimental apparatus similar to that shown in Figure 4. 1

38
Enclosure Counts

Source Iaoe W--


0•-/'
k
)
Pitot'-Static Head
cu cotineters
Stoati contron
ge]I/__
-- ll J Needle /{
-. Storage Valve ,

Tank • Camera
toa
vacurl
Intervalometer
controLling counters

;r F

switch controlling
Intervalometer.
7a and cameras
camera

Figure 4.1
Schematic of Equipment for Determination
of Altimeter Lag Constant

The static pressure vent on the probe is sealed in a close fitting


enclosure. An altimeter ýrpressure gage) is mounted on a photo-panel
as close as possible to the enclosure. Another altimeter (or pressure
gage) is connected to the static pressure system. Timing countesrs
operating at a one-per-second rate from an intervalometer are installed
as shown fn the figure. The pressure in the enclosure is lowered to the

0 39
limit of the adjacent altimeter by means of a vacuum pump. The cameras
and intervalometer are started and the needle valve is o0ened graduallyto
maintain a dh/dt of about 5000 feet per minute.
If pressure gages are used, the data from the two camera films is
most conveniently plotted tn accordance with equation 4.16 as shown in
Figure 4.2.
Ps x- Ps

dP a/dt
Here, Pal is the pressure in the enclosure and P 5 is the pressure
indicated by the aircraft static pressure system. At a given P., Xs
is equal to the time increment between P and Ps.

" " - . - ... -

a-J

Time, t (Sec)

Figure 4.2Z
Plot Used to Determine Altimeter Lag Constant, X

40
If altimeters are used rather titan pressure gages, it is convenient
to plot the data in accordance with equ.ation 4. 19 (see Figure 4. 3).

- H tCf - Hic 4.45


a dHic/ dt

Again, the lag constant for a givcn Hic is given by the interval between
the two lines representing the indicated and actual simulated altitudes.

:10
u

34 \

-. '4

Time, t(Sc
Figure 4.3

Plot Used to Determine Altimeter Lag Constant, X

The value for X obtained at any altitude, is the lag constant for
the static pressure corresponding to that altitude and the temperature
of the room in which the test was conducted. The sea level static
pressure lag constant ( XsSL) can be determined from the relation
TaSL Pa
XOSL = xs Tn PaSL

41
where
Ta = room temperature
Ps = pressure in the enclosure
This equation is applied to a number of pressures of Figure 4.2 or
altitudes of Figure 4.3. From this information, a final value for ?ýsSL
is selected. In general, the value3 obtained for high altitudes will be
the most reliable, as X•, the quantity with the most uncertainty, is
larger. A sample format for the determination of ),sSL is included as
data reduction outline 7.2.

4.3. 1.2 The Total Pressure Lag Constant


The total pressure lag constant can be determined hy the use
of a somewhat modified apparatus. In this case, a pressure is applied
to the total pressure source and the static pressure source is left open
to pick up atmospheric pressure. Either pressure gages or airspeed
indicators may be used. (if airspeed indicators are used the pressure
applied to the total pressure source should not exceed ambient pressure
by an amount greater than the qcic corresponding to the maximum Vic
for which the airspeed indicator was designed.) The applied pressure
is bled off slowly to give the change in pressure (or airspeed) as a
function of time.
If pressure gages are used, the data may be plotted in accordance
with the definition of the total pressure lag constant ( ?t). From equation
4.9

t P PC 4.47
dPt2 '/dt

where Pt'. is the pressure in the enclosure and Pt' is the pressure
indicated by the aircraft total pressure system. Such a plot is shown
in Figure 4.4.

42
IL
0

4 I
Ut

S~ Time, t (Sec)

Figure 4. 4

Plot Used to Determine Total Pressure


Lag Constant, X

Here, as before, the tetal pressure lag constant at a given Pt to


equal to the 443
time increment between Pt' and
Pt "
It to usually more convenient to use airspeed indicators. With
the applied static pressure held constant, dHic /dt z 0 ; therefore,

from equations (4. 34, 4. 35)

x t -Vic vi t -"Vic 4.48


't - d~ric/ t - -dVic/dt -
Hence, the data can be plotted as in Figure 4. 5. Then, the total
pressure lag constant at a given V. is equal to the time increment
between Vic and Vic,.
4) U
4 -b
P4

\ ,
U- k_
141

I
•0

IC I
Time, t (Sec)

Figure 4. 5
Plot Used to Determine Total Pressure
Lag Constant, Xt

The value for Xt obtained at any airspeed Is the lag constant for
the total pressure corresponding to that airspeed and the temperature
of the room in which the test was conducted. The sea level total
pressure lag constant is then obtained from the relation

TaSL PtI
tSL tT 5--
TaSL (ccic + P) 449
= t --T- Ps .9
a al
where qcic = f(Vic) and is given in Table 9. 6. A sample format for
the determination of the sea level lag constant is included as data
reduction outline 7.3.
4. 3. 2 In-Flight Calibration:
Little experience has been obtained with in-flight methods
for determining lag constants. However, sirce ground calibrations
must be extrapolated to altitude where lg constants are much greater,

.11,
in-flight calibrations do have an obvious advantage in that they can be
determined more accurately provided suitable measurements can be
made. Special equipment which is not generally available is necessary,
however. Using in-flight methods. tapeline altitude is measured while
the aircraft is changing flight conditions rapidly, as during a maximum
power climb. (These measurements are perhaps best made with
Askania cameras.) Tapeline altitudes are then converted to pressure
altitudes by means of radiosonde data. A special installation must be
made in the aircraft to provide correlation of altitudes recorded on
the ground to those recorded in the aircraft.
4.3.2.1 The Static Pressure Lag Constant
The static pressure lag constant can be determined in flight
as the aircraft climbs or dives. The indicated altitude (Hi) is compared
to the pressure altitude (Hc) where

c = H i + AH ic + A -ic I + A 'p c SH 4.50


where
AHic = altimeter instrument error correction corresponding
to Hi
AýIFic -- altimeter lag error correction corresponding
to Hic
%Hp
A~pc = altimeter
to Hicp position error correction corresponding

The altimetE.r lag error correction is determined as

AHicp= Hc - Hic - AHpc 4.51

With AH-i known, the static pressure lag constant can be determined
from
,s= AF-icý 4.45
dHic/dt
d&ic/dt can be determined from a time history of the test
aircraft altimeter. The rate-of-climb indicator can be used but it
may introduce considerable error as it is subject to lag error. The

':5
r
pressure altitude at which the test aircraft is operating (Hc) can be

determined either by the use of a pacer aircraft or by radar tracking.


These methods are discussed in Section 5. 6. The altimeter position
error correction (AHpc) must be known from a previous calibration.
The use of this method is limited by the accuracy with which
ini-ic." can be determined. This requires that the position error
correction and the pressure altitude must be known with considerable
accuracy, for it is quite possible that the error due to pressure lag
can be completely hidden by errors in these quantities. Therefore,
lag constants determined by this method should not be accepted
without some reservation.
4.3. 2.2 The Total Pressure Lag Constant
Inflight methods for determining the total pressure lag constant
are not present'y used due to difficulty encountered in the measurement
of the calibrated airspeed with sufficient accuracy. The airspeed
indicator lag error correction has been expressed as

Vi =At -d(+ x Ft(Hic, Vic) 4.37

Several flight procedures are theoretically possible by which t-


can be determined
(1) Level acceleration (d&ic/dt = 0)

Xt = AVi 4.52

(2) Climb or dive at constant Vic (dVic/dt = 0)


t LAVic.& 4.53
dHic/dt x Fl(Hic. Vic)
(3) Climb or dive at a constant acceleration or deceleration

•t--• ic S s d'-t-xF x F1 (Hic Vic)


d-ic 4.54

dr dic F 1 (HicVic)
dt dt I

46
K

In all of these procedures, it is necessary to determine AVict


where
Vic = Vc - Vic - AVpc 4.55

Tracking methods are not reliable to give velocities accurately and


the pacers are not calibrated for lag; therefore, it is not possible to
obtain Vc with sufficient accuracy to give a reliable AVic. and hente

0 47
SECTION 5
POSITION ERROR - THEORY AND CALIBRATION

In addition to instrument error and pressure lag error, the altimeter


and airspeed indicator a- subject to another error called position error.
Once corrections for instrument and pressure lag error have been made,
position error may be accounted for and suitable corrections made.
Under steady level flight conditions there is no lag error, in which case
position error corrections can be made directly following the instrument
error correction.

5. 1 ORIGIN OF POSITION ERROR

Determination of the pressure altitude and airspeed at which an


aircraft is operating is dependent on the measurement of free stream
impact pressure and free stream static pressure by the aircraft pitot-
static system as evidenced by equations (2. 1, 2. 2) and (2. 10, 2. 11).
Generally, the pressureg registered bj the pitot-static system differ
from free stream pressures as a result of:
(1) The existence of other than free stream pressures at
the pressure source.
(2) Error in the local pressure at the source caused by the
pressure sensors.
The resulting error is called position error. In the general case,
positio,&error may result from error at both the static and total
pressure sources, For most flight test work it may be presumed that
all of the position error originates at the static pressure source. The
possibility of a total pressure error must; however, always be considered.

5. 1. 1 Total Pressure Error:


As an aircraft moves through the air, a static pressure
disturbance is generated in the air producing a static pressure field
around the aircraft. At subsonic speeds, the flow perturbations due
to the aircraft static pressure field are very nearly isentropic in
nature and hence do not affect the total pressure. Therefore, as long
as the total pressure source is not located behind a propeller, in the

48
wing wake, in a boundary layer, or in a region of localized supersonic
flow, the total pressure error due to the position of the total pressure
head in the aircraft pressure field will usually be negligible. Normally,
it is possible to locate the total pressure pickup properly and thus avoid
any difficulty. This is most desirable as such things as localized
supersonic flow regions produce rather erratic readings.
An aircraft capable of supersonic speeds should be supplied with
a nose boom pitot-static system so that the total pressure pickup will
be located ahead of any shock waves formed by the aircraft. This
condition is e3sential for it is difficult to correct for total pressure
errors which result when oblique shock waves exist ahead of the pickup.
The shock wave due to the pickup itself is considered in the calibration
equation (2.10, 2.11) discussed in Section 2.2.
Failure of the total pressure sensor to register the local pressure may
result from the shape of the pitot-static head, inclination to flow, or a
combination of both. Pitot-static tubes have been designed in many
varied shapes. These tubes are tested in wind tunnels before
installation to assure good design. Some are suitable only for relatively
low speeds while others are designed to operate in supersonic flight as
well. Therefore, if a proper design is selected and the pitot lips are not
burred or dirty, there should be no error in total pressure due to the
shape of the probe. Errors in total pressure caused by the angle Qf
incidence of a probe to the relatlve wind are negligible for most flight
conditions. Commonly used probes produce no significant errors at
angles of attack or sideslip up to approximately Z0 degrees. This
range of ineensitivity carn be increased by using either a shielded or
a swivel head probe.
5. '.7 Static Pressure Error:
The static pressure field surrounding an aircraft in flight is a
function of speed and altitude as well as the secondary parameters, angle
of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number. Hence, it ie seldom

49
possible to find a location for the static pressure source where the
free stream pressure will be sensed under all flight conditions. Therefore,
an error in the measurement of the static pressure due to the position
of the static pressure orifice in the aircraft pressure field will gene rally
exist.
At subsonic speeds, it is often possible to find some position on the
aircraft fuselage where the static pressure error is small under all
flight conditions. Therefore, aircraft limited to subsonic flight are
best instrumented by the use of a flush static pressure port in such a
poaition. The problem of the selection of an optimum static pressure
orifice location is discuased in NACA Report 919, "Accuracy of Airspeed
Measurements and Flight Calibration Procedures".
Aircraft capable of supersonic flight should be provided with a nose
boom installation to minimize the possibility of total pressure error.
This positon is also advantageous for the measurement of static pressure
as the effects of the aircraft pressure field will not be felt ahead of the
aircraft bow wave. Therefore, at supersonic speeds when the bow wave
is located downstream of the static pressure orifices, there will be no
error due to the aircraft pressure field (See Figure 5. 1).

50
Static Pressure

Ports

/Total Pressure
Source

Figure 5. 1
Dow Wave of Supersonic Aircraft That Has
Passed Behind Static Pressure Ports

Any error which will exist is a result of the probe itself. Hence,
the calibration at supersonic speeds may be derived from wind tunnel
tests on the probe, or flight tests of the probe on another aircraft.
Assuming the head registers the local static pressure without error,
any error which exists is a result of interference from shoulder on the
boom installation, or of influence on the static pressure from the shock
wave in front of the boom, Available evidence suggests that free
stream static pressure will exist if the static ports are located more
than 8-1 0 tube diameters behind the nose of the pitot-static tube and
4-6 diameters in front of the3 shoulder. (See Figure 5. Z).

51
.4 to 6D - j
8 to 10D
Ai fo
Air flow

:M> 1.0
P a , Pt ta D a

Figure 5. 2
Detached Shock Wave in Front of
Pitot-Static Probe

In addition to the static pressure error introduced by the position of


the static pressure orifices in the pressure field of the aircraft, there
may be error in the registration of the local static pressure due
primarily to inclination of flow. Erro- oue to sideslip is often minimized
in the case of flush static ports by the location of holes on opposite sides
of the fuselage manifolded together. In the case of boom installations,
circumferential location of the static pressure ports will reduce the
adverse effect of sideslip and angle of attack. The use of a swivel head
also reduces this form of error.

5. 2 DEFINITION OF POSITION ERROR


From the previous discussion it is seen that position error is
created at the static pressure source by the pressure field around the
aircraft. It should be borne in mind that position error in the total
source may exist, resulting, for instance, from imperfections in the
pitot tube. Sufficient airspeed calibrations should always be made on
test aircraft to determine the possible existance of position error in
the total pressure. Since in nearly all installations this dr es not occur

52
0
the following derivations consider pressure error in the static source
only.
The relation of static pressure at any point within the pressure field of
an aircrb.ft to the free stream static pressure depends on Mach number
(M), angle of attack (,K), sideslip angle (P), Reynolds number (NR) and
Prandtl number (Np).

= f 1 (M, •, NR, NPr) 5. 1

(The symbol f denotes a functional relationship which is usually


differenL each time it appears). Defining the position error, APp, as

App = Ps- Pa 5. Z
equation 5. 1 can be written as

Pa f. (M. o(, 3, NR, Npr) .

Sideslip angles can be kept small; NPr is approximately constant; and


NR effects are negligible as long as the static pressure source is not
located in a thick boundary layer. Hence, equation 5.3 can be simplified
to

•._- = ff3 (M, 05).4


Pa1
With no loss in generality, this equation can be changed to read:

S= f4(Mic, CLic) 5.5


qcic
with
M ic = f 5 -VjI
i ) . Z6, Z. 27

CLic nW nW 1 25
ePsMic 2 S/2 ic Miic- FSFaSL 6
where
qcic = indicated differential pressure, Pt' - Ps
n = load factor
W airplane gross weight

53
= ratio of specific heats, 1.4 for air
S wing area. constant for a given airplane
gic= pressure ratio corresponding to Hic,
Ps/PaSL
The term APp/qcic is termed the position error pressure coefficient,
and is very useful in the reduction of position error data From the
definition of CLic

1 = f6 -n Mi
qcic f c M) 5.7
Frequently weight and load factor effects may be neglected when
presenting position error data; however, for aircraft carrying large fuel
loads and whose weight accordingly may change markedly during the
course of a flight or fcr aircraft in windup turns, the "nW" effects
should be taken into account.
Consequently, when the relationship betwi.en the variables in equation
5. 7 has been determined by means of a calibration, the following chart
can be prepared for all weights and all load factors for the given aircraft
in a given configuration.

54
@U
0

a U

soC

Indicated Mach Number Corrected for


.nstrument Error, M
i[

Figure 5.3
Non-Dimensional Plot of Position Error Data
to Include Weight and Load Factor Variation

5.3 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIOUS FORMS OF THE POSITION


ERROR
The static pressure position error (APp) causes error in the
altimeter and airspeed indicator readings and in the Mach number
calculated from these quantities. The resulting errors are designated
AHp, AVp and AM respectively:

AHp =Hic - Hc 5.8

where
Hc = pressure altitude
'Hic - indicated pressure altitude corrected for instrument
error
AVp -Vic = Vc 5.9

where
Vc calibrated airspeed
Vic = indicated airspeed corrected for instrument error

55
AMP = Mic - M 5.10

whe re
M Mach number
Mic -indicated Mach number corrected for instrument
error
(In these definitions it is assumed that there is no lag error.) In general,
it is more convenient to work with position error corrections rather than
with the error itself, or

,ýHpc = Hc -Hic = -AH 5. 11

ZAVpc = Vc - Vic = -AVp 5.12


AMpc = M-Mic = -"NMp 5,13

It can be seen that the corrections are added to the indicated quantities
to obtain the actual quantities.
When the position error is produced entirely by pressure coefficient
variatioiL at the static source, it is possible to relate altimeter position
error dire-tly to airspeed and machmeter position errors (since in
most installations the altimeter and airspeed indicator utilize the same
static source). It is possibe to develop equations relating AP >, nHpc,
A',Vpc, ,'x1VApc, and APp/qcic. This is the subject of the following section.

5.3. 1 ýIPp and AHc:


"-he differential pressure equation for the altimeter can be
written as
dPs = -GPs dHic 5 14
dPs = -0 00108136-- 5.15
dHiC
where
dPs = differential static pressure, "Hg
d.Hic = differential indicated pressure altitude corrected
for instrument error, feet
3
Ps = standard day air density at Hic, slugs/feet

56 5
2
G = gravitational constant, 3Z. 17405 feet/second
ars = standard day air density ratio at Hic, Ps/PSL
In the case of small errors, these differential quantities may be treated
as finite differences. In this case,

dPs = P" Pa Pp, "Hg 5.16

dHic Hic - Hc AFp = -AH PC


4 5. 17
With this approximation

ZHc =
-_=-n 0.0010813as, feet 5.18

where t-, is the standard day air density ratio at Hic. Then
APp = (A.P) A'ipc 5.19
AHpc
This approximation is good for small errors, say AHpc - 1000 feet,
but cannot be used for large errors without introducing some error.
The exact relationship between A? and Al-i can be obtained by
insertion of cys = f(H), equation 1. 10, 1.13 into the aitimeter equation
1.6 and integrating.
2 2
fdPa 1
P2 - Pl = -0.0010813
"1
a dH 5.20

where I represents the actual quantity and 2 represents the indicated


quantity. With this nomenclature

PZ - P1 = Ps - Pa = APp 5.21
Hence H ic
A.P = -0.0010813 adH
r 5. 2
Hc
where
a = (1 - 6. 87535 x 10- 6 H) 4 2561 1.10
for H 6 36, 089 feet, and -5
S0. 29707e-4"
8 0 63 4 x 10 (H - 36,089.24) 1.13

57
for H a 36, 089 feet. Performing this integration and expanding in
terms of AHpc by use of the Binomial theorem, an infinite series is
obtained. Fortunately, only the first two terms are significant. With
this simplification, the result can be expressed as

ln•p Q0813-s,
= 0. 00 feet
pcg feet" I

where o-s is measured at (Hic + . 2 )


LH 4. 25E I
I - 6.87535 x 10-6 (Hic + -11- 4.25-) 5.24

for (Hic + AH PO 30 089 feet, and

2 02977e 4. 80 6 34 x 10-' j[(Hic + ýc )- 3 6, 089 .2 4 ]


5.25
for (Hic + A ' ) 36,089 feet. Equation 5.23 is plotted in several
fo rmn s:

versus H for ANHpc 8.7


AHpc
AP_ versus Hic for IPp 8.8
allpc

4nHpc versus APp for Hic 8..13

Another way to determine APp from AHpc is to find the values


for P. and Pa in the Standard Atmosphere, Table 9. 2 or 9.3,
corresponding to Hic and Hc and subtract.
Example:
Given: Hic 17, 140 feet 550
:I-pc
= feet
Required: APP in "Hg
Solution:
Hc = Hic + ZAHPC =17, 690 feet
From Table 9.3:
Ps = 15.480 "Hg; Pa = 15. 134 "Hg
ApP = Ps - Pa = 0.346 "Hg

58
5.3.2 ZLP, arid LV,,:

An approximate expression for the relationship between


and AVpc can bf obtained by taking the first derivative of the standard
airspeed indicator equation, and considering the derivative to be a
finite difference. The resulting equation is good for small errors, say
AVpc 4 10 knots The standard airspeed indicator equation is given
in Section 2 as

qI--r +0. ( 3.)5


PaSL 0 SL
for Vic - aSL, and
. 7
S166.921 a- 1 2.13
PaSL ]2.5
[ aSL"

for Vic Ž aSL. The definition of qcic is

qciL = Pt' -Ps 5.26

With no error .a the total pressure, equation 5.26 can be


differentia•ted to give

d(qcic) = -d(Ps) 5.27

Differentiating equation 2. 12 and replacing dqcic by its


equivalent, -dPs, Lives the result:

d.PL. 1. 4 PaSL vjj I ++ 0 .2 (Vic )12 2.5 5.28


dVic aSL aSL L' asL J
for Vic S aSL

where
dPs = differential static pressure
dVic = differential airspeed
Assuming the derivatives to be finite differences
dPs = Ps- Pa 5.29

S59
dVic = Vic - Vc = AVp = -AVpc 5. 30

With this approkmation

" P ="% 1.4 Pa , Vi +0. ,2(.-ir. ) 5.31


AVpc aSL aSL aSL
for Vic .! aSL. Similarly, for the case that Vic--%- aSL

52. 854 ((aSL)


v_ I (. 5.32
5.32
aPC F(Vi.c) 2
3

Then
L aSL

A = AVPC) .AVpc
(_P_) 5. 33

The exact expression relating APp and AVPC is derived in the


following manner for the case when no error in the total pressure
source exists.
qcic = Pt' - Ps = f(Vic) 2. 1Z, 2. 13
For the case of no position error
qc = Pt' - Pa = f(Vc) Z.10, Z.11

as qcic = qc and Vic Vc with no position error. Now

APp Ps - Pa = (Pt' - Pa) - (Pt' - Ps) = qc - qcic


Therefore,
AiPp = qc - qcic f(Vc) - f(Vic) 5.34

Since Vc = Vic + AVpc, it is possible to expand the right hand side


of this equation into a series for AVp, by use of the Binomial
Theorem. The resulting series may be discontinued after the
second term with no loss in accuracy for AVpc s 50 knots. The
resulting equation takes the form
4 PaSL
,nip_1.
p_ •c Z. 5. 35
aSL aSL aSL
L'
0
+ .P-aLS + 0 2 ('ýV C + Sa(Y-
)LIVP C
aSL L L aSL jaS
60
for Vic' aSL, and
AP6 V ic V
a 2
P•
t
AP~
= 52.854( aL
6 F2 IV1C2
(a)•.. -
1 6
AVpc L 5.30

5 [._Vi 4 _Ve 2 .
+ 52.854( -c ) _ 4. i + --
aSL aS aS
__

aSj
[ 1

for Vic k aSL. Note that the first term is identical with that obtained by the
approximate method. The second term may be considered as a correction
to the first term that must be applied for large AVpc.
Equation (5. 35, 5. 36) has been plotted in several forms for the
convenience of the reader

ý.2. versus Vic for AVpc Chart 8.9


lVpc

f-t
/-.Vpc versus Vic for nlPp Chart 8. 10

AVpc versus APp for Vic Chart 8. 13

5,3. 3 LYp, and .ýPp/qzic:


The position error pressure coefficient is very useful as a
parameter in high speed flight (Mic > 0. 6). To facilitate obtaining
nPp/qcic from LVpc, a graph of AVp, versus Vic for ZýPn/qcic is plotted
as Chart 8. 11. This chart is determined ,rom the following considerations.

ý'P (-ýPP/PaSL-)
qcic (qci,/PaSL) 5. 37

From equatorns (5, 35, 5. 36, 2. 12, 2. 13 , arid 5, 37)

0 61
1+ 10.7 1 + 0.2(L'c 2 ] n.j}
AP L.c + O.2fjic )2]
qcic I - .... 5.38

aSL.
for Vict aSL, and

3] 2,
Vi
•~ AV
-~ App[[7oc -,S . -: 4J
_,-_______

]"J
OSL,-, 5.39

(V,- i-n n: 125

[I
for Vic • aSL. G

5.3.4 AHpcand AVpc: I .2 2.5


2r 7(
errors, say AI-pc 1000 feet or .p
Sic 1 with small
When(856working 16.91__ý
knots, the value of A~ccan be determined from AVpc, or vice versa, by t•,
equations
following relation which is obtained by dividing the approximate
(5.35 and 5.36) by 5.5Z.

[ .1.+ 5.40

for Vic : aSL, and

Wh e n w wit8 s maIl l e r s s y41 5.41

for Vlin aSli, where ic is measured at Hdi. This equation has been plotted

•in Chart 8.1IZ as AHpc/AVpc versus Vic for ttc

62
0!

For the case of larger errors where equations 5. 18 and 5.31, 5.32
ar,.: not valid, the resulting equation 5.40, 5.41 and Chart 8.12 are of
course not valid. In this case, one should use Chart 8.13 which is
developed from the following relation which in turn is obtained by
consideration of equations 5. 35, 5. 36 and 5. 23.

APp 0.0010813 as WiHpc 5.42


[1_.2+ z(Vic 212.5
]
1. 4 PaSL
Vic L,+•
o.2OL ]-c S asL j asL

0
+ .7 aSL + 1aSL
+ i (ic aZI( )z
aL aSL
for Vic- as,, and

11 68 i
.4aPaSL ( aS i, )21
6a[72( SL 1J ,Vpc
aSL 5

[70y- 13.
z 5

aSL

for V1 • aSL a

where os is rneasured at (HIic +----i). Chart 8. 13 is in ýhe frrn- of


AVpc versus APP for Vic and aPp versus A1-Ipc for Hic, or simply
AVpc versus LHpc: for Vic and 11i•.

63
5. 3. 5 sMpc and A-I.

The Mach number equation may be written as

3
PpC = (I + 0.ZMic2) ." 5.44
PS
for Mic • 1.00. Differentiating, with Pt' constant,

.dP =_ 1.Ps Mic


dMic (I t 0. 2Mic2) 5.45

Making the appeoxltrnatlons

dP5s s - Pa = A\Pp 5.46

dMic Mic - M = = -ZAMOC 5,47

the relation between the static pressure erroi and the Mach number
position correction is obtained.

XPp IA.4 PsMic 5.48


AMpc (1 + 0. ZMicz)

This approximate equation is valid for small errors. The Mach number
position correctaon can be related to the altimeter position correction
by dividing equation 5. 22 by equation 5. 52 and introducing !he perfect
gas equation 1.3.

AM1imp = 0,007438 0. + 0.2MicZ 5.49


%Hpc Tas Mic

formic !- 1.00, where T., is the standard day temperature


corresponding to Hic.
In the supersonic case, Mic =- 1. 00

P t' = 166.9 2lM - 7 5.50


PS (7Mic - -/
Proceeding as in the subsonic case

Ap = 7P3(i1ic 2- 5.51
VPc Mic (7Mic 2 -)

64
and

_•c = 0,001488 Mic (7Micz - 1) 5.52


AHpc Tas(2Mic 2 - 1)
for Mic A1.00, where Tas corresponds to Hic.

Equation 5.49, 5.52 has been plotted in Chart 8.14 in the form:
AMpc/AHpc versus Mic for Ric Chart 8.14
Chart 8. 14 and the above equations on which it is based are valid only
for small errors, say AMpce-0.0 4 or AHpc < 1000 feet.
For larger errors, a better approximation is necessary. The exact
result can be obtained from the following analysis. In general, for
M i c6 1.00.
Pt' - (1 + 0.2Mic 2 ) 3 " 5 5.53
Ps
For the case of no position error,
S(1 + 0.2M2)3.5 5.54

With
APp = Ps - Pa 5.2
and
AMpc = M - Mic 5.17

it is possible to express the exact relationship

- = f(Mic, AMpc) 5. 55
Ps
Expanding by the Binomial Theorem and retaining the first two terms
yields the result
S= 1. 4 MicAMpc + 0. 7(1 - 1. 6Mi¢ )2 AMc 2
(1+ (.Mic2 ) (1 + 0.2Mic ) 2 " 5. 56
k s

for Mic - !.00. Similarly for the supersonic case (Mic-• 1. 00)
=Z 7(Mc2
- - lAMvi 7(21Mic 4 - 23. 5Mic +4)pc
I a 1 2
Mic (7Mic 2 - 1) Mic 2 (7Mic 2 - 1)2
5. 57

65 i
The final result is obtained by dividing equation 5. 27 by equations 5.60,
5.61
-P = 0.0010813p!A- AHpc 5.58
Ps5 P
: 1.4MicAMDc_ +0. 7(1 - 1.6Mic Z)AMO c 2
(l + 0. Mic z) (I + 0.ZMic2)2

for Mic -l 1. 00, and

ý_ý•P= 0.0010813s 4PC 5.59


Ps PS
4 -&3. 5Mi7 + 4)AMpC
7(2Mic 2 - 1) 7(21Mic

Mic(7MiC - 1) Micj2 (7Mic 2 _ 1)2

for Mic -'1. 00, where P. is measured at Hic and (". is measured at
(Hic + AP-). This equation is plotted in Chart 8. 15 in the form of
ZM-pc versus APp/Ps for Hic, and AMpc versus APp/Ps for Mic, or
sinply AMp. versus AHpc for Mic and Hic.
5.3.6 AMpc and AVRC:
For small errors, sr.y AMpc 4 0.04 or AVpc<10 knots, the
ratio AMpc//A.Vpc can be obtaint'd by multiplying equations 5.49, 5.52, 5.40,
5.41 with the result
P~~kSLA.-. I .LS. Ii + 0.2(--.lic (1+ j ..mir
AVpc aSL Ps aSL aSL" Mic
5.60
for Vic aSL, Mic- 1.00;
I_a LIi 2-2.5'1
•V. I L. +0. Z(Li)
+i M;C(7MicZl
NVpc 5 aSL Ps aSL sL (2Mic 2 - 1)
5.61
for Vic 16 asL, Mic• 1.00; and

AM. - 1 6 6 .9 2 1 PaSL 1 (-) 6 [Z(-cL)Z- 11 Mic(7Mic


2
2 -l)
AVpc aSL [T
7 "iC 3.5 (ZMic 1)

66
for Vic ;" aSLI Equations (5. 60, 5.61, 5.62) are plotted in Chart 8. 16
in the form
A--pc versus Mic for Hi. Chart 8. 16
AVpC
No chart has been prepared in which one can directly relate AMpc to
/AV,-c for the case of very large position error where Chart 8.16 is not
In the case of large error, it is possible to determine AMpc from
v:,lid.
AVpc# or vice versa, by the following indirect method:
(1) Given AVpc and Vic, dete!rmine AP p/qcic from Chart 8.11
(2) Determine Mic from Vic and Hic and Chart 8. 5
(3) Determine AMpc from Mic and APp/qcic and Chart 8.18

5.3.7 AM,, and API/qcic:


For small errors, say AMpc- 0.04, the ratio AMpc/(APp/qcic)
may be formed by dividing equation (Z. 26, 2.27) by equation (5.48, 5.51)
* with the result

P 0.2M i.)+ I 0 Mic ) 1 .6


(APp/qcic) 1. 4Mic

for Mi. t 1.00 and

Mic 1166.92lMic 7 - (7Mic 2 - 1) 2.5] 5.64'


AM
(Jp-cc) 7(7Mic 2 - 1)1 " 5 (2Mic 2 - 1)

for Mic -- 1 00. This equation is plotted in Chart 8. 17 in the form

Am-C versus Mic Chart 8.17


(APp/qcic)

The expression for large errors is obtained by dividing equations (5.56


and 5.57) by equations (2.26 and 2. 27).

* 67
1.4Mic !NMp 0.7(1 - 1. ic22 2

(1 + O.2Micz) (1 + 0.2MicZ 5.65


qc ic F1 + 002Micz)3°5
_ 1]
for Mic z_ 1. 00, and
7(2Mic2_ 1),Mpr.
-
7(21Mic 4
- 23. 5Mi.2 + 4)AMpc2

2
(7Mic 2
- 1), Mic (7Mic - 1)2
SMic
qcic
L166.921 Mic7 1]
_(7Mic 2 - _)2.5

for Mic 1- 00. Equations (5.65 and 5.66) is plotted in Chart 8. 18 in the
form

Sversus AMpc for Mic Chart 8. 18


qcic

68
S
5.4 EXTRAPOLATION OF RESULTS

In general, the position error corrections must be established by a


flight calibration made under all flight conditions. In some cases,
however, it is possible to extrapolate over a wide range of conditions
from a calibration over the speed range at one altitude. It has been
shown that

Sfl
qc c
fGLic)
(Mic,

= f 2 (Mc, nW 5.6

To derive this relation experimentally for direct application to any


flight condition would thus require calibrations at several weights and
load factors over the full altitude and speed range of the aircraft.
The appropriate assumptions on which predictions to other conditions
can be made from tests at one altitude depend on the Mach number and
are considered in this section for several ranges of that parameter.

5 5.4. 1 Low Mach Number Range (M.ic 0.6):


For low Mach numbers, the effects of compressibility on
pressure error may be considered negligible. Without introducing
serious error, it may be said that the pressure coefficient is a function
only of lift coefficient (CL) as shown in Figure 5.4.

6
69
S. ... 9t

4 U

04

o 0

000

04
/U
Lift Coefficient, CLi€

Figure 5.4
App/qcic versus CL for Typical
Wing Tip Probe (Good for Low Speed Only)

This plot will represent the flow field around the probe for all
flight conditions in the low Mach number range.
The position error calibrations for a low speed aircraft are
often presented in another manner.

AP
q cic f 33 (C~ic) 5.67

Since CL =nW/(pV 2 S/2) and in the low Mach number range


SL e
V Ve , it can be assumed that
nW
CL s 5.68
L v S/2
SLC

or
nW 5.69
C Lic P .L"ic2

70
Substituting equation 5. 69 in equation 5. 67
Ap nW nW
1)=
f5( 5.70
qcic _ic_

It is possible to obtain a curve of APp/qctc versus Fnw1 Vic,


from the results of a position error calibration over the CL range at
oue altitude. From this plot, the position error pressure coefficient
at any relevant altitude, weight and normal acceleration can be obtained.
A typical plot of APp/ qctc versus Vic showing nW variation and
Mach number effects at the higher speeds it given in Figure 5. 5. It
may be seen from this figure that a change in nW at low speed can
cause a substantial change in position error.

