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Plutarco, Vitae Parallelae (GRK-In) BB (Loeb. t.01) (v. Perrin. 1967)

Plutarco, Vitae Parallelae (GRK-In) BB (Loeb. t.01) (v. Perrin. 1967)

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at the

of Loeb titles can be end of each volume

philosophy Athens, and, after coming to Rome as a teacher in philosophy, was given consular rank by the emperor Trajan and a procuratorship in Greece by Hadrian. Married

(Plutarchus, c. A.D. 45120, was born at Chaeronea in Boeotia in central Greece, studied at


and father of one daughter and four sons, o he appears as a man of kindly character and independent thought. Studious and learned, he wrote on many subjects. Most popular have always been the 46 Parallel
biographies planned to be ethical examples in pairs (in each pair one Greek

person and one similar Roman), though

valuable sources of our

four lives are single. All are inknowledge of the

and characters of Greek and Roman
varied extant works, about

statesmen or soldiers or orators. Plutarch's

many other


number, are known as 'Moral or 'Moral Works'. They are of

high literary value, besides being of great use to people interested in philosophy,
ethics and




3 3333 08668 3832



E. H.



fT. E. PAGE,


PH.D., LL.D.


H. D.



L. A.











First Printed 1914 Reprinted 1928, 1948', 1959, 1967

Printed in Great Britain














89 188









AGREEMENT between the Sintenis (Teubner, 18731875) and Bekker (Tauchnitz, 1855-1857) texts of
the Parallel Lives has been taken as the basis for the
text of the present edition.
to the other


preference of one

where they differ, and any departure from both, have been indicated. All the Lives included in this volume are contained in the Codex

and occasional use has been

made of the

collations of that




MS. by W. Meyer of Codex MS.
so closely

Parisinus 1676 (F

the excellent

related to S, have been accessible to the Editor,

readings could only be inferred here and there from the text and notes of Stephanus. No attempt has

been made, naturally,

to furnish either a diplomatic

text or a full critical apparatus.

The reading which

follows the colon in the critical notes

that of the


Sintenis, and

also, unless otherwise stated

in the note, of the

Tauchnitz Bekker.



must speak

for itself.

Its author,

like Plutarch himself, prays that

he may

find kindly



feels reasonably confident of

doing so




are able to appreciate the pecuAll the standard transcourse,

of Plutarch's Greek.

lations of the Lives have, of

been carefully

compared and





February, 1914.

vi n

Gains Alcibiades and Coriolanus. VOLUME (21) IX. (12) Lysander and Comparison. (17) (9) Aristides and Cato the Elder. and Eumenes. and and Tiberius Gracchus. VOLUME (4) Demosthenes and Cicero. Pericles and Fabius Max(11) imus. VOLUME (22) (7) VI. Artaxerxea. Comparison. (14) Nicias and Crassus. PyrrhusandCaiusMarius. Comparison. Sulla. (16) Agesilaus (8) VOLUME (23) Aratus. and Pompey. VOLUME (6) IV. VOLUME (20) II. (10) Comparison. VII. (18) Comparison. (2) (3) Theseus and Romulus. Lycurgus and Numa. Alexander and Julius Caesar. ('24) XI. Comparison. Demetrius and Antony. Comparison. Comparison. Dion and Brutus. Agis and Cleomenes. Comparison. Phocion and Cato the Younger. Pelopidas and Marcellua. VOLUME (1) I. Comparison. Comparison. Themistocles and Camillus. Comparison. (19) VOLUME X. Comparison. Comparison. VOLUME (15) Sertorius VIII. VOLUME V. Flam- Comparison. * VOLUME (5) III. Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus. Philopoemen and iniuus. Comparison. (13) Cimon and Lucullus. ix . Comparison. (26) Otho. Comparison. Solon and Publicola.ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES IN THIS EDITION IN THE CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE OF THE GREEK LIVES. (25) Galba.

Cimon and Lucullus. (25) Calba. (20) Otho. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Theseus and Romulus. Solon and Publicola. Demetrius and Antony.THE TRADITIONAL ORDER OF THE PARALLEL LIVES. Phocion and Cato the Younger. (10) (11) Philopoemen and Flamininus. (20) Demosthenes and Cicero. Pelopidas and Marcellus. Themistocles and Camillus. Dion and Brutus. Agis and Cleomenes. . Lycurgus and Numa. and Tiberius and Caius Gracchus. (14) Nicias (15) Sertorius and Eumenes. Pyrrhus and Caius Marius. Pericles and Fabius Maximus. (8) (9) Aristides and Cato the Elder. (12) (13) Ly sander and Sulla. (16) Agesilaus (17) (18) (19) and Pompey. 21) (22) (23) Aratug. (6) (7) Alcibiades and Coriolanus. ami Crassus. Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus. Alexander and Julius Caesar. (24) Artaxerxes.

in charge of certain he had not time to learn thoroughly the Latin language. Egypt. may be inferred from his writings. and resided much at Rome. as most that is known about him must be inferred. Greek was the language of literary and polite At Rome. Greece. and toward the close He belonged of the reign of the emperor Claudius. to a family of ample means and generous culture. and Italy. native town. so that xi . he was public business. and was liberally educated. and was a disciple of Ammonius of Lamptrae. He studied at Athens. a Peripatetic philosopher Returning to his deeply versed in religious lore. a small town on the northern confines of Boeotia. he was soon called upon to represent it as deputy to the Roman governor of the province That he travelled extensively over of Greece. as he himself conBut fesses in the introduction to his Demosthenes. the most attractive university town in his day for both Greeks and Romans.INTRODUCTION PLUTARCH'S LIFE AND WRITINGS PLUTARCH was born at Chaeroneia. about the middle of the first century of our era. visited Asia Minor.

much as he did in the small but select circle of his intimates and friends at home. especially if we would xn . The Morals were composed. minds of men at the political centre of the world. Then. and was now to enjoy its second golden age. after Athenian education. and are an invaluable prelude to and commentary on them. with his books. especially were welcome there.D. generous travels. before the Lives. must have rejoiced at the accession of Hadrian to the His world had grown steadily imperial throne. in a leisure not all too much encroached upon by local magistracies and certain religious offices at neighbouring Delphi. essays. notes. He made and retained a large acquaintance with the prominent Romans of his day. Domitian.. and cultivated Greeks. better while he lived. and Trajan. lectures. and considerable residence at Rome. He lived y through the reigns Nero. and was familiar with the questions which most occupied the society at philosophers. and gentle philosophy. modest literary celebrity. Plutarch read and lectured at Rome. diplomatic missions. and a populariser of Platonism. the Parallel Lives of Greeks and Romans. and. As a Greek philosopher. to have elaborated the sketches of his lectures and essays.INTRODUCTION Rome. and there. for the greater part. which have come down to us under the collective name of Morals. leaving the world as he did about 120 A. and to have composed the work on which his fame chiefly rests. he seems to have retired to his little country home.

moralist than historian. Then followed." of Lives is unfortunately lost. lost gradually of her great men of action. so far as this was possible. the greatest Plutarch Rome. and the other what. moral and religious. what manner of man the author of the They tell us. but Nor is it too much to affirm the whole life of men. patriots. But even in the Lives. that the Parallel Lives were written. This pair. Plutarch is far more p. contemplated not this man's life or the other's. that of the two halves of Plutarch's writings. man of Greece. as well as the nearer and therefore more impressive past of Rome. each constitutes a Lives his complement of the other. of and his Morals. in like manner. and contented herself with the glories of her men of Here surely the dominant Romans could thought.INTRODUCTION know just Lives was. " of the from which he points of view. or "book. as nearly Kill . and. after passing under Roman sway. from the ancient world ideal points of view. he matched Themistocles. Plutarch. commanders. statesmen. the one setting forth to us. With Africanus the Elder. what had accomplished in the world of action. the greatest man of matched Epaminondas. who saved Rome Scipio from the Gauls. sight Greece. it had aimed at and accomplished in the world of thought" (Trench. With Camillus. 90). who saved Athens from the Persians. as the Lives do not. and orators. It was to prove that the more not vie with her. remote past of Greece could show its lawgivers.

and Otho. Eighteen of the twenty-two pairs which have come down to us. the Lycurgus and Numa. the Philopoemen and Flamininus. xiv with one exception. The oldest and. abounds in contrasts rather than resemblances. the most the Codex Sangermanensis (S g ). One of the pairs is a double where. the Aristides and Lives in our collection Cato Major. This is often fanciful and forced. Artaxerxes. We have in all. A full account of the MSS. to match the two Gracchi. fifty Lives that are one. MANUSCRIPTS. the Pericles and Fabius Maximus. Agis and Cleomenes. the Demosthenes and Cicero. although is seldom of any special it often has great literary charm.. the Lysander and Sulla. and we get traces of twelve more now lost. and historical value. ETC. TRANSLATIONS. of Plutarch must be sought in the critical editions of the Lives by Sintenis and Bekker. EDITIONS. Plutarch selects the two reforming Spartan kings. Aratus. It will be sufficient to speak here of six.INTRODUCTION as the order can be determined for the order of the is not the original one. by Plutarch. close with a formal comparison of the two careers and characters. and thirteen other pairs. Galba. is authoritative MS. . therefore. There are also four single Lives in our collection. the Pelopidas and Marcellus. the Cimon and Lucullus.

It has not been used in any special editions of Lives included in this first volume. 1672 all the (C). Three parchment MSS. of Plutarch. containing all the Morals and Lives. Agis and Cleomenes. Meyer. There are Targe deficiencies in the Lycurgus. and on the whole the most authoritative. It is only since 1870. and Crassus. : elder. GermaindesIt is a Pr^s. xv . belonging to the monastery of Seitenstetten. Leipsic. Pyrrhus-Marius. but unfortunately contains only fifteen of the Lives Antony (last part). but its readings are collected in the dissertation of W. are of supreme importance. that this MS. 1674 (D). containing and No. also of the XHIth century. : Lysander-Sulla. Lycurgus-Numa. in the French Department of the Loire. of the XVIth century all the Lives. Aratus. No. but the best extant MS. Fabius. has been known to be not only the second oldest. near Waidhofen. is the Codex Seitenstettensis (S). and Agesilaiis-Pompey. and AgesilaiisPompey. Pericles-Fabius Maximus. De codice Plutarcheo Seitenstettensi eiusqne asseclis. Nicias-Crassus. 1890. Aristides-Cato the MS. parchment MS. of the Xth century. in the Uibliotheque Nationale of Paris. Artaxerxes. Tiberius and Caius Gracchus. 1671 (A). Cimon-Lucullus. containing sixteen Lives Lycurgus-Numa.INTRODUCTION in the library of the monastery of St. The second oldest MS. Solon-Publicola. containing Lives. It is a parchment of the Xlth century.. in Lower Austria. Themistocles-Camillus. No. Nicias. of the XHIth century. and the edition of the Aristides and Cato by Hercher.

and Its readings have as partaking of the character of S. " Florentiae. Other MSS. some of them retaining their importance to the present day. none of which. Paris.was edited by Henri Etienne (Stephanus). The editio princeps of the Parallel Lives. 1676 a (F ). while C partakes of the characters both of S* and S.. of the XVth century. Another MS. which were of greater excellence than the Florentine. unknown to them. making special use of Codex Parisinus. and became in editing the textus receptus. reproduced the text of Stephanus. but have been used the texts of special Lives. No. are included in this first volume. and is often corrective of A and D. 1676 (F a ). has only more recently been recognized as the chief authority of Stephanus. of relatively inferior value.. By its pages (given on the inner . Of these three MSS. 1519. however. in aedibus Philippi Juntae. "Venetiis. 8vo. 1572. A and D seem to be more closely related to S s . 13 voll. No. not been fully published as yet. will be mentioned as they come into importance for the text of special Lives. 1517." was based on Venetian MSS. The Aldine edition of the Parallel Lives. in two volumes folio. who improved the text of his predecessors with readings of better MSS. in the same library. in aedibus Aldi et Andreae soceri. The Paris edition of 1624.INTRODUCTION and on these the texts of Sintenis and Bekker mainly rest. The first edition of the complete works of Plutarch." was based on Florentine MSS.

were followed by the great critical edition of the Parallel Lives by Sintenis (Leipsic. 5 voll. Critical and annotated editions of all the works of Plutarch by Reiske (Leipsic. does not differ very much from the first minor edition of 1852-55. 8vo). The Tauchnitz text. 6 voll. 1839-46. change in 1873-75). 5 voll. 1 12mo. which the present text. edited by Immanuel Bekker (Leipsic. but is the most generally accepted text of the Lives 2 (Sintenis ). and of the Parallel Lives by Coraes (Paris. 4 voll. Amyot conmany MSS. 8vo). but has a chapters into sections. from its great xvu . unknown to the authors of the Juntine and Aldine editions. than the major edition. 12 voll. 1830). 1809-14. the earliest French classic recognized by the French Academy. Lives convenient division of the has been adopted in In 1559 appeared the French version of the Parallel by Jacques Amyot. which still remains the standard edition (Sintenis ). and his work has an sulted independent philological value. A minor edition of this work appeared in the Bibliotheca Teubneriana (Leipsic. 8vo). and greater freedom in the admission of conjecture. 1855-57. aside literary merits. re-issued without much It shows more boldness in the correction of obvious error. 8vo). 1774-82.INTRODUCTION margin of the text of the present edition) Plutarch is cited in the Index vocum verborumque exquisitiorum in Plutarcho. Sintenis. which closes Wyttenbach's great edition of the Morals (Oxford.

Brown & Co. rather Compared with North's spirited version. was published in 1770. The best monograph on Plutarch in English is xviii . Shakespeare used this version in his Coriolanus. although " Dryden was prevailed head a company of and the version was called to the Preface and the Life of Plutarch. by his name (1683). It is probably the best extant English version of all the Lives. a translation by the master of great English prose from the earliest master of great French prose. " upon by necessities translators of the Lives. and It was the Elizabethan Antony and Cleopatra. of Boston.. by the brothers John standing and William Langhorne. that Sir Thomas North made his of the Lives (1579). rather than from the Greek. published in five volumes by Little. he furnished merely Notwith- all the failings of this motley version. in 1859. was Arthur Hugh Dryden translation. In Queen Anne's his time. and reprinted in one large octavo volume in 1876 and 1880. it is dull and pedantic. The first scholar's translation of the Lives from the original Greek into English. and was the version most current from that time down to 1850. it supplanted that of North. version earliest Plutarch. Julius Caesar.INTRODUCTION It original was from Amyot's version. Clough's revision of the so-called a work which occupied this gifted scholar and poet for some seven years. although much more accurate.

. Finally. New York. with Introduction and Notes.. mention may be made of Plutarch's Tkemistocles and Arislides. 1901. (Boston.INTRODUCTION the that of Archbishop Trench. Chicago and London. Hon. newly translated. which was published by Messrs. Little. =The Silver Age of the Greek World. the Rt. in 1873. Macmillan & Co. 1906. 339-402) abound in discriminating and suggestive appreciations. To the edition of North's translation of the Lives in " the " Tudor Translations Brown & (London. reprinted. pp. George Wyndham furnished an Introduction of superlative power and excellence. and in a second edition in 1874. Ralph Waldo Emerson had already furnished a characteristic essay on Plutarch as an Introduction to Goodwin's revision of the translation of the Morals " by several hands " Co. xix . Professor Mahaffy's chapters on Plutarch in his Greek World under Roman Sway (Macmillan & Co. 1870. Charles pp. by Bernadotte Perrin. 29 1-350 Scribner's Sons. 1889). David Nutt 1895-96). 1890.



Coraes." rj "7rr. Tr^rjcriov ^povwv avTov C (TKOTTOVVTl O ICTTOpia 7670^676?. eVel 6e TOV irepl Av/covpyov 2 ov&e aa$r)veiav" TOV vofJLoOe-rov KOI No/ta TOV (Saaikew \ojov 7reKiva etcoovTes. Sintenis" with Bekker and Sintenis have * vlois (explaining some by saying). TreTT?. ot yewypcxbiaLS.Xo? " " " Z/cvQucov Tre\ayo<. TWV ecr^aroi? yvwaiv l KWV ine^ovvT^. a/Tia? 7rapaypa(f)OV(Tiv ori "Ta 8' eTre/ceiva Olves avv&poi KOI 0r)picoSei<." ouTco? e/. ' \ <? -i w SoWte N Par! Ediiic a 709.f) Acpvo? ai&vrjs" rj '. icrTOpiq 7rpay/jidT(0v e^o^evr} xpovov Ta TWV avwrkpM /taXco? el%2/ aVety & Kal reparw^Tj KOL rpayifca TroL^ral TTia-nv OVKCT' Kal e^et fivOoypd<f>oi venovrai. eoo/cov/Jiev OVK av 0X070)? rw Tw/i TCOV Trpoaavafifjvai. rwv irapa\irepl rrjv TMV fiicdv TOV tfyiKrov el/con Xoyw KOI [Bdcn[ 7repl &ie\06vTi. "HcrTrep eV f rat? v TO. oiayevyovTa rrjv KTTOpiKOi invdavrwv rot? fiepecn. . 1 1 . al-rtas Amyot. Stephanus.iol \ri\wv fjbov <ypa(f)iji>.FIAOYTAPXOY BIOI OAPAAAHAOI 6H2EY2 I.