@+
,41c

0-
-4

-4T-

I-i
Indicated Airspeed Corrected for Instrument Error, Vic

Figure 5. 5
Plot of A•ersus e Vic for Low Speed Aircraft

71
0

The altimeter position error correction for low speed aircraft can
be extrapolated from one altitude to another aititude at the same
as long as
indicated airspeed corrected for instrument error (Vic)
there are no appreciable changes "_n weight or load factor. It has
effects
been shown for low speed aircraft in which there are no Mach
that

_P__ f(Vc) only 5.71


qc ic

Therefore, at a given Vic, and hence qcic' and


for constant nW.
constant weight and load factor, the static pressure error (.-'-APp) is

constant during altitude changes Hence. for a given Vic and

constant nw
NHpc = HpcI l--5. 7Z -

(Ap)

In the case of small errors, equation 5,2Z2 yields the result,

= /AHpcl (ý$s ) 5.73


AHpc2

where as, is the density ratio at Hic1, and as, is the density ratio

at Hic2- In that the position error in the low speed range is always
small, the problem of large error does not need to be considered
correction
here. Equation 5.77 states that the altimeter position error
by
can be extrapolated to another altitude at the same Vic
day air densities.
multiplication of A--Hpc by the ratio of the standard
are
This procedure is good only in the low speed range when there
of
no Mach number effects and when the variation in nW is not
significance.

5.4. 2 Medium Subsonic and Transonic Mach Number Range


(0.6 < ivi 1.0):
<•<
In this Mach number range, the position error pressure
so the
coefficient will in general depend on both Nlic and CLic

72
0
general equation must be considered.

Ap
f1 (Mic' CLic) 5.5
Sp
qcic

f 2 (M ic nW 5
1C
Therefore, in the general case a position error calibration must be
conducted at several altitude and weight combinations. In marny
installations however, the effect of the CLic parameter is negligible
in this Mach number range. In this case, a calibration at on. altitude
can be extrapolated to other altitudes. The existence of any CLi.
effect should be investigated by performing tests at two widely different
altitudes and plotting curves of A? p/qcic versus Mic for the values
of nW/6 c, The resut, for a typical nose boom installation is shown
in Figure 5.6. This curve shows that nW/6.i effects exist in the
system tested. This curve would be a single line if there were no
CLic effects.

4 Un

o j 0 nwl

"0 0
.r iCnW nW
___ ~~--- -( W
>_ )) (
n VY 2
0ic ic ic

o.6 .7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1


Indicated Mach Number Corrected for Instrument Error, M.AC

Figure 5.6
Plot of APp/qcic versus Mic for a Typical Nose Boom Installation

Showing nW/qic Effects at Low Speed End

73
When there are no appreciable CLic effects as indicated by a single
curve of APp/qcic(versus Mic for all nW/Sic) the altimeter position error
correction at one altitude can be extrapolated to any other altitude at the
same Mic. With no CLic effect.

S= f(Mic) only 5. 74
qcic
Equations 5. 63, 5,. 4 and 5.65 state

AVlpC = f(Mic, ) 5. 63, 5.64,


•qc~c 5.65

Frorni these equations, it follcws that IMpc is a function of Mic only


and hence independent of altitude when there are no CLic effects.

AMpc = f(Mic) only 5.75

Therefore, one may write


i
',pc
AH
Z'iHpc2 = Hpc1 A 5. 76

for Micd = M 1cz. In the case of small errors, equation 5. 49, 5.52 yields
the result
LHpc?. = ýý,Hpcl (Ta_. _2 5. 77
Tasl
for Micl = Mic2, where Tasi and Tas2 are the standard day air
temperatures corresponding to H-icI and Hic2 respectively. In the
case of large errors, it would appear that the above method of
extrapolation would no longer be valid as equations, (5.53 and 5.56) from
which it is derived are nolonger valid. Fortunately this is not the
case and equation 5.81 can be used for very large errors,, say Al-Ip-C4
3000 feet, with no appreciable loss of accuracy.
5.4.3 Supersonic Mach Number RangeQ~ic>l.0):
An aircraft capable of supersonic f ýig..t should be equipped with
a nose boom installation. In this case, the aircraft bow wave will pass
behind the static pressure holes at a Mic of 1.03 or so. At higher

74
7
Mach numbers, the effect of the lift coefficient on the position error
pressure coefficient will be zero as the pressure field of the aircraft will
not be felt in front of the bow wave. Therefore, any pressure error that
does exist will be a function of Mach number only so that a plot of
APp/qcic versus Mic will be valid for all altitudes. In the usual case,
this error is quite small and may be zero.

5.5 CORRELATION OF RESULTS OF POSITION ERROR CALIBRATIONS


In the nosition error calibration methods discussed in the next
section, data is usually obtained in the form of Alpc or AVpc for the
altitude at which the test was conducted. In this section, methods by which
data from different calibrations can best be correlated is given. The
final report presentation is usually given as AHpc and AVpc versus Vic
with Hic as the parameter. This can be done for both light weight and
heavy weight configurations if weight is an important parameter.
For low speeds in which there are no Mach number effects, the
Sposition error obtained from several calibrations is best correlated by
the use of a plot of AVpc versus Vic. Such a plot will be a single line
which is good for all altitudes for a constant nW with the absence of
Mic effects.
It has been shown that in the low Mach number range

S= fl (Vic) only 5.70


qcic
for constant nW. From Section 5.3.3

AVpc = fq(ci-Pc
qcic Vic) 5.38, 5.39
Therefore, in the absence of Mach number effects
AV PC = f3(Vic) only 5.78

for constant nW
At higher speeds, when there is the possibility of both Mic and CLic
effects, the results of calibrations are best correlated by a plot of
APp/qcic or AMpc versus Mic. It has been shown in the previous
section that this will usually be a single line for Mic> 0. 6 except for
possible low speed nW/S ic breakoffs.
75
5.6 CALIBRATION METHODS

The static pressure error can be determined by any method in


which the indicated static pressure and the free stream static pressure are
obtained at the same time. The indicated pressure is obtained by installing
a sensitive aneroid such as an altimeter in the static pressure system to
be calibrated. The free stream static pressure can be obtained directly
from a measurement of the atmospheric pressure or indirectly from a
measurement of airspeed, in which case the total pressure error must
be known or assumed to be zero. The direct method is called an altimeter
calibration. Some of the more common methods are: the tower fly-by,
the pacer and aircraft fly-by, the altitude pressure comparison methods,
and the trailing bomb method. The indirect method is called an airspeed
calibration. Airspeed calibrations can be obtained by the speed course
method and the pacer and radar methods when airspeeds are compared.
In general, the accuracy of the altimeter calibration is far superior to the
airspeed calibration as the altimeter is a relatively accurate instrument
compared to the airspeed indicator concerning such things as hysteresis
and repeatability It will be shown, however, that at very low speeds an
airspeed calibration may be superior.
The choice of a method will, in general, depend on the instrumentation
available, the degree of accuracy required, and the speed and altitude
range fur which a calibration is desired. The most desirable method or
combination of methods is one which requires a minimum of time,
equipment and manpower to arrive at an accurate calibration over the
entire speed and altitude range of the aircraft; it must be quick and
inexpensive, yet reliable and complete. Several methods are discussed
in this section with this in mind. Each method is described in detail.
Then the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed so that
the reader may choose .the method or combination of methods which best
fulfills his need.

76
7
5. 6. 1 The Tower Fly-By Method(See Data Reduction Outline 7.5):
The tower fly-by is a low altitude method in which the altitude
indicated by the aircraft pitot-static system is compared to the actuaL
pressure altitude to determine the static pressure error. A theodolite
is set up in a control tower or a tall building at a known distance from a
line marked on a runway. The aircraft to be calibrated is flown at
constant speed over this course as close to theodolite level as possible
but at least one full wing span off the ground to be out of ground effect.
As the aircraft passes the theodolite position, the pilot recorde altitude
(Hi) and airspeed (Vi); the theodolite operator measures the vertical
angle to the aircraft. The atmospheric pressure at the theodolite
station is measured with an absolute pressure gage or altimeter, or
static pressure and temperature are measured at the ground and
reference level static pressure is computed on the basis of the standard
temperature lapse rate. The true pressure altitude of the aircraft is
determined by adding the physical difference in height between the
theodolite and the aircraft to the pressure altitude at theodolite level.

Hc M Hc at theodolite level + Ah 5.79


where AIh is determined from the theodolite reading. This operation is
valid, even during extreme atmospheric conditions, as the pressure
gradient will not vary from standard enough to cause appreciable error
in the small height difference between the aircraft and the theodolite.
This method is illustrated in the following figure.

77
0

Pilot Records: Theodolite Operator Records:


Indicated Airspeed, Vi Pressure Altitude of Tower
Indicated Altitude, Ht Vertical Angle to Aircraft, oL

L------------d------ ----------

Hc of Test Aircraft = Hc of Tower t d tan ct

Figure 5.7
Tower Fly-by Method

The tower fly-by method is limited to level flight speeds above stalling
speed by a safe margin. The upper speed limit may be set by local
restrictions prohibiting supersonic flight at or near ground level in a
congested area.
The static pressure error can be determined with very good
accuracy by the use of this method. Atlow speeds, however, any
error in the measurement of the static pressure error becomes very
important when converted to airspeed position error (AV ) as evidenced
p
by equation (5. 35, 5. 36). This effect io illustrated in Figure S. S.

780
Error in AP for r /
0.4 1/20/0 error in -.

airspeed /
0__

$4 0.2. .

4) o-

100 200 300 400 500


Indicated Airspeed Corrected for Instrument Error, Vic (knots)

Figure 5.8
Plot of AP vsaV. Determined from Tower
p ic
Fly-By Calibrations

At the Air Force Flight Test Center, with the use of conventional
aircraft instrumentation an-t a "visual theodolite", this method is
not used for speeds below 200 knots or so for this reason.
The tower fly-by method is very quick, requiring only a few
minutes per point for the flight and manual data reduction. It is
relatively inexpensive as I hour of flight time will cover adequately
the speed range of the aircraft and no extensive equipment is necesuary.
In an improvement of this technique, two ground stations may be
used, one on each side of the lined course. This allows the aircraft
to deviate from the runway without introducing error.
Qne disadvantage of the tower fly-by method, as discussed above,
is the hazard of flying at high speed near the ground. This hazard can
be eliminated by the use of a modified system. In this method, a
photograph is taken as the aircraft passes over a camera which is
directed vertically upward from a position on the marked course.
The tapeline altitude of the aircraft is then determined from the focal

79
length of the camera and the proportion of the size of the image on film
to the true dimensions of the object. The static pressure at this
altitude can be computed or determined by flying the test aircraft at a
speed for which the pressure error is known. Good results have been
obtained with the use of a conventional 35mm camera up to altitudes of
1000 feet. This method is discussed in the report, "Position Error
Determination by Stadiametric Ranging with a 35mm Movie Camera,"
Technical Report No. 2-55, Test Pilot Training Division, U.S. Naval
Air Test Center (Patuxent River, Maryland), June 24, 1955 by
W.J. Hesse.
5. 6.2 The Ground Speed Course Method (See Data Reduction
Outline 7.6):
The ground speed course is another low altitude method which
is especially good at low speeds. It is best used in conjunction with
the tower fly-by method to obtain a low attitude position error
calibration over the entire speed range. This is an '.'airspeed
calibration" in that the error in airspeed is measured directly from
which the static pressure error may be determined - providing the
error in total pressure is known or can be assumed to be zero.
The aircraft to be calibrated is flown over a course of known
length at a uniform speed and at constant altitude. True airspeed is
obtained from time and distance data. Calibrated airspeed, calculated
from true airspeed, is compared to the airspeed indicated by the
aircraft pitot-static system to obtain the error in airspeed due to static
pressure error. The conversion of Vt to Vc requires that both
pressure altitude and free air temperature be known. The pressure
altitude can be obtained by adding the pressure altitude corresponding
to the ground atmospheric pressure to the estimated height of the
aircraft above the ground. Instead of estimating the height of the
aircraft above the ground, an iterative process can be used where
the instrument corrected altimeter reading is first used to find
position error. This position error can then be used to correct the
altimeter reading and the process repeated. Ambient temperature is
80
determined from indicated readings recorded in the aircraft. This method
is described in Figure 5. 9.

Pilot Records:
Indicated Airspeed, Vt
Indicated Temperature. t.
Indicated Altitude, Hij __
Estimated Height
Time

St a r t Know Course Length Finish

V, of Aircraft Vc at Aircraft Pressure Altitude


Corresponding to M, Determined from Vt / a

0 Figure 5.9
Ground Speed Course Method

The aircraft should be flown on reciprocal headings at each speed so


that the effect of head and tail wind can be averaged out. The averaged
ground speed is assumed to be true speed. The aircraft should be
allowed to drift with the wind so that the adverse effect of cross wind
can be eliminated. The test should not be conducttd on a windy day
for any shifting winds introduce error in true speed. The aircraft
should be fairly well stabilized as the timing gives average speed.
However, the holding of an exact speed is not critical. The speed
course should be flown at least one wing span above the ground to be
out of ground effect. This distance should be kept to a safe minimum,
however, because of the need for an estimation of the aircraft height.
Theoretically, this method is good for all level flight speeds above
the stalling speed of the aircraft. The accuracy obtained, however,
is a function of the timing method and the length of the course and
diminishes as speed increases. At high speeds, errors in time

81
measurement may cause the error in airspeed to be obscured by errors
in the measurement of true speed, Therefore, this method gives best
results at tow speeds and can be used at high speeds only if adequate
timing equipment is used and the course is relatively long. The Air
Force Flight Test Center maintains a ground speed course approximately
4 miles long. Time is kept with a stop watch operated by the pilot or
by an aircraft observer. This course is not used for speeds above
250 knots.
The accuracy of the ground speed cour se is poor even in the low
speed range. There is always a scatter of points due to timing errors,
shifting winds and the estimate of temperature at aircraft height which
is needed for calculation of true speed. However, fite results obtained
at low speeds are in general better than those obtained by the tower fly-
by method.
The ground speed course is inexpensive and very simple to maintain
and operate. Each double point takes approximately 10 minutes for the
flight and 10 minutes for manual data reduction.
A variation of the ground speed course is the photogrid method. The
test is conducted in the same manner except that true speed is determined
by means of a camera, a timer, and a calibrated grid installed in a
control tower or other vantage point by a runway. As the aircraft passes
the camera station, photographs are taken through the grid. The film
iecord gives accurate speed and altitude of the aircraft, (See Figure
5. 10.) This method can be used only when a low wind condition exists
or when the wind direction is approximately parallel to the runway or
the same errors will be introduced as when crabbing on a speed
course.

82
0

Camrnera

Photo Shows: Pilcr' Records:


Altitude Indicated Airspeed, V1
Ground Speed Indicated Altitude, Hi
Figure 5.10

Photogrid Method.

5.6.3 The Pacer Method (See Data Reduction Outline 7.7):


Th,- tower fly-by and ground speed course methods which
have been discussed are good for low altitude calibrations. These
calibrations may be extrapolated to higher altitudes as discussed in
Section 5. 4. However, such extrapolations are not always possible.
Furthermore, any extrapolations that are made should be checked at
altitude. Therefore, calibration methods are necessary by which an
aircraft can be calibrated at altitude. One such method is the pacer
method in which the test aircraft is calibrated against another
previously calibrated aircraft called a pacer. This method is very
useful when frequent routine calibrations of aircraft are required.
In the basic form of this method the test aircraft and pacer
are flown side by side approximately one wing span apart to prevent
aircraft pressure field interaction. When the aircraft are stabilized at
the dusired speed and altitude, the pilots read the airspeed and altitude
simultineously, or record the data on a photopanel. (See Figure 5. IL)
A static pressure calibration can be obtained directly from a comparison

0 83
of the altitudes or indirectly from a comparison of airspeeds. By
comparing both altitude and airspeed readings a check can be made
for error in the total pressure system. (An error in total pressure
should be suspected if AV pc determined by a comparison of airspeeds
is consistently greater than AV pc determined by a comparison of altimeter
readings.) This procedure is followed for a series of speeds at a given
altitude to determine the static pressure error as a function of airspeed
for that altitude. In this form, the pacer method is limited to the altitude
and speed capabilities of the reference aircraft.

Calibrated Aircraft Pilot Records:


Indicated Airspeed. Vi
Indi.:ated Altitude, Hi

/ / N .

I - - N

Test P.ircraft Pilot Records: Pressure Altitude of Both Aircraft, Hc


Indicated Airspeed, Vi =Calibrated Aircraft's H i+ AI- ic + H PC
Indicated Altitude, Hi
Figure 5. 11
The Pacer Method

'&t 'Is possible to make calibrations at speeds greater than the speed
capabilities of the reference aircraft by the use of a variation called
the aircraft fly-by method. Here, the test aircraft flies past the pacer
aircraft at the same altitude. With the pressure altitude known from
the pacer calibration, the static pressure error may be obtained at any

84
0

speed for that altitude. It has the advantage over the basic method in
that it is faster as it is not necessary to stabiize the airspeed. In the
aircraft fly-by method, it is necessary that both aircraft be at the same
altitude. Any deviation may be estimated or the test aircraft may be
photographed as it passes by. It is helpful if the pacer aircraft can lay
a trai., for example a contrait, as a reference. This allows the test
aircraft to accelerate up the reference trail with data being taken as
it closes on the pacer aircraft and then either pass the pacer or le-
celerate back down the reference trail. The acceleration-deceleration
technique has the advantage that with data taken both ways the effect
of lag can be averaged out or shown to be negligible. This technique is
very useful for obtaining data in the transonic region. It is possible to
get data up to Mach 1.2 or so with a subsonic pacer. Use of a contrail
provides very accurate data since the altitude of a contrail does not
usually vary more than 20 or 30 feet within 2 miles of the source. One
0 disadvantage is that persistent contrails ar- sometimes difficult to
obtain. In this case the pacer shouLd be equipped with a smoke gen-
erator capable of leaving a wveil defined trail. Use of a smoke gener-
ator is presently limited to non-afteaburing operation, however, since
the smoke from existing smoke generators is nearly dissapated by
the jet exhaust in afterburning.
The calibration of the test aircraft is, of course, only as good as
the pacer calibration. For this reason aircraft must be kept exclusively
as pacers. They should be calibrated in flight and have their instruments
recalibrated at least once a month to insure the accuracy of their
calibrations.

85
The primary advantages of the pacer method over other altitude
nethods are the simplicity of scheduling, testing and data reduction, the
speed and accuracy with which results can be obtained and the fact that
the pacer is not restricted to one geographical area. In short, the pacer
method, is more convenient.
The practicality of the pacer method as compared to other methods

depends on how often calibrations are required. Unless calibrations are


required relatively frequently the cost of maintaining aircraft solely as
pacers is prohibitive. However, when frequent calibrations are required,
the pacer method becomes very practical. In general, the cost of keep-
ing the pacer in the air is offset by the reduction in flying time necessary
to establish a calibration.
5. 6.4 Altitude Pressure Comparison Methods Requiring Pressure
Survey (See Data Reduction Outline 7.8):
in this method the position of thc aircraft in flight is fixed in
space by the use of a radar-theodolhte system or a phototheodolite complex
such as an Askania range. The static pressure error is determined by
comparing the aircraft indicated altitude to the pressure altitude which
is determined from the tapeline altitude by means of a pressure survey.
The pressure survey can be conducted in one of several ways:
1. The test aircraft can be tracked by the radar or phototheodolite
equipment as it climbs through the required altitude range at a
low speed for which the static pressure error is known. It is
then flown through the surveyed region at higher speeds for
which a calibration is desired. It is possible to use another
aircraft which has previously been calibrated to make this
pressure survey. In either case, it should be noted that a survey
made using this technique can be no better than the original
calibration.
2. A radiosonde ballon transmitting pressure measurements can
be tracked to determine pressure as a function of tapeline altitude.
Better accuracy can be obtained bj the use of a modified pressure
capsule which is more accurate.
3. Data from a radiosonde balloon transmitting temperature and
pressure canbe used to find temperature as a function of pressure
and the relation between altitude and pressure deduced by integration.
Pa
R= ) (Pa) 1. 17
PaSL

This integration is discussed in "Mach Number Measurements and


Calibrations During Flight at High Speeds and at High Altitudes
Including Data for the D-558-11 Research Airplane, NACA RM
H55JI8, 1956 (Confidential) by Brunn and Stillwell. With the use
of the same equipment, this method gives much better results than
does tecnnique 2.
The results of the pressure survey are plotted as pressure or pressure altitude
versus tapeline altitude, The test aircraft is then flown in the surveyed
region, recording airspeed and altitude as the radar or phototheodolite
records height. The true pressure altitude for each test point is
determined from the radar height and pressure survey curve. (See
Figure 5.12).

87
SURVEY
Radar Records:
Height
Calibrated Aircraft Pilot Records:
Indicated Airspeed, Vi
/ •Indicated Altitude, Hi
/ Then:
S
!
Surve/yed /e
Region 'i
HH
C
= H.i
1
+ AH. C + .H P
/ Region / Results of Survey Plotted As
/"

//

/ 3C4

/ --- /__ Pressure Altitude


/
- - - - - - CALIBRATION
-- --- , Radar Records:
Height
Test Aircraft Pilot Records:
Indicated Airspeed, Vi
Indicated Altitude, Hi
Then:
Hc = Pressure Altitude at Radar
Height on Survey Plot.

Figure 5. 12
Altitude Pressure Comparison Method Using Radar

When a phototheodolite system is used the aircraft is tracked from a


series of stations with cameras to determine the position in space. The
tapeline altitude is determined by triangulation. A mirimum of two stations
is required for a fix. It is desirable to obtain data frcm more stations to
give additional fixes, which reduces the uncertainty of the measurement.
The accuracy with which tapeline altitude can be obtained is very good.
However, the overall accuracy of the pressure error determination is
limited by that of the pressure siurvey. Because of the complexity of the
tracking system, the data must be processed on a digital computer. Hence,

88
the data reduction time is apt to be quite large. In additions, the process
is quite expensive as it requires costly equipment, large crews to rliainta.in
and operate the equipment, and machine data reduction.
The tapeline altitude can be calculated from the elevation and slant
range given by a radar-theodolite assembly. The data reduction for this
type of installation is much less time consuming than that required by the
above installation as one station gives all the necessary information. The
radar unit will not give quite as accurate results as those which can be
obtained with the photo-theodolite range but its accuracy can be at least as
good as that of the pressure survey.
At the Air Force Flight Test Center. radar tracking has been found to
be very satisfactory, reliable and relatively economical. Pro-.ided that
the target carries a beacon, it can be tracked out to a slant range of nearly
100 miles. More refined information, obtained by using a bore-sight
camera to correct for radar hunt in azimuth and elevation, can be obtained
out to about 20 miles, depending on contrast and so on. The accuracy of
the height data is comparable to that with which the associated pressure can
be measured or computed. but good velocity data cannot be obtained unless
the target is flying in a steady manner. This is illustrated in Figure 4. 13
in which a time history from a typical radar calibration is given. A-
relatively low frequency hunt is apparent which prevents use of the data
to deduce velocity unless quite a long record can be averaged. riowever.
when the aim is to calibrate the static pressure source. the radar method
is used because of its simplicity and economy. When a more lrtcise
trajectory is required, capable of yielding ground speeds directly, the
Askania range is used. This gives subseantial improvement in precision
but cost and complication are much greater than those of a radar
calibration. A minimum of four cameras is considered essential and six
or more are used if the target is to be tracked over a distance of the order
of that covered by the bore-sight radar.

0 89
39 ,0 0 0 y -7
--
- --
* Pressure Altitude from Aircraft Photopanel
OTapeline Altitude as Given by Radar
38,000

3)7,o00

36,000--
4. .

S 4Z (-- -Z 1 6 iz
18 zo
Time, t, (Sec)

Figure 5.13
Results of a Radar Calibration Showing
Typical Low Frequency Hunt

These techniques are costly and tedious but they can be used in many
situations where some of the less complicated methods fail. They permit
calibrations in high speed dives and maneuvers, as well as in level flight,
and allow calibration of rocket powered aircraft and missiles as long as
they stay %Vithinthe range of the tracking equipment.
5.6. 5 The All-Altitude Speed Course:
The principle of the ground speed course can be used at altitude
to determine the error in airspeed measurement in the aircraft pitot-static
system. However, the establishment of an altitude speed course which
will give comparable accuracy is difficult. It is necessary to use an
elaborate timing device and electronic or optical means to establish the
course length. The accurate measurement of temperature at altitude
presents a problem. One must rely either on a previously calibrated free
air temperature probe or the weather service and a pressure survey.
Also the higher winds which usually exist.at altitude cause considerable
scatter of data. Thereforv, the speed course is .iot recomenicndcd for

90
altitude calibrations.
A certified speed course has been established aL the AFFTC for the
purpose of obtaining internationally accepted speed records. It is possible
to use this course as a speed course to obtain position error. It is an
optical course approximately 10 miles long at 35, 000 feet. The overall
accuracy of the speeds obtained are to the order of 0. 15 percent. Therefore.
there is little error in the measurement of ground speed by this method.
However, the problems of conversion to true speed and calibrated airspeed
and the determination of pressure altitude make the use of the course for
this purpose quite impractical.
5. 6. 6 The Trailing Bomb Method:
In this method a static pressure source is built into a "bomb"
which is suspended on a Long cable and allowed to trail well below and aft
of the aircraft so as to be out of the aircraft pressure field and thus to
record free stream static pressure. This is compared to the indicated
static pressure (or altitude). to give the static pressure error. The
pressures from the two sources may be connected by means of a sensitive
differential pressure gage to give the pressure error direttly. Hence the
accuracy can be very good as long as the trailing bomb is out of the
aircraft pressure field
At low speeds the weight of the bomb is enough to keep it below the
test aircraft. At higher speedb, say above ZOO knots indicatcd, the bomb
must be fitted with small wings set at a negative angle of attack to keep it
out of the slipstream of the aircraft. This, however, introduces the
instability pioblems of a towed glider.
This method is goo( at stalling speed as long as the downwash at high
angles of attack does not cause instability. The upper limit in speed is
the speed at which the system encounters high speed instability. It Ls
believed that this high speed instability is due to cable oscillations which
originate near the aircraft and ar- amplified by aerodynamic forces as
they travel down the cable,
0_
Years ago when airrraft were not capable of high speeds this was a
very popular method. In the case of modern aircraft, this method has
lost its popularity because of the high speed instability problem. It is
still sometimes used, however, for the calibration of low speed aircraft
such as transports.

92
SECTION 6
CALIBRATION OF THE FREE AIR TEMPERATURE
INSTRUMENTATION

6.1 INSTRUMENT ERROR


The major errors in the temperature ttdicatlng system are a result
of variation of the resistance temperature coefficient in the sensing
element and electrical defects in the bridge circuit and ammeter. Errors
caused by the sensing elements are minimized by the selection of good
quality elements from the manufacturer's lots. The standard tolerance
is t 2 degrees C; however, units having a maximum error of t 0. 5 degrees
C are selected for flight test work. A laboratory calibration is conducted
to determine errors in the bridge circuit and indicator. The instrument
is calibrated every 2 degrees C over the temperature range of
anticipated use. A typical calibration plot is shwn in Figure 6. 1.

0~ 0

+iO
Indicated Air Temperature, t i (°C)

Figure 6. 1
Free Air Temperature Instrument Calibration Plot

The indicated temperature corrected for instrument error (Tic) is


obtained from this curve, as
Tic - Ti + Ttc 6.1
where
Ti a indicated temperature

ATic , free air temperature instrument correction


5 corresponding to Ti

93
6. 2 DETERMINATION OF THE TEMPERATURE PROBE RECOVERY FACTOR

The equation for the free air temperature probe was derived in Section
Z.4 as

Tic nI + KM 2 2.30
Ta5

where
Ta a free air temperature, 'K
Tic a indicated temperature corrected for instrument error,
"OK
M a free stream Mach number
K a temperature probe recovery factor

Values of K should be determined in flight as they depend on the


installation. Usually at subsonic speed&. variation in K with Mach number
and altitude is ncc significant. At supersonic speeds, however, where
temperature rises are much larger, variations in K may exist which must
be well established in order that ambient temperatures may be calculated
accurately, It is considered advisable to determine values of K throughout
the speed range at a high and a low altitude to investigate possible variations
in K. This is quite frequently done in conjunction with one or more of the
airspeed calibration methods described in Section 5. Several techniques are
discussed in the following paragraphs by which temperature probe recovery
factors can be determined. The use of radiosonde temperatures in lieu of
data derived from tree air temperature instruments is also considered.

1. The aircraft is flown at a ae-ris of Mach numbers and the


data is plotted as K versus M where

c -16.2

9T
This data is readily obtained in conjunction with airspeed calibrations when
"apacer aircraft is used, since ambient temperatures can be obtained with.
"a calibrated probe. The results of a typical calibration are given in Figure

0 l. O0
1.00 - A

U
U - " - ) --

* 0.90--
0.9

0Z-_ K For the Installation


0.80
* 10,000 Feet
. - x 40,000 Feet

' 0.70 -er, M


Figure 6. Z
Plot of K versus M Used to Determine
The Temperature Probe Recovery Factor, K

Indicated temperatures, recorded while conducting speed-power tests,


together with radiosonde temperatures may be used conveniently to make
a similar presentation. Care must be taken in this case to avoid
systematic errors in ambient temperature measurements.
2. The aircraft is flown at a series of speeds at a constant
pressure altitude. It ig therefore necessary to prepare tables in advance
showing altimeter reading (Hi) at which the aircraft is to be flown for each
airspeed.
Hi Hc - Aic - AHPc 6.3

95
rA

where
lie : presaure altitude at which te•it is to be made
H-itc " altimeter instrument correction corresponding to H
AH PC altimeter position error correction corresponding to H.

The results are plotted as l/Tic versus M 2 /Tic. When this is done, tht
slope of a line faired through the data is equal to ( -K/5 ) as

I I K M2 6.4
Ti Ta 5 Tic

The intercept on the I/Tic axis is l/Ta' Repeat tests made at different
air temperatures will give a series of parallel straight lines if K is a
constant for the installation. Figure 6. 3 shows a plot where runs have been
made at two altitudes.

-1/ Ta 1 (Fro wtather seivice for Hcl)

Test at He1

Z•- ITest at 1H.-,"

0 M ic

Figure 6. 3

Plot of V/Tic verous Mz2 /Tic Used to Determine


the Temperature Probe Recovery Factor, K

96
This method has the advantage that K can be determined independently of
Ta, although it is essential that it remains constant. If Ta is known, say
from radiosonde data, it can be used to help establish the slope of the line.

3. Recovery factors can also be determined in conjunction with


airspeed calibrations made with the tower fly-by method. In this case
a very nearly constant pressure altitude is maintained during each pass
by the tower, By recording temperature in the tower and in the aircraft
for each pass, the value of K can be established using either of the
presentations described in the preceeding paragraphs. This method
assumes that temperatures recorded in the tower are the same as the
ambient temperatures at the probe located on the aircraft. Errors may
be incurred if the aircraft is flown higher than the tower, which it usually
is. and a pronounced temperature gradient exists. Tower fly-bys are best
* rmade during the early morning, however, when the air is most stable
near the ground and temperature gradients are small.

4. The speed course method of obtaining airspeed calibrations


alfo yields data from which values of K can be computed. From Section 2. 52

2. 36
38. 967 ITat

Substituting this expression into equation Z. 30

Tic = Ta + KVt 6.5


7592

where Vt is in knots and Tic and Ta are in *K. The results are plotted
as Tic versus Vt. Then, the slope of a line faired through the data is
equal to (+K/7592). The intercept on the Tic axis is Ta. (See Figure 6.4)

97
'a
*1
0
(j
-

i4

'U 4

02

at
Figure 6. 4
Plot oft.i vs V t 2Used to Determine the
Temnperature Probe Recovery Factor, K

T acan be used with this method also as an aid in establishing the slope
of the line through the test points. It is necessary, however, to have
low wind conditions or a considerable error in V and hence K may
o
result.
When the value of K is established, free air temperature is most
easily determined from equation 2.30. Chart 8.2 has been included
in Section 8 to facilitate this operation.
Temperature probe recovery factors for supersonic flight may be
determined from the methods deecribed in paragraphs I and 4 above.
Supersonic pacer aircraft with well established probe calibrations for
the flight conditions obtained with high speed test aircraft are not generally

98
0

available, however, the method described in paragraph Z, where the test


aircraft is flown at constant pressure altitude, may be used but additional
flight time will probably be required to define K values satisfactorily.
Consequently, the use of radiosonde data is likely to be best at supersonic
speeds. Recommended temperature accuracies of radiosondes listed in
Air Weather Service TRI05-133 are

+ 1. 5°C from + 40"C to - 50"C


+ 2.0"C from - 50°C to -*70°C
+ 3.0"C from - 70*C to - 90"C

These values were recommended as representing reasonable accuracies


to be expected of the temperature data obtained from radiosondes used by
the various United States meteorological services. For most accurate
results, ambient temperatures from radiosonde data should be based on
* three or more soundings obtained from stations surrounding the area in
which the test aircraft is flown. These soundings should be made within
2 or 3 hours of the titme test data is taken. Also, it is best to examine the
most recent weather charts prior to flight so that possible frontal passages
with significant temperature differences may be avoided.

99
SECTION 7
DATA REDUCTION OUTLINES

7.1 CORRECTION OF AIRSPEED INDICATOR AND ALTIMETER FOR


PRESSURE LAG DURING CONSTANT CLIMB. CONSTANT DESCENT,
AND/OR ACCELERATION (See Section 4. 2)

1. XsSL sec Altimeter Lag Constant at Standard Sea


Level, from previous calibration
z XtSL sec Total Pressure Lag Constant at Standard
Sea Level, from previous calibration

3 Vic knots Indicated Airspeed Corrected for


Instrument Error

4 Hic feet Indicated Altitude Corrected for


Instrument Error

5 dHic/dt ft/min Apparent Rate of Climb (+) or Descent(-),


from time history of (4) or from R/C indicator

6 dVic/dt j kt/sec Apparent Acceleration (+) or Deceleration


I (-), from time history of (3)

7 jta C True Atmospheric Temperature, from tic


and K and M and Chart 8. 2 or from weather
service.