O Socius Senecio." so in the writing Scythian cold. 1 And as I asked myself.D. of doubt and obBut after publishing my account of scurity. Plutarch addresses him also at the the Demosthenes and the Dion. years 98 and 107 A. One of the He was four times consul between the residence at Rome." or " " frozen sea." or " blind marsh. beyond a land of poets and fabulists. I thought 1 might not unreasonably go back still farther to Romulus." or of my Parallel Lives. on to the outer with facts. thus dedicating to opening of " him these books. now that my history had brought me near his times." Lycurgus the lawgiver and Numa the king.PLUTARCH'S PARALLEL LIVES THESEUS JUST as geographers. with explanatory notes that " What lies beyond is sandy desert without water and full of wild beasts. 1 crowd edges of their maps the parts of the earth which elude their knowledge. I might well say of the earlier periods " What lies is full of marvels and : unreality. now that I have traversed those periods of time which are accessible to probable reasoning and which afford basis for a history dealing I." 3 many friends whom Plutarch made during his .

after Reiake . 435.PLUTARCH'S LIVES t (/car* AtVyuXo^) <f>e rt? co ra)Be. CVyVCO/JLOVWV Betjcr6/jL0a KOI Trpaa)? rrjv dp%aio\oyi.a<? evapjjLorreiv o/AOiOT^ra?- dveyyva) Kal CTKOTLW Qe&v yeyovevai. apfyw pev jap Bo^av ea^ov CK S* aix/jLrjTci.Lp6/j. Thebes. Coraes. 395 rlv' avrird^eis K\p6pu>i' 1 T$$t . and Cubet. with C. rt? rov TWV KO\WV Kal Trarpl 3 rr}9 aviKriTOV Kal /jLejaXoBo^ov 'Pw/jirjs.u&) Kara 3 7roAA. ra OLKela KOI ovBerepos Be Bverrv^iav irepl eyyevrj Bietyvyev. o rcrvs T&> ft)u. d\\a Kal d/jL^orepot TToXt/reu?.(T TT)V 6 Be <TVvu>Ki(7e Ta? 'AOrfvas' dpTrayrj Be ve/jiecriv 2 eKarepo) irpocrecmv. Bekker.fjL(J3(o yevo/jievot. ris Upotrov irv\&t> \vdfvruv TrpoffraTflf Qepeyyvof. 1 \eyovrai ei' TOIS fjKio-ra eavr&v rpayiris TI TWV Seven against f. TO ye Srj Kal e KOI & fjiera TOV Svvarov TO crvverov 7Tl<f)aVa-TdTCOV 6 JJLGV TO)V eKTt.ev ovv ruilv KKa@a.av ' VTTCLS' av ' II. v A. . eirj fj.evov Xoyy TO /xu^wSe? Kovcrai Kal \aftelv Icnopia^ o"fyiv. Top8e furl **/*** 2 Ibid. OTTOV av@aSws rov inOavov Trepufypovf] Kal fj TT)V 7T/909 TO et/CO? fM^lV.

making her submit to reason and take on the semblance of History. and each resorted to the rape of women. Besides. II. combined Of the sagacity. and got the reputation of descent from gods tales of antiquity. 281. were of uncertain and obscure parentage. * Iliad vii. Rome and Athens. But where she obstinately disdains to make herself credible. . of Aias Telamon and Hector. 2 will With such a warrior" dare to fight " ? (as Aeschylus says) "who " Whom shall " ? I set against him ? Who is com- petent it seemed to me that I must make the founder of lovely and famous Athens the counterpart and parallel to the father of invincible and glorious Rome. and such as receive with indulgence the me. moreover. world's two most illustrious cities. " Both were also warriors. 2-n. as surely the whole world knoweth/' l and with their strength. that many resemblances For both parallel to Romulus. It seemed to made Theseus a fit . but even in their last days both are said to have come into collision with their own fellow-citizens. and refuses to admit any element of probability.THESEUS. and Theseus made a metropolis of the other. Romulus founded the one. neither escaped domestic misfortunes and the resentful anger of kindred. May I therefore succeed in purifying Fable. then. " i. I shall pray for kindly readers.

3 Alyel Be iraiSwv Beo/Aeva* Trjv TlvOiav dve\elv i /overt. IItT^e<i)9 TraiSev/jLa TTpoaenrtov. rbv 6 pv\ov pevov xpycr/jLov. rov 'iTnroh. irepl ota ei/ ro?9 "Ep70f9 yi/ut/jLoXoyias.OL'? fjiev Qvyarepas rot? rat9 7ro\criv vioix. 'Epe^ea TW Be 2 rjOei fjia\\ov TrauScov fiiytarov "a"%vcr cv TIe\O7rovvii(Ta) fiaaiXewv. Bo^av Be fjid\Lcrra Trdvrcov &>9 ai/^yo Xo'7iO9 eV rot9 rore 2 cro^)a)TaT09 ea^ev. * dvBpl TOVTO e"pr)Kev. IBea /cat ut>a/u?. el? 76^0/16^09 e Se IlT#eu9. TroXXa? TroXA. ttpttrrot?. j. Biafce\evofj. III. rrjv Trepl TOV Hirdea B6t. eottcev.ev ovv S* KOL o I^vpiTri&r)?.av. /cal ?70-eG>9 6' TO JJLCV Trarpwov <yeVo9 e/9 TOU9 7rpa>TOV9 avioyBovas r) dvrJKei.PLUTARCH'S LIVES BOKOVVT&V Oeiav. a>9 rjv Be rrjs cro(j>ia$ e/cei roiavrrj rt9. o ov jjiev /jLeyd\r)v rrjv Tpoi&vi&v wKiae.r)Be/jua ^vvaiKi <Tvyyevecr0ai irplv ov Trdvv B& TOVTO . /cal fjLiav <ye TOVTCOV etceivrjv Xfyovai HiT0ea)^ elvai.VTOV dyvou e/jLcfraivei.

and had the highest repute as a man versed in the lore of his times and of the greatest wisdom. desiring to have children." shows what the world thought of Pittheus. on the father's side. He gave . One namely " : Payment pledged ample and rate. 7 . named Pittheus. But Aegeus thought the words of the command somewhat obscure. is said to have received from the Pythian priestess the celebrated oracle in which she bade him to have intercourse with no woman until he came to Athens. 2-in." One of these maxims is ascribed to Pittheus. especially in the sententious maxims of his " Works and Days. king of Athens. and 1 Verse 370. the grandfather of Theseus. Now Aegeus." is what Aristotle the philosopher 3 when he has Hippolytus Euripides. III. to Pelops. this to a 1 man who is dear must be certain. Now the wisdom of that day had some such form and force as that for which Hesiod was famous. in marriage to men of highest rank. " addressed as nursling of the pure and holy Pittheus. For Pelops was the strongest of the kings in Peloponnesus quite as much on account of the number of his children as the amount of his wealth. 11. The lineage of Theseus. and therefore turned 2 At any says.THESEUS. founded the little city of Troezen. if ii. 2 Fragment 556. goes back to Erechtheus and the first children of the soil on the mother's side. many daughters rulers. Hippolytus. cities as their and scattered many sons among the of these. 3 there is any aid to the truth in what seems to have been told with the least poetic exaggeration.

PLUTARCH'S LIVES BoKovaav' oOev ei? Tpoi^fy'a TrapeXO&v CLVGKOITIJV rov Oeov $u>v^v 01/70)9 VOVTO Ylirdel u TOV 7rpov%ovTa TroBa. IV. e~)(ovcrav 5 eWo? KoiXortjra a-vafierpo)^ cfiTrepik Kei/xeva. (frpdcras Be 77/305 fiovrjv e/cei aav TCL Kal Bia. '' /j. Te/covo-^5 Be 77)5 A. 701*5 /Bov\evovras avra> Kal Bia r^v djraiBiav KaraeV Se Trevr^Kovra 7rat8e5 fjcrav (ppovovvras* IlaXXa^TO? 7670^0765).eya ) \vcrrjs Trplv Brj/mov KQyvewv elcra<j)iKe(T0ai 4 a <a>f}\ov on rfj voi]Ga<$ o TlirOevs. Kol Xay3a)i/ dvBpos r)\Lfclav Bwarbs y rrjv Trerpav dvaa-TTJcrai Kal i>$>e\eLv TT/OO? ra Kara\i(f)devTa.Ke\vcrd/jL6vos. vpefyofjievov Be VTTO 8 . /ecu Kveiv avrijv inrovoricras. vlov. aTrrjet. eireicrev avrbv ?} St^TraT^cre teal AWpa ffvyyevecrdai.d\icrm \av9dvovra TlaXXavri yap eSeSoitcei. rfj crvve\6a)V Be yvovs e/ceivos on. ol rrjv /JLGV ev0vs \eyovcn Bia rwv yvwpi- ol Be varepov 'AOrjvrjcri TraiBa TOV Alyeo)<! avrov. av vlos eg avrov yevrjrat. p.Wpa<. TLirOews Ovyarpl <rvyi(f)os yeyove. fjLrjBevbs TTQ/JL- avrov e^ovra ravra evecrn 6t8oro9. @?. a7re\i7T6 KOI 7reSt\a Kpvtyas VTTO irerpav /jLyd\r)v.crea .