8 %/ Hic Lag Constant Temperature Correction, from


(4) and (7) and Chart 8.62
9 sHic/ XsSL Static Pressure Lag Constant Ratio, frcm

(4) and Chart 8.61 for Vic = STATIC


10 XtHic/ )ItSL, Total Pressure Lag Constant Ratio, from (4)
and (3) and Chart 8. 61

11 s sec Altimeter Lag Constant, (1) x (8) x (9)

12 t sec Total Pressure Lag Constant, (2) x (8) x (10)

13 AHic1 feet Altimeter Lag Correction, (11) x (5)---60

100

i =now
14 F1(Hic. Vic) Airspeed Indicator Lag Factor, from (3)
and (4) and Chart 8. 63

15 AVicI knots Airseed Indicator Lag Correction. (12) x


(6) +T11) - (12)] x (14) x (5) t.- 6-0

16 Hic! feet Indicated Pressure Altitude Corrected


for Instrument and Lag Error, (4) + (13)

17 Vicl knots Indicated Airspeed Corrected for In-


strument and Lag Error, (3) + (15)

7. 2 LABORATORY CALIBRATION FOR THE STATIC PRESSURE LAG


CONSTANT (See Section 4.3)

Case a: When pressure gages are used

1 Counter Number

2 t sec Time

3 Ta OK Room Temperature, 'C + 273.16


4 Pal "Hg Probe Enclosure Static Pressure Gage
Reading

5 P "Hg Aircraft Static Pressure Gag-.Reding

6 Plot (4) and (5) versus (2) on one graph. (At any pressure coordinate,
the time difference between (4) and (5) is the static pressure lag
constant for that pressure. This lag will decrea. e as pressure
increases.)

7 a sec Static Pressure Lag Constant for any


Pressure, from (6)

8 Ps/PaSL Pressure Ratio at the Pressure used to


Determine (7)

9 sSL sec Sea Level Sjatic Pressure Lag Constant,


(7) x (8) x (

101
Case b: When altimeters are used
1 I Counter Number

2 t sec Time

3 Ta K Room Temperature, °C + Z73.16

4 Hi 1 feet Probe Enclosure Altimeter Reading


5 AHic feet Probe Enclosu, - Altimeter Instrument
Correction Corresponding to (4)

6 Hici feet Probe Enclosure Simulated Pressure


Altitude, Corrected for Instrument Error,
(4) + (5) _

7 Hi feet Aircraft Altimeter Reading

8 -lic feet Aircraft Altimeter Instrumnent Correction


Corresponding to (7)
9 Hic feet Aircraft Indicated Pressure Altitude
Corrected for Instrument Error, (7) + (8)

10 Plot (6) and (9) versus (Z) on one graph. (At any altitude coordinate,
the time difference between (6) and (9) is the static pressure lag
constant for that altitude. This lag wi.l increase as altitude increases.)

11 8s sec Static Pressure Lag Constant for any Altitude,


from (10)

12 Ps/PaSL Pres3ure Ratio at the Pressure used to


Deterrrline (I )

13 sSL sec Sea Level Static Pressure Lag Constant,


(12)x(11)x Z88. 16

7.3 LABORATORY CALIBRATION FOR THE TOTAL PRESSURE LAG


CONSTANT (See Section 4. 3)
Case a: When pressure gages are used

102
1 Counter Number

Z t sec Time

3 Ta *K Room Temperature, -C + 273.16

"4 Pti Hg Probe Enclosure Total Pressure Gage


Reading

5 P? "Hg Aircraft Total Pressure Gage Reading

6 Plot (4) and (5) versus (2) on one graph. (At any pressure coordinate,
the time difference between (4) and (5) is the total pressure lag
constant for that pressure. This lag will decrease as pressure
increases.)
7kt ] sec Total Pressure Lag Constant for any

I Pressure, fromm (6)


8 Pt,/PaSL I Pressure Ratio at the Prcsure Used to
| Determine (7), (5)/29.92"
SL sec Sea Level Total Pressure Lag Constant,
I (7) x (8) 288.16

Case b: When airspeed indicators are used

1 Counter Number

2 t sec Time

3 Ta *K Room Temperature, °C + 273. 16

4 Pa "Hg Room Ambient Pressure

5 Vil knots Probe Enclosure Airspeed Indicator Reading

6 AVic knots Probe Enclosure Airspeed Indicator Instru-


ment Correction Corresponding to (5)

7 Vicl knots Probe Enclosure Indicated Airspeed


Corrected for Instrument Error, (5) + (6)

103
74

8 i V i knots Aircraft Airspeed Indicator Reading

Aireraft Airspeed Indicator Instrument


9 1 AVic knots
I Correction Corresponding to (5)

10 Vic knots Aircraft Indicated Airspeed Corrected


for Instrument Error. (8) + (9)

11 Plot (7) and (10) versus (2) on one- graph. (At any airspeed coordinate,
the time difference between (7) and (10) is the total pressure lag
constant for that airspeed. This lag will decrease as airspeed
increases.)

12 t sec Total Pressutre Lag Constant for any


Airspeed. from (11)

13 qcic "Hg Differential Pressure Corresponding to


the Airspeed Used to Determine (12), from
Table 9.6

14 Pt' "Hg Total Pressure Corresponding to the


Airspeed Used to Determine (12), (4) + (13)

15 Pt'/PaSL Pressure Ratio at the Airspeed Used to


Determine (12), (14)/29.92

lb %tSL sec Sea Level Total Pressure Lag Constant,


((12) x(15)x 288.16

7.4 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS OF POSTIiON ERROR CALIBRAT.JONS

AND EXTRAPOLATION PROCEDURES (See Section 5.4)

A position error calibration is usually conducted at a series of speeds


for a given altitude. From this data it is possible to determine AVpc

(and/or APp/qcic) for a series of Vic (or Mi,) at a given Hic as shown in
Data Reduction Outlines 7. 5j 7. 6, 7. 7 and 7. 8. This information should
be plotted in accordance with the following outline:

104
Fo ic < . 6, plot AVPCversus

p H
Vic

For Mic•> 0.6, plot APp/qcic versus Utc for Hic

-E
qcic
Htc

The plot of AV., versus Vtc is good for all altitudes for which there
are no Mach number effects. (Mach number effects will appear as
altitude breakoffs at the high speed end of the curve. ) The plot of
P/ q Cie versus Mic to good for all altitudes for which there are no
CILjc (nW/ 6ic) effects. (Such effects will appear as nW/6ic breakoffe.
usually at the low speed end of the curve.) A check at a second altitude
should be made to see if there are any such altitude breakoffs. The
following typical result may be obtained.

105
Hvc

In the final report, the position error is usually plotted as AlP and AV
versus Vc for constant Hic For each Hic for which such plots are desired:

1 H. feet Indicated Altitude Corrected for Instrument Error


"IC
for which plot is desired.
2 V knots Arbitrary Indicated Airspeed Corrected for Instrument
Error.
3 M. Indicated Mach Number Corrected for Instrument
__c Error, from (1) and (2) and Chart 8. 5.

4 APp Position Error Pressure Coefficient, from plot of


q cic AP__/qcc versus Mic for Q) and (o).
5 AV PC knots Airspeed Indicator Position Error Correction, from
PCP
(2) and (4) and Chart 8. Ll or from plot of AV
versus Vi. for (1) and (2).
6 pc feet Altimeter Position Error Correction, f, '5) and
(2) and (1) and Chart 8.13. (For small errors, say
AV P 10 knots, the approximate Chart 8.12 may
be used.)
7 Plot AV and AH versus V for Hc. Repeat for other Hic.
c *
IPC PC tc 1

* In the case of low speed aircraft in which there are no Mic effects or high speed
6 ic effects, the curve of AI versus V.
aircraft in which there are no n W/
for one altitude can be extrapolated to other altitudes by the following procedure:

Case a: Low Speed Aircraft (No Mic effect)

105
S Hic feet Indicated Altitude Corrected for Instru-
ment Error Corresponding to an Arbitrary
Vic

2 A£ •I feet Altimeter Position Error Correction


Corresponding to (1)

3 Wl Density Ratio Corresponding to (1).


from Table 9. 2

4 H4 icZ feet Arbitrary Indicated Altitude Corrected


for Instrument Error

5 2 Density Ratio Corresponding to (4). from


Table 9.2
6 &Hpc2 feet Altimeter Position Error Correction
Corresponding to (4) for same Vic as (1),
(2) x (3) -... (S)

Case b: High Speed Aircraft (No nW/6ic effect)

cl fe et Ind i c a t e d A lt i t ud e C o r r e c t e d fo r In s t r u -
SHi
ment Error Corresponding to an Arbitrary
Vic.
2 &Hpcl feet Altimeter Position Error Correction
Corresponding to (1)

3 Tasl OK Air Temperature Corresponding to (1),


from Table 9. 2

4 Hic2 feet Arbitrary Indicated Altitude Corrected tor


Instrument Error

5 TasZ OK Air Temperature Corresponding to (4),


from Table 9. 2

6 &Hpc2 feet Altimeter Position Error Correction


Corresponding to (4) for same Vic as
) x (5) - (3)

l 107
7.5 THE TOWER FLY-BY METHOD (See Section 5.6.1)

1 Pass Number

2 Time of Day

3 Theodolite Reading
4 Ah feet Aircraft Height Above (+) or Below (-)
Theodolite Reference Altitude, from (3)

5 Pa *Hg Pressure at Reference Altitude, from weather


service or theodolite altimeter set at 29.9Z
and Corrected for Instrument Error. (If
altimeter is used (6) below is obtained
directly.)

6 feet Theodolite Reference Pressure Altitude,


from (5) and standard atmosphere
(Table 9. 2)
7 Hc feet Pressure Altitude of Aircraft, (6) + (4)

8 Hi feet Aircraft Indicated Altitude

9 AHic feet Aircraft Altimeter Instrument Correction


Corresponding to (8)
10 Hic feet Indicated Pressure Altitude Corrected for
Instrument Error. (8) + (9)
11 &HpC feet Aircraft Altimeter Position Error Correction
(7) - (10)

12 Vi knots Aircraft Indicated Airspeed


13 &Vic knots Airspeed Indicator Instrument Correction
Corresponding to (12)
14 Vic knots Indicated Airspeed Corrected for Instru-
ment Error, (12) + (13)
15 Mic Indicated Mach Number Corrected for
Instrument Error, from (10) and (14) and Chart
8.5

108
16 AVpc knots Airspeed Indicator Position Error
Correction, from (10) and (11) and (14) and
Chart 8.13. (For small errors, say
Alip 4- •1000 feet, the approximate Chart
8. 12 can be used)

17 AP Position Error Pressure Coefficient,


qcic from (14) and (16) and Chart 8. 11. (This
must be determined only for Mic> 0.6
or so.)

Note: For presentation of results and ex-,'apolation, see Data Reduction


Outline 7.4.

7.6 THE GROUND SPEED COURSE METHOD (See Section 5.6.2)

1 Pass Number

2- feet Course Length

3 Atj sec Time Across

4 At 2 sec Time Back

5 Vgl ft/sec Ground Speed Across, (2) -t- (3)

6 Vgz ft/sec Ground Speed. Back, (2) (4)

7 Vt ft/sec True Speed or Average Ground Speed,


(5) + (6) -- 2

8 Vt knots True Speed, 0. 5921 x (7)

9 Ah feet Estimated Height of the Aircraft Above


the Ground

10 ta 6C Atmospheric Temperature at Aircraft


Height, Ground Temperature - 0.00198 (9)

11 M Mach Number. from (8) and (10) and Chart


8.4

12 Vi knots Indicated Airspeed

109
13 AV. knots Airspeed Indicator Instrument Correction
IC Corresponding to (12)

14 Vic knots Indicated Airspeed Corrected for Instru-

ment Error. (12) + (13)

15 Hi feet Indicated Altitude

16 AHic feet Altimeter !nstrument Correction


Corresponding to (1 5)

17 Hic feet Indicated Altitude Corrected for Instru-


ment Error, (15) + (16)

18 Mic Indicated Mach Number Corrected for


Instrument Error, from (14) and (1.7) and
Chart 8. 5

19 AMpc Machmeter Position Error Correction,


1l) -(18)

20 AP Position Error Pressure Coefficient, from


qc ic (19) and (18) and Chart 8.18. (For small
errors, say AM c 4_ 0.04, the approximate
Chart 8.17 may be used.)

21 AVpc knots Airspeed Indicator Position Error Correction,


from (14) and (20) and Chart 8.11

Note: For presentation of results and extrapolation, see Data Reduction


Outline 7.4

7. 7 THE PACER METHOD (See Section 5. 6. 3)


Case a: The Stabilized Flight Method

I Pass Number

Z Hc feet Pressure Altitude, pacer Hi + AHic + AHpc

3 Vc knots Calibrated Airspeed, pacer Vi + AVic + AVpc

110
4 Hi feet Test Aircraft Indicated Altitude

5 AHic feet Test Aircraft Altimeter Instrument


Correction Corresponding to (4)

6 HIC feet Test Aircraft Indicated Altitude Corrected


for Instrument Error, (4) + (5)

7 A14 PC _Correction
feet (2) Altimeter
Test Aircraft (6) -
Position Error

8 Vi knots Test Aircraft Indicated Airspeed

9 AVic knots Test Aircraft


Correction Airspeed Indicator Instrument
Corresponding to
(8)

10 Vic knots Test Aircraft Indicated Airspeed Corrected


for Instrument Error, (8) + (9)

11 &Vpc knots Teet Ai-craft Airspeed Inceicator Position


Error Correction. (3) - (10) or from (7) and
(6) and (10) and Chart 8.13. (For small
errors, say 4HPc, - 1000 feet, the approxi-
mate Chart 8.1 Z may be used.)

Note: With the altimeter and airspeed indicator systems both .ising the same
static source, AHpc and AVpc are related according to Chart 8. 12 or 8.13.
In the pacer calibration AHpc and AVp, are both determined independently;
hence one of the values is redundant. The altimeter is a much more reliable
instrument than the airspeed indicator regarding such things as repeatability
and hysteresis so, in general, it is best to rely on the calibrated AHpc and
calculate AVpc. It is possible, however, for low airspeeds and low altitudes
that AVpc may give better results.

12 Mic Indicated Mach Number Corrected for


Instrument -Error, froa, (6) and (10) and Chart
8.5

13 &P Position Error Pressure, Coefficient, from


qcic (10) and (11) and Chart 8.11. (This step is
necessary oly for Mic >0.6 or so.)

111
pp-

Note: For presentation of results and extrapolation, see Data Reduction


Outline 7. 4

Case b: The Aircraft Fly-By Method

I Pass Number

2 Hc feet Pressure Altitude, pacer H. + AHic + AHPc

3 Hi feet Test Aircraft Indicated Altitude

4 AHic feet Test Aircraft Altimeter Instrument Correction


Corresponding to (3)

5 Hic feet Test Aircraft Indicated Altitude Corrected


for Instrument Error, (3) + (4)

6 AHpc feet Test Aircraft Altimeter Position Error


Correction, (2)_ (5)
-I--

7 i V. knots Test Aircraft Indicated Airspeed


,,.. 1

8 LVic knots Test Aircraft Airspeed Indicator Instru-


ment Correction Corresponding to (7)

9 Vic knots Test Aircraft Indicated Airspeed Corrected


for Instrument Error, (7) + (8)
10 AVpc knots Test Aircraft Airspeed Indicator Position
Error Correction, from (6) and (5) and (9)

and Chart 8. 13. (For small errors, say


AHpC 4 1000 feet, the approximate Chart
8. 12 may be used.)

11 Mic Indicated Mach Number Corrected for


Instrument Error, from (5) and (9) and Chart
8.5

12 1P j Position Error Pressure Coefficient, from


""-(9)and (10) and Chart 8.11.(This step is
qcic necessary only for Mic > 0.6 or so.)

Note: For presentation of results and extrapolation see Data Reduction


Outline 7. 4

112
7.8 ALTITUDE PRESSURE COMPARISON METHODS REQUIRING PRESSURE
SURVEY (See Section 5.6.4)

1 Determine a survey plot of tepeline altitude versus pressure altitude


by one of the methods discussed in Section 5. 6. 4

o - Data Points

Pressure Altitude, H

2 h feet Tapeline Altitude, from radar or


Askania data.
3 HK feet Aircraft Pressure Altitude, from (1)
and (2)

4 Hi feet Indicated Altitude

5 AHic feet Altimeter Instrument Correction Corres-


ponding to (4)

6 Hic feet Indicated Altitude Corrected for Instru-


ment Error, (4) + (5)
7 &Hpc feet Altimeter Position Error Correction,
(3) _(6)

8 Vi knots Indicated Airspeed

9 AVic knots Airspeed Indicator Instrument Correction


Corresponding to (8)

10 Vic knots Indicated Airspeed Corrected for Instru-


ment Error, f8) + (9)

11 Mic bIdicated Mach Number Corrected for


Instrument Error, from (6) and (10) and
Chart 8. 5
113
12 aVpc knots Airspeed Indicator Position Error
Correction, from (7) and (6) and (10)
and Chart 8.13. (For small errors,
say AHpc 4 1000 feet, the approximate
Chart 8. 12 may be used. )

13 APp Position Error Pressure Coefficient, from


qcic (10) and (12) and Chart 8.11. (This step
is necessary only for Mic >0. 6 or so.)

Note: For presentation of results and extrapolation see Data Reduction


Outline 7.4.

7.9 CALIBRATION FOR TEMPERATURE PROBE RECOVERY FACTOR


(See Section 6. 2)

Case a: K determined from plot of K versus M

I IPass Number

2 Hi feet Altimeter Reading

3 AHic feet Altimeter Instrument Correction Corres-


ponding to (2)

4 Hic feet Indicated Pressure Altitude Corrected for


Instrument Error, (2) + (3)
5 Hpc feet Altimeter Position Error Correction
Corresponding to (4)

6 Hc feet True Pressure Altitude, (4) + (5)

7 Vi knots Airspeed Indicator Reading

8 AVic knots Airspeed Indicator Instrument Correction


Corresponding to (7)

9 Vic knots Indicated Airspeed Corrected for Instrument


Error, (7) ÷,(8)

10 LVpc knots Airspeed Indicator Position Error Correc-


tion Corresponding to (9)

114
0
1 Vc knots Calibrated Airspeed, (9) + (10)

1z M Free Stream Mach Number, from (6)


and (11) and Chart 8.5

13 ti 0C Temperature Probe Reading

14 Atic 0C Temperature Probe Instrument Correc-


tion Corresponding to (13)

15 tic 0C Indicated Temperature Corrected for


Instrument Error, (13) + (14)

16 Tic OK Indicated Temperature Corrected for


Instrument Error, (15) + 273. 16

17 Ta OK Ambient Temperature, from previously


calibrated probe or from weather service

18 Tic/Ta (16) -'(17)

. 19 K Temperature Probe Recovery Factor,


5 [(18) _-1]+(12)

20 Plot (19) versus (12) and fair a line through the points giving an average
value for K. Soe Figure 6.2

21 K I
Temperature Probe Recovery Factor. from
I plot of (20)

Case b: K determined from plot of I/Tic versus M-/Tic

I to 16 as in case Ra" above

17 I/Tic 1/'K 1/(16)

18 Mz (IZ)2
19 M 2 /Tic I/OK (18) x (17)

20 Plot (17) versus (19) and fair a straight line through th2 points.
(If Ta is known it may be plotted as 1/Ta = I/Tic at M = 0 and be
used to fair in the line.) See Figure 6. 3

115
21 m Slope of the straight line of (20). For any
two points on the line, 1 and 2, the slope
is equal to:

M =MTi)2i

22 K Temperature Probe Recovery Factor,


- x (21)
2
Case c: K determined from plot of Tic versus Vt (Speed Course
Method)

1 ]Pass Number

2 feet Course Length

3 LtI sec Time Across

-- t] ec Time Back

5 Vtl ft/sec Ground Speed Across, (2) ÷ (3)

6 Vt 2 ft/sec Ground Speed Back, (2)_* (4)

7 Vt ft/sec True Airspeed, (assumed to be Average


Ground Speed, ) +(6)]-- 2

8 Vt 2 knots True Airspeed, 0. 5921 x (7)


2
9 Vt knots (8)2

10 ti °C Temperature Probe Reading

11 I•tc 0
C Temperature Probe Instrument Correction
Corresponding to (10)

12 tic 0C Indicated Temperature Corrected for


Instrument Error, (10) + (11)

13 Tic °K Indicated Temperature Corrected for Instru-


rment Error (12) + 273. 16

116
14 Plot (13) versus (9) and fair a straight line through the data. (If
Ta is known it may be plotted as Ta = Tic at Vt2 = 0 and be used
to fair in the line.) See Figure 6.4.

15 m Slope of the straight line of (14). For


any two points on the line, 1 and 2. the
slope is equal to:

m=(Tic) Z -(Tic) 1

16 K Temperature Probe Recovery Factor,


7592 x (15)

117
SECTION 8: CHARTS

CHART 8.1
(See paragraph 1.1.3)

GEOPOTENTIAL ALTITUDE, H (G/g 5sL) (Thousands o" Feet) versus


ALTITUDE CORRECTION FACTOR, h - H (G/gsL), (Feet)

G G
h H( G-) fG H--T- LG
SL r -H SL

where: H = geopotential altitude, geopotential feet


h = tapeline altitude, feet
r = 20,930,000 feet
G/ SL = I foot/ geopotential foot

Example:
Given: H = 76,500 geopotential feet
Required: Tapeline altitude, h in feet
Solution: H(G/gsL) = 76,500 feet
From Chart 8.1, h - H(G/gsL) = 283 feet
h = LH(G/g9SL) + [h - H(G/ gS)] 76,783 feet

118
IIMI

80i

4)10 1~ lTki111i

0.. ..
.. .

IMI i i

80 ... ..
00
ALTIUDE
ORRETIONFACTR, bH(G/~~4 Feet
21~~~CH ilfl l R 8.11
1 14
OW11114
70 W1 11lrl M ll .,1'9
CHART 8.2
(See paragraph 2. 4)

MACH NUMBER, M vs ATMOSPHERE TEMPERATURE, Ta


("0K) or t a(00) for INDICATED TEMPERATURE, t ic ( 0C)
CONSTANT and TEMPERATTJRE PROBE RECOVERY FACTOR, K
CONSTANT

A LSO

MACH NUMBER, M vs RATIO OF INDICATED TO ATMOSPHERIC


°
TEMPERATURE, T /TTa 0IK/EK) for TEMPERATURE PROBE
RECOVERY FACTOR, K =CONSTANT

T. 142
=c I +* K -
Ta

Example:
Given: M = 0. 785; K =0. 80; t.i = 15 0C
T. I
Required. ' and t C B V
Ta a
Solution: Use Page I of Chart 8. 2 For the given conditions,
T.
ic= 1. 0985; t ~ 11.0 0
Ta a

2z0
.. . . . .. . . . .. . . . .....
...
... ...... ..
.. .. . .. ...
..
. .1.
..
. .. .. . . . ... . .

....
....
......

.0 .. ... ...-.

.... I...... CHAR.8.


......

lo~
I- I

1,40

1.40

aa

0.9 . 13145.

1.302
W LA .::;

4 W

1.63
2. K.

2.

1.74
I 4

F** . ... .

2.4

2.35
rp

COMPRESSIBILITY CORRECTION TO CALIBRATED AIRSPEED

vt ro C+A VC

U -- m
t 4UýV
. t

77
-: :. . I..

.4 1.. 7: - Y .V1

t .4

HH

41,-
.... ..
$
-2-4

4r-,

~4.

- 4

0 -~4 .

so" 12 16-0 4 8 2 6 4004

±Pira~ Aispod 4 c Knots. ~ 4 , -

- . 4.. , 4 , 4.1246

CHR 8Z
-32

7 .... ......

-28 ...
....

-24

-. 120

CHR 82
CHART 8.3
(See paragraph 2. 5.1)

PRESSURE ALTITUDE, Hc (Thousands of Feet) versus EQUIVA1 4 ENT


SPEED - MACH NUMBER RATIO, Ve/ M (Knots)

V
e aa
M

where a and o- correspond to Hc

Example:
Given: M = 0. 39; Hc = 18,000 Feet

Required: Ve in Knots

Solution: -12- = 466 Knots


M
V
V (-=-) M = 139.8 Knots

128
160 _200 240 2 0 4Z'Q .360.Q

m.a1 ..*.*...*....
80 ........
.. ~ .,.L x. .
...... .....
.:....

.... .. ........
8 0
.......
.......
..........
....... . ..

4 1 T: .....
t..

4.14~~
6 0.
.
I ~.
..
4..
.....
.-..
... ..
..
.. ..
.L.
4 ..
.
..-. ..
4..... 4.....

4-
, .....
..

.4.............

........... ... I.......


... .........

o
J. f....m

.......... . ..... .4 .....

20 .......... 1....

10 1
.;};.....
..
I~ . *.... . .
..

07 74L ......-....
44 .0
4 80 ..... ....... ...
SPE..MC.UBEVM
EQUIVALENT~..... Kos

.. 29 ... CHAR 3.
CHART 8.4
(See paragriph 2..5.Z)

TEST DAY TRUE SPEED, Vtt versus TEST DAY ATMO8PWREIC


TEMPERATURE, tat ( 0 C) for MACH NUMBER, M a CONSTANT

VVtt =t 38.967M itat(°C) + 273.16. knots

ALSO

TRUE SPEED FOR STANDARD DAY, Vt. versus STANDARD DAY


ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE, tas (0C) for MACHNUMBER,
M = CONSTANT

V
to
- 38.967M ts
as
(°C ) + Z73.16, knots

where tas corresponds to H c •

Example:

-60 0 C
Given: M = 2.15; tat=

Required: Vtt in knots

Solution: Use Page 4 of Chaft 8.4. For the given corittions


V tt = ZZ3, knots

130
. 440

400

4'71

04 O ie0..

V28

c4-

2400

ATMOSPHERIC AIR.. .
TEPRA.. ~(c
13vCATi.
';ao

760

C/,,

7020

ATOPERCAR EPRAUEt G-

C H AR 8.4 . ....
* 132....
or/ ýr
irj X

00,

10

or

-Al

00,

oK A
104
aI
-/71
le . ...

100

960
io.:
oof 00
oe
;"o
'No
92Q

880
or

oýl

-Or

840
op"Or.! oý .ýj
;or
I 'o

"o a
Soo

r - oýl

760
-80 -6o -40 ;20 0 zo 40

ATMOSPHERIC AIR TEMPERATURE, (I C)


CHART 8.4
133
1400

14 0
F

11134
176

~or-

172

1680-6-4

15635
CHART 8.5
(See paragraph 2.5. 2)

MACH NUMBER S M versus CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, V for


PRESSURE ALTITUDE, H. = CONSTANT

and

MACH NUMBER, M versus CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, V for


STANDARD DAY TRUE SPEED, Vto = CONSTANT

ALSO

INDICATED MACH NUMBER CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR,


Mic versus INDICATED AIRSPEED CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT
ERROR, Vic for INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE CORRECTED FOR
INSTRUMENT ERROR, H.i = CONSTANT

Given: Hc and Vto

I (a) La-s = I - 6.87535 x 10= 6 Hc Hcc 36,089.24 feet


TaSL

(b) Tas = 0.751874 H A 36,089. Z4 feet


TaSL

a Tag Va
a SLaSSL TS

Vt V a
as aSL a SL

136
4 (a) = t + 0.2M2 ) 5._ - M (= 1. 00
P
a

(b)

-c
(166. 9Z1 . •77+

L (7 M2-1
5 "
)"M47 1 M
a
l.0o
1.0

qc qc Pa

PaSL Pa PaSL

6 (a) 'a T as;(I H K 36,089. Z4 feet


PaSL TaSL

Pa -4.80634 x105 (Hc - 36,089. 24)


(b) aL- = 0.223358e H a 36,089.24 feet
aSL

V ](Cq¢
(a)- = 2.23607 c.-_-+l) Pc -c. 0. 89293
aSL aSL PaSL

(b) - 0.881284 (- +t) Ft 1V


aSL \laSL L 7 - j, q,
a•SL -. 0• 89293
PaSL

V
8 V4 = (ac ))aSL
SL

where aSL = 661.48 knots

Example:

1. Given: M = 1.60; V = 400 knots

Required: HC and Vts

Solution: Use Page 21 of Chart 8.5. Hc = 52,850 feet; Vt,= 917. Z.knots

137
2. Given: M = 1.20; H C = 50,000

Required: V and V

Solution: Use Page 1Z of Chart 8.5. Vc = 308.7 knots;


t= 688.1 knots

3. Given: H cC3 35,000 feet; VC = 200 knots

Required: M and Vts

Solution: Use Page 5 of Chart 8.5. M = 0. 6023; Vt 8 = 347.1 knots

4. Given: M. - 1.60; V. = 400 knots


iC IC

Required: H.Xc

Solution: Use Page ?. of Chart 8. 5 . Hic = 52,850 feet

5. Given: M.IC = 1.20; H iC = 50,000 feet

Required: V. IC

Solution: Use Page IZ of Chart 8.5. V.ic - 308.7 knots

6. Given; Hic = 35,000 feet, V .c = 200 knots

Required: Mic

Solution: Use Page 5 of Chart 8.5. M.ic = 0.6023

138

- . - - - ýý
.. . ...

4t4

II -Rai0d

00 . .22
. . 0

0-10

::4 00
N. N. N.. ... ... . -a

00~~~ 4....-1!18.5
7H1!f
CHAR
0 co:139
0.22 U~.

0.20

INA.

0. 16
q ~
144I

4,.4

P-. J. 1,

r +1

JJ
I t

WI '.o e : L_. V I i I

-:4- +4-4

20 4 60 80 i 100ý
I20 140~~:
I 6t

CHART 8.5 14
WI 'I If J .

T/ I

,Itr
't

0i.4

100AI/ 12 /140 160 180,


tA4RTD AISE D 'cWf~~
V, T I1f CHART 8.5--,,2IO.
I x 75

IIIM Ii- ITH

, ma - '1, -.

Y1_5. -,& Y W X1- b . 14, 'lipf

I-, -l j1 11 ; f : 4

t44 4

0.46 ti ':r 4

0.44' il 1

444
0. 42 -44 ! I

Ot -! " ~ : !k p 7 I v ~ I ~ 4 qI~I;'4

V 4.

T~1 TI'

0.26
. t4 .4 .....
.....-
14 - 4

1421
7F
71---, vri-
-4
00 ...

I~~ I I

401

/,I Ah Tmt

Ifi I -.
-.
0.6 1"' ~~~~k 4+ t I-

6Z -71-11
3.61 ~tj11.:
a~ i.. - F1 .I I V .

. ... ... T TI I / . A 7,
4 V .5

F 1

0.6gT7ii~

1711 1 A7 f

0 .5 ....... 1 . 1 A

II I m
Y.v I.

0.54--l

0.5 "..~ -ii477A.7. f

0o52 w J-2
t11~/i' A I ,i j7

40 60 80 100 1201416180o
GALIBRA¶ILD AIRSPEED, Vc (Ki~uts)

143 C. JIAPR
r7 -

0.74 7.-.11 S 1 ii

V i V' 11 riip
1111: 1 T, !irI
I r
t :Ai 1 l, Y . L U. I I ji V' .lA4-

0.7I1 V T **-')NI& ' 4"V -/4?

a- .. ."'

1'1-

4
na ER4'1".I - '£4-

0.68
r. -tjQ rVt

7k It- -XT -

0.66- ,>-

0.64 1: ItI.

z .j:4. t

0.5841 1! 1

14 1

CALIRAE V
AISPED (nt:7)
CHR
8.5 144ifu
0.67 U-- 14,+ F 'LIT

7t

?t tI
0.64
444
0l 7*7 5~ i ...... Y
400.642:0 8 0050 '1 6
F_{ L Ko,
CH7T87
50 I I I h

H 4. ;1 17 T

i 4,1111 I
0.94 4.j. .J 540V 1 ! 11

0.92
* V F[!' Mt I
-4i I I

0.90 i-

T. --yy-_
-- 1,1 7K 14:.1, t~ j 7.=V 41-
0.90
ST I~L 1 1 UFL _A -

it I8t f.

.1~~ --. Z --T


L-

0.84241 -z

0.80

44 1/1 1v II I rIFI .7/I


0.7[. -
_

80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240


CAL1IBRATED AIRSPEED, V c (K not G)
GPA RT 8. 5 146
I V

0.90 IL f/-

~0.896

0 2. -A

0.90t

-;~ 14
0.98 ] - - .- - -.. v

V11

711

-adl

-id
I';' 41 4 I

7i7
Y~

.4 4-4-4.4. ;p 4
6 4. .

4111

44 -. - 44

*11

It

-51; .4.. 4 t Th4


0.82 4 *4.1f 1.u

4 ti
*V.*4:~~~~~~~~~~ 4 TV. 4444 .t ~' ' 4

4' ~4 ~ 1'.

.1.....4 0

(LI-IAR 8.5 14
1.24 UUI AL I7 ['

L .

1.20

1.8 1, 7t A l 1, 1- -

F- J *71

' 1 -4 - - U I -

1.24 - 4: j 1. : ; f I -j 1._' i.:I---

rl

~1.18 h t1 . ---

- . M- J -I
.4;-0 - f

....... -----

1.04

4.-

-u C - --
- - -

1.04-

1 . 6- - -i
- /-. J r-

3. 0 . . . i11 *"f I I, . * 1 4 4

1.00 7

AISPEE,
CAL BRATD V~(Knt)
149f CHAT
1. I 4 I -;I 14 I iT .

.1 2i

.1.14
"Id !..I k T L;.4 .14

-1 1 Pl i If - 4 1 1 i - i -- 1 x.iri F

* ; T L' a-A4 W:
1.12 j 'OTT: A'I,

j rr . Ift 14 1 ý : -ý

.S
. As 1, 1

16- 't.

1.06-1 - 4i :4 -1*

*7 l4. I'Mi*

44 W.1

z1.02 . 4. I i.. 4W*.

41-t V:- 4
I. -
- -i

411

1.00 Ii8i,~ 6
300~ 32~~ t6 340rr 8 0 4
CAIBRsDARSD ~ Ko
CHART
.5 15
it 7t
4~.

1.22 TIA

1.20

II :, t-

A:ILL

w~I
AN.

1. 164

-W I -. 4 , 4.

1.. 14
1.04N I, 4-i

J .! j
44 ~ 14 L
N ZA j 1 9

Ui

z
*: ,~rV j4 1 444T

IIlr 1~ A..
Ac 44

1.14440j

4 w- %4:
~*444
4 4 4I4~;:4 . , *, :S

;j 15 CHR 8
1.24 ut, !I

,11"i-
I; r 11 I i , . I fit1 It

''aI a. 1. IT V iI 1i 1'it .. t
4 77 l i 4bf
a IiI

.4 ~ i Ilk 1. 1 . 42: :. a * : 1:*4'4-

at .A Y O . i
Ia '*'~ -
IF '-

aL '.*7

I. W:, a vs

1.1 .. '' :.1 1. AV I.M4'

fX ' It !;I: I.

Ia;
'Z

LIZ
1.0 .4*' I - * ~ ~ 4 :$'~~' 7F

1.1J6
1,06 1 - . ' '' * .j,'~ ~ If 44 47

Ya. F' - If ~~iia ~ Pt' a~~ ~ IV ' I


:16 p i
ti':
2 P8
. . I '
''a1.ba':::.j::i~~~~~L 4 ~aha'~;
dt,11. :a4
I1.14i 4
[711,P.J'
~~~~~~~~~~f . 4Kp a I
VS VT 4
. . '
-4
L

1.152
1- ..

1.483

1 - 4 ...

V I~: -. .1 "T '*l~ I: I.

1.4,

t~ r' II:tIJ

1.4 :44

-,43
- -.. -. - -. -I - -

1.421

44

1.. k f

1.328 .i.,. '4

1.30 ,' ... .4: v

x j

11! t.

-V IT4

1.3 0 16 18'0T'0~ 42028 0


CA
IRA E 1I4 PED 4, tKnf.) F- IT.

153CHRT8.
PE-4-

-~ Tr-

1.482--.

1.46 :-
I if 1 -. -

1.. 44

n-4-

1.41

4-4

w~~~~~ 1.3 - 1mjlt


t J.~

34z6 8 0 2 4 ( 8
XAI3AL 1.3EE,~(Ko.
CHR 87115
1.48 ,rt

:A,, 'NI~

1.46 ...

* v~j~'';:. -, I

1.46 4
-. , t' I' 1 4 4
11 AM 4' fl

'~t
1.4~~~~~~. ± ¼I-2:~ V~;'

1.40L L-.~.EQ t

* .-.. -

I -NS 1iIr 1: S4...

. 4 I I '44 j4-,
ii.:
1.3424 - 4-- 2 -t- p

1. 30 i t

M,,
'VI'-Z

i ;
*J .

f '"
- . k93 I

I t
1 . 3- 0 ' Z-- - . I I- ti - '.

500 520. 40. 560 58 60 620- 640 660


CA IRA E AIS E D V-*)*I (Knotti4

155 CHRT 8.5


IN

Ty zz.
1.46 ý:V: 1
1
1 7
-Ij

.....
.....
j/ p;

1.4 J
Nlý

Z<'

1. 4Z
7, L
I A:

1.40
Ak
Al

k
-1.3
W4
fQ

Tp

1.3 T-- 1 j

Sk"

Ot
1.34 t

2-1: 'A 111 tiT.


Ll
1.32
61

Mod-l

1.30
ýL-

17

tip.,

A;' 4-Lu J 1.: '1r 1 1.


1.2 6 .... . . V !ji

'A' P"g-1 -J! M


680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820 840

Vc (Knots)
CHART 8.5 CALIBRATED AIRSPEED,
156
.- .. .

1.46

1. 44

4 ý4'4*
4

-~~4 4- -44- M- IT. ---- 4-"

Z4 'Tr :t'Tt q
1.44. *

7?~ .~..
.-.
. ' ......

~1.342. * 4+T2 , 'W ; t 1.* r i

1
(4) 7~~~~f1 . .
4 4-4- .4
f- ',4
"tit s t. :1i i
.~.1~
.~
1-a
12I
.~.L

' di. -- z*
IM IM , M, ~
-1..40 i4 '
1 ,* -
4n -- ý1
I-.. I N- t * v't

+'1 itt. aPF-; 4'- Vlbf

t~IT ~~~.
t4itU

w~~~~1 1.38 Hj_ . It

,r 14V I_.~~t fi f.;f


C Al
B LI)ri
TA IttlH~ Kro ~ HRVII,~
1. 74 **Te4

-i-I.~~m I;-99-.

1,1

1. 0.I . .

ilk t 01-1- -

1.64 4-p
1. 68-

. 4i.6 1! 4 Ai ti-el '<t'T.

z 9 4 ,t.'

ilt tj. I

1.64.- - 1

-L~~ - .:4- ~
1.5 ';, It.
'"I
"t #I
-4 04,

z I 94F

*91 .....

- -

1.609 9 .. 9

* 0 I '; ~ 1lri:'i~~UE'iiK"4

41959

1.158
1.74 F.d I ca.

0 1.7 1 r F T 11 1 4 i I I
Z-ý

iL
t i

1.70 ).ý-M:
i4:
iiz

41, 1 -tj -11,4


... A. ri 4 1- -1:' P-4 Off I -jf4 144- ill i

1.6 bm t4 f t'7 4 4.,


ý7r

- -- ...
%
4
_4

14

1.66 f- :ý
4

zi-4t A:
q-3
ý

-At
4::ý;f FA f 41 ,-4 it" 't-; 4 ý'ff-

6 ih al 1A

'i -Ir rl:' lip

t
MAT
4: 7`4
1.62 T ij
-41 "4

i4c i't:,& t. Y- 4 so All-


L) Iv
V

7 ý:.' - !j --j,
1.60 LI..
F
14- - -41
141- -- 1--;
1414 r+1 t., -4- ,1-
!8i 4,, IT
I:,

r'. -17
A
ý-I-
F f .0 1

7 it
4 7. r- ý7

AL

f Tb I

1. 50 380
-7-

40U 4zo 0
'LL b0 t, u u 5,ý 0
CAI JBR A'I Lo
159 U, Icl
1. 74

1.72

1. 70 I.

1.68 ~ - ' L ;

Lr7.

'Lf. t

II T0

16.866060 64 6 60'0
T~ 11AIL 1~PFV Kos
CHART 5 16
f li-I y I-Ij
1.7 Dll
ýV.N- j Nt I
j:
01.7
7, N,
Ij
%

1.7 I ""Q :1-T:
71%

A -f.*V-
a

1.6 _7Lzý
7,
7-7

. . . . . .
ý ql-
6 N,
:7U.
FIT Q 7 ........... .71

aa
7

im -
T; )-ýll

f IV

>49
1.62 74 1

V i

L) a
Aq

1.60 7%f

w m
J.
7f
1.58
ýA

7.

1.5
1_ý
ll.w.if.3ý,I F.N? IN, 1.; 4:19
14

..
....
1 . 54 r Ai
.4,41

6
1Y

Tj;

j;i

1.50 740 760 780 800 820 840 860 880


CALIBRAI-ED AMSPEED, VIC (Knuts) CHART 8.5
161
9. 4.1 a* 9 1-' '

rinr, 91N 9 . Val.)'~j 'L*-* -M 9

1.7 -41

.* : 1~ ' ' ;i * Ii i .

K* . -' ' '.


~
9. nt999 ~ ~ 11 4

44V® 4 9 9

1.70968. 9 '

-n ~ ~ 9 i i'94

1.686 2iL

*Z,
1
~ 1, 4:
T -.

- 91.- Mf ®rl

1 58
-. 4 9

P4 U194
1. 6

-
4 .

9 - - 4 - ~I-* 4 -. ;

U~ + Al q-,~1.

4 4 4' 41-41

.01 4 ~ i tj,-

1.5
-~~~4 4 I-1 11:
.t i .I 1 .7:11 1
-. 41 9 4 '4 4 44

1 411
41t£

CHARTT 8.I6
4,4

I4 -r I :

2"vr..
Ir

.'9.. .- .2'...
I 114A -

1.1~17 it1Ci

4~ gI V ! w 1 -. .

1.6~~ +1 .*I i1% ii-' .

t-i:7 !-i k44 "1144

Tt2ZL

p r.

III ~~ '
1
;- ,dr p 1 t'rP''r.rl

44 4 : ~ -*.

110 12 14 160 110 20 22 14


CALIRATE ApIRS, LED, VKnts
163 C-4A~ 8.
. .--4 . -. ,. . ... .

1.91

4 . 4 .~.
I.. - ..
..i~

1.96

4 44
4-'1 V I I-h
j4 I.

. ..
. . .
.T1

1 .9 I do+ l

* T2ý 7.:

1.9 ...

r:7 .Ij - .. I

1 . 8 oi .... ---

P.17

z .4 j ;.4.f

a Z; 4

.4. 4 4. . . ,

. . . . . . . .. 4

1.76 1 -A44~4

4164118.5
CHART --
- .1 I .. . ;.4

._I IF4- I I44 I I.I4I-I4 .ý

4 ~ ~ . ~ ~ , .

.4 .4 . .~ . .. . .

1 . .~ ... . ... . .... .

1.9814
I' 4. 4 . ....44
..

-1.884'4.

-1,i 4-# 14

4:4

1.84 Ti ,

1
4'44 A .1.
~ i L'.~4 41 . ~

4', r4 i 11

j: t 41ý :1 mt

1.80 j.4.,

4'T w , 4
40 40 20 6 48 504 520 540 560

CA
R A I E AI1,D VC (K l SC A T 8 .5

1651
IJ,

1. 96.

1.94 ~ ~

.4 1 .. ..

*,. t4 T . .

1.90

M4 I

T~ ~ . . ..

.- 4

1.986 1

hJN-
it M-

.4 'K- T

I A

186 71 :T1. !.rW74

1.84 +~

it"TT

IN.

44.

. _ N4 !!!, -i -I .T , -4 ;h : :,
1 . 7 11 t i l! .1

g q I~L4. .411
.4~~~ ;fjj J., ~ ~

580 600 620 640 66'0 680 700 720 740


CALS1BRAT:ED AIRSPEED, Vc (Knots)
CHART 8.5 166
1:1:1N

4.ii '

!41
1.9 - i

YIN,

-... 4. .
1.9C .-
. .
.2 .r 4.

&~T -'-4 4

1.92.44

O1.90

I4 . 8. 4

U 1.82 ..... -... j ~ 4 f

~ 4t '

...' .
....
.f

Ott4 ,

LI * j Jdi i 4 4, 4

It,..
J!,r kI 'L.,i '1N
II Ul

167 CHRT8
1.9 AT

1.96

1.88

S1.80

1.88

z1.82

1u (

1.78

1.7• 314

90 000 10.0 100 I60 100 10


940 96
CALBRTE A(SEEVc4nos
CHART 8.5 16
R I t
-4---- - - -4

1.94

;90 I,
.~ ., .7

F r-:4

.4
: rot .-. M - i

71-- fl,

*1.-
1I12 110
110 180 100 220 240 1260 128
CAL1RATU AIRSPLI) L (Kut4
CHRT8.
16
7F22.2 2 4

2.22

F-T,J Iffill 111111 :11 P 11F.11".


'T 11F I I I 1. 9 It I- I U
2.20 '44

4" VA

L
H

2. 18
77
AZI

J. -7 1 IT:
L;:r
;- ; ; . ,

2. 16
114, -4:ýýj

at, r

7- '17 1 -. 4 t '.T

2. 14
. .. .

P4
w -Z;7Z
.41

2. 12
7 J;
M-T
T.4

z t nw-;
4 L'

u U, 1P, 11 4
L

10

.V, 7
- if
-4 '44'
It

1.L
2.08
1: 4t

I
Ai
U.

2.06
1_1.1_44' j i7l

ý_l TlrL 1.
IT Ali.

2,04 F

am

'4

2.02
I M I '1 1.
14 IA-'ILl
TITT.
Z.00 260 Z80 300 320 340 360 380 400 420
C A I I B R A T F,1) A IR S P E E I VC
CHARI 8.5
170
.1 '1 'Ili~ ,. AN1
1

2.2Z4----
-rill**
*.. . . .

4 1 1 I I 1:,! . I ",14
22V.2 -j !I x ; j4 '
two'I &I Im1
A + I
4 ti ILj
41j fi i

t7F~
2.202
-i It . At1

t44 .
.4~~il

2.18 ':'4 44. L. - 16-,4 V

i2t 411

LH
*T,

44 MI A. 14 i 4,i
T1
2. 11

2.14s4 1 np
.
... ......

I
*N 4. 4.

2.. - -.... 12
+Y

4 10 !I1
9 -.
Z .0'I

m 444,1 -
F~~~1 4

P4 4 ;'A1

2.08.

F-t I 4M9'-

r !1'

4.0 1i4 . 4 1 'i4 11 4

1 :4 3', - I.1
.*.

2.. 41

!4 , !t' 6t ilf

p~ 9~ - 4 1&j411 ;1 1 i..
#
44V 4 44-

'1: :
2.02 ..
*74 ,

500 520 540 560 580 600


20 440 460 480

V c(iob
AIRSPEED,
CALLIBRATED
mT

'p
if 11ý 4 ;1
'1;ý ..r ri;; iv"ý f1i M I.- 01t
m fttý W WPfý4;; 6 ti -IF -144 IrI$ý 1-*F +1 0 ;-1; -

il 14 N1.4
1-41 fill
Z. 22 41 4 1411* Vit ffil _r ill

Nt
ill ,7!j T

2.20 ýt iiýt ýP4 rat


t "L
1-4-4 T_

J.. 7ýa

2 . 18 ..
. ..

2. 16

V- F"!
_ý!4

2. 14 Tir-7. f .:7 ':


JA
1ý :r.. _' '+. . 'T-
_1:i4v. tn- _ý:2 tim", + .. n Mt

T! 1 -1 0

2 U 44

u
4i.

2 10

It 4tý -- P- 4et

2.08 tin
r;4
f

41- it

'y 114

2.06
TT

4t 4

2.0
4f 4j

t4 il I
m

!t 11

2. oz U t# 14 f4 IT

Til,

7X
fqý;T. VVI

2.00 -
620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 780
CALIBfiATED AWSPEED. Vc (K not s)
CHART 8.5 172
K 117 iý'l 1
i4i iii:
2.24
jiNtk

ti

i-.
Lj.

44
2.2

Z. is
.. 4

Z. 16

NZ

14

go 2. lz .. .

u
2.10

4 ý4

Z. 08 4' 11.1

N !,,7 14' .71


Fa I -. y - - - t

4
Z. 06
4+
4

s ii vM'

I Lj4 0' V 417,

IT+
+ 'Al If
2.04 Of T
+ IN IN i 4!"
-'T t 11,-T,
ýl 'it I'a
-4 if , I t: P!;41 i ýN

;M 'J..
4;!
it: Xk
2.02
t

Z. 00

Soo 820 840 860 880 goo 920 940 960


CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, Vc (Knot s 11
173 CHART 8.5
m 9%m rk sw mm ho ri rq..i rA MrAsommommisimme Wa
It lqh@
R0-Fj
4N 0 i W.I. VA h
Eel' M IkF
-1
ib ....... r "PARIEffiffinli
mmm.mv;.- I - ni:am.-Ull. l.Vrllml.N:! MU
1.3 t U u v'm
"UNUME.M.4M
mllihm NO gr
U.
lo-jarivap., MU
.......
.......
F.
F.A.Fi- K, !
.........
........
ggdE
.....
..... ...........
M In
In nmuw-
a: jr.u.".4n -- -- -- -.;r
7".n ...............
Mr.."4 .............
... .....
.............
. .. ........
. ............. P::
::U!.-!
. .................. ........
......
........
M
....
. ........... ...............
.............
............... .....
........ . .. ..........
. ........ .........
................
. .........
. ...
. .....
. ........
...
. ...............
. .............
.............
.....
.. .............
..........
.. .
.......... ............
......
........
...........
......... .f ...........
MU .....
...
..... AM.M
n*:::::.:!!!,.::::!*:!*!!:""-,:!,.,!:!..-.. ........ :M ._:r.l:::.-= l
........... . .....
......
..
............... ..........
.....
........
...
...
. ..........
. .................
...........
:r..Mz ...... ....... ...
.............
....... ..........
.................... .........
...
.
.......... ........
........ ..........
........
................
"M3." .... ...... . ........
.. ..........
...........
IL-M M 11111 uC 4. :=u:.......... M..! :H:
R.
"'MR, ........
.....
......
. .... . ... .......

.r- mss: .. ...... c Uli.


. npp.nz ::r. . ......
. .............
Mnv .
-. 1.. ......
9 . ..........
. .........
.. ......
.
NIM
M3

.... MM. .
............ . .......
:Ml I'M W, .x .......
.......... Kýr X.nm. ....
.. ..........
...
.....................
WN,
==:r mn.* .. .....
. ...........
.......
......
M=--M:.............. *:4.1!!ML.* M.,
.... ........
.....
. ..........
W JUN .. .....
W. %......
..........
nv ......
Z.. M
Ism W.-.=
-U: ..... ...... ..... ...........
"UM", "I"11:11MMMM ...........
.. .......
....
.. .. ........... % I........ .

MS: :nu 3. ..............


........
.... .....................
M. ....
..
........
.........
...
....... ...... .........
......................
................
I...............
..
............ ..
................ ..............
....
....... ................
%: ::_l*...!*.V:l_::...3. n . ............ .... . .....
....... .
:W.
Um. 211 M.M.M. 11...
......... M"
mnl:%. MN R M-2VA M., IM:
-W. ........... :u.:= _
3......... . ........ X, .......
mmh;*war, ...............
.....
.......
%IMMUM.
V? mmm . .....
I.-H-M.
WA ... m w M*6..
...... ....................

..........
. ...... . ........ ...........
. .. .....
............
. .... ... .....
.............
......
L
. .. .................. .......... ....
............. ..............
....
...........
........... .. .
. ............
L . .....
.......... .. ... ...... . .....
............. .:Mj!;
CL. Ull .....
....... p-mr.
........ _Jý:wU it "UH :F mm. mwak
47A :U;*. U.. W

....... a ... mt.............


....... am - HE
"Ni i:115.3 1
.............
. ............. ...... ...
nm .....
...... n:::
3 ....... m
Wc.l .......
...... Fg. AN
ýR;W. c Mt::Nur.
. ..... RMT ........
.
'W ,3:3_'ý:
...........
...
.......... -4 Umn.
"C"Mur."
mamij,=5
WMim=..
'Ri
ON .1 :1&9ý
WAD
. .....ýJ
.. lza ......
hi-Mr.,
NU - A:2:. "G
1:3'i-"3'-- - -, -- -- - - ---.- m: ... gjr-if pm 717"m.np
U., NgUMM, 41.
OR mwlilml .... :1 It H ! "'1
ri
-j
2. Z4

T '! Till

. -,
. 18

.2.14

4+ 4

4
2.- 10

2.08 -K- 4.

,144

44-' K4
T. In +Fit+
.V .T

.4
-1 t-

z 00 I II 4.f~
1160 1180 1200 1220 1240 1260 1280 1300 1320
CALIB3RATED AIRSPEED, Vc (K notIts)
175 CHART 8.5
:j I"r 4 , 2i '1J v .. -14a
2,2 I' . ..

111
I' I i'j I, 1 - .

2.22'"I.

2.240 .. i 1 ~'!

Z.- 12-

ux: .. .....

2. 1 . .... ... .. ... ~ -

2.20 - 2

2.0U.4

2.1 .... ...

2. 12
z4
44f4

106CHR 2.5
c .4 11.,

L4Mj

2. 48 14V,
id

i 1..41 t Ai.. J "If.-

.;:I t

mi
P.-
-M: 11A
2. 4.
1

91

I'T 4'i

2.4 4
tv k

t I.M
41
o_ V
2.4
14 r;
H

2. 3 L
41 1 41
'1! 14, #

36 V 41 1-i 4o tl

"T

G 19
44
.14

2. 34 441.

14

J'j,

LL
_M,

t4 I r4
2. U 14Ti
11 V.

4 4.
2,3
I'al
t
jj M11*
tt J.'j

T 4 t 7

4
2.28 lip :in 1, JQ
r 11 t

7r,

300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460


CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, Vc (Knots)
177 CHART 8.5
1 .4 iisi
I I

2.481 i 1
.
l
TO. iI j, j -

2.46

2.44

2.42

2.40.........

z2.36

2.34

2.30

ILai

2. 28
- -- --- ---- *

2. 26 .i

4500 520 560 580 600 620 640


CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, Vc (Knot s)

CHART 8. 5 178
2.46

2.46 42L

2. 4 -- -

2 z. . ....

• 2 .4 6.. . .... ....

2 .3 --- -- -

niin
02.23

2.28

660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800 820


CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, Vc (Knots)
179 CHART 8.5
Ml-l
HIN

3
.............. 3- 1w- U ;6-3

MNM ,; m ........
t.. .1:.:. 4:.!..! 1 H: .........
.........
............... ......
......
............... ................. ."InMUM4
..............
........... =:::.
...... IM i.; W
. ......... ........
......... .. .......... lamn...'Im.
...........
.......... .......... ........ ......
.................
. ..............
. ...
.... ....................
nn ......... ..... .
. .........
.......
........
.......... ....
. ..... mv
.........
. ...............
::::::::z N .........
:m . ..............
....... ....... "M ......... .......
. ........
. .............
. ..........
........... ................
.......
. .............
....
. ...............
U
......
..........
w- ..................
. ............. ..................
..........
..........
.................... .... ..........
. .. .......................
............ ..... ..:V:
;. ::: ............ .... ....................
H-n: 1.1:1IM, . ........... ... ..... M,
. ....... M-, IMN UMMU WMI: ..........
..........
.............. -- m.
.. ........... . .... ............ C.. :rZ ........
..................
..........
.......... .......... "M.:
..... ............ ... .............. ..... ......... .. .... ........ ........
........... ...............
........ ............
........... ........... 3-WIN .................. ..
....... . .. ............................. N ................. ..................... ....
..... . ...........
....................."tv
.!.:.- .n::.- . .............
..........
:U7ýM::: ....... ............. ............
.......... .................
13H ýnn.-n- t:L.T..::- 3
........ ...
.. ................... ........
................. . ........
.........
....... .. ......
...S.... . .............
tl .
I.......
........... ..................
...............
. .... ...........
F. mn" ...........
......
. ..... ............... r.- ::.: . .......
illim.m. lll:r C-W
. ........
........ .... AN =,.. I . ......
........... ......
..... ...
. ......
..................
.
......................
.....
............... "AN
. .... ................ .......
....
.......
............
.............. ........
... ..........
......
K:
...........
MMUlcm
.............. ... .. ........ I ........ ......
..............
............ . .................. 3.. ... -... : ....::.. ... ....... ::......... 1ý ................. ............
..... ........ . ........... N ............................
c ... ...... .. .......
M: n: 1:M N =::: -11:1: ý........
-;::::.:W...::.V -Z.................. M - ......
... .
.......... ...... ............ .... .. .......... ....... r .......... ......
IMM=* ........... .. ..
.... ..... . . ........... ........ . . ........ ..............
...........
N ................... ....... . ............... ..
:::r :Rm:
XV nFiMa. - .:r .. ........... . ......... ........ ................ ....
.......... ... .............
... ................ ..................
I
............... "I. ..............
M. !:M::::::,:!.
:VL: .............. . .....
.. ... ......r ........... ...... ......... ... .......
. ... M
. ..... . .......... .................
............. . ........... .................. ........
........ ........ . ..... ........ .. .. .............. ....................
. .. ...........:.!!! r. , , ": ............... ........... :2 !...........
..... .........- ý: ....... ............. ..... ........ . ......
-**L::;!*:":::C,*-,:::ý,*:::,-,:::: ft.
. .. .......
.................
. .................... . ...... I N) .. ............
..............

..... ...........
3....
........ .................... ...... ...... .. .....
.............. ... -MMUNW-L..... ....I ....WN .... . .......... ..............
c ..........
. . ........ .I............
...... . ...........
.... 3------
........... ...............
... I ...............
. .............. ...

... -.............
..........
..........
.........
..::
......... r"..:......
.......................
....... .........
. ..........
........
........ . ......
. .......
-::=:::M 1"71: 12=1 ILMM nnn-n"
M . ............. -.
...........................
. . ...........
. .
...... .............
.... ..... ........
............
. ............
............
........... .......... ....
. ........ ... ............ ..........
......
...............
..
. ..........
.. ........ ....
.....
.... ...................
......................
................ .......... I ..........
............ I .............
. ....
...................
............ ........ "N'
... Mp
.6 ..........
.. .
............. . ...........
........... .......................
....
......... . . ............ ........
. ......... .

.... .......... ....


.......
... .............
...
N ...:W:r- HUMICH-UH, 4"..
:11I.:.::::L:::;,!:.-:.*:::::::;;I:i:::.:$; .........
M.
. ............... m mm
. .............. ....... .....................
.. ..........
.......... t
V ..... sh,
............ .... -.::::N.........
...1-M.'........
...
g. .................. .... : * *.r:;r,. N., . : ......
. .............x - I.........
...
w c ....
uft) ?.:-r NNO
.3 .... ja r .... ..... mwmnI. tmcmr .................
.
.............
. ..... ...........
...... .. .............. .................. I... .......................
... ....... 3.... ..... ..
. ............
n ........ ... .......
....... .. . ..........t -::- - :"
1::1:0 11 - , ý!.
11,"MM."UN .. ..... ..... m 1*11, MUVIW
.j
...... ",:
. ......................
.... It..
........... .........
.......
........
... ..... MUMMI: ....
.............
.................
........
......
Z. 48 -

.,o 7.- -

2.436

2.4.41

OpI
2.42 t .

II A

a. .0jl 4.1 1 ~

t. .1
.- 4

.I 38 _-A.',

.4~

102 104 1060 110:X a08 14 10 18


CALIBRATED Kos 4~lPEV
18 HRu.
S- -T!L

2.48 1 L

Q 14 : Fi N1 I It
'. I"1 1. , --
Lil'
IL; tl I :I r
4 "-NQ 7- ý4'

2.46 4!;:l I ljii I- ti.


R. T-
A:
11
JM 11 -- , - i I"1 -2 it

I...
W

ý mi, .- f .4 :ZU, 7 ý-IN

-IL: lhl. 1 1 1!4- 1,1


2*44 L141L! It- :I rp r. I . -_4 ýj I

x ru.ý
1F
L44

t
401
14
V, n 'I - Iw
t; 4.

It, '14. 41
+i
2.42 IJ I I','
f4kit,I K,
tl ýrgn- q,
.3 14
7"N

2.40--

0 A
.4

2. 38

z 2.36

Rib
Z. 34
Tft!
+ 'r,01Act I
UA-
2 .32 . .. j.

2.30 4ri4 l 4Ll. ýt


4 +4ý++4 t 141;
E
_4
as "T

HS Tw:
4 j

41 it

+r! t4 1.17 -4ý

ILI A"F
.- t I M14%, -hUf
2.26 In,
MON
WMIRMUMMWil
I. ý1 Mt.4411 I
1200 IZ20 1 Z40 1280
12601300 13ZO 1340 1366
CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, V (Knots)
CHART 8,5 182
2~f Q

246. ~ ' %N 4 4. .. V T4 It

*11

2.44 . N .4

.3 I

sz t

2.42 4.. 4 74 4

ti --- 4 p -

2.38 . 44 .

.4.4 14 .

14
.2.38 ~~4- . - .

. .. . . .. .. .

Z 2. 36 .4-K

2.34 4 ~ ,4

"L4 4 Z I-)

W I .I.4 .: - . .. :
2. 3Z.

.4 4 4-+

.4~~t. 4 I- '- .- [4-4 4 4 .

V .4- 4

....... lthz *-t 4 4 . .. J-,


4 It*ý t.4

itu 3I, 44; Lit4, I 43r..p*

:.,~ ~ ~~~~ 44 444 1. 4


t
4
:, 1 f4..4
"4ii

-44 TIF 4 II I I

fAIRAE %(ru AUSED


283 CHAR- 8
2.72

2.70

2.68i

2.66!

2.64

'42.62

2.60

2.58

2.56

2.50tt

8.!iLR 7,AR tE AISED Vc( xo)

3404
36 38 400 42 440 460i I
480 i
500I i
,
2.7f I- . -.- 1I 4
,
4 . ' '4 4 - -jI]#
If,*1m
41 !P 1 i P:111! At,. ,. lII 4q .. *. -.

44 Ali . ,
A -

....
..... TIP

".41
44 .

IL
2.70

...... ....

Z. 66.

2.64 1-1

2.64 >44

IfmOMI I At .4

14 . +

U.
'4 2.560. . 1

: ,_;4. " t

2.58.4f
.. . . 1+,' h-, j- L414 Ill Ii H1
4. 4

+i
41 _ 'I L I t.
t. - I

. ~ ~ ~.... I 4..

R I
411T~tl

4I'l 1' IIIi.4

185 CHR 8 5i
..I A
F I j

2.74 if f At-
7t- I t- I
E
MLI
P.

i4
t,:, 44

2. 7 Ap -A...4

144

2.7

2. 8

...........

z. 6

w .............
......
A 2.6
--------------- --
----
A.
--------
++H+4

......
------

U 2.60

2. se

Z. S4 I itIll ti t 4IRS
it LL

j'ý

2.52
f..; !;I

t
+
2.50 ]111 Hit] 11111gli Mil ITIP1 MI Will, LHA J-P,.4L
li M',I
720 '180 800
760 820 840 860
700 740
CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, VC (Knots)
C 14ART S. 5 186
2.74 'T: -j1 1'm' I * ' ,

.:# li41.4 ..4.-


. 4...

-fl 1 . .1 OT .4

2.70 I I-

Z. 6 +y

.66.

2.64 .-

2. 6Z 4

- *41*4 - 41

Al... -

-4 -4.-:z f

2 . 6 044* -- 4
-,~ ;-

CAIRAE . AISPED (Kos

RT8.
2.58H
INV 1 1. 1
2.74 %'Fýj ki I T-j

2.72

2.70
-A

"'j
2.68

2.66 71
L V$4

I n

-J. I

2.64

A 2.62
-A'.!ý-
z ýZr -i4
"T
u 2. 0
14
A.--4 as m I

2.58
T TIF it

Twý
7%

rL

2.56 -
-Am
tjý N
ýý'X; rj"'ý7
.1 7,
A
i7

2.54 !t74S 1, iý
rV.,

2.52

is .
T.117
ST
2.50 1060 1080 11 0 0 112 0 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220

CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, VC (Knots)

CHART 8.5 188


I/ 1- 741 7ýs
2. 744-

2.7

'ýt -7
I m. j-;L

2.70 SIW. rJ - -14

4 t. fN

t-, no
4-1

2.68 d Ut j,) J-4


L -7.

-TU
IN: 11M
+
2
is


V

2.64 17
i"PT fitt
.........-- - -

w
z. 6 -IT I IIN -- t
.IT
J.-.:* JL

fi4: - - - Idi Tr%

+
jL 4 14 4

I,!t -,%I 4"' 7% r4- J;

U 6
I r
4

!it JU

2.58 N .1 IN 4-:p
1; ji4

tax LI
4

Z. 56 it

f;
JTJ
t
ch
T-1

Z. 54 TI? It:

iR L:
T4
iA N
4

+!

9!
f NL 4 IN, ow
iti 7i qT
T -11T
I tT-9
jjir
'I j:I
2.50 141j,

1240 1260 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400


CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, Vc (K t s)
189 CHART 8.5
'I5,

JILII

(!.1 14 l

LiA T` W 7 I

2.70 1* y , j i I;i
1*7
i '; N*4'1 2.1

I s"1
i i1 el r

2.68-.l '' i; ',II II...I

ri. I A, m .I
2.66 '1 L -4''1j'I,.I ; , I l I L

I - -

2.64-~~i *ai. k I 4

9* 2.6 ff {M S, 1L r

2. 4

'F -. ..........

Z. 54

2.52..

CHART 8.5 190


......... "f
1 U
......... -jMm1M" SWMff#;4 -101 M4AR',
'P-"- :: ..
=::H:MH.-.! -;;fii M.-HR.lug 1;U4m rt-:;I;W
Y4 -i:; r
........
....
.. .. IfilOMPHRE.-If
..
...... E.Fri-,
ro it Mcm RIN-Mr!P H;
mil.HHUR HHNI-glu
.....................
..........
kip
. ........ ..............................
.......
. . ...........
. .......
......... ....
. .. ......
.......................
.... . ........ . ..........................
...............
............... M: .........
......... . ...........
....
..... ...........
.........
........... . ...
.. ......... ............. .......
. ......
....
... ..... .........
...... ...............
.............
-
....
.......
............
......... ..........
..
..........
.. . ............
....................... ..............
..........
:1.3.- .......
..M=!;........
.........................
.. .......
.........
....
.
. ..........
. ..... ..
..... ...........
. ......
.................... .....
..........
c ........
.............. .........
...... ........ ..
. ......... ... .. ;:::
........ . 1::
. ....... .......
...... . " ... " !..:::: ... :::::
............
............. ........ ft-fv
......................... m..........
. . . ............... .......
......
............
.... ......
........
............ .. ..................
........ .....
. ...................
............ . ..... .. .......
....... ......
....
......
............ .......
................
-H Mr.-
. . .........

N ..............
... .. .......
.. .....
. .... ... ......................

.....................
..................................
....... ................. .....
. ..........
.. ...... .........
..... ..... .. ... .........
. ..........
........... .......m. .......

.......... ....... ...... ......... ... . r:_*


...... ..... ............
. . ..........
-- ------------ ...........................
:::ý
.............. X: .3 ..........
..... .....
... .......... .................
..........
............ .............
.................... ................
. .....
......
.....................
. ...
. .......
......
...............
. .....
......... . ..........................
.... . ...........
......
.....................
................ -a:=
... ::;:;::
.............. ::::;:z:: .....................
.................... _IMM .......... . ..............
. .................
..... ..........
. ................ .
-w.:- , ... .....
............ ......
......
. ...... .............. . .....
. .......... :Mma
.......... .. ..........
.. ............ m. .........
............ .. ....... . ....
. ..... m .......
?............
..... .....
M ... ..
................. ....
................ .......... . . ................. ..... ... .. ............... .......
. ................ . ......... . .....
. . ........ ...
3= 2: . ........ ......
........
. . ........
. .. . .................
............ .. .......... .... ..........
..
. .......
.. ... ... ...........
.. ...........
........ ...........
. .
.........
....I: ...........
................. .......... ............ ............- . -:: :1 1...............
.. .........
........
......... .. . ........
................ .. . .............................. ..... .
................ .. .......... ........
: ......... . ... . .............. .......... ....... .
'i. IM .............
.............

.........
. ............
....... U ........
I.......
........
..............
...........
.. .........
. ....
....
. ...
.......
..........
........
.... ... .....
.....................
......
. . ............
........ ...........
...
. ..... . ..........
. . . ..... ........... ...................... ....... .......
US ............
.... ............ ....... ...... .
......
. .......... .......... .............
. .....
............ I,
............. :imn
R:: M: ........
....
.........
. . U-
3.-...
nmi-
................ ......... .... ..........
............. ........
..-------
.........
. .....
.. ---------
-- ----
........
. .... ---. e.......
........
................
.................
................ ........
........... .......
......
M ...........
......... ...........
....... ............ . ......
. ........... ................
........ ..... .
UM "aip .....
. ............
........
....... . ........ ...........
111:41. ............. ........
.........
........
. .....
.......
.......... .....
.........
..........
................ ..
. ...... or
.......... H.H.H WV WE f R.....
INUMM": ............
................ . ........
.............
.........
..........
....... . . . ........
....
....................
......
........
........... ma - .........
..................
.. ......Hint .........
... .. ..........
M aul: ...................... ........ ......
-.;::: ;9;:. t
......... ......S::..: ......... 1..........
v:i'm
MINN U 2-1 -f
itm mj-lur Hit
H.H.W .M.-
.......
... HE 1F 41
I 1. 14 'il jm 0 ' -14 1 - '1191 I

2.98
i II
1,ifF ti1I1i: a ' I I AI 1

m 1. !L'

2.78

I ,760

56~~~~~4 8
540~ 60 60 64 60 0
CALL3RATD
A~lSPED, V (1(~t!
CHART 8.519
1

14

t-t4
M1

ij;7 '4-4 '4! . .

Z-96 Ja rX TJ

2.94
',Tý t+l
ft:4

Z. 92 ...
.......

2.90 ijý

+r i

2.88 tt .
"t T..

02.86
....... ...
.........
.

2.84

2. 82 fATI NO
............

4 ýt -44

Z . 0

t1i

Z. 78 4t
f4 -TTTPTV. 11-ý=Tlmu 114 ULU.".

Hill ml
2,76
Ift' P1111P

720 740 760 780 800 azo 840 860 880


CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, Vc (Knotb) CHART8.5
193
ONFOOMMYROIS: rMINHWHymmi q IqF

FM
.. j .....
Hiflow alimmillial 91 m.Mmm Onmr-Am ag wwmqý IsgarvarArom po 51-..:
UM 3M f.

'r, THPIN! iInt:1. MM.A. I.:


C. S. _Hml
.......... . ........... HRR IM-411AIS In OR Tu-
........
MMMIZ.
ia J a W; I:F
M 4 i i:;:MI;M:;_; Za, rfRb iiih WA; q:iF: .3:
................ .. ... ...
............
...... ......
........
.17 a um
-.;;or u
........ ..... .... .... I
E,
It NM--
-C. . -ý M ..............
......
............ ::::
............
sli... nt, I .. .......

.... ... .... I .............

............................ .........
. ........... .................
...........
... ...
. .......
................. ....... .i .........
. ...... ...........
.... ...
................ .......
I; .............. . ..........
n
. ............ ............. ........
. I. ....... ..... . .......
........ ....
....MV - a: .......
.......
I.m::=:1rM:. .........
.......... . .....
. . ......... ...........
I.
gium
... UM
.............
. .......
-. j: M M. It' N,
... ..... I.......... ...........
. .............
I. ........ ............ 6.............
...... .........
......
......
.... ........ .......
...
II......... ............
.. ..........
........... ..........
. .............
. ......... .......I ...........
.............. ....... ......
................... "M M, _ ---
. ........... . . ......... ..........
..........
I. .............. . ......I. m I: I ..............
.. ......... . ..........
. .
. ...... ...........
.. .............
.....................
:M : IM .
......
mmm
. ... ........... .........
. .................
. ......
.... ;..1.,I= _..:=
=,.* M lmur. ...................
V. it W HORP.. ... ...........
M.-OH-Mmu I ......
.......
..................
............ . ........I...M.-C .............
. ...................
... ........
a
M.M.I."NUM.
. ..........
M .......
n. M.... :ýNUHM imin3
N.: 1:1 I.
M.......
..:_iam -IlpMgmaw-UN ....
.....
............... ....
.............
---H.
TI.......
... I.. .................... ... ............. ...............
.......
...... .............
. ...........

...:V:
.... ..... umm:
........... 7:
...... .. ........ I. .......
.
U..
... ..... N
MUM.::..Igmmm:
....................
I. ........ I. IN .W. .:;r
, I..........
I ...... .... ...
. ...
I. cm .... IN.
M.. . ........
....... I .-
.... ...
.......
..............
. .....m u
...... m
MMErm"
M.%
................
. ............... ... .... M UI
Mr:::
.............. ............
....... .............. .......
L. MMM.
. I. . ........
%:...
3. 1 UN mnm za; zw. I=;
On
I. ..............
. .. .N ......
..........
.........
.. ......
::::N: mmr. I -mnm
.... .... mm.
-:3. ...Mn. MV ........
1 nm -1 ........................ .....
..... ......
..............
I .... .. .......
.
.......... 6.,..1::*- W%.
'!j" . *!.iil:. - MUM
. ...............
... ............ ......... MMUN..
- --
.............
11:1: ME"M . ................. I. .....- ..- MMIUM
I - - ...
....... I U.... ...... .
.... . .....I. ...... .p ...
........................... .......
I. :
:U::t
.......... . .. ............ ;-MM
........
. ..... .......... .........
. ............ I-VIAM .
M
.............
................... .. ... .......
.........
. .......... Ui AiM.....in.
WNW-3 .. .........
........N RM.H.miv. H . .......
mmi
.. .... ...
.1.
I...
1. .........
......... ........... .......
................
H....I . . ..........
.......... N ...M..
4m.
2.94

2.9102IZ 10 160 18 20 20 14

CAIRTDA.9ED Kos

195CHRT8.
4 11

2.98 r iii.',ul I Li
Lj j4

I 7t

2.96 i Y I

2.92r

2* a

2.84

2.80

2.76

~ki k1,,

120 1280 1300 1320 1340 1360 1380 1400 1420


CALIBRATED AIRSPEED, Vc (Knots)
_ CHART 8. 5 196
4ý. 1

2.98

2.961

'4 A 3

2.90 .....

2.84

Z. 82 I.

. U 80T

t4-

2.90

4 14

Z. 76.

5U 140 1650 10
144 146 140 10

4. CAIRAE
-K AISPED os

2.819 .I ;.8, C.
8.6 THE CORRECTION OF ALTIMETER AND/OR AIRSPEED INDICATOR
READINGS FOR PRESSURE LAG ERROR

CHART 8.61
(See paragraph 4. 2. 1)

LAG CONSTANT RATIO, xHic/XSL versus INDICATED PRESSURE


ALTITUDE CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, Hic (Thousands of
Feet) for INDICATED AIRSPEED CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR,
Vic (Knots) = CONSTANT

/S. n..
xc Hc PaSL
XSL I 4 SL Ps + qcic

CHART 8.62
(See paragraph 4.2.1)

LAG CONSTANT TEMPERATURE CORRECTION FACTOR, X/ )Hi versus


INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR,
Hic (Thousands of Feet) for TEST DAY ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE,
tat (0C) = CONSTANT

Tat
x Hic Tas

where Tas corresponds to H.ic

198
CHART 8.63
(See paragraph 4. Z. 2)

AIRSPEED INDICATOR LAG FACTOR, F 1 (Hic, Vic ) versus INDICATED


AIRSPEED CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, Vic (Knots) for

INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR,


Hic (Feet) = CONSTANT, and dH ic/dt in feet per minute.

G• c 212.5
F , (Hic, Vic) 2,
z 886V.cl.+ 0.2.( -• -)2] V ic -- a SL -
IC aSLJ

F I (Hie' Vic) =GPs a


V. 48Vic)2
(-6
] 3.5
[ I a

3738.11(-)L ()aSL 2 icaSL

where or and p5 correspond to Htc

ALTIMETER

xa
k- H1 4.24
icl 60 dt

where

as aSSL XUSL
8l- ks~ 8 XUHic42
a Hi 4.21

and dHic/dt = feet/minute

xsSL = seconds
XsHic/XssL from Chart 8.61 for Hic, Vic = STATIC

0 199
s/XsHic from Chart 8.62 for H. c, tat (0C)

AIRSPEED INDICATOR

AV
Vc1 t
dVic
dt
+ (Xs60- Xt) F HV.
dHc
dt
4.43

where
XSHc ks
s8 SL XsSL SH 4.21

Xt = X tHic Xt 4.40

=tSL XtSL XtHic

and dVic /dt = knots/second

dH ic/dt = feet/minute

X.SL and XsSL = seconds

X H" /kssL from Chart 8.61 for Hic, Vic = STATIC

XtHic/XtSL from Chart 8.61 for Hic, Vic

X/%Hic from Chart 8.62 for Hic, tat (°C)

F 1 (Hic, V ic) from Chart 8.63 for Hic, Vic


Example:
Given: XsSL = 0.60; XtSL = 0.10

V ic "" 800 knots; Hic = 30,000 feet; tat =-300C

dV. d H.
c 3 knots/second; - 10,000 feet./minute
dt dt

200
0

Required: AHicl and AV.•ic

Solution: From Chart 8. 61 for H. = 30,000 feet, V. = STATIC


. csH

. = . 80
XsSL

From Chart 8.61 for H. = 30, 000 feet, V. = 800 knots

xtH.
= - 0.50
xtSL

From Chart 8.62 for HIc = 30,000 feet; tat = -30°C

- = 1.063
), Hic

From equation 4. 21

=
=a 0.60 (Z.80) (1.063) = 1.786

From equation 4.40

xt = 0.10 (0. 50) (1. 063) = 0.053

From equation 4. 24 for dHic/dt = 10,000 feet/minute


_ 1.786
i
AH1.760 60 (10,000) = 298 feet

From Chart 8. 63 for H.ic = 30,000 feet, V.IC = 800 knots -

F 1 (Hic Vic ) = 0.0030

201
0

From equation 4.43 for dVic/dt = 3 knots/second,

dHic/dt = 10,000 feet/minute

AVicl = 0.053 (3) + (1.786 - 0. 1.0030) 10, 000


(53)

= 0. 159 + 0.866 = 1.025 knots

202
I -. l

,....-.. I ~.
.4A

20.1:..:.....,I.,..i.,...

16111

1
A, . T

14~~~~~. %;*-.***-*..I-

c t: 4:7z.
I

10 I j ).... ... ... V..... '

6** ....
... < ~ j ....

708 60

SL 10 1 Z0 30 40 6 0 s

INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE, Hic (Thousands of Feet)

203 CHART 8.61


4 t 177

4 4 4

.. .. .. .. . .

4z I

4NIS
O O~ '-

.IAR 8.6 2 4.1


I ~ .J
.....
......
'1~ .. .f.. .......

. 1~..
............
.1* .......

..... 4> ....


...

-- 0

T0

........
.....
... ....
.. ...
. ...

-e00
N3:

(A )'Hi) J 1.0AD~T'OVILN laSI

.4CHART 8.63
I * 205
CHART 8.7
(See paragraph 5.3. 1)

INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE CORRECTED for INSTRUMENT


ERROR, Hic (Thousands of Feet) versus AP p/AH , ("Hg/Feet) for
(Feet) = CONSTANT
PHpc

AP
P= 0.00108130 , "Hg/feet

AH&H

where a- is measured at (Hic + C

Example:
Given: Hic = 35,000 feet; AH
•C = + 2000 feet

Required: APp in "Hg

Solution: Use Page 2 of Chart 8. 7. For the given conditions,

- 0.0003Z2 "Hg/feet
PC
AP
AP =-E AH = + 0.644 "Hg
P AMP

206
36. .... ...- ~

I kIr *1IT

'. ~
. . . . .**
. ..

0~
4 ~~~~ . . . l . ......t.. . ...

IiiI- i i 1 4.*-
v.'4'
* ....-. $

16~~~~~~ j I .44
.....~4..4..**

('41 M ;44 :
.4~~~~..
*
la 4. * . ~
. * ......... ..... .. ..

E-' 8 1 9= 1 -*I.1; 4
141,'"1 -
IuI .i""!.h d ad -1 4 . .

04 _ 4j;...... .
0 0.400 0.000 0.006 000800.0 0O

CHRT..
T!07e
4 . .. .... -. 1 44t4t3 .-L4 4- .1 [ .. 4~.4 V. 4 4 4

. ..
. .. .e .-. ) 44.44

.4
1- ,
1 4 Lut4111 4.4

~ -9--4 i-

.9
49f4 44, ~ . 44444 . I. i9 ;4 :M M

r 9. ~
4
* ~44 44
*9 ~ ... .. ....

1. *9 49. 94

* .9-* 4,
34 1

.41 9.94 444 44

.~, . .. .IT:

9~94 .1

.44
.- .. ~ .i.9...... .44
. .....4 4 4 .4 . .

_~~~, 14444 1~.4..

4 *44.4444.4 4 Tl,9