bade her. and suspecting that she was with child by him. account of his childlessness and they were fifty in number. as some say." l This dark saying Pittheus apparently understood. these sons of Pallas. which had a hollow in it just large enough to receive these He told the princess alone about this. and if. 676 (Kirchhoff). when Aegeus acknowledged* him as his son. and objects. he left a sword and a pair of sandals hidden under a great rock. Until thou shalt have come once more to the city of Athens. he should be able to lift up the rock and take away what had been left under it. when he came to man's estate. who were wh and despised him on plotting against him. 3-iv. because the tokens for his recognition had been placed 3 in hiding but others say that it was afterwards at Athens. When Aethra gave birth to a son. which ran as follows : "Loose not the wine-skin's jutting neck. IV. to have intercourse with his daughter Aethra. It is impossible to reproduce in English the play on the Greek words. Medea. . and then learning that it was the daughter of Pittheus with whom he had consorted. . 2 3 His brother. Euripides. 674. to send that son to him with the tokens. . He was reared .THESEUS. and persuaded him. great chief of the people. or beguiled him. and concealing his journey as much as possible from everybody for he was 2 mightily in fear of the sons of Pallas. Aegeus did so. he was at once named Theseus. in. if a son should be born to her from him. i aside to Troezen and communicated to Pittheus the words of the god. 1 Cf. in all secrecy. Then he went away.

' i * o> ' /*>e%/9* vvv "'A/1 i TraiBaycoyov " Au^vaioi jrpoTepov nuepa a i fji/jLvr)/jievoi. fjLca\ov A/ot?9 crvvdyy ev TreBiy. a>9 evioi ' . e/ceipaTo Be \f)$ ra TrpocrOev fjiovov. ovBe /cal yLtaXtcrra 8?. /cal ^iXavLwva TI^WCTI <reo>9 r BixaioTepov TlappdaLov. elicovwv TroXu rj TJ- ypafals /cal n\d<JTa<$ yvojj.X^ 669 ?7cr6U9. 10 . /cal TTUVTWV 3 Ou rot TroXX' eVl ro^a TavvacreTai v ovBe 3 eur' af ST.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TOV IlT$eet>9 eTTiaTaTTiv fyeiv " /cal ovofjia i V ? r^ovvioav. Kal dy^e/jLa^OL. t(f)e(i)v Be iro\vcrTOVov ecrcrerat epyov yap /celvoL Batpoves elcri. TOTTOV air avTov Tijv rjaeiav eTi rr}9 /cetya- vvv ovo/uid^ea-dai \eyovcnv. axTTrep "O/jirjpos e$ri /cal TOVTO r^9 Kovpa<$ TO 76^09 BL etcelvov. "E^ou9 Be OJ/T09 6Ti Tore TOU9 K iraiBwv e\6ovTas TO) /JLeraftaL- vovras et9 AeX<^)ov9 d/iet' aBai 6 6ew r^9 A"at /co//-779> ?. 2 Ol Be "A/3a^T69 e/ceipavTO irpWTOi TOV TpoTrov TOVTOV ovy VTT AodQcov BiBavOevTes. L//3ota9 Bovpi/c\VToi.evov<i. TWV Qricreiwv KOIOV evavlt 3 i /cal TL/JLWVT<. V.

and this kind of tonsure was called Theseis after him. i-v. 542. as some suppose. not under instruction from the Arabians. plain. when Ares joins men in the moil of war Upon the work For . Lyr. remembering him and honouring him with far greater justice than they honour Silanio and Parrhasius. 3 by Pittheus. Archilochus is witness to this in the fol- lowing words " Not many bows indeed : will be stretched tight. Poet. it > 9 over Euboea and are famous with the 2 O * Iliad. iv. the Athenians sacrifice a ram on the day before the festival of Theseus. and they say there is a place there which still to this day is called the Theseia from him. p. the present time. but swords warfare will do their mournful this is the wherein those men are expert Who 1 lord spear. Now the Abantes were the first to cut their hair in this manner.THESEUS. but because they were war-like men and close fighters. Theseus went to Delphi for this purpose. ii. II . as they say. Bergk. and had an overseer and To this man. nor yet in emulation of the Mysians. just as Homer said the Abantes did. nor frequent slings Be whirled. who merely painted and moulded likenesses of Theseus. V. But he sheared only the fore part of his 1 head.* t ii. even down to tutor named Connidas. Since it was still a custom at that time for youth who were coming of age to go to Delphi and sacrifice some of their hair to the god. 383. Gr. who had learned beyond all other men to force their way into close quarters with their enemies.

eVel Se fjLipdKIOV atv./3oAa o Be Trjv /JLCV irerpav Kal Tf\elv et9 'AOijvas. KaOapov ovSe aKivBvvov VTTO \y(TTCov Kal KaKovpywv e%ovo~av. K\eva-ev v^>e\elv TO. Kal (f)pdcrao-a Trepl TaXriOes. /lev epyoi? Kal TroBcov ra^ecrt Kal Ct)9 OLKV. Tr\elv o aTreyva). (Beftaiov. Trjv V7TO TOV . a>? \a(3r)V ravTifV ev rat? uaai? ovcrav VI. Tov fjiev ovv a\\ov %povov e/cpv7TTv AWpa a\r]6ivi]V TOV e ^0709 T^aea)? jeveatv rjv lT(O<f ldoes O>? K HocreiSwva yap Tpoifyjvioi /col $eo9 ouro9 e&Tiv avTols TTO\LOVy KOI KapTTWv aTrdp^ovTai Kal Tpiaivav 2 CTTLcnj/jLov e%ovcri TOV vofAio-fiaTos. ^a\7rov yap TTopevecrOai Trjv et9 AiOrjvas 686v. TTJ V7 7T/J09 ov&ev Be (frvcrei v.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 4 O7T&>9 ovv /JUT) irape%oiev UK TWV Tpt%a)v avriTOVTO c MafceSova evvoij- d/j. dfjia Trf TOV a(i)fjLaTOS p^^y Si(f)aivev d\Krjv Kal <f>povrjfj. 'O yap &r) ^povos eKelvos tfveyKev dv6 pa)7rov<. OVTQ)<$ avTov 17 AWpa 777909 TTJV 3 Trpoaajayovcra.V vfBpei re aTro\avovTa<$ r^9 Bvvdfjuews W/JLOTIJTI Kal Kal TW KpaTelv re Kal (Bid^eaOat.e\6t Kal ^AXe^avBpov TOV ra yeveia rwv (TavTa fyacn Trpocrrd^at. varis do-<$a\ia<$ Kal Seo/jLevwv TOV re Kal Tr)9 /A7/T/9O9. rot? crTparrjyoLs ^vpelv Ma/ceSoz/coi'. e&v Kal pa&icos dvecoae. aX.a yuera vov Kal orvvecreci)<. Kal 12 . irarpwa cruyu.

Nay rather. and bade his father's tokens and go by sea to him take patron god of their city away Athens. But when. T. 4 Therefore. and he is the oured by to him they offer first fruits . but he refused to make his journey by sea. in work ol hand and speed of foot and vigour of body. Theseus displayed. and they have his trident as an emblem on their coinage. in sacrifice. VI. they exulted in monstrous insolence. along with his vigour of body. since these afforded the readiest hold in battle. then Aethra brought him to the rock. And Alexander of Macedon doubtless understood this when. easily raised Theseus put his shoulder to the rock and it up. Aethra a kept his true birth concealed from Theseus. 4-vi. they cut it off. and reaped from their strength a harvest of cruelty and bitterness. since no part of it was clear nor yet without peril from robbers and miscreants. told him the truth about his birth. and he was report was spread abroad by Pittheus that begotten by Poseidon. v. then. although safety lay in that course. Athens by land. For verily that age produced men who. in his young manhood. were extraordinary and indefatigable. but they applied their powers to nothing that was fitting or useful. he ordered his generals the beards of their Macedonians shaved. in order that they might not give their enemies a hold by their hair. For Poseidon is highly honthe people of Troezen. B I 3 .THESEUS. and a firm spirit united with intelligence and sagacity. and his grandfather and his mother begged him to For it was difficult to make the journey to take it. as they to have say. And as VOL. prowess also. mastering and forcing and destroying for everything that came in their path. During the rest of the time.

e%eiv 'Hpa/fX?}? TOU? yttei' e^KO7rre /cal avypei $ia<pOeipeiv TO TrapcnrlTrTov. crvvr-jv KOI ol Se \av6dvovres /cal r e/ceivov Trapiovros e Kal dve&vovTO TOi/re?.. teal eiirev a>9 xaOevSeiv avTov ewr) TO M. Kal TrpoOvjMOTaTOs exeivov olo9 TWV Si'rjjovjjLevcDV 6*17. Kal ecopa/fOTcov e .r)v9r)(rav at KaKiai Kal dveppdyrjcrav.. /cal Traprj/jieXovvTO TaTreiva Trpdr- eVel 3e Hpafc\f)s Kreivas "Iffrirov et9 e^p^aaro crvfjLtpopa. TOV (iD^cre/z fJiiv. KO^i^aQcii co9 Tfd\ai Sia OaXdrTrjs. rore ra /j.r)yOV/UVOS TIlT06V$ 07TOiO9 Trepl Kal oTTOLa Bpa)?] TOV? ei>ov<. AvBiav aTrrjpe Kal crvyyov eSouXeue Trap' 'Oyu^aX?. co? aroXyu/a TOV dSiKeiv Kal <o/3<w TOV a&itcelaOai Toi>9 7roXXou9 eTraivovvTas. ovftevos Kel ^povov <f)6vou ravTijv 6 v ovv oXe/)i09 n Tropea Kal /SaBi^ovariv K TIeXoTrovvtfcrov' rwv CKaCTTOV irj J.i\Tid$ov Tpoiraiov OVTMS eKeivw llpa/c\eov<i 0av^d^ovTi TTJV dpeT^v.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ai'Sco 8e Kal TO LCTOV Kal rb $>i\dv9p<i)7rov. \e\i-j9 or u><$ a/c/joarr/9 TOV \6yov el%e. SIK^V TOV eVf^et? avTw.ev AvS&v Trpdy/jiaTa 7ro\\r)v ea^ev elpijvrjv Kal aoeiav ev &e rot? Trepl rrjv 'EXXa^a TOTTOIS aWi<$ et. eoiKe. ovfiev olo/Aevovs Trpocr5 r)KLV 7T\eov rovrajv rot? &vvaiJievoi<$. yLtaXicrra Be T OVK TOV Kal TrpaTTovTi Kal \eyovTi 8e TravTaTracriv ijv Tore oirep vaTepov %p6i>oi$ 7roXXot9 eTraOe.

1 In like manner Theseus admired the valour of Heracles. there being none to rebuke and none to restrain them. what sort of a monster he was. they thought that most men praised these qualities for lack of courage to do wrong and for fear of being wronged. but in the regions of Hellas the old villainies burst forth and broke out anew. 3. and were overlooked in their abjectness. And it is altogether plain that he then experienced what Themistocles many generations afterwards experienced. crouching down and shrinking back. 4-7 reverence and righteousness. iii. and made the greatest account of that hero. And when Heracles met with calamity and. and above all to those who had seen him and been present at some deed or speech of his. by describing each of the miscreants at length. after the slaying of Iphitus. justice and humanity. but some escaped his notice as he passed by. as it would seem. vi. and Pittheus. until by night his dreams were of the hero's 1 Cf. But he. tried to persuade Theseus to make his journey by sea. The journey was therefore a perilous one for travellers by land from Peloponnesus to Athens. 15 . Themistocles . Some of these creatures Heracles cut off and destroyed as he went about. and was a most eager listener to those who told what manner of man he was. when he said that he could not sleep for the trophy of Miltiades.THESEUS. and considered them no concern of men who were strong enough to get the upper hand. then Lydia indeed obtained great peace and security. had long since been secretly fired by the glorious valour of Heracles. removed into Lydia and for a long time did slave's service there in the house of Omphale. and what deeds he wrought upon strangers.

Be TOIOVTW djjivvov- TOLOVTOIS \oyi<jfJLol<$ e^ajpfjirjcrev. exeuvtp wcnrep 6 'Hpa/tXT.PLUTARCH'S LIVES oveipos rjaav at Trpd^eis. rou? vTrdp^ovra^ fiias /Jiev VIII. 'El/ 8' 'Ic7^/X0) ^IVIV TOV 7riTVO/cdjJ. KOI /ie#' et. TU> Be OVTI '^apa/crrjpa ical TT}? evyeveias. TOV ftev \6yo) eir KaraL(7^vvu)V Bia dakdrrr]^ irpocr^epwv yvwpliXa Kal %L(J)OS dvai/jLa/CTOV. Kal Trpwrov 07r\(p ev TTJ 'EjriBavpia Tlepi- %pa)fjLevov Kopvvrj Kal Bid TOVTO KopvvrjTrjv eTTiKaXov/jbevov.fjyev rj avTov 6 77X09 teal dvr)pe8i%6 ravra rrpdr- TIV BiaVOOVfJLeVOV. Xeoz/ro?. OVK epyois ayaOol? /cal 7rpde<ri Trarepa ofjLei'Os.Wpa /j. dirro/iievov avrov Kal KW\vovTa irpodyeiv avfji^a\a)v aTreKTetvev rjcrQels Be rf) Kopvvrj \a{3a)v OTT\OV eTronjo'aTO Kal BtereXei ^pco/zez/o?. &)? dBLfdj(Ta>v ovBeva. ovros Be Kopvvrjv eireBeiKvvev rjTrr) /jLewrjv fj. avTov Be diJTTrjTOV ovaav.ev VTT' avrov.ev yap J Qvydrrjp.i<.y TOU? Travra^ov Trovrjpovs real dciKarrav.evov [J.7TTr]V 0> T pOT. avrov Be TOL/? a0\ov*s djroBiBpda-Keiv. 'EiTvyxavov Be KOI yevov? Koivwvovvres 4 eg dve-fyi&v 6We?. VII.ev ovv rj\iKov TO /uieyedo? QrjpLov Kpai^aeiev.? TW Bepfjiart TOV 7riBeij. A. rjv (f)opoi>jj. beivov ovv eTroiGLTO KCU OVK dvetcrov eicevov /JLCV KaOaipeLV yrjv B6j. KOL TIirQevs dSe\<j)ol 76701^6x6? e' ' real IleXoTro?. (ft . A\Kfi^vr) Be AvcnSiKijs.

In such a spirit and with such thoughts he set out. determined to do no man any wrong. he grappled with him and slew him. as Alcmene was of Lysidice. and by day his ardour led him along and spurred him on in his purpose to achieve the like. in his own hands it was On the Isthmus. laid hold of him and tried to stop his progress. he thought a dreadful and unendurable thing that his famous cousin should go out against the wicked everywhere and purge land and sea of them. too. but to punish those who offered him violence. being sons of cousins-german. and so Theseus carried the club to show that although it had Periphetes. VII. Accordingly. and bringing to his real father as proofs of his birth only sandals and a sword unit stained with blood. who used been vanquished by him. he slew Sinis the Pine-bender 1 Cf. That hero wore the skin to prove how great a wild beast he had mastered. in Epidauria. 1 disgracing his reputed father by journeying like a fugitive over the sea. and Lysidice and Pittheus were brother and sister. 2 achievements. For Aethra was daughter of Pittheus. just as Heracles did with the lion's skin. 17 . 1. And being pleased with the club. 7-vm. they were kinsmen. And so in the first place. chapter vi. he took it and made it his weapon and continued to use it. And besides. while he himself ran away from the struggles which lay in his path. invincible. instead of at once offering noble deeds and achievements as the manifest mark of his noble birth. children of Hippodameia and Pelops. vi. VIII. when a club as his weapon and on this account was called Club-bearer.THESEUS.