~~~~~48
~ ~ ~ ~ . .4:.
..44
.~" . 4. .9i9I.
.4..94 44

Li Li

w ..........
.....
..... 1

994I 4
C.,.)~~4 .i*
.44...4
.n* 1e*4

.4 ~~A4l 4

.4.... . . . ._...
I
I~99

II.4- . Jý
I.9..
I. .

... I4.
I.
I .
.-.~

. .4 .. .. ~ ... .... ...


I'l - b

-:.1~i
r:A
...01.. 002 002 0. 2 0003

CHART8.7 P,~ A~pc("HgFeet

320
*~. . ...
......
....
....
-- T - -7. 7 . .. ....

I....F
....
.z*1.. . A.
I~~....t i.....4... ... .. -..-..

..... ......
.- ... . ....

.. ...
.. . . ..

8 0 4 9.. . .. . . ..... 4.

.. . .. .. ...

764

U -4 .-I r
~4 I . ...........

~ .j t i ... ... ..

m a
.t.4
.*. . ..

ul .
......
.4i.

.. .. . .. . .

..... ......

- .. ..
0.00.
--.
..
0.0000 .*. 0 000 0.008 0001 .002 0.
~~.
.........
Fet
Pc CHART 8.........7
TV 7. . .... 09
CHART 8.8
(See paragraph 5, 3. 1)

INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE CORRECTED for INSTRUMENT


ERROR, Hic (Thousands of Feet) versus AP /AH , ("Hg/Feet) for

AP , ("Hg) - CONSTANT
P
Ap
P -P 0.0010813 ,- "Hg/feet

AH
where L is measured
S~2 at (Hic + 2 )

Example:
Given: H ic 52, 000 feet; A? = -0.50"Hg

Required: AH in feet

Solution: Use Page 2 of Chart 8. 8. For the given conditions,

A? p 0.000162
AHpc
A

- 3090 feet
AH
PC AP P

AHpc

210
4 ~~~~. i..- ......
..
~~.:

~ 1
....
... .. j..
...
..... * 4

7 1 l....
.....

~
t.7.I

:.I oa :_-.; .

SS

I ......... . . . - .
-~..
1

16I

I 2

. . ....... ............