'H ^e K. avdy/cijv rroveiv. ovo^d vov TIepiyovvr).to^et 8^ 'Qpvvrq) r^9 et9 Ka/otai^ art outlay fjLerea"^ev o6ei> #ai 'Iw^tcrt Trdrpiov Karecrrr) ^re 'Ift)^tSai9 aicavOav do~(f>apdyov fjirjTe ffroifB^v tcaieLv.ei/ Bo/coir) rrdvra :at 7T/3O9 aytta TWV dv0pcf)7rcov rot9 d/JLVvofJievov olo/jievos Belv /cal rov dyaOov aOai. ravrrjv rov Traryoo? dvyprjr. V ^c"^ rrpoa-- ov <f)av\ov r)v OijpLov. emSei^as Be rrjv dperr^v oil KOI re^vr)? rrepiea-n /cal fie\er-r)<. 0-1)9.evov Be 0)9 i. A?.ev ^rjcrel (rvyyevo- TW JZvpvrov rov Ot%aXtect)9 varepov a-wat/cyae. ravrrjv 6Bov rrdpepyov. drrdcrrjs. av GUHTWCTIV avrrjv KCU ijv T r \vjmave2cr0ai 3 dvaKa\ovfj. rovra> ieeipev avros.po/jL/^va)via . aXXa KOL IX.PLUTARCH'S LIVES vypei. VTTO//.<reu?* 17 (fivyovcrav etyrei irepuwv o 5' TOTTOV rr\ela"Triv real dcr^xipayov. dfcd irdvv KOL TraiSi/cco? coaTrep alcrOavofjLevwv oprccov. aXXa fjid^ifjuov /cal &>9 %a\7rbv yw-^ /cpar^dr/vaL. ouS' elOi&fJievos. rjv Be TO) ^IVI^L Ka\\L(rrrj real fjieyicm] Ovydrrjp. ov \6TrjKox. " etc Be AleXai/tTTTTOL' roO 77cre&)9 yevo^evo^ fjizvr) MeXdviTTTTov ere/ce. rcov Be Oriplwv rrpoem^eiBiaicivo'v- povvra 18 Tot9 yevvaiOL? fid^eaOai /cal . rov /cal ^crew? KOL TTicrrtv /cal Si- eViyLteX^crerai /caXco? aur^? ovbev 7rp07J\0' TW p.

and he did this without practice or even acquaintance with the monster's device. but fierce and hard to master. From Melanippus the son of Theseus.THESEUS. i manner in which many men had been destroyed by himself. that he might not be thought to perform all his exploits under compulsion. 19 . loxus was born. flight named Perigune. and Theseus went But she had gone off into a place which abounded greatly in shrubs and rushes and wild asparagus. IX. he should seek occasion to risk his life in battle with the nobler beasts. and with exceeding innocence and childish simplicity was supplicating these plants. Now Sinis had a very beautiful and stately daughter. in the very vin. as if they understood her. Now the Crommyonian sow. bore him Melanippus. who took part with Ornytus in leading a whence it is ancestral usage with colony into Caria the loxids. This daughter took to when her father was killed. However. son of Eurytus the Oechalian. however. was no insignificant creature. Theseus called upon her and gave her a pledge that he would treat her honourably and do her no wrong. she would never trample about in search of her. she came forth. 2-ix. and after consorting with Theseus. but showing that valour is superior to all device and practice. not to burn either the asparagus-thorn or the rush. them down nor burn them. but to revere and honour them. and afterwards lived with Dei'oneus. This sow he went out of his way to encounter and slay. men and women. arid vowing that if they would hide and save her. some say . which they called Phaea. to whom Theseus gave her. and at the same time because he thought that while the brave man ought to attack villainous men only in self defence. When.

GiTd XaKTi^OVTd KOI 2 OoVVTCL VLTTTOVTa^ 6t? TTjV 6d\CLTT(lV. 5 Ku^/oea Tf/xa? Oeaiv e%eiv 'A^^i/7/crt TOV *2. ra \afJLftdvovTas Kal Si<aalv ov ore TO aXX' vcnepov TauTa 20 fJilv ap^ovTa. ovTe vftpicTTtiv ovT6 \ycTT7jv yeyovevai ayadwv teal KlaKov Te yap EK\^vo>v Se Kal SiKaiwv olfteiov dv&piov /cal cf)i\ov. avTo6t KaToiKOvcrav ev Kpo/jL/uivcovi. avyypa<peis.r)O"revQi>Ta TOVS Trapiovras. a yap60v Kal TU> fj.a\afjLiviov ) TYJV Se Hrj\ecos 3 Trjv UTT' ovbevos dyvoelcrOai. e yeyovoTcov dpicrTOV<? etV T?}? ^Keipwvo^ Kal Xapta'/co? OVKOVV Kal Ti/jucoTaTa eirai TCO <yevov$ K. AlaKov Se irevIl^Xect)? 8e /cat TeXayLtwz^o? iraTTTrov.. ^tceipwva Se s Kara irpb r^? rcov TreTpwv. r oai<i>TaTov vo/ni^ecrdat.ovvT6<?. o fiber e Trj (f]jj.PLUTARCH'S LIVES veveiv. . ya/jL^pbv. re \aj3elv M. Ku^yoea)? /aev yevecrBai. &)? S' evioi Xeyovcriv vjBpei Kal rpv(pfj TrpoTeivovrcL TO) TroSe rot? KOI K\6VOVTa VlTTTeiV. GVLOI Be cfracn rrjv <&aidv yevecrdai yvvalffa cfroviKrjv /ecu aKoKaaiov. &>? fjikv Meyapi/efjs avel\e o TroXy? Xoyo? \. Kal ovv e%ei Toiavras Kepwva iroKTevai. KaTa ZifjLcavLSrjv. Kal TeXa/i.r) TroXXw xpbvw.wi'o? dpe^iceipwva TOIVVV Oepov.OIVWVICLV aXXa Qcrea 6t? 'A^T^Va?.e<yapecov e\6elv. avv >e eirovofjia- Sia TO $o? teal TOP Biov eLia VTTO X.

who were the sons of Ende'is. and was afterwards slain by Theseus. i-x. but afterwards. who dwelt in Crommyon. X. then. then.THESEUS. is regarded as the most righteous of Hellenes. are the contradictions in which these matters are involved. and. Megarian writers. "waging war with antiquity. when pledges. 21 . Sciron was a son-in-law of Cychreus. cliffs. that he captured Eleusis from the Megarians. Theseus first journeyed to Athens. and then. taking issue with current report. while they were washing them. a woman of murderous and unbridled spirit. but a chastiser of robbers. having circumvented Diocles its ruler. and the virtues of Peleus and Telamon are known to all men. He also slew Sciron on the borders of Megara. daughter of Sciron and Chariclo. then. and slew Sciron. as Simonides 1 expresses it. Well. they say. For Aeacus. and grandfather of Peleus and Telamon. It is not likely. and a kinsman and friend of good and just men. Sciron robbed the passers by. 3 that Phaea was a female robber. he would insolently and tion wantonly thrust out his feet to strangers and bid them wash them." say that Sciron was neither a violent man nor a robber. was called Sow because of her life and manners. however. receiving and giving the greatest and most It was not. they say. kick them off into the sea. and Cychreus the Salaminian has divine honours at Athens. according to the prevalent tradibut as some say. they say. Such. 1 Fragment 193 (Bergk). by hurling him down the . ix. that the best of valuable men made family alliances with the basest. father-in-law of Aeacus.

PLUTARCH'S LIVES XI. 'Ez> 8& 'EXevcrm K. after Pausanias.ei. TO. 'I i. rot? vevofucrfievois dyvicravTes /cal 6v<javT<s eicrTia&av OIKOL. ev Be rot? T/)07Tot9 rr}9 GCLVTWV d$(.epeiov KCLKOV ovoi \6>yova'i' Traiwv yap. KCU TOV Tepfjiepov crvpprf^as rrjv /ce<j)a\r)V a dfi ov $r) real TO Tep/J. a 22 . Aafida'Tijv ev 'Rpiveu) K\.p/cvova TOV e% 'ApKaTaTcakaicras dvelXe* KOI piKpov Trpol TOP TIpofcpovcrTrjv. eftid^ovTO TOU? TTe%ri\6ev y ot9 ^ev irpvrjpov? aX. SLKCUO. TOV avTW Kol XII. Be 649 T1]V TTO\LV Vp6 TOL T6 KOLVCL rapa^/}9 yLtecrra KOI Bi^o^pocrv^^.VKVOV 2 KTeivev.iVT-r)po~iv cocnrep dvay/cdcras avTov diricrovv T0i9 TOU9 gevovs e/cet^o?. 6 a>9 eoi/ce.Xou9. 5 : "Ep/j. VTT e/ceivov KaTaftia'^ofjievovs. 38. KOI jap efcelvos 0*9 \vero T^ooTTot? d/jLvvofjievos rou? povvras.Te\6(i)V 1 'Eptvea with Coraes. KOI K / ( fjLGi\i%ia KaOapdrjvaL. /cal TCL Trepl 2 TOV Alyea /cal TOV ol/cov IBua voaovvTa. /jbijBei'os rrpo- Tepov ov avTw (f)i\avupu)7rov KCLU 'HyLtepa [lev < vvv Ei/caTOfjij3aia)i'a ovv oyBoy \eyeTaL Kpoviov Ka\ovcri.Kia<. Wvcre TOV ^ov&ipiv KOL rbv 'Avratov KOI TOV I&. eirparre yLte^o? Se ravra TOV 'Hpa/cXea. KaT6\6elv. avSpe? CK TOV $>vTa\io'wv ^a-rcdcravTO Trpwroi. M^Se^a KO. correction by Palmorius of the MSS. IIpoi'o^Tt & J7$croz>. rfj \vev.