. . . .... I..
-. JC.V

t .
8

i. 9'!.
4

0.0007 0.0008 0.0009 0.0010 0.01


* u. 000 3 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006

211 CHART 8.8


80t-7PV

~~
'I'
(..'I*,., 4
* j..

~~~....,~~~~.
,. ....... J . .........

1,,.-*i'.*.-........
+... ........
.t
... . . ..
......... .............

A ml.
. a

a I. :.'1

5 a

mw
p

40

60. 0. ooseei6 v
... :.v

4Npp/&a "H/ et

~ 56 CHART 8.8
21
CHART 8.9
(See paragraph 5.3. 2)

INDICATED AIRSPEED CORRECTED for INSTRUMENT ERROR,


Vic (Knots) versus AP /AV ("Hg/Knot) for AV (Knots) = CONSTANT

p
PC
1.4 P.
A
aSL
aSL (
aSL
C-)
[

IaSL
1 + 0. z (
V
J
I
2.5
2
Vic !6 aSL

+ aSL+ 0.2 ( V .ic


aSL
[ + 1.2()Vic )2
aSLJ
aJ
V PC
aSL
aSL

APV
SV. 6 L2(i.C-)l-]
V ic )2 1

52.854 ( a '.I - Vic aSL


&V
AVpc aSL [V.•c ] 3.

a
SSL
•:V. ,4 V. 2 + 1
v. 5 •a-- " - . T= •
+ 52.854 (') )PC
SL V. Z ]4.5 aSL

where P = g.926 "Hg, aS= 661,[48 knots


aSL

Example:
Given: V.ic = 300 knots; AV pc = -20 knots

Required: AP p in "Hg

Solution: For the given conditions,


AP
P
-AT 0.0305 "Hg/knot
PC A
A P AV = - 0.bl0 "Hg
PC
PC

213
..... ...

900 .l w

Ii .

..........
. ..........

700

j ~ ....
. ....

800

...............
';::~::iu:?Mi: a~*v
J

600

500

*+
a0t*.. s...

* I

00 0.02 0.04 0,06 0.08 0. 10 0. 12 0. 14 0. 16

CHART 8.9 P ~ CH/nt


214
CHART 8. 1O
(See paragraph 5.3. 2)

INDICATED AIRSPEED CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR,


Vic (Knots) versus AP p/AVPC ("Hg/Knot) for AP p("Hg) = CONSTANT

Pc 2.5

Ap 1.4 "SL ( ) o( V.VaSL


PCaS aL L aSL SL

7 PaSL
+ +0. -I
SL
[i +c
L
+ 0.2
0.2
SL
] 1.*5 1 + 1. 2
a
L )Z 1. AVP
aSL

-- L= 52.854 (
v.6
SL
"-!)
aSvpa
RS Vic
TH
Z•
- 12
-it
]a•SL V 1
aSL
a

V. 5 [7 a SL - 4 .3 a SL AV PC
+ 52.854 (-.!_c)
aSL S S -
[ 7 (ic
v 4. "SL

where PaSL = 9.92126 "Hg; aSL =661.48 knots

Example:
Given: V.c = S5o0knots; APp =÷2.0"Hg-

Required: AV in knots
pc
Solution: For the given conditions,

P 0. 0763
7 m 26.2 knots
aS
Re d A

215
100
4.
. F'~I
:.4i.... 4,.
1... ...
..

4 . j
7~4.1 c t.' .........
........ ,~

80
.*4~*0j*
.4*4
.I.
.*

.......
.. Z a. ~
700 ...
.... .. '4 -i.k,

S.......

F4. T.

4004

4*f*. .....
....
~ 4

1:' 'AiT I
200............................

q.I f,

100 , 4'' I1 . 4

0 im I , 1 1 :::
0 0.02z 0.04 0.06 0.08 0. 10 0. 12 0. 14 0. 16

1
CHART8. lapP /AV PC'Hg/ Knot)

216
CHART P.. 11
(See paragraph 5.3,3)

AIRSPEED POSITION ERROR CORRECTION, AV (Knots) versus


INDICATED AIRSPEED CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR,
V (Knots) for POSITION ERROR PRESSURE COEFFICIENT, APp/

For V ic- aSL'

2.5 1.5

__. aSL L2al]


aV.-Pi aSL [ ,
qcic ForV. (V" 2 3'.5
(-a~
ic SL7,1+ + 0.2 C) .z ' I
V1.2 a aSL1V.4C) -t V.2(-

For Vc
Ic a SL, V. -2 V.c4 V. 2 3

qhcic V
)LSLSC
64k
SL
-
[7.(-
ICE
V C+
V. 2SL
aaS
SL aS

c) a 166. 9Zt a(
L aSL

where a Givn:
SL V. 48 knots
6 61. = 0 kou
S0Lnt~a

Example:
Given: V. =700 knotol &V = -20 knots
I~c PC
Required: AP /qcic

Solution: Use Page 2 of Chart 8. I1. For the given conditions,


APP/qq a -0.070

217
il
I

20
" 13,
....
... :41 ..ItM4 40-15
U: w ....
...
w-T n7

-ul:

16 7--
-T- .. . . .. . .:I:Tr or

-VO.10
.Tm

12
ý:fl ;rT*-
i;o .;::i
;tt:
:all
At"
:vi
iiý e Z
8 -!ýV- Ile, 4-0.05
4LIA :44

4. 14i SM

4 Ti I.q fl

g- n
bi
AP
0 0 0

ec
t
11. M

.4
Ii 11 tip! 4+440"
-1 1 , i. . - " I

........
.. 05
-8

.12 14.
+4,

MIX U4 MOHM
IT
r
tt

.16 4W.
%;:4 :J:

i H, :'m
1 :!7!
. .... ........
.20 t
':74 +
..r -0.15
.....
........ N'
.24
0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280
INDICATED AIRSPEED, Vc (Knots)
CHART 8. 11
218
+40a 1

+130

+-20

+10

- 0-

-40

o zoo300
lo oo so XT
0~2 m Ts•v.v••Ko.
•C•
... ~~CH
......... ... R
+i .........
+30

+10o

> -2-
.-30

-4i

500 600 700 800 900 1000


CHART
. I IINDICA•TED AIRSPEED, -Vic (Knots)

220
CHART 8.12
(See paragraph 5.3.4)

RATIO OF ALTIMETER TO AIRSPEED INDICATOR POSITION ERROR


CORRECTIONS, AHPC /AVC (Feet/Knots) versus INDICATED AIRSPEED
CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, V. (Knots) for INDICATED
iC
PRESSURE ALTITUDE CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, Hic(Feet) =
CONSTANT

2. 5
a-(
•-!c + o ,.(..a CV
) ci6 aS
AVp 5566 aSL LSL ji a

"
Apc _48,880
P
AH PC8,880
"-Lp
V.IC6
aSL)
L2 SSL
(V.i /a SL) 2
(V/ic/aSL)z- -
-

1 3.5
3.5 icc/
Vic SL

where a is measured at Hic and a SL = 661.48 knots

Note, This curve is valid for small errors only, (say AHPCpc 1000 feet or
AV pc /-1 0 knots). Chart 8.13 should be used for larger errors.

Example:
Given: H. = 20,000 feet; V. C 600 knots; AH = 2000 feet

Required: AV pc in knots

Solution: Use Page 1 of Chart 8.12. For the given conditions,


AH PC/AV = 147 feet/knots
A H
AV = - = 13.6 knots
pc A
AHHpc/ p
PC/AVP

Note. The exact solution is found from Chart 8.13 to be 13.0 knots.

221
N-l ' N -1 N~x .. 0... u xu n N
.. ..
. .. N N N . . . .. .1 . 1 . .. : . ý . , - . : ..7: : :..

CH
R8.12 ::
222 . ..
I I

. . 1 I i
I I I

a0
... 0
0

.. . .
...
.... .....

mi 0
0n

...
______________________________________________________________________. .'..... L..

0 D %a
0 N 0 0o 0o 0 0 0 00 N

0 0 U5 a a3 ~0
AV/ liV
CHART 8. 12
223
1050
t I

' ............
4~.

4 4 M1

1000

> i' -.1.iw

.. ....... ....

*... .... ...

* I .-Y.
~
.. ... .... ..

.. .,I.
*M i

800 wm! .1;/

750

700 30 400 50 60 70 80 0

8. 12
CHAR 224
I
CHART 8.13
(See paragraph 5,3.4)

AIRSPEED POSITION ERROR CORRECTION, AVpc (Knots) versus STATIC


PRESSURE ERROR. AP p ("Hg) for INDICATED AIRSPEED CORRECTED
FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, V;c (Knots) = CONSTANT

and

ALTIMETER POSITION ERROR CORRECTION. AHpc (Feet) versus STATIC


PRESSURE ERROR, AP P ("Hg) for INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE
CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, Hic (Feet) = CONSTANT

ALSO

AIRSPEED POSITION ERROR CORRECTION, AVpc (Knots) versus


ALTIMETER POSITION ERROR CORRECTION, AHpc (Feet) for INDICATED
AIRSPEED CORRECTED FCR INSTRUMENT ERROR, Vic (Knots) = CONSTANT
and INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT
ERROR, Hi. (Feet) = CONSTANT

AP 0. 0010813 o- AH
P s PC
for Viic -- aS .
SL V. • . ). 2-5 V
IC0- I+ LL
1, -4PaSL(
aSL a SL aSLPC

- ] '5 + oz ( - Z) ( .-
+ 0,
a + 0 . z ( aV(
7S P 1aSj S La S La L

0 225
for V _c aSL V2

- 7V ac-6)- 'I
SI.c 3.5
.SL aSL
SL [ VcS
a SL

V V.c2]4 AV

S aS L aL 2 4.5 -

where K 166.921; PasL = 29.92126 "Hg; aSL = 661.48 knots

and a- is measured at Hic +


5 iC 2

Example:
Given: Hic = 35,000 feet; AH PC = + Z000 feet

Required: A.P in "Hg


P
Solution: Use Page 3 of Chart 8.13 for positive error@.
For the given conditions,

AP p= O. 6 4 5 '!Hg

Example 2:

Given: Vic = 300 knots; AV = -Z0 knots


PP
Required: APP in "Hg

Solution: Use Page 4 of Chart 8. 13 for negative errors

For the given conditions

&P = .. 0.610 t 'Hg


P 22
226
Example 3:

Given: V.Leen 400 knots;


Vi H. = 30,000 feet; &V P = +ZO knots

Required: AH in feet

Solutior: Use Page 3 of Chart 8.13 for positive errors.

For the given conditions,

AH = + 2440 feet
PC

Note: The approximate solution is found from Chart 8. Z to be


AH PC 2260 feet.

227
6
I
Xt

3m:W
0.0

444 .4

MT IU mt' I
4 4tv O WN
. .. .

0I It~
M7 4 '

10~~~- .. 41* A
-M44

~
0~ ~ ~~~~44
it IfSIi W11fJfff itI11 T

... 1101

* , Him

4~....

.4
. .
.4
Io MM 11114 H10~~

Wi 1141

4
4 I m

4
44 4.4
500 Fi 1 1,
'1

tH RIP !I t t

it 41

CHART 8.13
228
Vi .~

a qI

w 0IaII..4
03 I

'I T -

- E4-I--

4:4

\\i ~ 770?
""YV
I Iiil:: H:T_
22 CAR 81
i vi . '' i 1 i tin2'
I I4

I,;~

.. ... . .. .. . .

:IdIi 0!
A . 1; X HI

HIMI.

N4 ITI-I

I;!M ~It
lH 11l 11, 1. Iil!

4ji N" il iii1 11


111 11111,
I H, It

T
Z II I1
ITI *1I1j

I 0 MI il i 1 11110 11 It 110 S I I
'IIN

IIP IIiWI10 VI II I

230
it itII *1I

MIT
11;~
1!l
RII
iii'!',fi f i il ,

Lill 'Ii41 I i ! !

1.1: 'if .I fil 1 i;I tl

1119 1 '1 1 11 H 11 11111 il U 1 W 1


1i

W jIN~11111 H1IWVPi
:T li I H.1! Il H j

1H
ItO "A III)N 'i 1 141l 1 :1 Il
it'1 11 1i ll I I. i

: ' HI.11 LM1

1111

11 M.t 1 1M:iuI

If.

N4
M44
*i II d _

... . .....

o 00 0 0 0J 0 c 0 0Go 0 0

od V CHART 8.13
231
d ftI Li

U~~ I . ,lfil1, 11

'FLUB

p.~wi
I ... t . a,, I~

It1 4 d; La i1t

~ 4 1 1, It I

4it4 I- II .tI M1111 I It II 1.1 IN W

11 .. T ;I , !: 4 I I t

4'4 . W '.., V. , r

41.,1 1 ... .... .... ...


t
I i4 'I

N. 4t 44 I.
4W
1
4t++ Wk 01, . 11 4 11 CIO4

44 h4 KI ,t ,i 1M .
11 UY*M
fl i

im
1.1
*i 4
. Vi

26 I I 1WI a 4 11 it *11

13
CHART". 8 A Iooi)
I NS -0 2I2
[Mill I1101 Ill N1 il 111111111111111P M.1
$111M ilill llill ii
111111INIIIIHI
111,41111i'll,

RI In0lilt
HIpt 111R
1111
I HU Mlilt IN 11111
1111111
111111HIP111 .......... Egff
Effa
MH

li lt . .........
........... ..
. . .. . ..

.. . . . .

--------------

...............

--- - -------

(1003) odHV
233 CHART 8.13
CHART 8.14
(See paragraph 5.3.5)

INDICATED MACH NUMBER CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR,


M4.tC versus RATIO OF MACH METER TO ALTIMETER POSITION ERROR
CORRECTIONS, AMpC AHPC (Weet) for INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE
CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, Hic (Feet) CONSTANT

AmPC = 0.007438 ( *+ 0. Z ic M. _ 1.00


AHp€ Tas Mic ic

AMpc M., M 2 M. at.00


= 0.001488 Lcc - 1)ic
AHpc Tas (2 Mici -

where Ta. is measured at Hic. (


Note: This curve is valid for small errors only. (say Apc 1- 1000 feet
or AMPC < 0.04). Chart 8.t5 should be used for larger errors.

Example:
Given: Mic Z. 30; Hic = 46,000 feet; Ac = -800 feet
Required: AM
pc
Solution: Use Page 3 of Chart 8.14. For the given conditions.
AM pc
= 5.94 x 10-5 1
AHpc Feet
AM
AMP = A c A.H
AC 0.0475
PC AH~~P P
Note: The exact solution is found from Chart 8.15 to be

AM = - 0. 0470
PC

234
1! TJfl 1 14~t4

tii
"!; ;7_
jj~~- I ta I'1~

T -- .7 -. .. . ... .

.
.........

.: ,
t 't ! i ....... :
:. ._t

p4 Ly 'I-.'4
I"I
it1
~
r::LI ~ ~ . .........-.....

'V: VV
" -. +I,-4 4:
.a

vi t. ..- -4 . e

1;ý': 7

t.

tt . . , .. ,;'~j ~
r! 7;~., a ~ ~

a. , a. * , in

.~L.aa~a...La1_4L.L .i~& ili 43,L ~ '1 ~..~ V;'' W

:"!W n -
* . .4
0 0voit
~ 'U~Nfl HDVIe" ULVItall

235 CHAT.1
T 17 &

... L..4........ .t
.....

VII
.li ~ ~ .........L..ý

.........................
v, a L It

. 1 .J.

4. I ~ a

1.7~iI 1

...
......
....
1.6 ~l~V

4 l ~ I I L ....a.. 1

w .I .'.. ..... ... . I...

1.4 .; IV I~ .- I I f 7

3. ..
7....
(At$c
/1-L~) ~iO~'v (O~/ eet
CHAR'a. 8h1 23
I Ei I

+ ...
ITTb
I. A .. 144

4ij- I{:1
i:t..! 4 4 .

-0 4 4~ 4' '* .4

3 .I...4 .4 l44 .... ......


......... 4 . .

7
744. 4..
.4. ....
4...... .... ..

4 ;j2 ... .4
.j~
.j.
.44
..>~
.
.1 "7T _1 I
2.77

2.2
6l~ ;~4' 7 ~2.~ .~ ..

7 . .?4171":AJ
, .I
. ............. 4.447

ii ~ ~ . ... .1 ... ~ ~

.4&4.... .. ........ ~

... .. . ............

3. 4* 5 7 8 9'

CHAR 8.1
~
~i~:~ . ... ...44.37
'.
CHART 8.15
(See paragraph 5.3.5)

MACH METER POSITION ERROR CORRECTION, AM versus RATIO OF


STATIC PRESSURE ERROR TO INDICATED STATIC PRESSURE, APp/Pa
for INDICATED MACH NUMBER CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR,
Mic = CONSTANT

and

ALTIMETER POSITION ERROR CORRECTION, AH PC (Feet) versus RATIO


OF S'TA'IUC PRESSURE ERROR TO INDICATED STATIC PRESSURE,
AP /P for INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE CORRECTED FOR
INSTRUMENT ERROR, H.IC = CONSTANT

A LSO

MACH METER POSITION ERROR CORRECTION, AM pc versus ALTIMETER


POSITION ERROR CORRECTION, AH (Feet) for INDICATED MACH
NUMBER CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, M1 c = CONSTANT and
INDICATED PRESSURE ALTITUDE CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR,
Hic (Feet) = CONSTANT

AP
P 0. 0010813 w/P AH
a 8 PC

1.4Mi0.7( - 1.6 Mic )AMPC


PC
zz- I *00
(2 + 0.2 Mt (1+ 0.2 MicZ)

7(2 Mbc - 1)AMPC 7(21 M,ic4 - 23.5 Mic2 + 4)AM PC -

Mic (7 M.ic22 Mic. (7 Mic 2


M. -1. 00

238
AH
where P ai measured at H. and a is measured at H. +

Example:

Given: Mic = 1. 00, H2ic 72,000 feet; t-lPC 2400 feet

Required: AM pc

Solution: Use Page 5 of Chart 8. 15 for rositive errors,

PM = 0. 0968

Note: The approximate solution is found from Chart 8.14 to be


AM 0=. 0986

239
1 1 I .1 WMi L
tlql MITf
A MIt lI
Ifi I

Iful
IH~ Mt,
1
.0

1m oo
WE Wi
.40 M il.. ...
4

I ME

I144
; lit ý4. 1 -4 1
.4b*

4
.01 +44

.02p
'4

.01.

.i
44 4

1
100 N ilh
... i 11h 111 411

444
141 14114 HI
40
.. X
ý4... 1.I .

200 t
HI M
i. 11,014
"I fil [1H

u 1 1i;I; Miit Ii M1 P1 fl
CLI
. ... ..
1 H
240
C HAR 8.15i lM Jil
1l''11
VIM~~~I if .;1 - '''Iilil

11 ii r :

4 I4 i i . I I I I*
iF I t I

02~* 11li

.01
121: 'j t
U2l i"4w il I MII.114 1 I'"1t
"RM '11 41

If 1111 1 4, tI1 , im t H
w Ii! NOW Il*iftl' IN IN 111 1
TII11M fil W iPit 111i

I It -i I pl* 1 I T,

[i
1i. I.I

i I, t
T~~~lip
4iI~ fiil 1 I
tiili' 1:
I I 1fi jjif Ii[iffti
Itili. ~~ ti It.fU H 1104151 113w
.00t -4 9N II flit'~ ' I N HIM

tVRI I
I I411 Iiiml 1111
l1 Ii I& 1111 tjT O
I'D t~ ll II!: Iý
MUN11,11111MMI w lin H I t WMl,

MR NMI
MI M Mit I II

MWNE Mt011{ 1:1,1


itl
II~ ~~~~~~ .hi'% P11
,iLlft1f~
~ l111
It oi15il
~~ ~ fD
~ 4 W 9 11114 ilkll11111- CHN R f 8j
0 . . ....

fiti
-. 0! 1 1 ItiII I lit
I.M I Ik III. 1 1.1 1

-. 0 i il II . . .....
.t~

..
.1..
.~~
.4

-. 0 Pil T411 .

14

-10

-20-

m~ IL

-30 i

j+4H I f +

-50

. it

CHART 8.15 2
..
........

-.02

- .00

.. 02
-100

-. 0 77o
JA..
m .
.. . ... .

30
.....- ....
U
I pI

-40 M

-0
I a. ..

243 X6
mCAR 8.15X
~U.1 UNI ~

1H MI Ii
-4 If I [ fliII: f 1 .
4
4U

I. I

M 11MNTH

WIMM 1

M! M. aaa

U- W1 M

I . .4
.11
...

411 Hi4
i 4 ~ 4J ~ ~ It~ i I,

4, I SI I4N 1 ;.

Mil IV I V onu
I~f xm

I 1 It
-t 1t 11?MS 119lifn I

B.It 1i 4 I ~
4 44 IIi i~

4I H! 4lo
If14 I 1 i k , im4 IM1

4*'4 It 4111"141

;IiiM4111jfil t j"lil
t
4 '1'
HIM1
I I I
4! In d'IT t 4 j '

N~~ 0 0% CI 1- %.0 in' v m

CHART 8.15
244
v
U1 1159115111 KM 11114 11444 11511 mu im& I!; fi iii,3i j,iii i. ................... ... ........ .
Ill H.: a I
:::.
.... ..........
.JM3-:1::j!3l3 ISM
ji Iin IIIIIIIIIIMINIM Iliollill] Illmll...q [m
Ili! 111H IIIIHH'I I HIM 11,11,11
Fit
--igi im.
...* ... .. ....
V',flli 111 1: 3Mi I j33'..
if ffi_': [Iffi!-. i1j! Ing .. ...1
................ . AW .:

..
.3.3 ......
;!I::::
I ......... it
HIM !ii; 1: q. M. 51 Mi IHM
I
.1
Hili fit I .
91 H1
.: HIM: H.
In M.
iaya

mij umij!i -- m in. :11,


. ultq. !!!I ill Illiffil
I H. i. I I H 1111illIM,I'll Ii:;AW
UM: imc-imisil In HIM 'Im
,M-Ma, lH illum m. .1 im Iii. ii -1
::1::M.:::M::i:.::::3:
............ I 1 3 im . :3 3t::..::. 13:1111111 Mill",
3ill' fififllin li! 1111 ;RNI'llmill 111IMPHIM, U
:g:li'll
-1 MIll HIM IH jiml!ImIlmigirl,
Hs I.I.Rul 131:11U I,-. gird AII'MN fur,
,Jj
N. N.3
M MIN2W
IiMH IIIII'm m It
tna:tn...: H:
MR. RHI M11111i; I H MHHH.
HIMIMI! 11.1 Lt..
.7.t.31 4:: - A.: pa. U.
gi
. ......... in Himin MI Is
......31................. A 1 1:
:33MRIMM jim131mi !i.
...... tum a H U.....H.: tIM:2 MM.,
MM.I.W1
.....
.......... IN-PYVA: . .....
M. N.W. mman M.M- mm.. A _3
ggili; -.:I, PAHMIMM
...........
M. U,
1F.111-11:1?
..........
....... JR: HIll Milpifl Ilffl;., ".j IF !
u.mKil."4. -
:NAWW,
... ........ N
.................
.......................................
m : ..m MM I 1i % I
......
................ .11M.I.-IlLFAN.
I
IN
. N
c in Mnumm At:. :11:1ft!1j.1Fj:
m ...... ....93......
........ n.vulý
. ......
..................
mm Mil Zw.:: w MM ........ J...pun;
... .......
mi: M . N :1-12MMMIMNUP.fiffivjM11i
..................... C::c M.
...................... Ili: 3j.'
I a? RiP, mimt ............
................
:nimmm
......
. . ........ ........ . .....
..................... ...............
IM: jr ... .........
'! .. ..
.............
*`* M
..................... ............. IM-ii.I.HHH: O f Ummmummu: ...... M MMUMM:
.......
...................... .. ..........
nr .:vivar. %0.: . mnm.
........... ;'i'Min., H-H: IM.:

........ ....... MMMMMJý.:


.................
.............
..un
n ........ .. ....
. ....... .........
.............. HIM
................ ......................... ..
immmm
.......................
.........
............... ..
. ...................... ...... ........
..........
........................
.................
................. ....
............... . ..... ..........
..............................
.
.......... ... ................ ........
..................
............
......
................... .... .. .... .. .. .......... ... ... ......................
........................ v.
....................
. ....... ...................................................
. ........ ...... .......... ........
.... ....... .............
.......... . .....
......
...........
.............................. ..................
.......... ............................
. ...... .......
..............................
. ......
:
................ ::::; :.
.................. - . ..........
..........
::. ............
...... .
.............
...............
........................ IMMMMUMI.W..
....................
....................
I-M"MN: .............................................
............... ......
...... ........
........... ........
..........................
............... I.. .........................
. ............... .........................
................ ........
.::::: I... ........
- . ; , !*
- ............................... I ... ... .......
....
M, ............
. ...................................... H ... ............
.....................
:::...................
............
.......................................
...............
. .....
...... .............
........ ...............
. ........... .............
m:n
...........
......... ......... .......
. .................. ::...:
...........................
.........
...
....
..................
................................. M.mn
................... .........
.............................
.......................
........
............ . is. 11'.
...................I , ".. ; ýM: ... . ............. 1:;
...........
.......................................
..................... UN
........ ................ ...........................
.............. ,, -* ........
11" --.............
......................
............... 5! 0.!!' iji ".::4
.....4; 1..M.M.1
... .1. ........ :mum
... t ...............
....... - ........
.... ........
- ni .. ..........................................
w i's
... .......... UMMIN *1 ni :.if
.. =MnIcummi,
..........
.......................... ...... ....
...
......... .:: ........
.... M. ..
................... IM Ii:3!_ - 3..s . ..... IN I NUUMB
........... ..............
im:
...................... : I 2:1::t C..
........... .8:::: HIM Mmsl. mu u n::::: 1 3 r. I
....................... :I.-- M IR ...................... M.
:::mp: .............. ... ..
...... I IMIUMM . ......................
. ......I .......... IHM ......
............. ...............
................ MM.". MEN, muul mmiwml H*Mffi. I
IMUMM
c ME., I . ii.. Nsl:::
Ml .... .. . .. ... ............
'I
I WsMulia 1911 Millm : I ........
Himal : Muffl-MIUMM 1:
SH.....
......... UsN-, ..:; ninail.
;,Ij ,.:i:i .. ......... -..;;i.1.1... ...........
Jim .I
iiiii -.;Ili .. .........
::*.::::::::::::t .....................
........... .1 - ,
...........
I
1 till 11.1
mi jail
iI 11.111m i mu
m I HUI ...........
. .. MUMN. H.....UMM I.... 11M.M. 1:flu".. unmm:
. ... ........
'i'iiiiiiiin-ma-ii H. it .1 Mi MU iiijup:11jil: ipjuip All1mg. .......
mummmmumnil . I ......
............
..........................
Agss.ffl : ..HH.
M. I.: I ":1
nmn it m I!:
M M .
:I: In
1m
11111ON110111111111 Ill
lu HIIm .1 mt ul m 1 a IM iiiMI H.
4111111111ill
11...a ujimininmolm-an
TsM., ...I......
....
........

....... ...
IMMUN IM, INM H.: " * ill it m WIN
........ .......... I IM ......
.................... . ....... H nm
1111 MUMMM MI
quceua UMMI11.1 HUNIM...
......... 1 mH H.:IV
.......
... .......... I
Rol IIII'm gl
M.M.. ii IR: 31 .11 If loin 1111101 1111i'llp.1131mg Im MUM. Sri!!
mi . . M:HIM Hiijunm- M
.......
............
.
. . ....
. ... ..... . ......
.

I.... ... T.

... . .. ...
.t
..
.I
.4 .... ...

GII~8-15 2146 itfmm .


.......
. .....
ini! 1 .1 1. 1 VIM UU IMI
......... ... ...

I
[is MO.. 11110%
-uhEm "MUM. W"HIM! "HIRIMM111, iffl-111MIN1,110 ifill I
ifRp. t- I.-i IF,Mi.Fnri I IN01rl I11,ri Ir, q, i M "11
P11 I INi H p 1: In -PH. I In
nni Ni
........ .....
......... :11-1 :HMIR
. ............. ................
.... .........
.....
. ......
.... .... .. .. ..... H HH; . ......
1 !:ima -F .i iitn. Pl- i::9M:3
I.i:1 In ..... .................
:31 ;Ml .........
.........
nx. m:11:
t:.;::: i...,
..................
......................
........
........
....
..........
....... ..............
.....
......
........
.. . .....................
.......... .........
.................
......
............................ ...... .......
...........
..... ...
................... ... .......... .
.....
Hii
........................... :..
....... ..........ý::% ... : ::::,.: ý,
...I..........
.9;:1.11-1: ... ......... .. .............
. . .
. . .............. ......................
................. ............ .... .......
. ............... ... ..........
............. ..
...........................
..............
. ...... I ..........
........ .......................
...... ..... . ...........
.....................................
.............. ...... ....
......
.....
......
............
......... ..............
..............................................................
......
.................. .............
.........
....... .....
.......................
I
......................
..............
...............
. .. ........................
.......................
........................ ................... ........... . ...............

............
................ :...........
......
..................... ...........................
:::....................................... .
.... .......................
.......... ........... ....... ............
...................... ........ ....... .........
............... ............................................ ....................
.............................. ...........
.............................................
::::1:::::::::;:::::
i:*.::,:..I::*..:::::::..:::::ýl:::*:.I*.:,;*.?.,.,..,.,: .*:,.,:,,.:,..:::::;,.:;:::::::;:*.,.:::::.............
.................. ........................ ...... ... ......
................. .............. ..........
......................................... .... .. .. .... I.......
. ::::::::U=. .................
.....................
............. ..... .. .. .. .. ...... .. .. ................
........ .............
............................................ ...................... .......................
.............
........ ........................
........... ..................... ............ .............
................
........................ : .......
........ .................... . ...............
........................ ........
.................... .................. ................. .... .. ............ ................ .............
...............
................... .....................
...................
.......... ......
...................... ............... m ..................
..........
.................... .................................
...............
........................
........................ ..................
........................
..............
................
..................
................................................
......................
..............
.......................

. . ...............................
...................... . . ..................
...................
..................
..
..............
........................
.....................
. .........
.....................
.. :; ................. .............
. ...... ......
........... ...........
. ...................................
..................... ..................
..................
.................
................................
. ...... ....... .......
....................................
.............. ..............................
................ %; , I .................
.......... .. . .....:::.*::!*-,::::::::::::::::::::::,*!:::,::::,::::!: .......
............. . .. .. ..................... .......... ........................
. .......................... ..............
.............
...
.......................... 1::::::::::::::1.:::::::
1.:::::,.3:::::::::31.::.,:;::::::.,:,:....
I ..........................
.................... ......................................
........ ...........
................. ..........................................
................
.......... ....... ..............
..........
.................. ................ .................
... .............. ......................
::::.
.......................
..
............... ...........
. ......................

..............................................................
.........................
M. .................
..................
............................. ....... . ... . ................................
....................
. .........
..................... ................... ........................
... ........... .............
...............................................
......................... ...... .....................
::mmminn:n ::............. .....................
ý%;::;. ..............
7:1:::::..:::::::,::::
..............
............. . .. .. . ................. ................. ..... I..........
....... . :=:, ..................
.............. ................ ..................
. ..
........................
................
......... ............
....................... .............. I
.................. ..........
...........
..........
..........................
.:..................
............. ....................... ..............
.. ....
::
....... ..................
Ul.:::M: 111"..:":::::*:.i::i::::::::I::;:::::::::
........ .................. :
: .......................
......... .................................... . ..............
.. ............
. .. ....................... ........
. .........
H
........................ ........................
..................... ....................
....
.. . ..............
..................................
. .... ..............
..........
............ MUMM:
....................
...................
............
.................................................
.....
..............................
CHART 8.16
(See paragraph 5.3. 6)

RATIO OF MACH METER TO AIRSPEED INDICATOR POSITION ERROR


CORRECTIONS. AMPC/ VPC (VKnots) versus INDICATED MACH NUMBER

CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, Mkc for INDICATED PRESSURE


ALTITUDE CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, Hic (Feet) = CONSTANT

V.-• [1 V.c 2T2.5 (1 +0".ZM.i2)


AM - PaSL I V. 1 ''a ) 5
(+0.2( C V-f
ic a SL
1
PC aSL F aa SLc !- 1.00
PC~Mi c i -- .1
AMPaSL I V V. 21 2.5M .(7 M. 2 -1) V K
pc - aSLI + 0.2 (--) ic V.SL
PSsL 2MM ic ! L.0

am PCL 166. 921 FaSL L) [2 " M (7M. 2 -1)


A•Vpc aS
-
rF-
SL c c . V >aSL
icZ13 (aM Z )
L _(2SL M ic -
M.)
Mic >- aSL

where PasL = 29.92126 "Hg; aSL = 661o48 knots and P. is measured


at H.ic

Note: This curve is valid for small errors only, (say AVPC < 10 knots or
AMPC < 0.04) and should not be used when the position error is larger.

Example:
Given: M. = 2.40; H. = 60,000 feet; AV = 2. 0 knots
Required: AM

Solution: Use Page 3 of Chart 8.16. For the given conditions,

PC AM
AM PC = (A ) AVPC = 0. 0789

*. Prececing page blank . 249


The method to be used in case of larger errors is illustrated by the
following example.

Given: Mic = 1.00; Htc = 35,000 feet AV PC = +20 knots

Required- AM PC

Solution: I. V1 c = 350 knots for Mica Hic and Chart 8.5

P p /q cc= +0.127 for Vic, AVPC and Chart 8.11

A&Mpc = +0.1000 for Mic, AP /qcic and Chart 8.18

Z. V- = 350 knots for Mi, H and Chart 8.5

A- P +2510 feet for AVPCI Vtc, Hic and Chart 8.13

AMpc = +0.1000 for AHpc, Hic, Mic and Chart 8.15

Note: Use of the approximate Chart 8.16 gives AMlv = + 0.094

250
* Al

10

lotu,4

251 CHART 8.16


.. 4i

44

..
.....

0.040 1

0.035

.0,030

0.0 025
>

0.020

0.010 ....

*.....................

1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2

INDICATED MACH NUMBER, Mic


CHART 8.16 252
J..

0.060 . .

0.055 *

0.050

040

0.030 4' . .

0.0454

o 253
....... I-.....
ia I ,,. . .
014

. . ~ ...... A.

q I: I

.4..........
.~4 . ~
. . . . . . . . .

0.095

ji ~ ........

I ,LT

4.. j am 1
C4

. .
$. .. , . ..

i
0.080
:I.-.

0.07S

5 . .. I 1.0 . i

41 J

m i. i I 14

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0


2.4

INDICATED MACH NUMBER, Mjc


CHART 8.16 254
CHART 8.17
(See paragraph 5.3.7)

INDICATED MACH NUMBER CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR;


Mic versus RATIO OF MACH METER POSITION ERROR CORRECTION TO
POSITION ERROR PRESSURE COEFFICIENT, AMPC/ (AP /qcic)

AM C (c 1+ 0.2 Mic z) 3 5 ] M c

(APp/qcic) 1.4 M DLc

7 (7 Mc ) 1.00
AMPC =Mic 1 166.9z1 Mic - M. 1 .0 0
- t)1
7(7 M .ic 2ic (2. - 1)
(APp qlc c)

Note: This curve is valid for small errors only, (say AMPC 4 0.04 or
AP p/qcic < 0.04). Chart 8.18 should be used for larger errors.

Example:
Given: Mic = 0.85; AP p/qcic= +0.10
-Required: AM
PC

Solution: Use Page I of Chart 8.17. For the given conditions,


AM PC/(AP P/qcic) = 0.58
AM
AM MPC =(AP p/q
c (Al' /q CiC ) =*0.058
.
-
A P
P cic

Note: The exact solution is found from Chart 8.18 to be


AM :O0.0588
PC

255
-,.r, ~ M R.. . 1
. .,. ".I- M _
717 T&-' 4~
,1*.3 ** W; ~ !:It "W
4
*
W. 't,

... ,,.:
t....i...... :.,.

1. '~ I..........

jji

0 .98
.-. *

0.5-

I~. 1 . .. .....
I Iis t. I
4
~0.35

0I 0, 41. 0. 0 .1

I1 8 A *. . ~
. . .
I256
2.3;m - .4! "'r" ....
;T rI- r'i: l . . 7m T Ti~' I t 1. Ij''* -L '-- T

iv rrm,*~

~~~~~l
~Ll ~1i-Pg4* * 1
4
*~

2 .- Lt W
"
.14.it !..44 . i. Iv! .. .... .L
.. .4~4

- 4 ! ,*1... '1 ...

1-4t V4
l!Mf uII

to.7..,I
~ ~
1.8*.... . . It.*
:'.-A;:
771

ca. . . ***' t*..


.4...A.
1.8.............

I ~ ~ ~~~~ .... *.4* II ............

4-~~i m

t I*.F.A.

14..............

1.

3* t 4 674

i'1' I4p q .4I.*i4.


I ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ H .R 8.I...4.4...17......
.,
,~l.J
1
~257
.. .... .. 4 4 -.

51. T i 'j*
7NN
.2...1'14 4 '
...
'L
.4

iL I l - - 4a ta t;

.......... F 1 1*a
4
4 41 ''1

l..F7.. 1
.. ....
. ......
,, 4. 4 4*

.... . .I .. , t... %.,,

I ~In

.. .......

41 .4...
.4*
..4.

..4
..........v

1I . . .... .*.....

.41 .
YI.

I I7 Tir Z41 71" *.~ ** 1.4

. . . . . . . .. . .. I ..

1 '. It; 1' 1A I

Ot1 I ~ 'p .

- 1 4 4; 7414,
....

1 Iti r aoa:.I
.1
t.j:;IU. _
Iti
~Ii1 1~1,..,I..j., I
j . .
44..414.441
. ,
*14 .. ~~.t1 ,?.
1h~ AI

;-I
4i iu !-'.
-I,.

%0 ' fil
OD

4u'im H:~lNII)Yn a~ivoiam~i


CHART 8.17 258
CHART 8.18
(See paragraph 5.3.7)

POSITION ERROR PRESSURE COEFFICIENT, APp/qcic versus MACH


METER POSITION ERROR CORRECTION, AM pc for INDICATED MACH
NUMBER CORRECTED FOR INSTRUMENT ERROR, Mtc = CONSTANT

1.4 Mic AM PC
C + 0.
0~A.7 (l-11. .6M. c 2 )AE-2
) AM c2

AP P I(+0. M.miC' ) (l+3.50. .M.


' )2 'Mic •1. 1
q cc (I( + 0. M ic 2 .) -l

2
7 (2 Mic.2 _1) AM - 7 ( Mic4 Z23.5 Mic 2 + 4) AMPC
AP LMic (7M.iC Z1) PC Mi 2 (7 M tC - 1) 1.
. .... Mi >( 1.00
q ic 166.921 M icM7 1.

L7
M 2 "c
Example:
Given: Mic = 1.00; APp/qcic = +0.14
Required: AM
pc

Solution: Use Page I of Chart 8.18 for positive errors. For the
given conditions,
AM =+0. 111
PC
Note: The approximate oolution is found from Chart 8.17 to be
AM =+0 107
PC

259
0.18

001

CAT 8.1

0.260
-o.1

-0.

-0 AiM

2611
"00
- -%0 'aNd 0
00' N.0tN * -l go

',0 .N - " -40 a r- qp en %0 0 *(n


(4 ~ fC011%2 (D- 00 osN o 0.

tnO"L o ^A.- N fn Ir o. Ml-0

i~~ro A .N C ~ 3N.1 0 fnf , -. ~

E/ J6 tc
0 0in N N~ E oN M
0 ON *
% IAt-en

.2a0 -nN N '0 ac0 No'o 0 0

0 0 d. , 0 0 go

0 0 u

* A' ~* bU u
f nI. 0 .r.
-0 0 1 1.

~-
. -4

x(jn .
-4

fn
*0 **
-4

*Ln~
nl Os

00
'aIn 4 a

(U (A4 (A pi

-0
4)4344) 044) 4
04
0
-
(4 p

v > 6 04 > >


'a --- -. p a 1ci
04)4)44 00 4

(n (n C to go 04
V atd
k 14 04k403V
to 0 (d c~o
'aa
4-ba 4)
00
262
*SA

X't-N -

W )~
00 t-I

W N

EA u

~ 'o en I -'

04.j p

VIM O~ ei

rol

a)b

M' ti ti

O 0l E vt
Ecn S

u 0
N 0 0 V
v 0t 0 0 -

tk S, %. Ie .
E 41)'

C 4*4
a' 0 0
U E Oz
cI~~ 263
TABLES 9. 2 AND 9.3

THE UNITED STATES STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

For pressure altitude, Hc < 36,089.Z4 feet:

P : SP (1 - 6.87535 x 10-6H )5.2561


a C
a aSL 10ii
Ta = TaSL( - 6.87535 x 10"61c

= PSL(1 - 6.87535 x
10-6Hc)4.2561
Ta 0.5

aSL

For pressure altitude, Hc > 36,089.24 feet:


5
6.6832 -4.80634 x 10- (H - 36,089.24)
a
T = 216.66 'K

6 5 36,089.24)
p = 0.00070612e-4. 80 34x 10- (H -

a = 573.58 knots

*• Preceding page blank


265
TABLE 9.2

THE UNITED STATES STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

Hc P 1 /j6 Ta 'a0ý
(Feet) ("Hg) a/Pa3L ('K) T_/TSL
-1000 31.018 1.0366 .9646 290.15 17.034 1.0069 1.0034
- 900 30.907 1.0329 .9680 289.95 17.028 _j0062 1,0031
-800 30.796 1.0292 .9715 289.74 17.022 1.0055 1.0027
-700 30.686 1.0255 .9750 289.54 17.016 1.0048 1.0024
-600 30.575 1.0218 .9785 289.34 17.010 1.0041 1.0021
-500 30.465 1.0182 .9821 289.14 17.004 1.0034 1.0017
-400 30.356 1.0145 .9856 Z88.97 16.999 1.0028 1.0014
-300 30.247 1.0108 .9892 288.77 16.993 1.0021 1.0010
-200 30.138 1.0072 .9928 288.56 16.987 1.0014 1.0007
-lob 30.029 1.0036 .9963 288.36 16.981 1.0007 1.0003
0 29.921 1.0000 1.0000 288.16 16.975 1.0000 1.0000
100 29.813 .9963 1.0036 287.96 16.969 .9993 .9997
200 29.705 .9927 1.0072 287.76 16.963 .9986 .9993
300 29.598 .9892 1.0109 287.55 16.957 .9979 .9990
400 29.491 ,9856 1.0145 287.35 16.951 .9972 .9986
500 29.384 .9820 1.0182 287.18 16.946 .9966 .9983
600 29.278 .9785 1.0219 286.98 16.940 .9959 .9979
700 29.172 .9749 1.0256 286.78 16.934 .9952 ,9976
800 29.066 .9714 1.0294 286.58 16.929 .9945 .9972
900 28.960 .9679 1.0331 286.37 16.923 .9938 .9969
1000 28.855 .9643 1.0369 286.17 16.917 .9931 .9966
1100 28,750 .9608 1.0407 285.97 16,911 .9924 .9962
1200 28.646 .9573 1.0445 285.77 16.905 .9917 .9959
1300 28.542 .9539 1.0483 285.60 16.900 .9911 .9955
1400 28.438 .9504 1.0521 285.39 16.894 .9904 .9952
1500 28.334 .9469 1.0559 285.19 16.888 .9897 .9948
1600 28.231 .9435 1.0598 284.99 16.882 .9890 .9945
1700 28.128 .9400 1.0637 284.79 16.876 .9883 .9941
1800 28.025 .9366 1.0676 284.59 16.870 .9876 .9938
1900 27.923 .9332 1.0715 284.39 16.864 .9869 .9934
2000 27.821 .9298 1.0754 284.18 16.858 .9862 .9931
2100 27.719 .9264 1.0794 284.01 16.853 .9856 .9928
2200 27.617 .9230 1.0834 283.81 16.847 .9849 .9924
2300 27.516 .9196 1.0873 283.61 16.841 .9842 .9921
2400 27.415 .9162 1.0913 283.41 16.835 O9835 .9917
2500 27.315 .9!Z9 1.0954 283.20 16.829 .9828 .9914
2600 27.214 .9095 1.0994 283.00 16.823 .9821 .9910
2700 Z7.114 .9062 1.1034 282.80 16.817 .9814 .9907
2800 27.015 .9028 1.1075 282.60 16.811 .9807 .9903
2900 26.915 .8995 1.1116 282.43 16.806 .9801 .9900

266
TABLE 9.2
TABLE 9.3

THE UNITED STATES STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

H__ I/ r7 a
(Feet) _ ____ (Knots)
-1000 1.0296 1.0147 .9355 .9679 .9613 663.73
-900 1,0266 1.0132 .9870 __._9_71 1 .9652 663..52
-800 1.0236 1.0117 .9884 .9742 .9689 663.27
-700 1.0206 1.0103 .9898 .9774 .9727 663.07
-600 1.0176 1.0088 .9913 .9807 .9767 662.97
-500 1.0147 1.0073 .9928 .9838 .9805 662.60
-400 1.0117 1.0059 .9941 .9870 .9843 662.41
-300 1.0088 1.0044 .9956 .9902 .9882 662.14
-200 1.0058 1.0029 .9-971 .9q935 .9922 661.94
-100 1.0029 1.00!5 .9985 .9967 .9961 661.68
0 1.000b 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 661.48
100 .9970 .9985 1.0015 1.0033 1.0040 661.28
200 .9941 .9971 1.0029 1.0066 1.0080 661.02
300 .9912 .9956 1.0044 1.0099 1.0121 660.82
400 .9883 .9942 1.0058 1.0132 1.0161 660.55
500 .9354 .9927 1.0074 1.0165 1.0200 660.36
600 .9825 .9912 1.0039 1.0198 1.0241 660.09
700 .9796 .9898 1.01-3 1.0232 1.0282 659.89
800 .9768 .9883 1.011, 1.0265 1.0323 659.63
900 .9739 .9869 1 .0133 1.0300 1.0364 659.43
1000 .9710 .9054 1.0148 1.0334 1.0406 659.23
1100 .9682 .9840 1.0163 1.0368 1.0448 658.97
1200 .9653 .9825 1.0178 1.0402 1.0490 658.77
1300 .9625 .9811 1. )193 !.043b 1.0530 658.50
1400 .9596 .9796 1.0208 i 0471 1.0573 658.31
1500 .9568 .9782 1.0223 1.0505 1.0615 658.04
1600 .9540 .9767 1.0239 1.0540 1.0658 657.84
1700 .9511 .9753 1.0253 1.0575 1.0700 657.58
1800 .9483 .9739 11.0268 1.0610 1.0743 657.38
1900 .9455 .9724 1.0284 1.0645 1.0787 657.12Z
z000 .9427 ,9710 1.0299 1.0681 1.0831 656.92Z
2100 .9399 .9695 1.0315 1.0717 1,0874 656.72
2200 .9371 .9681 1.0330 1.0752 1.0918 656.45
2300 .93,4 .9666 1.0341 1.0788 1.0362 656,26
2400 9316 .9652 1.0361 1.0823 1.1006 655.99
2500 .9288 .9638 1.0376 1.0860 1.1050 655.79
2600 .9261 C9623 1.0392 1.0895 1.1094 655. 53
2700 9233 .9609 1.0407 1.0932 1.1140 655. 33
2800 .9205 .9595 1.0422 1.0968 1.l114 655.07
2900 .9178 .9581 1.0437 1.100C 1.i230 654.87

267 TABLE 9.3


Hc Pa 1k' Ta 4Ta 0
(Feet) ("Hg) Pa/PaSL (°K) Ta/TaSL
3000 26,816 .8962 1.1157 282.22 16.800 .9794 .9896
3100 26_.i_7 .7 89Z 1 1198 282.02 16.794 ,9787 .9893
3200 26.619 .8896 1. 1240 281.82 16. 788 .9780 9889
3300 26.521 .8863 1. 1282 281.6Z 16. 782 .9773 .9886
3400 26,423 .0830 1 13-3 281.42 16. 775 .9766 .9882
3500 26.325 .8798 1 1365 281.Z2 16. 769 .9759 .9879
3600 26.228 .8765 1 1407 281.01 16. 763 .9752 .9875
3700 26.131 .8733 1 1450 280.34 16. 758 .9746 .9872
3800 26,034 .8701 1 .1492 280.64 16. 752 q9739 .9869
3900 25,938 .8668 1 .1535 280.44 16 746 9732 .9865
4000 25.841 .8636 1 .1578 280.24 16. 740 .9725 .9862
4100 25.746 .8604 1 .1621 280.03 16. 734 9718 9858
4200 25.650 .8572 1 .1655 279.33 16. 728 .9711 .9855
4300 25, 555 .8540 1.1708 279.63 16. 722 .9704 .9851
4400 25.460 .8509 1 .1752 279.43 16.716 9697 .9848
4500 25.365 .8477 1 .1796 279.26 16. 711 .9691 .9844
4600 25.270 .8445 1 .1840 279.05 16. 705 .9684 .9841
4700 25. 17%; .8414 1.1884 278.85 16.699 -- 9677 .9837
4800 25.082 .8382 1.1929 278.65 16.693 .9670 .9834
4900 24.989 .8351 1 .1973 278.45 16. 687 .9663 .9830
5000 24.895 .8320 1.2018 278.25 16.681 .9656 .9827
5100 24.802 .8289 1.2063 278.05 16.675 .9649 .9823
5200 24.710 .8258 1.2108 277.84 16.669 .9642 .9820
5300 24.617 .8227 1.2154 277.67 16.663 .9636 .9816
5400 24.525 .8196 1.2200 277. 47 16.657 .9629 .9813
5500 24.433 .8166 1.2245 277. 27 6.651 9622 .9809
5600 24.342 .8135 1.2292 277.07 16.645 .9615 .9806
5700 24.250 .8104 1.2338 276.86 16.639 .9608 .9602
5800 24.159 .8074 1.2384 276. 66 16.633 .9601 .9799
5900 24.368 .8044 1.2431 276.46 16.627 .9594 .9795
6000 23.978 .8013 1.2478 276.26 16.621 .9587 9792
6100 23.888 7983 1.2525 276.09 16.616 .9581 9788
6200 23.798 7953 1.2572 275.88 16.610 .9574 .9785
6300 23.708 7923 1.2620 275.68 16.604 .9567 .9781
6400 23. 618 7893 1.2668 275.48 16.598 .9560 .9778
6500 23.529 .7863 1.2716 275.28 16.592 .9553 .9774
6600 23.440 .7834 1.2764 275.08 16.585 .9546 .9770
6700 23.352 .7804 1.2812 274.88 16.579 .9539 .9767
6800 23.264 7775 1.2861 274.67 1 .573 -93 .9763
6900 23.175 .7745 1.2910 274.50 16.568 .9526 .9760