2 XI. at Eriiieiis. wrestled Antaeus to death. For that hero punished those who offered him violence in the manner in which they had plotted to serve him. indeed. slew Cycnus in single combat. and therefore sacrificed Busiris. who greeted him first. made proand feasted him at their house. And when he entered the city.THESEUS. as they say. and killed Termerus by dashing in his skull. and the private affairs of Aegeus and his household in a distressing condition. For Medea. he found public affairs full of confusion and dissension. that he is said to have arrived at Athens. and when he asked to be purified from bloodshed. i-xii. he killed Damastes. strangers. by compelling him to make his own body fit his bed. on the eighth day of the month Cronius. XII. It is from him. came cleansed him with the customary rites. then. and suffered justice after the manner of farther. journey. for Termerus. their own injustice. now called Hecatombaeon. It was. surnamed Procrustes. he was met by men of the race of the Phytalidae. As he went forward on his journey and to the river Cephisus. who were visited with the same violence from him which they were visiting upon others. xi. . as it would seem. he out-wrestled Cercyon the Arcadian and killed him and going on a little . Thus Theseus also went on his way chastising the wicked. that the name "Termerian mischief" comes. This was the first kindness which he met with on his pitiatory sacrifices. moreover. as he had been wont to do with those of And he did this in imitation of Heracles. In Kleusis. used to kill those who encountered him by dashing his head against theirs.

/md^aipai'. rrjv IJLCV KV\IKCL rov ^ap/JiciKOV Kare/3a\e. eSei/cvvev etceiva). (frap^d/coi? V7rocr%o/jivr) drraXXd^eiv A.ev T\VTrjcravTOS' eVel Be r'i rj(revs aTreBei^drj Bid- (frepovTes el /5acrtXeuet /mev Alyevs TlavBuovi /cal ' .r)Bev 2 c!)v /cal /ca . exeivy Be cnracrdfj. Ol Be Tla\\avTiBai rrpoTepov p. rjBecos Bid TTJV dvBpayaOlav.a%e avrov. TOV Be vlov dvaKpivas rjcrTrd^ero. teal fjievovs crvvayayoov TOU? TroXtra? eyvwpi^ev. TOV Trpoai(j9o^Levr) dreicvias Be Aiyecos dyvoovvTos.9 e/c }Lopiv6ov (pvyovcra. Xeyerai Be KV\LKOS Trea-ova-rjs eK^udrjvai TO (^dp/na/cov OTTOV vvv ev AeX^mft) TO Trepitypafcrov ecrriv. real TOV 'Ep/Aijv TOV TT/JO? eu> TOV tepov Ka\ovc7iv eV At' r/e&)9 rrvXais.. o>? ra^v Be Kara- o Alyevs. Be Trepl TOV T^creo)? avrr]. fiaaiXeiKrei o 'Eipe%deiBai$ 7](revs TrdXiV 6^77X1/9 fj.lyea. &>9 %i'ov e&Tiwvra ovv 6 0770-61)9 eVi (frap/jidKois dve\elv. oan? Trporepos.evos 3 rrjv Tavry /jLa0a>v TefJbvwv. \0a)i> TO cipiarov ei'r. XIII. OVK e&o/cijj. ei>rav6a yap 6 Al<yei>$ wicei. 6Wo9 Se irpeo-fivrepov /cal eTreicrev CLVTOV (poftovjuevov Trdvra Bta rrjv GTCLGIV. cvvrjv avra).PLUTARCH'S LIVES yap T7.

as if minded to carve with this. but wishing to give his father a clue to the discovery. who received him gladly because of his manly valour. he drew his sword.THESEUS. and brought it to the notice of his father. when the meats were served. And it is said that as the cup fell. exasperated that Aegeus should be king although he was only an adopted son of Pandion and in no way related to the family of Erechtheus. and promised by her sorceries to relieve Aegeus of his childlessness. the poison was spilled where now is the enclosure in the Delphinium. thought best not to tell in advance who he was. she persuaded him to entertain Theseus as a stranger guest. they went to war. accordingly. XIII. and again that Theseus should be prospective king although he was an immigrant and a stranger. 1 for that is where the house of Aegeus stood. Now the sons of Pallas had before this themselves hoped to gain possession of the kingdom when Aegeus died childless. on coming to the banquet. Aegeus speedily perceived it. and was well on in years and afraid of everything because of the faction in the city. 2 from Corinth. and since Aegeus was ignorant of him. and the Hermes to the east of the sanctuary is called the Hermes at Aegeus's gate. and take him off by poison. 2-xin. 25 . and formally recognized him before an assembly of the citizens. and after questioning his son. who had fled thither xir. But when Theseus was declared successor to the throne. dashed down the proffered cup of poison. embraced him. advance. Theseus. She learned about Theseus in was living with him. And dividing 1 The site of this conjectured to have sanctuary of the Delphinian Apollo is been somewhere to the east of the Olympieum.

a\i\ffiov. OVK o\iya Trpdyjuiara rot? olfcov&i Trape^ovra' KOLI %eipa)crd/jLevo<. a/jia Be /ecu Bijfjiaywywv. rov ITaXXa^TO? <f>ao~l TTvdo/jievoi. elra TU> T<p &e~\. 'O Be 7.a) ol TYJV CTVVIQVT&. o>9 rjv 7Tidr)cr6^i>oL roi? vTcevavTiois. ovo/jua Aeco?.oi eOvov yap 'E/caX^cria E/cd\. iravra^ BietpOetpev. XIV. kit. e'Xacra?. Be avrwv. SiecrTrdprjcrav. fjirjBe KfjpvTreo'dai Trap' avrois " 'A/couere Xew'" /jucrovo'i yap TovvofJia Bia rrjv TrpoBocriav TOV dvBpos. Bia TOV dffTeo<. 77 Be TO Trepl avTr)V /jLV0o\6yr}/j.crea KCLI the correction of Coraes : 'TLK.a TOV l KOI T?}? VTToBoXrjS r eOLKe /jLTJ 7Ta<J77? X^^eta?. Qrjael ra [SefiovXeviJieva rot? Be ^ai(pi>rj<. etc TOVTOV rov- rut T[a\\rjvea)v yur) B^a) TT/JO? TOV 'AyvovaLcov CTriyajAiav TTi')(wpiov eu'ai. Brj/j. ol Be eavrovs evijBpevov. aitrjp 'Ayvovaios. real KaKeivr)V veov ovTa /co/buBy iroKOpi^o^voi Bia TO TOV @7.. TW 3 Tla\\avriBai<. e%r)\6ev eVt TOV Ma/?aOaiviov Tavpov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES eafrou? o e%ct)povv 7rl fiev 6 TO a<rrv jAGTa YapyrjTTol 1 Kpv^ravre^ TOV Trarpos.cr6u? 7^6/3709 elvai /3ov\6/jLevo<?. 26 . ol Be /JLGTO.<j)ii>i(t) /caTeOvcrev. 6 eTTiTrea-cov rot? eveBpevovcrt.

Theseus.THESEUS. For the people of the townships round about used to assemble and sacrifice the Hecalesia to Zeus Hecalus. one of these marched openly against the city from Sphettus with their the other hid themselves at Ganjettus father and o . XIV. he made Tetrapolis. 2-xiv. a display of driving it alive through the city. a district and called comprising An early name for of Attica Marathon and three other adjacent townships. in spite of the fact that he was quite a say. But there was a herald with them. caressed 1 him as elderly people do. desiring to be at work. and at the same time courting the favour of the people. lay in ambush there. 27 . lying in ambush. intending to attack their enemies from two sides. treachery of the man Leos. xin. ' youth. Thereupon the This is the reason. by name Leos. But Theseus. why the township of Pallene has no intermarriage with the township of Agnus. Now the story of Hecale and her receiving and entertaining Theseus on this expedition seems not to be devoid of all truth. they party with Pallas dispersed. and then sacrificed it to the Delphiiiian Apollo. a man of Agnus. which was doing no small mischief to the inhabitants of the 1 After he had mastered it. This man reported to Theseus the designs of the PallanTheseus then fell suddenly upon the party tidae. calling her by the diminutive name of because she too. and they paid honours to Hecale. when entertaining Hecaline. 2 themselves into two bands. and why it will not even allow heralds to make their customary " Akouete leoi (Hear. went out against the Marathonian bull. and slew them all. ye proclamation there of For hate the word on account of the they people /).