268
TABLE 9.2
HC a
(Feet) _____ '_ ___ _ ___ (Knots)
3000 .9151 .9566 1.0454 1.1042 1.1275 654.59
3100 .9123 .9552 1.0469 1.1079 1.1321 654.39
3200 .9096 .9538 1.0484 1.1116 1.1367 654.13
3300 .9069 .9523 1.0501 1.1153 1.1412 653.93
3400 .9042 .9509 1.0516 1.1190 1.1458 653.67
3500 .9015 .9495 1.0532 1.1228 1.1506 653.47
3600 .6988 .9481 1.0547 1.1265 1.1552 653.20
3700 ,8961 .9466 1,0564 1.1304 1,1599 653.01
3800 .8934 .9452 1.0580 1.1342 1.1647 652.81
3900 .8907 .9438 1.0595 1.1380 1.1694 652.54
4000 .8880 .9424 1.0611 1.1419 1.1743 652.34
4100 .8854 .9410 1,0627 !,1457 1.1789 652,08
4200 .8827 .9395 1.0644 1.1496 1.1838 651.88
4300 .8801 .9381 1.0660 1 .1534 1.1886 651.62
4400 .8774 .9367 1.0676 1.1574 1.1936 651.42
4500 .8748 .9353 1.0692 1 .1612 1.1983 651.15
4600 .8721 .9339 1.0708 1.1652 1.2033 650.96
4700 ,8695.9325 1.0724 1.1691 1.2082 650.69
S 4800
4900
.8669
.8643
.9311
.9297
1.0740
1.0756
1.1731
1.1770
1.Z13Z
1.2180
650.49
650.23
5000 .8616 .9283 1.077Z 1.1811 1.2232 650.03
5100 .8590 .9269 1.0789 1.1850 1.2281 649.76
5200 .8564 .9255 1.0805 1.1891 1.2333 649.57
5300 .8538 .9241 i 0821 1.1931 1.2382 649.30
5400 .8512 .9226 1.0839 1.1972 1,2434 649.10
5500 .8487 .9212 1,0855 1.2012 1.2485 648".84
5600 ,8461 .9198 1.0872 1.2054 1.2538 648.64
5700 .8435 .9184 1.0889 1.2094 1,2587 648.38
5800 .8409 .9171 1.0904 1.2136 1.2640 648.18
5900 .8384 .9156 1.0922 1.2177 1.2692 647.91
6000 .8358 .9143 1.0937 1.2219 1.2746 647.71
6100 .8333 .9129 1.0954 1.2Z60 1.2797 647.45
6200 .8307 .9115 1,0971 1.2303 1.2851 647.25
6300 .8282 .9101 1.0988 1.2344 1.2904 646.99
6400 .8257 .9087 1.1005 1.2387 1.2958 646.79
6500 .8231 .9073 1.1022 1.2429 1.3010 646.52
6600 .8206 .9059 1.1039 1.2471 1.3064 646.26
6700 ,8181 .9045 1,1056 1.2514 1.3119 646.06
6800 .8156 .9031 1.1073 1.Z557 1.3174 645.80
6900 .8131 .9017 1.1090 1.Z601 1.3229 645.60

269

TABLE 9.3
HC Pa W/ Ta -Ta e
(Feet) ("Hg) Pa/PpSL ("K) Ta/TasL
7000 23.088 .7716 1.2959 274.30 16.562 .9519 .9756
7100 23.000 .7687 1.3008 274.10 16.556 .9512 .9753
7200 22.913 .7657 1.3058 273.90 16.550 .9505 .9749
7300 22.826 .7628 1.3108 273.69 16.544 .9498 .9746
7400 22.739 .7599 1.3158 273.49 16.538 .9491 .9742
7500 22.653 .7570 1.3208 273.29 16.532 .9484 .9739
7600 22.567 .7542 1.3258 273.09 16.525 .9477 .9735
7700 22.481 .7513 1.3309 272.92 16.520 .9471 .9732
7800 22.395 .7484 1.3360 272.71 16.514 .9464 .9728
7900 22.310 .7456 1.3411 272.51 16.508 .9457 .9725
8000 22.225 .7427 1.3462 272.31 16.502 .9450 .9721
8100 22.140 .7399 1.3514 272.11 16.496 .9443 .9718
8200 22.055 .7371 1.3566 271.91 16.490 .9436 .9714
8300 21.971 .7343 1.3618 271.71 16.484 .9429 .9710
8400 21.887 .7314 1.3670 271.50 16.477 .9422 .9707
8500 21.803 .7286 1.3723 271.33 16.472 .9416 .9703
8600 21.719 .7259 1.3776 271.13 16.466 .9409 .9700
8700 21.636 .7231 1.3829 270.93 16.460 .9402 .9696
8800 21.553 .7203 1.3882 270.73 16.454 .9395 .9693
8900 21. 470 .7175 1.3935 270.52 16.448 .9388' .9689
9000 21.388 .7148 1.3989 270.32 16.441 .9381 .9686
9100 21.305 .7120 1.4043 270.12 16.435 .9374 .9682
9200 21.Z223 .7093 1.4098 269.92 16.429 .9367 .9679
9300 21.142 .7065 1.4152 269.75 16.424 .9361 .9675
9400 21.060 .7038 1.4207 269.54 16.418 .9354 .9671
9500 20.979 .7011 1. 4262 269.34 16.412 .9347 .9668
9600 20.393 .6984 1.4317 269.14 16.406 .9340 .9664
9700 20. b17 .6957 1.4372 268.94 16.399 .9333 .9661
980C 20. 737 .6930 1.4428 268.74 16.393 .9326 .9657
9900 23.656 .6903 1.4484 268.54 16.387 .9319 .9654
10000 20.577 .6877 1.4541 268.33 16.381 .9312 .9650
10100 20.497 .6850 1.4597 268.16 16.376 .9306 .9647
10200 20.417 .6823 1.4654 267.96 16.369 .9299 .9643
10300 20.338 .6797 1.4711 267.76 16.363 .9292 .9639
10400 20.259 .6771 1.4768 267.56 16.357 .9285 .9636
10500 20.180 .6744 1.4826 267.35 16.351 .9278 .9632
10600 20.102 .6718 1.4884 267.15 16.345 .9271 .9629
10700 20.024 .6692 1.4942 266.95 16,339 .9264 .9625
10800 19.946 .6666 1.5001 266.75 16.332 .9257 .9622
10900 19.868 .6640 1.5059 266.58 16.327 .9251 .9618

TABLE 9.2 270


(Fee) P/ PSL -____ ___ ___ (Knots)
7000 .8106 .9004 1.1106 1.2643 1.3283 645.34
7100 .8081 .8990 1.1123 1.2688 1.3340 645.15
7200 .8056 .8976 1.1141 1.2731 1.3395 644.88
7300 .8032 .8962 1.1158 1.2775 1.3451 644.68
7400 .8007 .8948 1.1176 1.2819 1.3506 644.42
7500 .7982 .8935 1.1192 1.2864 1.3564 644.22
7600 .7958 .8921 1.1210 1.2908 1.3621 643.96
7700 .7933 .8907 1,1227 1.2953 1.3678 643.76
7800 .7909 .8893 1.1245 1.2997 1.3734 643.59
7900 .7884 .8880 1.1261 1.3043 1.3793 643.29
8000 .7860 .8866 1.1279 1.3087 1.3850 643.03
8100 .7836 .8852 1,1297 1.,3133 1,3909 642.85
8200 .7811 .8838 1.1315 1.3178 1.3966 642.57
8300 .7787 .8825 1.1331 1.3223 1.402 642.30
8400 .7763 .8811 1.1349 1.3270 1.408 642.10
8500 .7739 .8797 1.1368 1.3316 1.414 641.84
8600 .7715 .8784 1.1384 1.3363 1.420 641.64
8700 ,7691 .8770 1,1403 1.3409 1.426 641.3L
8800 .7667 .8756 1.1421 1.3456 1.432 641.18
8900 .7643 .8743 1.1438 1.3503 1.438 640.91
9000 .7619 .8729 1.1456 1.3550 1.444 640.72
9100 .7595 .8715 1.1474 1.3597 1.450 640.45
9200 .7572 .8702 1.1492 1.3645 1.456 640.25
9300 .7548 .8688 1.1510 1.3693 1.462 639.99
9400 .7525 .8675 1.1527 1,3740 1,469 639.72
9500 .7501 .8661 1.1546 1.3789 1.475 639.52
9600 .7478 .8648 1.1563 1.3836 1.481 639.26
9700 ,7454 .8634 1,1582 1.3886 1.487 639.06
9800 .7431 .8621 1.1600 1.3934 1.494 638.79
9900 .7408 .8607 1.1618 1.3984 1.500 638.59
10000 .7384 .8593 1.1637 1.4032 1.506 638.31
10100 .7361 .8580 1,1655 1.4082 1.513 638.13
10200 .7338 .8566 1.1674 1.4131 1.519 637.86
10300 .7315 .8553 1.1692 1.4180 1.526 637.60
-10400 .7292 .8540 1.1710 1.4231 1.532 637.40
10500 .7269 .8526 1.1729 1.4281 1.539 637.13
10600 .7246 .8513 1.1747 1.4332 1.545 636.94
10700 .7223 .8499 1.1766 1,4382 1.552 636.67
10800 .7200 .8486 1.1784 1.4434 1.559 636.47
10900 .7178 .8472 1.1804 1.4485 1.566 636.21

271
TABLE 9.3
Pa Ta e
(Fee ("Hg) Pa/PIaSL (K) Tp/TaSL
11000, 19.790 .6614 1.5118 266.38 16.321 .9244 .9614
11100 19.713 .6588 1.5177 266.17 16.315 .9237 .9611
11200 19.636 .6562 1.5237 265.97 16.309 .9230 .9607
11300 19.559 .6537 1.5297 265.77 16.302 .9223 .9604
11400 19.483 .6511 1.5357 265.57 16,296 .9216 .9600
11500 19.407 .6486 1.5417 265.37 16.290 .9209 .9597
11600 19.331 .6460 1.5478 265.16 16.284 .9202 .9593
11700 19.255 .6435 1.5539 264.-9 16.279 .9196 .9589
11800 19.179 .6410 1.5600 264.79 16.272 .9189 .9586
11900 19.104 .6384 1.5661 264.59 16.266 .9182 .9582
12000 19.029 .6359 1.5723 264.39 16.260 .9175 .9579
12100 18.954 .6334 1,5785 264.19 16.254 .9168 .9575
12200 18.879 .6309 1.5848 263.98 16.248 .9161 .9571
12300 18.805 .6285 1.5910 263.78 16.241 .9154 .9568
12400 18.731 .6260 1.5973 263.58 16.235 .9147 .9564
12500 18.657 .6235 1.6036 263.41 16.230 .9141 .956i
12600 18.583 .6210 1.6100 263.21 16.224 .9134 .9557
12700 18,510 .6186 1,6164 263.00 16.217 .9127 .9553
12800 18.437 .6161 1.6228 262.80 16.211 .9120 .9550
12900 18.364 .6137 1.6293 262.60 16.205 .9113 .9546
13000 18.291 .6113 1.6357 262.40 16.199 .9106 .9543
13100 18.219 .6089 1.6422 262.20 16.192 .9099 .9539
13200 18.147 .6064 1.6488 262.00 16.186 .9092 .9535
13300 18.075 .6040 1 6554 261.82 16.181 .9086 .9532
13400 18,003 .6016 1.6619 261.62 16,175 .9079 .9528
13500 17.931 .5992 1.6686 261.42 16.168 .9072 .9525
13600 17.860 .5969 1.6752 261.22 16.162 .9065 .9521
13700 17.789 .5945 1,6820 261.02 16.156 .9058 .9517
13800 17.718 .5921 1.6887 260.81 16.150 .9051 .9514
13900 17.647 .5898 1.6954 260.61 16.143 .9044 .9510
14000 17.577 .5874 1.7022 260.41 16.137 .9037 .9507
14100 17.507 .5851 1.709_ 260.24 16.132 .9031 .9503
14200 17.437 .5827 1.7159 260.04 16.126 .9024 .9499
14300 17.367 .5804 1.7228 259.83 16.119 .9017 .9496
14400 17.298 .5781 1.7297 259.63 16.113 .9010 .9492
14500 17.228 .5758 1.7367 259.43 16.107 .9003 .9488
14600 17.159 .5735 1.7436 259.23 16.101 .8996 .9485
14700 17,090 .5712 1.7507 259.03 16.094 .8989 .9481
14800 17.022 .5689 1.7577 258.83 16.088 .8982 .9478
14900 16.953 .5666 1.7648 258.65 16.083 .8976 .9474

TABLE 9.2 272


Hc orI r /O4Fo a
(Feet) P/Pq_. (Knots)
11000 .7155 .8459 1 1822 1.4535 1.572 635.94
1M100 .7132 ,8446 1,1840 1.4588 1.579 635.75
11200 .7110 .8432 1.1860 1.4639 1.586 635.48
11300 .7087 .8419 1,1878 1. 469Z 1.593 635.28
11400 .7065 .8406 1.1896 1.4743 1.599 635.03
11500 .7043 .8392 1.1916 1.4796 1.6067 634.82
11600 .7020 .8379 1.1935 1.4848 1.6136 634.56
11700 .6998 .8366 1,1953 1.4901 16206 634-29_
11800 .6976 .8352 1.1973 1.4955 1.6276 634.09
11900 .6953 .3339 1.1992 1.5307 1.6345 633.83
12000 .6931 .8326 1.2011 1.5062 1.6417 633.63
12100 .6909 .8312 1.2031 1.5115 1.6488 633.36
12200 .6387 .8299 1.2050 1.5168 1.6557 633.10
12300 .6865 .8286 1.2069 1 5224 1.6631 632.90
12400 .6843 .8273 1.2088 1 5277 1.6702 632.64
12500 6821 3259 1,2108 1 5333 1.6776 632.44
12600 6G00 .3246 1.2127 1 5387 1.6846 632.17
12700 .6778 .8233 1.2146 1 544L
12800 .6756 .8220 1,2165 1 .5498 1.6994 631.71
12900 .6735 .8207 1.2185 1.5553 1.7063 631.45
13000 .6713 .8194 1.2204 1.5610 1.7142 631.25
13100 .6691 .8180 1.2225 1.5666 1.7217 630.98
13200 .6670 .8167 1.2244 1.5722 1.7292 630.72
13300 .6648 .8154 1.2264 1.5779 1.7368 630.52
13400 .6627 .8141 1.2284 1.5835 1.7442 630.26
13500 .6606 .8128 1.2303 1.5894 1.7521 630.06
13600 .6584 .8115 1.2323 1.5950 1.7596 629.79
13700 .6563 .8102 1.2343 1.6008 1.7674 629.53
13800 .6542 .8089 1.2362 1.6066 1.7750 629.33
13900 .6521 .8076 1.2382 1.6124 1.7828 629.07
14000 .6500 .8062 1.2404 1.6184 1.7908 628.87
14100 .6479 .8049 1.24Z4 1.6241 1,7985 628.60
14Z00 .6458 .8036 1.2444 1.6300 1.8064 628.34
14300 .6437 .8023 1.2464 1.6360 1.8144 628.14
14400 .6416 .8010 1.2484 1.6419 1.8224 627.88
14500 .6395 .7997 1.2505 1.6478 1.8304 627.61
14600 .6375 .7984 1.2525 1.6539 1.8386 627.41
14700 .6354 .7971 1.2545 1.6598 1.8464 627.15
14800 .6333 .7958 1.2566 1.6660 1.8548 626.95
14900 .6313 .7945 1.2587 1.6720 1.8629 626.69

0 273
TABLE 9.3
HC P aTa 0 f
(Feet) ("Hg) P/aSL (O
") Ta/TpL ___

15000 16.885 .5643 1.7719 258.45 16.076 .8969 .9470


1S5O0 16.817 .5620 1.7791 258.25 16.070 .8962 .9467
15200 16.750 .5598 1.7863 258.05 16.064 .8955 .9463
15300 16.682 .5575 1.7935 257.85 16.058 .8940 .9459
15400 16.615 .5553 1.8008 257.64 16.051 .8941 .9456
15500 16.548 .5530 1.8081 257.44 16.045 .8934 .9452
15600 16.481 .5508 1.8154 257.24 16.039 .8927 .9449
15700 16.414 5486 1.8228 257.07 16.033 .8921 .9445
15800 16.348 .5463 1.8302 256.87 16.027 .8914 .9441
15900 16.282 .5441 1.8376 256.66 16.021 .8907 .9438
16000 16.216 .5419 1.8451 256.46 16.014 .8900 .9434
16100 16.150 .5397 1.8526 256.26 16,008 .8893 913Q
16200 16.085 .5375 1.8601 256.06 16.002 .8886 .9427
16300 16.019 .5354 1.8677 255.86 15.996 .8879 .9423
16400 15.954 .5332 1,8753 255.66 15.989 .8871 .9419
16500 15.889 .5310 1.8830 255.48 15.984 .8866 .9416
16600 15.325 .5288 1.8907 255.28 15.978 .8859 .9412
16700 15.760 .5267 1.8984 255.08 15.971 .8852 .9408
16800 15.696 .5245 1.9062 254.88 15.965 .8845 .9405
16900 15.632 .5224 1.9140 254.68 15.959 .8838 .9401
17000 15.568 .5203 1.9218 254.47 15.952 .8831 .9397
17100 15.505 .5182 1.9297 254.27 15.946 .8824 .9394
17200 15.441 .5160 1.9376 254.07 15.940 .8817 .9390
17300 15.378 .5139 1.9456 253.90 15.934 .8811 .9386
17400 15.315 .5118 1.9536 253.70 15.928 .8804 .S383
17500 15.252 .5097 1.9617 253.49 15.922 .8797 .9379
17600 15.190 .5076 1.9697 253.29 15.915 .8790 .9375
17700 15.127 .5055 1.9778 253.09 15.909 .8783 .9372
17800 15.065 .5035 1.9860 252.89 15.902 .8776 .9368
17900 15.003 .5014 1.9942 252.69 15.896 .8769 .9364
18000 14,942 .4993 2.0024 252,49 15.890 .8762 .9361
18100 14.880 .4973 2.0107 252.31 15.884 .8756 .9357
18200 14.819 .4952 2.0191 252.11 15.878 .8749 .9353
18300 14.758 .4932 2.0274 251.91 15.872 .8742 .9350
18400 14.697 .4912 2.0358 251.71 15.865 .8735 .9346
18500 14.636 .4891 2.0442 251.51 15.859 .8728 .9342
18600 14.576 .4871 2.0527 251.30 15.853 .8721 .9339
18700 14.515 .4851 2,0613 251,10 15.846 .8714 ,9335
18800 14.455 .4831 2.0698 250.90 15.840 .8707 .9331
18900 14.395 .4811 2.0784 250.73 15.834 .8701 .9328

TABLE 9.2 274


(Feet) £L.Sj (Knots)
15000 .6292 .7932 1.2607 1.6781 1.8712 626.42
15100 .6271 .7920 1.2626 1.6843 1.8794 626.22
15200 .6251 .7907 1.2647 1.6904 1.8877 625.96
15300 .6231 .7894 1.2668 1.6965 1.3960 625.69
15400 .6210 .7881 1.2689 1.702Z' 1.9047 ... 625.50
15500 .6190 .7868 1.2710 1.7090 1.9129 625.23
15600 .6170 .7855 1.2731 1.7154 1.9216 625.03
15700 .6149 .7842 1.2752 1,7217 1.9301 624.77
15800 .6129 .7829 1.2773 1.7279 1.9386 624.50
15900 .6109 .7816 1.2794 1.7344 1.9473 624.30
16000 .6089 .7804 1.2814 1.7407 1.9559 624.04
16100 .6069 .7791 1.2835 1.7470 1.9645 623.78
16200 .6049 .7778 1.2857 1.7536 1.9735 623.58
16300 .60z9 .7765 1.2878 1.7600 1.9822 623.30
16400 .6009 .7752 1.2900 1.7664 1.9909 623,04
16500 .5990 .7740 1.2920 1.7731 2.0001 622.84
16600 .5c70 .7727 1.2942 1.7796 2.00s0 622.58
* 16700 .5950 .7714 1.2963 1.7861 2.0173 622.31
16800 .5931 .7701 1.2985 1.7928 2.0270 622.11
16900 .5911 .7689 1.3006 1.7994 2.0361 621.85
17000 .5891 .7676 1.3028 1.8060 2.0451 621.58
17100 .5872 .7663 1.3050 1.8128 2.0543 621.39
17200 .5853 .7651 1.3070 1.8195 2.0636 621.12
17300 .5833 .7638 1.3092 1.8262 2.0728 620.86
17400 .5814 ,7625 1,3115 1,8331 2.0823 620.66
17500 .5794 .7612 1.3137 1.8399 2.0916 620.39
17600 .5775 .7600 1.3158 1.8467 2.1010 620.13
17700 .5756 .7587 1.3180 1.8537 2.1106 619.93
17800 .5737 .7575 1.3201 1.8605 2.1201 619.67
17900 .5718 .7562 1.3224 1.8674 2.1295 619.40
18000 .5699 .7549 1.3247 1.8745 2.1393 619.21
-1810 .5680 .7537 1.3268 1.8815 2.1490 618.95
18200 .5661 .7524 1.3291 1.8885 2.1587 618.68
18300 .5642 .7511 1.3314 1.8957 2.1686 618.49
-18400 .5623 .7499 1,3335 1.9027 2.1783 618.22
18500 .5604 .7486 1.3358 1.9098 2.1882 617.96
18600 .5585 .7474 1.3380 1.9171 2.1983 617.76
_18700 .5567 .7461 1,3403 1.9242 2.2081 617.49
18800 .5548 .7449 1.3425 1.9314 2.2182 617.23
18900 .5529 .7436 1.3448 1.9388 2.2284 617.03

275 TABLE 9.3


HC
(Feet)
Pa
" Pa/Pm _
I/ Ta
_
e ~
Ta/TaST)
W
_____

19000 14.336 ,4791 2.0871 250.53 15.828 .8694 .9324


19100 14.276 ,4771 2.0958 250.32 15.822 ,8687 .9320
19200 14.217 ,4751 2.1045 250.12 15.815 .8680 .9317
19300 14.158 .4731 2.1133 249.92 15.809 .8673 .9313
19400 14.099 .4712 2.1221 249. 72 15.803 .8666 .930
19500 14.040 .4692 2.1310 249.52 15.796 .8659 .9306
19600 13.932 .4673 2.1399 249.32 15.790 .8652 .9302
19700 13. 523 .4653 2.1489 249.14 15.784 .8646 .9298
19800 13.865 .4634 2.1579 248.94 15.778 .8639 .9294
19900 13.807 .4614 2.1669 248.74 15.771 .8632 .9291
20000 13.750 .45S5 2.1760 248.54 15.765 .8625 .9287
20100 13.692 .4576 2.1852 248.34 15.759 .8618 .9283
20200 13.635 .4557 2.1944 248.13 15.752 .8611 .9280
20300 13. 578 .4537 2.2036 247.93 15.746 .8604 .9276
20400 13.521 .4518 2.212S 247.73 15.739 .8597 .9272
20500 13. 4 4 .4500 2. 2222 247.56 15.734 .8591 .9269
206c0 13.407 .4481 2.2315 247.36 15.728 .8584 .9265
20700 13.351 .4462 2.2410 247.15 15.721 .8577 .9261
20800 13.2S5 .4443 2. 2504 246.95 15.715 .8570 .9257
20900 13. 239 .4424 Z 2600 246.75 15.708 .8563 .9254
21000 13.183 .4406 2.2695 246.55 15.702 .8556 .9250
21100 13.128 .4387 2. 2792 246.35 15.695 .8549 .9246
21200 13.072 .4369 2.2888 246.15 15.689 .8542 .9243
21300 13.017 .4350 2.2985 245.97 15.684 .8536 ,9239
21400 12.962 .4332 2. 3082 245.77 15.677 .8529 .9235
21500 12.9C7 .4313 2.3180 245.57 15.6771 .8522 .9231
21600 12 .052 ,425 2.3279 245.37 15.664 .8515 .9228
21700 12. 798 .4277 2. 3378 245.17 15.658 .,508 .9224
21800 12 .744 .4259 2.3478 244.96 15.651 .8501 .9220
21900 12.690 .4241 2.3578 244.76 15.645 .8494 .9216
22000 1 2. 636 .4223 2.3678 244.56 15.638 .8487 .9213
22120 12.582 .4205 2.378 244.39 15.633 .8481 .9209
2220C 1Z. 529 .4187 2. 388 244.19 15. 626 .8474 .9205
22300 12.475 .4169 2. 398 243.99 15.620 .8467 .9202
Z40 12.422 .4151 2,408 243.78 15.614 .. 8460 .919_8_
22500 12.369 .4i34 2.418 243.58 15.607 .8453 .S194
22600 12.316 .4116 2.429 243.38 15.601 .8446 .9190
22700 12.264 .4098 2.439 243.18 15.594 .8439 .9187
22800 12.211 .4081 2.450 242.98 15.588 .8432 .9183
22900 IZ. 159 .4063 2.460 242.80 15. 582 .8426 .9179

TABLE 9.2 276


HC I- I I / a I ia

(Feet) _ __ (Knots)
19000 .5511 .7424 1.3470 1.9460 2.2385 616.77
iglo .5492 .7411 1.3493 1.9533 2.2486 616.50
19Z00 5474 .7399 1.3515 1.9608 2.259 616.30
19300 .5455 .7386 1.3539 1.9682 2.269 616.04
19400 .5437 .7374 1.3561 1.9756 2.279 615.77
19500 .5419 .7361 1.3585 1.9832 2.290 615.58
19600 5400 .7349 1.3607 1.9906 2.300 615.31
19700 5382 .7337 1.3630 1.9981 2.311 615.05
19800 5364 73Z"4 I.7654 206"56 2. 321 614.78
19303 5346 7312 1.3676 2.0133 2.332 614.58
-20000 5328 7299 1.3701 2.0209 2.343 614.32
20100 5310 .7287 1.3723 2.0285 2.353 614.05
20200 5292 .7275 1.3746 2.0364 2.364 613.86
20300 .5274 .7262 1.3770 2.0441 2.375 613.59
20400 .5256 .7250 1.3793 2,0518 2. 386 613.33
20500 .5238 .7238 1.3816 2.0598 2.397 613.13
20600 .5220 .7225 1.3841 2.0676 2.408 612.86
20700 .5202 .7213 1.3864 2.0754 2.419 612.60
20800 .5185 .7201 1.3887 2.0833 2.431 612.34
20900 .5167 .7188 1.3912 2.0914 2.442 612.14
21000 .5149 .7176 1.3935 2.0994 2.453 611.87
21100 .5132 .7164 1.3959 2.1074 2.465 611.61
21200 .5114 .7152 1.3982 2.1156 2.476 611.41
21300 .5097 .7139 1.4008 2.1236 2.488 611.15
21400 .5079 .7127 1.4031 2.1317 2.499 610.88
21500 .5062 .7115 1.4055 2.1398 2.511 610.62-
21600 .5044 .7103 1.4079 2.14G2 2.522 610.42
21700 .5027 .7090 1.4104 2.1565 2.534 610.15
21800 .5010 .7078 1.4128 2.1647 2.546 609.89'
21900 .4993 .7066 1.4152 2.1730 2.558 609.62
z2000 .4975 7054 1.4176 2.1815 2.570 609.43
22100 .4958 .7042 1.4201 2.1399 2.582 609.16
22200 4941 .7030 1.4225 2.1933 2.594 608.90
22300 4924 .7017 1.4251 2.2070 2.606 608.70
2Z403 4,07 .'7005 1.4276 2.2155 2.618 608.43
6
22500 4890 .6993 1 4300 2.2240 2.631 608,17
22600 .4873 .6981 1.q325 Z,Z325 2.643 607.90
22700 .4856 .6969 1,4349 2,2414 2,656 607.71
22800 .4840 .6957 1.4374 2.2500 2.668 607.43
22900 .4823 .6945 1.4399 2.2587 2.680 607.17

0 277
TABLE 9.3
Pf 1/A"e Ta ffa 0 rT
(Feet) P/PpT. °K) Ta/TaSL
23000 12.107 .4046 2.471 242.60 15.576 .8419 .9175
23100 12.055 .4029 Z 481 242.40 15,569 .8412 .9172
23200 12.003 .4011 2.492 242.20 15.563 .8405 .9168
23300 11.952 .3994 2.503 242.00 15.556 .8398 .9164
23400 11.901 .3977 2.514 241.80 15.550 .8391 .9160
23500 11.849 .3960 2.525 241.59 15.543 .8384 .9157
23600 11.798 .3943 2.535 241. n 15.537 .8377 .9153
23700 11.748 .3926 2.546 241.22 15.531 .8371 •9149
23800 11.697 .3909 2.557 241.02 15.525 .8364 .9145
23900 11.646 .3892 2.569 240.82 15.518 .8357 .9142
24000 11.596 .3875 2.580 240.61 15.512 .8350 .9138
24100 11.546 .3859 2.591 240.41 15.505 .8343 .9134
24200 11.496 .3842 2.602 240.21 15.499 .8336 .9130
24300 11.446 .3825 2.613 240.01 15.492 .8329 .9126
24400 11.397 .3809 2.625 239.81 15.486 .8322 .9123
24500 11.347 .3792 2.636 239.63 15.480 .8316 .9119
24600 11.298 .3776 2.648 239.43 15.474 .8309 .9115
24700 11.249 .3759 _ .659 239.23 15.467 .8302 .9111
24800 11.200 .3743 2.671 239.03 15.461 .8295 .9108
24900 11.152 .3727 2.683 238.83 15.454 .8Z88 .9104
25000 11.103 .3710 2.694 238.63 15.448 .8281 .9100
25100 11.055 .3694 2,706 238.42 15.441 .8274 .9096
25200 11.006 .3678 2.718 238.22 15.434 .8267 .9093
25300 10.958 .3662 2.730 238.05 15.429 .8261 .9089
25400 10.911 .3646 2.742 237.85 15.422 .8254 .9085
25500 10.863 .3630 2.754 237.65 15.416 .8247 .9081
25600 10.815 .3614 2.766 237.44 15.409 .8240 .9077
25700 10.768 .3598 2.778 237.24 15.403 .8233 .9074
25800 10.721 .3583 2.790 237.04 15.396 .8226 .9070
25900 10.674 .3567 2.803 236.84 15.390 .8219 .9066
26000 10.627 .3551 2.815 236.64 15.383 .8212 .9062
26100 10.580 .3536 2,827 236.46 15,377 .8206 .9058
26200 10.534 .3520 2.840 236.26 15.371 .8199 .9055
26300 10.487 .3505 2.852 236.06 15.364 .8192 .9051
26400 10,441 .3489 2.865 235.86 15,358 .8185 .9047
26500 10.395 .3474 2.878 235.66 15.351 .8178 .9043
26600 10.349 .3459 2.891 235.46 15.345 .8171 .9039
26700 10.)04 .3443 2.903 235.25 15.338 .8164 .9036
26800 10.258 .3428 2.916 235.05 15.331 .8157 .9032
26900 10.213 .3413 2.929 234.88 15.326 .8151 .9028

278 0
H [7 1/fJ a

(Feet) PPSL (Knot )


23000 .4806 .6933 1.4424 2.2674 2. 693 606.90
23100 .4789 .6921 1,4449 2,2764 2,706 606,70
23200 .4773 .6909 1.4474 2.2853 2.719 606.44
23300 .4756 .6897 1.4499 2.2941 2.731 606.18
23400 .4740 .6885 1.4524 2.3030 2.744 605.91
23500 .4723 .6873 1.4550 2.3122 2.757 605.71
23600 .4707 .6861 1.4575 2.3212 2.770 605.45
23700 .4690 .6849 1.4601 2,3302 2,783 605.18
23800 .4674 .6837 1.4626 2.3392 2.797 604.92
23900 .4657 .6825 1.4652 2.3486 2.810 604.72
24000 .4641 .6813 1.4678 2.3578 2.823 604.46
24100 .4625 .6801 1.4704 Z.3669 2.837 604.19
24200 .4609 .6789 1.4730 2.3762 2.850 603.93
24300 .4593 .6777 1.4756 2.3854 2.864 603.66
24400 .4577 .6765 1.4782 2.3951 2.877 603.46
24500 .4560 .6753 1.4808 2.404 2.891 603.20
24600 .4544 .6742 1.4832 2.413 2.905 602.93
24700 .4528 .6730 1.4859 2. 12 2.919 602.67
24800 .4512 .6718 1.4885 2.433 2.933 602.47
24900 .4497 .6706 1.4912 2.442 2.947 602.21
25000 .4481 .6694 1.4939 2.452 2.961 601.94
25100 .4465 .6682 1.4966 2.461 2.975 601.68
25200 .4449 .6671 1.4990 2.471 2.990 601.48
25300 .4433 .6659 1.5017 2.481 3.004 601.22
25400 .4418 .6647 1.5044 2.491 3,018 600.95
25500 .4402 .6635 1.5072 2.501 3.033 600.69
25600 .4387 .6623 1.5099 2.511 3.047 600.42
z7 .4371 - 6612 1.5124 2.521 3.062 600.22
25800 .4355 .6600 1.5152 2.531 3.077 599.96
25900 .4340 .6588 1.5179 2.541 3.092 599.69
26000 .4324 .6576 1.5207 2.551 3.106 599.43
26100 .4309 .6565 1.5232 2.561 3,121 599.17
26200 .4294 .6553 1.5260 2.572 3.137 598.97
26300 .4278 .6541 1.5288 2.582 3.152 598.70
26400 .4263 .6530 1.5314 2.592 3.167 598.44
26500 .4248 .6518 1.5342 2.602 3.182 598.17
26600 .4233 .6506 1.5370 2.613 3.198 597.91
26700 .4218 .6495 1.5396 2.623 3.214 597.71
26800 .4203 .6483 1.5425 2.634 3.229 597.45
26900 .4188 .6472 1.5451 2.644 3.245 597.18

0 279 TABLE 9.3


Pa 14 a TIT v
(e ("Hg) Pa/PaSL _ __ Ta/TaSL
27000 10.168 .3398 2.942 234.68 15.319 .8144 .9024
-m/0oo 10.123 .3383 2.955 234.48 15.313 .8137 9020
27200 10.078 .3368 2.968 234.27 15.306 .8130 .9017
27300 10.033 .3353 2.982 234.07 15.299 .8123 .9013
27400 9.988 .3338 2.995 233.87 15.293 .8116 .9009
27500 9.944 .3323 3.008 233.67 15.286 .8109 .9005
27600 9.900 .3308 3.022 233.47 15.280 .8102 .9001
27700 9.856 .3294 3.035 233.29 15.274 .8096 .8998
27800 9.812 .3279 3.049 233.09 15.267 .8089 .8994
27900 9.768 .3264 3.063 232.89 15.261, .8082 .8990
28000 9.724 .3250 3.076 232.69 15.254 .8075 .8986
28100 9.681 .3235 3.090 232.49 15.248 .8068 .8982
Z8200 9.638 .3221 3.104 232.29 15.241 .80 1 .8978
28300 9.595 .3206 3.118 Z32.08 15.234 .8054 .8975
28400 9,552 .3192 3,132 231.88 15.228 .8047 -8971
28500 9.509 .3178 3.146 231.71 15.222 .8041 .8967
28600 9.466 .3163 3.160 231.51 15.215 .8034 .8963
28700 9,424 .3149 3.175 231.31 15.209 .8027 .8959
28800 9.381 .3135 3.189 231,10 15.202 .8020 .8955
28900 9.339 .3121 3.203 230.90 15.195 .8013 .8952
29000 9.297 .3107 3.218 230.70 15.189 .8006 .8948
29100 9.255 .3093 3. 232 230.50 15.182 .7999 .8944
29200 9.213 .3079 3.247 230.30 15.176 .7992 .8940
29300 9.172 .3065 3.262 230.12 15.170 .7986 .8936
29400 9. 1 3 0 .3051 3.276 229.92 15.163 .7979 .8932
29500 9.089 .3037 3.291 229.72 15.157 .7972 .8928
29600 9.048 .3024 3.306 229.52 15.150 .7965 .8925
Z9700 9.007 .3010 3. 321 229.32 15.143 ..7958 .8921
Z9800 8.966 .2996 3.337 229.12 15.137 .7951 .8917
29900 8.925 .2983 3,352 228.91 15.130 .7944 .8913
30000 8.885 .2969 3.367 228.71 15.123 .7937 .8909
30100 8.845 .2956 3.382 228.54 15.118 .7931 .8905
30200 8.804 .2942 3.398 228.34 15.111 .7924 .8901
30300 8.764 .2929 3.413 228.14 15.104 .7917 .8898
30400 8,724 .2915 3.429 227.93 15,098 .7910 .8894
30500 8.685 .2902 3.445 227.73 15.091 .7903 .8890
30600 8.645 .2889 3.460 227.53 15.084 .7896 .886
30700 8.605 .2876 3.476 227.33 15.077 .7889 .8882
30800 8.566 .2863 3.492 227.13 15.071 .7882 .8878
30900 8.527 2849 3.508 226.95 15.065 .7876 .8374

TABLE 9.2
280
0

(F eet) /___ __ __ ___ _ _ _ (Knct s)

27000 .4173 .6460 1.5480 2.655 3.260 596.92


27100 .4157 .6448 1.5509 Z, 666 3. Z76 596.65
27200 .4143 .6437 1.5535 2. L77 3.292 596.45
27300 .4128 ,6425 1 .5564 2.L37 3.308 596.19
27400 .4113 .6413 1.5593 2.698 3.325 595.93
27500 .4098 . 6402 1.5620 2.709 3.341 595.66
27600 .4083 .6390 1.5649 2.720 3.357 595.40
27700 .4068 .6379 1.5676 2.731 3.374 595.20
27800 .4054 .6367 1.5706 2.742 3.390 594.93
27900 .4039 .6356 1.5733 2.753 3.407 594.67
28000 .4025 .6344 1. 5763 2.764 3,423 594.40
28100 .4010 .6333 1.5790 2.776 3,440 594.14
28200 .3996 .6321 1.5820 2.787 3.457 593.88
28300 .3981 .6310 1.5848 2.798 3.474 593.68
28400 3967 .6298 1.5878 2.810 3.491 593.41
28500 .3952 .6287 1.5906 2.821 3.509 593.15
28600 .393.8 .6276 1.5934 2.833 3.526 592.88
28700 .3923 .6264 1.5964 2.844 3.543 . 592.62
28b00 .3909 .6253 1.5992 2.856 3.561 592.35
28900 .3895 .6241 1.6023 2.867 3.579 592.16
29000 .3881 .6230 1.6051 2.879 3,596 591.89
29100 .3867 6219 1.6080 2.891 3.614 591.62
29200 .3853 .6207 1.6111 2.903 3.632 591.35
29300 .3838 .6196 1.b139 2.915 3,650 591.09
29400 .3824 .6184 1.6171 2.927 3.668 590.82
29500 .3810 6173 1.6200 2.,939 3,686 590.56
29600 .3796 .6162 1.6228 2.951 3.705 590.36
29700 .3782 6150 1.6260 2,963 3.723 590.10
29800 .3769 .6139 1.6289 2,975 3.74Z 589.83
29900 .3755 .6128 1.6319 2.987 3.761 589.57
30000 .3741 .6117 1.6348 3.000 3.779 589.30
30100 .3727 .6105 1.6380 3.012 3.798 589.05
30200 .3713 .6094 1.6410 3.024 3,817 588,78
30300 .3700 .6083 1.6439 3.037 3.837 588.58
30400 .3686 .6072 1.6469 3.050 3.856 588.32
30500 .3672 .6060 1.6502 3.062 3,875 588.06
30600 .3659 .6049 1.6532 3.075 3.894 587.79
30700 .3645 .6038 1.6562 3.088 3.914 587.53
30800 .3632 6027 1.6592 3.100 3.934 587.26
30900 .3618 .6016 1.6622 3,113 3.953 587.00

0 281 TABLE 9.3


0

He pa 1/S Ta 0
e~ , _
("Hg) PA/PaSL _b"K) Ta/TaSL
31000 8.488 .2836 3.524 226.75 15.058 .7869 .8871
31100 8.449 .2823 3.541 226.55 15.052 .7862 .8867
31200 8.410 .2810 3.557 226.35 15.045 .7855 .8863
31300 8.371 .2798 3.573 226.15 15.038 .7848 .885:9
31400 8.333 .2785 3.590 225.95 15.032 .7841 .8855
31500 8.295 .2772 3.607 225.74 15.025 .7834 .8851
31600 8.256 .2759 3.623 225.54 15.018 .7827 .8847
31700 8,218 .2746 3.640 225.37 15.012 .7821 .8843
31800 8.181 .2734 3.657 225.17 15.006 .7814 .8839
31900 8.143 .2721 3.674 224.97 14.999 .7807 .8836
32000 8.105 .2709 3.691 224.76 14.992 .7800 .8832
32100 8.068 .2696 3.708 224.56 14.985 ,7793 .8828
32200 8.030 .2684 3.725 224.36 14.979 .7786 .8824
32300 7.993 .2671 3.743 224.16 14.972 .7779 .8820
32400 7,956 .2659 3.760 223.96 14,965 .7772 .8816
32500 7.919 .2646 3.778 223.79 14.959 .7766 .8812
32600 7.882 .2634 3.795 223.58 14.953 .7759 .8808
32700 7,846 ,26ZZ 3.813 223.38 14.946 .7752 .8804
32800 7.809 .2610 3.831 223.18 14.939 .7745 .8801
32900 7.773 .2597 3.849 222.98 14.932 .7738 .8797

33000 7.737 .2585 3.867 222.78 14.926 .7731 .8793


33100 7.700 .2573 3,885 222.57 14,919 .7724 .8789
33200 7.665 .2561 3.903 222.37 14.912 .7717 .8785
33300 7.629 .2549 3.922 222.2o 14.906 .7711 .8781
33400 7.593 .2537 3.940 222.00 14,900 .7704 .8777
33500 7.557 .2525 3.958 221.80 14.893 .7697 .8773
33600 7.522 .2514 3.977 2Z1 60 14.886 .- 690 .8769
33700 7.487 .2502 3.996 221,39 14,879 .7683 8765
33800 7.45Z .2490 4,015 221.19 14.873 .7676 .8761
33900 7.417 .2478 4.034 220.99 14.866 .7669 .8757
34000 7.382 .2467 4.053 220.79 14.859 .7662 .8754
34100 7,347 .2455 4,072 220,62 14.853 .7656 .8750
34200 7.312 .2444 4.091 220,41 14.846 .7649 .8746
34300 7.278 .2432 4.110 220.21 14.840 .7642 .8742
34400 7.244 2421 4.130 220.01 14.833 .7635 .8738
34500 7.209 .2409 4.150 219.81 14.826 .7628 .8734
34600 7.175 2398 4.169 219.61 14.619 .7621 .8730
.4700 7,141 .2386 4.189 219.41 14.812 .7614 .8726
34800 7.107 .2375 4.209 219.20 14.806 .7607 .T7-2T
34900 7.074 .2364 4.229 219.03 14.800 .7601 .8718

TABLE 9.2
282
(Feet) P/PL (Knots)
31000 .3605 .6004 1.6656 3.127 3.974 586.80
31100 .3592 .5993 1.6686 3.140 3. 994 586.53
31200 .3578 .5982 1.6717 3.153 4.014 586.27
31300 .3565 .5971 1.6748 3.166 4.034 586.01
31400 .3551 .5960 1.6779 3.179 4.054 585.74
31500 .3538 .5949 1.6810 3.192 4.075 585.48
31600 .3525 .5938 1.6841 3.205 4.095 585.21
31700 .3512 .5926 1.6875 3.219 4.116 584.95
31800 .3499 . 5916 1.6903 3.232 4. 137 584. C"
31900 .3486 .5904 1.6938 3.246 4.158 584.48
32000 .3473 .5893 1.6969 3.260 4.180 584.22
32100 .3460 .5882 1,7001 3.274 4.201 583.96
32200 .3447 .5871 1.7033 3.287 4. 222 583.69
32300 .3434 .5860 1.7065 3.301 4.244 583.43
32400 .3421 .5849 1,7097 3.315 4.265 583.16
32500 .3408 .5838 1.7129 3.329 4.287 582.90
32600 .3395 .5827 1.7161 3.343 4.309 582.63.
O 32700 .3382 .5816 1,7194 3.357 4.331 582.37
32800 .3370 .5805 1.7227 3.371 4.353 582.17
32900 .3357 .5794 1.7259 3.386 4.376 581.91
33000 .3344 .5783 1.7292 3.400 4.398 581.64
33100 .3332 .5772 1.73Z5 3.414 4.421 581.38
332C% .33119 .576Z 1.7355 3.429 4.443 581.11
3330L .3306 .5751 1.7388 3.443 4.466 580.85
33400 .3294 .5740 1.7422 3.458 4.489 580.58
33t00 .3281 .5729 1.7455 3.473 4.512 580.32
33600 .3269 .5718 1.7489 3.487 4.535 580.05
33700 .3256 .5707 1,7522 3.502 4.559 579.79
33800 .3244 .5696 1.7556 3.517 4. 582 579.52
33900 .3232 .5685 1.7590 3,532 4.606 579.26
34000 .3219 .5674 1.7624 3.548 4.630 579.06
34100 .3207 .5664 1.7655 3. 563 4=.654 578.80
34200 .3195 .5653 1.7690 3.578 4.678 578.53
34300 .3183 .5642 1.7724 3.593 4.703 578.27
34400 .3171 .5631 1.7759 3.609 4. 727 578.00
S34500 .3158 .5620 1.7794 3.624 4.751 577.74
34600 .3146 .5610 1.7825 3.640 4.776 577.47
34700 .3134 ,5599 1.7860 3.655 4.801 577.21
34800 .3122 .5588 1.7895 3.671 4.826 576.95
34900 .3110 .5577 1.7931 3.687 4.851 576.68

- 283 TABLE 9.3


HC Pai14 T,, FTFI
(Feet) ("Hit Pa/PasL ____ r-1) ___ Ta/TaSL ___

35000 7.040 .2353 4.249 218.83 14.793 .7594 .8714


35100 7.007 .2341 4.2',0 218.63 14,786 .7587 .8710
35200 6.973 .2330 4.290 218.43 14.779 .7580 .8706
35300 6.940 .2319 4.311 218.22 14.772 .7573 .8702
35400 6.907 .2308 4.331 218.02 14.766 ,7566 .8698
35500 6.874 .2297 4.352 217.82 14.759 .7559 .8694
35600 6.841 .2286 4.373 217.62 14.752 .7552 .8690
35100 6.809 .2275 4.394 217.45 14.746 .7546 .8686
35800 6.776 .2264 4.415 217.24 14.739 .7539 .8683
35900 6.744 .2254 4.436 217.04 14.732 .7532 .8679
36000 6.711 .2243 4.457 216.84 14.726 .7525 .8675
36100 6.679 .2232 4.479 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
36200 6.647 .2221 4.501 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
36300 6.615 .2211 4.522 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
36400 6.584 .2200 4.544 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
36500 6.552 .2189 4.566 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
36600 6.521 .2179 4.588 216.66 14,719 .7519 .8671
36700 6.489 .2168 4,610 216.66 14,719 .7519 .8671
36800 6.458 .2158 4.632 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
36900 6.427 .2148 4.655 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
37000 6.396 .2137 4.677 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
37100 6k366 .2127 4.700 216.66 14,719 .7519 .8671
37200 6.335 .2117 4.722 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
37300 6.305 .2107 4.745 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
37400 6.274 .2097 4.768 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
37500 6.244 .2087 4.791 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
37600 6.215 .2077 4.814 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
37700 6.185 .2067 4.837 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
37800 6.155 .2057 4.861 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
37900 6.125 .2047 4.884 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
38000 6.096 .2037 4.908 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
38100 6.067 .2027 4.931 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
38200 6.038 .20180 4.955 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
38300 6.009 .20083 4.979 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
38400 ý.980 .19987 5.003 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
38500 5.951 .19892 5.027 216.66 14.719 .7519 8671
38600 5.923 .19797 5.051 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
38700 5.824 .19701 5.075 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
38800 5.866 .19607 5.100 216.66 14.719 .7519 867i
38900 5.838 .19513 5.124 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671

TABLE 9.2
284
(Feet) ____ ______ ___ (Knots)
35000 .3098 .5567 1.7963 3.703 4.877 576.42
35100 .3086 .5556 1.7999 3.719 4.902 576.15
35200 .3075 . 5545 1.8034 3.735 4.928 575.89
35300 .3063 .5534 1.8070 3.751 4.953 575.62
35400 .3051 .5524 1.8103 3.767 4.979 575.36
35500 .3039 .5513 1.8139 3.783 5.005 575.09
35600 .3027 .5502 1.8175 3.800 5.032 574.83
35700 .3016 .5492 1.8208 3.816 5.058 574.57
35800 .3004 .5481 1.8245 3.833 5.085 574.37
35900 .2992 .5471 1.8278 3.850 5.112 574.10
36000 .2981 .5460 1.8315 3.867 5.139 573.84
36100 .2969 .5449 1.8352 3.884 5,166 573.58
36200 .2954 .5436 1.8396 3.902 5.190 573.58
36300 .2940 .5423 1.8441 3.921 5.215 573.58
36400 .2926 .5410 1.8485 3.940 5.240 573.58
36500 .2912 5397 1.8530 3.959 5.266 573.58
O 36600 .2898 .5384 1.8574 3.978 5.291 573.58
36700 .2884 .5371 1.8619 3.997 5,317 573.58
36800 .2870 .5358 1.8664 4.017 5.342 573.58
36900 .2857 .5345 1.8709 4.036 5.368 573.58
37000 .2843 .5332 1.8753 4.055 5.394 573.58
37100 2829 .5319 1.8799 4.075 5.420 573.58
37200 .2816 .5307 1.8844 4.095 5.446 573.58
37300 .2802 .5294 1.8889 4.114 5.472 573.58
37400 .2789 .5281 1.8935 4.134 5.499 573.58
37500 .2775 .5269 1.8980 4.154 5.525 573.58
37600 .2762 .5256 1.9026 4.174 5.552 573.58
37700 .2749 .5243 1.9072 4.194 5.579 573.58
37800 .2736 .5231 1.9117 4.215 5.605 573.58
37900 .2723 .5218 1.9164 4.235 5.632 573.58
38000 .2709 .5206 1.9210 4.255 5.660 573.58
38100 .2697 .5193 1.9256 4.276 5.687 573.58
38200 .2684 .5181 1.9302 4.296 5.714 573.58
38300 .2671 .5168 1.9349 4.317 5.742 573.58
38400 ,2658 ,5156 1,9395 4,338 5.770 573 58
38500 .2645 .5144 1.9442 4.359 5.797 573.58
38600 .2633 .5131 1.9488 4.380 5.825 573.58
38700 .2620 .5119 1.9535 4,401 5,853 573.58
38800 .2607 .5107 1.9583 4.422 5.881 573.58
38900 .2595 .5094 1.9630 4.443 5.910 573.58

285 TABLE 9.3


Hc PaI Ta T 0--
(Feet) ."Hg) Pa/Pa"L _O_) T/TSL --
39000 5.810 .19419 5.149 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
39100 5.782 .19326 5.174 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
39200 5.754 .19233 5.199 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
39300 5.727 .19142 5.224 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
39400 5.699 .19049 5.249 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
39500 5.672 .18958 5.274 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
39600 5.645 .18868 5.300 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
39700 5.618 .18776 5.325 216.66 14. 719 . 7519 .8671
39800 5.591 . 18687 5.351 216.66 14.719 . 7519 .8671
39900 5. 564 . 18597 5.377 216.66 14. 719 . 7519 . 8671
40000 5. 537 . 18508 5.403 216, 66 14. 719 . 7519 .8671
40100 5,511 .18419 5.429 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
40200 5.484 .18331 5.455 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
40300 5.458 . 18243 5.481 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
40400 5.432 .18155 5.508 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
40500 5.406 . 18068 5.534 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
40600 5.380 .1.7982 5.561 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
40700 5.354 . 17896 5.587 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
40800 5. 328 .1•7810 5.614 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
40900 5.303 .17724 5.642 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
41000 5.278 .17640 5.668 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
41100 5.252 .17555 5.696 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
41200 5.227 .17471 5.723 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
41300 5.202 .17387 5.751 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
41400 5.177 .17303 5,772 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
41500 5.152 .17221 5.806 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
41600 5.127 .17138 5.835 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
41700 5.103 .17056 5,863 216. 66 14.719 .7519 .8671
41800 5.079 .16974 5.891 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
41900 5.054 .16893 5.919 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
42000 5.030 .16812 5.948 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
42100 5.006 .16731 5.976 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
42200 4.982 .16651 6.005 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
42300 4. 958 .16571 6. 034 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
42400 4.934 .16492 6,063 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
42500 4.910 .16412 6.093 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
42600 4,887 .16334 6.122 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
42700 4,863 -16255 6.152 216.66 14-719 .7519 .8671
42800 4.840 .16178 6.181 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
42900 4.817 .16100 6.211 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671

TABLE 9.2
286
(Feet - _-_L (Knot!)
39000 .2582 .5082 1.9677 4.465 5.938 573.58
39100 .2570 .5070 1.9724 4.486 5.967 573.58
39200 .2558 .5058 1.9772 4.508 5.996 573.58
39300 .2545 .5046 1.9819 4.529 6.024 573.58
39400 .2533 .5033 1.9867 4.551 6.054 573.58
39500 .2521 .5021 1.9915 4.573 6.083 573.58
39600 .2509 .5009 1.9962 4.595 6.112 573.58
39700 .2497 .4997 2.0011 4.618 6.142 573.58
39800 .2485 .4985 2.0059 4.640 6.171 573.58
39900 .2473 .4973 2.0107 4.662 6.201 573.58
40000 .2461 .4961 2.0155 4.685 6.231 573.58
40100 .2449 .4949 2.0204 4,707 6.261 573.58
40200 .2438 .4938 2.0253 4.730 6.291 573.58
40300 .2426 .4926 2.0301 4.753 6.321 573.58
40400 .2414 .4914 2.0350 4.776 6.352 573.58
40500 .2403 .4902 2.0399 4.799 6.382 573.58
40600 .2391 .4890 2.0448 4,822 6.413 573.58
S 40700 .2380 .4879 2.0497 4,845 6.444 573-58
40800 .2368 .4867 2.0547 4.868 6.475 573.58
40900 .2357 .4855 2.0596 4.892 6.506 573.58
41000 .2346 .4844 2.0646 4.915 6.537 573.58
41100 .2334 .4832 2.0695 4 939 6,569 573,S8
41200 .2323 .4820 2,0745 4.963 6.600 573.58
41300 .2312 .4809 2.0795 4.987 6.632 573.58
41400 .2301 .4797 2.0845 5.011 6.664 573.58
41500 .2290 .4786 2.0895 5.035 6.696 573.58
41600 .2279 .4774 2.0946 5.059 6.729 573.58
41700 .2268 .4763 2.0996 5.083 6,761 573.58
41800 .2257 .4751 2.1046 5.108 6.794 573.58
41900 .2246 .4740 2.1097 5.132 6.826 573.58
42000 .2236 .4729 2.1148 5.157 6.859 573.58
42100 .2225 m4717 2 1199 5.182 6.892 573.58
42200 .2214 .4706 2.1250 5.207 6.926 573.58
42300 .2204 .4695 2.1301 5.232 6.959 573.58
42400 .2193 .4683 2.1352 5.257 6.992 573.58
42500 .2182 .4672 2.1494 5.283 7.026 573.58
42600 .2172 .4661 2.1455 5.308 7.060 573.58
42700 .2162 .4650 2.1507 5.334 7,094 573.58
42800 .2151 .4639 2.1558 5.359 7.128 573.58
42900 .2141 .4627 2.1610 5.385 7.163 573.58

287 TABLE 9.3


HC pa Ta a
(Feet) ("Hg) Pa/PaSL_, (OK) Ta/TaSL
43000 4.794 .16023 6.241 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
43100 4.771 .15946 6.271 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
43200 4.748 .15870 6.301 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
43300 4.725 .15794 6.331 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
43400 4.702 .15718 6.362 216.66 14,719 .7519 .8671
43500 4.680 .15642 6.393 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
43600 4.657 .15567 6.423 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
43700 4.635 .15492_ 6,454 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
43800 4.613 .15418 6.485 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
43900 4.591 .15345 6.516 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
44000 4.569 .15271 6.548 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
44100 4.547 .15198 6.579 216. 66 14.719 .7519 .8671
44200 4.525 .15125 6.611 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
44300 4.503 .15053 6.643 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
44400 4.482 .14980 6.675 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
44500 4.460 .14908 6.707 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
44600 4.439 .14837 6.739 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
44700 4.418 .14766 6.772 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
44800 4.397 .14695 6. 805 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
44900 4.375 .14624 6.838 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
45000 4.354 .14554 6.871 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
45100 4.334 .14485 6.903 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
4.,t'0 4.313 .14415 6.937 216.66 14.719 .7519 ,8671
45300 4.292 .14346 6.970 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
45400 4,271 .14277 7.004 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
45500 4.251 .14208 7.038 216.66 14,719 .7519 .8671
45600 4.231 . 14141 7.071 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
45700 4.210 .14073 7.105 216 .66 _!4.719 .7519 .8671
45800 4.190 .14005 7.140 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
45900 4.170 .13938 7.174 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
46000 4.150 .13871 7.209 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
46100 4.130 .13805 7.243 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
46200 4.110 .13739 7.278 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
46300 4.091 .13672 7,314 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
46400 4.071 .13607 7.349 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
46500 4.051 .13542 7.384 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
46600 4.032 .13477 7.420 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
46700 4.013 .13412 7.456 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
46800 3.993 .13348 7.491 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
46900 3.974 .13284 7.527 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671

TABLE 9.2
288
HC a'17 1/ 4- rosiIli- a
(Feet) /PLea ____ ____ ___ (Knots)
43000 .2131 .4616 2.1662 5.411 7.197 573.58
43100 .2120 .4605 2.1715 5.437 7.232 573.58
43200 .2110 .4594 2.1767 5.463 7.266 573.58
43300 .2100 .4583 2.1819 5.490 7.301 573.58
43400 .2090 .4572 2.1872 5.516 7.337 573.58
43500 .2080 .4561 2.1924 5.543 7.372 573.58
43600 .2070 .4550 2.1977 5.570 7.408 573.58
43700 .2060 .4539 2.2030 5.597 7.444 573.58
43800 .2050 .4528 2.2083 5.623 7.479 573.58
43900 .2040 .4518 2.2136 5.650 7.515 573.58
44000 .20310 .4507 2.2189 5.678 7.551 573.58
44100 .20213 .4496 2.2242 5.705 7.588 573,58
44200 .20117 .4485 2.2296 5.732 7.624 573.58
44300 .20020 .4474 2.2349 5.760 7.661 573.58
44400 .19924 .4464 2,2403 5,788 7.698 573.58
44500 .19828 .4453 2.2457 5.816 7.735 573.58
44600 .19733 .4442 2.2511 5.844 7.772 573.58
44700 .19639 .4432 2.2566 5.872 7.810 573.58
44800 .19545 .4421 2.2620 5.900 7.847 573.58
44900 .19451 .4410 2.2674 5.929 7.886 573.58
45000 .19358 .4400 2.2729 5.957 7.923 573.58
45100 .19265 .4389 2.2783 5.986 7.961 573.58
45200 .19173 .4379 2.2838 6.015 8.000 573.58
45300 .19080 .4368 2.2893 6.044 8.038 573.58
45400 .18989 .4358 2.2948 6.073 8,077 573.58
45500 .18897 .4347 2.3004 6.102 8.116 573.58
45600 .18807 .4337 2.3059 6.131 8.155 573.58
45700 .18717 .4326 2,3114 6.161 8-194 573.58
45800 .18627 .4316 2.3170 6.191 8.234 573.58
45900 .18538 .4306 2.3226 6.221 8.Z74 573.58
46000 .18449 .4295 2.3282 6.251 8.314 573.58
46100 .18360 .4285 2.3338 6.281 8.353 573.58
46200 .18273 .4275 2.3394 6.311 8.394 573.58
46300 .18184 .4264 2.3450 6.342 8.435 573.58
46400 .18098 .4254 2.3507 6.372 8.475 573.58
46500 .18011 .4244 2.3563 6.403 8.516 573.58
46600 .17924 .4234 2.3620 6.433 8.557 573.58
46700 .17839 .4Z24 2.3677 6.465 8,598 573,58
46800 .17753 .4213 2.3734 6.496 8.639 573.58
46900 .17668 .4203 2.3791 6.527 8.681 573.58

289 TABLE 9.3


HC Pa 1i4 Ta 8T
(Feet) ("Hg) Pa/PaSL (*K) _ Tp/TaSL
47000 3.955 .13221 7.563 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
47100 3.936 .13157 7.600 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
47200 3.917 .13094 7.637 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
47300 3.899 .13031 7.674 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
47400 3.880 .12969 7.710 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
47500 3.861 .12907 7.747 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
47600 3.843 .12845 7.785 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
47700 3.824 .12783 7.822 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
47800 3.806 .12722 7.860 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
47900 3.783 .12660 7.898 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
48000 3.770 .12600 7.936 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
48100 3.752 .12540 7.974 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
48200 3.734 .12480 8.012 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
48300 3.716 .12419 8.052 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
48400 3.698 .12360 -8090 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
48500 3.680 .12301 8.129 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
48600 3.662 .12242 8.168 216.66 14.7i9 .7519 ,8671
48700 3.645 .12183 8.208 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
48800 3.627 .12125 8.247 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
48900 3.610 .12067 8.287 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
49000 3.593 .12009 8.327 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
49100 3.576 .11951 8.367 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
49200 3.558 .11894 8.407 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
49300 3.541 .11837 8.448 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
49400 3.524 .11780 8.489 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
49500 3.507 .11724 8.529 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
49600 3.491 .11668 8.570 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
49700 3.474 .11611 8.612 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
49800 3.457 .11556 8.653 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
49900 3.441 .11500 8.695 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
50000 3.424 .11445 8.737 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
50100 3.408 .11390 8.779 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
50200 3.391 .11336 8.821 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
50300 3.375 .11281 8.864 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
50400 3.359 .11227 8.907 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
50500 3.343 .11173 8.950 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
50600 3.327 .11120 8.992 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
50700 3.311 .1i067 9.035 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
50800 3.295 .11014 9.079 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
50900 3.279 .10961 9.123 - 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671

TABLE 9.2
290
To-7 /Fs7eF a
(Feet) I I p__I__ (Knot s
47000 .17584 .4193 2.3848 6.558 8.722 573.58
47100 .17499 .4183 2.3905 6.590 8.765 573.58
47200 .17415 .4173 2.3963 6.622 8.807 573.58
47300 .17331 .4163 2.4021 6.654 8.850 573.58
47400 .17249 .4153 2.4078 6.685 8.892 573.58
47500 .17166 .4143 2.4136 6.718 8.935 573.58
47600 .17084 .4133 2.4194 6.750 8.978 573.58
47700 .17002 ,4123 2.4252 6.783 9.021 573.58
47800 .16920 .4113 2.4311 6.815 9.065 573.58
47900 .16839 .4103 2.4370 6.849 9.109 573.58
"48000 .16758 .4094 2.4428 6.881 9.152 573.58
48100 .16678 .4084 2.4487 6.914 9.196 573.58
48200 .16598 .4074 Z.4546 6.947 9.240 573.58
48300 .16518 .4064 2.4605 6.982 9.286 573.58
48400 .16439 .4054 2.4664 7.015 9.330 573.58
48500 .16360 .4045 2.4723 7.049 9.375 573.58
48600 .16282 .4035 2.4783 7.083 9.420 573.58
48700 .16204 .4025 2.4842 7.117 9.466 573.58
48800 .16126 .4016 2.4902 7.151 9.511 573.58
48900 .16049 .4006 2.4962 7.185 9.557 573.58
49000 .15972 .3996 2.5022 7.220 9.603 573.58
49100 .15895 .3987 2. 5082 7.255 9.649 573.58
49200 .15819 .3977 2.5143 7.290 9.696 573.58
49300 .15743 .3968 2.5203 7.325 9,742 573,58
49400 .15668 .3958 2.5264 7.360 9.789 573.58
49500 .15593 .3949 Z 5325 7.395 9.836 573.58
49600 .15518 .3939 2.5385 7.431 9.383 573.58
49700 .15443 .3930 2.5447 7.467 9.932 573.58
49800 .15369 .3920 2.5508 7.503 9.979 573. 58
49900 .15295 .3911 2.5570 7.540 10.028 573.58
50000 .15222 .3902 2.5631 7.576 10.076 573.58
50100 .15149 .3892 2.5692 7.612 10.125 573.58
50200 .15077 .3883 2.5754 7.649 10,173 573. 58
50300 .15004 .3874 2.5816 7.686 10.zzz 573.58
50400 .14932 .3864 Z. 5879 7.723 10.272 573.58
50500 .14861 .3855 2.5941 7.760 10.321 573.58
50600 .14789 .3846 2.6003 7.797 10.371 573. 58
50700 .14719 .3837 2.6065 7,835 10.420 573.58
50800 .14648 .3827 2.6128 7.872 10.470 573.58
50900 .14578 .3818 2.6191 7.910 10.521 573.58

291 TABLE 9.3


HC Pa I ~ T, 0T
6_
S("Hg)/ /PIaSL (OK) Ta/TaSL
51000 3.263 .10908 9.167 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
51100 3.248 .10856 9.211 216.66 14,719 .7519 .8671
51200 3.232 .10804 9.255 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
51300 3.217 .10752 9.300 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
51400 3.201 .10700 9.345 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
51500 3.186 .10649 9.390 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
51600 3.171 .10598 9.435 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
51700 3.155 .10547 9.481 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
51800 3. 140 .10497 9.526 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
51900 3.125 .10446 9.573 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
52000 3.110 .10396 9.619 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
52100 3.095 .10347 9.664 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
52200 3.080 .10297 9.711 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
52300 3.066 .10247 9.759 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
52400 3,051 .10198 9.805 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
52500 3.036 .10149 9.853 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
52600 3.022 .10101 9.900 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
52700 3,007 .10052 9.94j . 216.66 14,719 .7519 .8671
52800 2.993 .10004 9.996 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
52900 2.979 .09956 10.044 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
53000 2.964 .09908 10.092 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
53100 2.950 .09861 10.141 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
53200 2.936 .09813 10.190 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
53300 2.922 .09766 10.239 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
53400 2.908 .09719 10.289 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
53500 2.894 .09673 10.338 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
53600 2.880 .09627 10.387 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
53700 2.866 .09581 10.437 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
53800 2.852 .09535 10.487 21.I66 14.719 .7519 .8671
53900 2.839 .09489 10.538 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
54000 2.825 .09443 10.589 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
54100 2.812 .09398 10,640 216.66 14,719 .7519 .8671
54200 2.798 .09353 10.691 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
54300 2.785 .09308 10.743 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
54400 2.771 .09264 10.794 216.66 14.719 .7519 ,8671
54500 2.758 .09219 10.847 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
54600 2.745 .09175 10.899 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
54700 2.732 .09131 10.951 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
54800 2.719 .09087 11.004 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671
54900 2.706 .09044 11.057 216.66 14.719 .7519 .8671

TABLE 9.2
292
Oa

(Fe) P/PsL ____ ___ ___ ____ (Knot s)


51000 .14508 .3809 2.6254 7.949 10.572 573.58
51100 .14439 .3800 2.6317 7.987 10.623 573,58
51200 .14369 .3791 2.6381 8.025 10,674 573.58
51300 .14300 .3782 2.6444 8.064 10.725 573.58
51400 .14231 .3772 2.6508 8.103 10.773 573. 58
51500 .14164 .3763 2.6571 8.142 10.829 573. 58
51600 .14096 .3754 2.6635 8.181 10.881 573. 58
51700 .14023 .3745 2.6700 8.221 10.934 573. 58
51800 .13961 .3736 2.6764 8.260 10.986 573. 58
51900 .13894 .3727 2.6828 8.300 11.040 573. 58
52000 .13827 .3719 2.6893 8,340 11.093 573.58
52100 .13761 .3710 2.6957 8.380 11.145 573.58
52200 .13695 .3701 2.7022 8.420 11.199 573.58
52300 .13629 .3692 2.7088 8.462 11.254 573. 58
52400 .13564 .3683 2.715Z 8.502 11.308 573.58
52500 .13499 .3674 2.7218 8.543 11.363 573. 58
52600 .13434 .3665 2.7283 8.584 11.417 573.58
52700 .13370 .3656 2.7349 8.626 11.472 573.58
52800 .13306 .3648 2.7415 8.667 11.527 573.58
52900 .13242 .3639 2.7481 8.709 11.583 573.58
53000 .13178 .3630 2.7547 8.751 11.639 573.58
53100 .13115 .3621 2.7613 8.793 11.695 573.58
53200 13052 .3613 2.7680 8.836 11.752 573.58
53300 .12989 .3604 2.7746 8.878 11.808 573.58
53400 .12927 .3595 2.7813 8.921 11.865 573.58
53500 .1Z865 .3587 2.7880 8.964 11.922 573.58
53600 .12803 .3578 2.7947 9.007 11,979 573.58
53700 .12743 .3570 2.8014 9.050 12.036 573.58
53800 .1681 3561 2.8082 9.093 12.094 573.58
53900 .126Z0 .3552