<rw? TrapayevoiTO. elBos Kairo^ayXiov yeyovevai.6viov (dc^opia TG jap /cal I>O<TO? eveo~Kritye iroXXrj teal dveBvcrav ol iroTa^oi). o^oXoyovcrLV ol TrXelarot TO>V crwyypa2 TratSa? et? KprJTrjv tcofju^ofjievovs o cpewv TOV? fjuvdos dTrofyaivei. TOV Be Mii>(t)Tavpov. eTroitjaavTO GwQr]Kas OXTTC evvea CTWV Sacr/ibv rjWeovs eTrra /cal TrapOevov? TOcravTas.r) e/cel KaTa0vijcrKeiv. >. TOV M. drceOave irplv e/ceivov 7raveeiv. KCU Tavpou fj.v0a) SicKpOeipeiv. 6vo~eiv. . ori /mev ovv 'ATTiKrjv airoOavelv 7roXX.TJvi[jia eTTL Tre/jLTreiv Si KCLKWV eo~eo~6ai Tcav\av. fcal %oi)pav /cal TOV Oeov vr/oocTTa^ai/TO? iKaaa^evoi^ TOV Bia\\ayelcrt \w<^t]aeiv TO fj.a tccuca icdi o Mtz/aj? TOU? e(j)0Lpe Trjv dvOpcoTrov*.LVO)jjiev TpayircwraTOS Tavpov ev TO) Aa/3vpi. TO) CTTcl B eV^CLTO Be /JLV avTOV Au. rj Tr\avwyae^ou? auTOL/? KOI Tv%elv e^oBov fj.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 TOIOVTOI? vrrep el VTTOKOpHT/jLols. rpirov 'OXt7&) ol TOV re Se vcrrepov fj/cov etc KpiJTrj? TO SCKT/JLOV ^repl rrjv dTrd^ovres. &>? XV.creco? /ceevcravros. /9aStbi/TO? eVl TTJV /jLa^rjv. e<re ra? TOV icrroprj/cev.e/jLL^0ai real ftpoTov Bnr\fj (f)vcrei. Ser)0evT<. TO Sai/j.

perished there and that the Minotaur. for barrenness and pestilence smote it sorely. shape. Not long afterwards there came from Crete for the third time the collectors of the tribute." and that " Two different natures. . 706." 2 Cf. Frag. on being brought to Crete. 2 Nauck. or else wandered about at their own will and. were destroyed by the Minotaur in the Labyrinth. that she would sacrifice to Zeus if he came back safe. and its rivers dried up also that when their god assured them in his commands that if they appeased Minos and became reconciled to him. she obtained the above mentioned honours as a return for her hospitality at the command of Theseus. Now as to this tribute. And since she vowed. Grate. the wrath of Heaven would abate and there would be an end of their miseries. 3-xv. 29 . p.THESEUS. they sent heralds and made their supplication and entered into an agreement to send him every nine years a And tribute of seven youths and as many maidens. Plato. as Euripides says. as Philochorus has written. p. Trag. 1 but Heaven also laid it waste. Laics. most writers agree that because Androgeos was thought to have been treacherously killed within the confines of Attica. being unable to find an exit. was "A mingled form and hybrid birth of monstrous . . the most dramatic version of the story declares that these young men and women. 680. 2 him affectionately by such diminutive names. 2 1 man and bull. but died before his return. not only did Minos harass the inhabitants of that country greatly in war. when the hero was going to his battle with the bull. XV. were joined in him. xiv.

? ^e 7ro\ireia S^Xo? auro? ov eV vofji eanv avaipelcrOai TOU? ev rf) TOU Mt^w.PLUTARCH'S LIVES XVI. avrw 'KOrjvaltoV 2 (f)epo/Jievos> /cal ^aXeTrco? Aral irpocr- BoTTtata)i^ 'AptcrroreXr. rot? 5e avafjii. etceWev Be Kal K\.ev r\v o rj ovBev e^a)V KCLKQV aXX' TO o /-tr) Biatpvyeiv TOU9 ^uXaTTOyU-eVou?.. <J>Xo^o/509 Be fyrja-w ov ravra aXXa \eyeiv OTI <j)povpa p. Kafcel av6i<s TTpwrov et? fjilv 6i? Tr)V KCLToiKeiv 7Tpl ^Tokiav BiaTrepacrai 'IdTTvyiav. aXXa Kprjrrj fcaray^pda/ceiv Kal TTOTG TratSa? L7ro et? AeX^ou? aTrocrTeXXe^^. a\\a KCU rot? rnaia\ T Trap ovo^ia V7repr)<f)dvci}<. Kal yap 6 ael S^ereXet Ara/cw? CLKOVWV Kal \oiBopoveV rot? 'ArTt/cot9 6earpoi<i t Kal ovre . . 'AvSpoyea) rot? viK&aiv eBtSov 1 dywva re&)? e MiVto? eV ^vp.rjdfjvai paKt]V KOfjuaO rival BoTT^atou?' Bio ra? Kopa<$ TWV ^omaicov Ovaiav Tiva reXoucra? eiraBeiv ""loijAev et? 3 TroXet /fat /nova'av aTre^OcivecrOat.a(3vpivd w (f)v\aTTOjjLevov$' evLKd Be TOU? TTyOOTeyoou? ciywvas Kal r^/zepo? rare KOI Svvd/Jbevos laupo?. e/cyovovs etceivwv crvv- avroOi.'X@VTa<.viKov eirotei real TOU? vraiSa? eV TW aO\a A. . avrjp OVK TO^ rpoTTov.

and was his general. and from there journeyed again into Thrace and were called Bottiaeans and that this was the reason why the maidens of Bottiaea. who was not reasonable and gentle in his disposition. Taurus by name. 74. frag. in fulfilment of an ancient vow. they first crossed over into Italy and dwelt in that country round about lapygia. : "To Athens let us go And verily it seems to be a grievous thing for a man to be at enmity with a city which has a ' ! language and a literature. xvi. and went forth with them and that when they were unable to support themselves there. but treated the Athenian youth with arrogance and cruelty. and as prizes for the victors. and that some descendants of those Athenians were among the victims. 320 Catalogues (Loeb edition). . in performing a certain sacrifice. with no other inconvenience than that its prisoners could not escape and that Minos instituted funeral games in honour of Androgeos. in his "Constitution of Bottiaea. 3' . says that the Cretans do not admit this. sent an offering of their first-born to Delphi. who were in the meantime imprisoned in the Labyrinth and that the victor in the first games was the man who had the greatest power at that time under Minos. Hesiod. For Minos was always abused and reviled in the Attic theatres." l clearly does not think that these youths were put to death by Minos. . And he says that the Cretans once. however. Philochorus. but declare that the Labyrinth was a dungeon. . but that they spent the rest of their lives as slaves in Crete. Plato. Minos. sing as an accompaniment . and it did not avail him either that Hesiod 2 called him " most 1 2 Not extant. D .THESEUS. 1-3 XVI. p. gave these Athenian youth. And Aristotle himself also.

Bi/caa'rrjv Be TOV elvai KOL (f)v\aKa TWV wpia-fjLevwv XVII.ev vavv topta p.evov 8' A6rivaiov$ Trape^eiv. bapia\X' e CTT?)I> Ato?" Trpoaayopevcras. tcai " KaiToi tyacrl TOV /JLCV Mt^w 'PaSaVTT j3aai\ea e/ceivov vojAoOerrjv. o$vpo/j. eVet Seojicvos /cal KaOi/ceTevcov d irepiopa 7T6LCTTOV f aurou? KOI 3 EXXa^i. e/ji/3di>Ta<? Be 7r\eiv crvv TOV9 qWeovs ^Bev oifKov dptfiov e7ri<f)epo- . 'E?ret S* ovv /caOr/rcev 6 %p6vos TOV TpLTOV Sacr/aou. avOis ave(f)vovTo TW Alyel Sia/3o\al 7T/?09 TOU? TroXtra?. Oav/jLacTTOV e(f)dvrj real TO B^/JLOTIKOV rjyd 6 &e At7ev?.o9 Se avTov /cal J (prjaiv ov TOU? Xa^ot'Ta9 Be TOV rycrea Mivw TOV Trapayivofjievov 6K\eyeo~0at irdvTcov eXecrOai TrpwTOV eVt rot9 opicrOelo-LV' etz^at T^V /J.PLUTARCH'S LIVES r avTOV wvriae "/SaffiXevTarov" ovre 'O/jLrjpo<.evov<. real irape^eLv cSet. KOL dyavaKTOVVTas OTL irdvTwv atrto? vo0(p KOI %evw TraiSl TTJI> yvrjaiwv eprj/jiovs ta TOV raur* BiKaiwv firj d^eXelv. OL TpayiKol TroXXf/z' CLTTO TOV \oyeiov KOI TT}<S dBo^iav avTov KaTeaKeBaaav a>9 ^aXcTrov teal ftiaiov yevo/jievov. TOVS vrare^a? eirl TOV K\rfpov ol? rj&av rjWeoi TratSe?. d\\a Koivwvetv eauTov avev /cal rot? /xei^ aXXot? TO re 7rpocT6\dci)v.

came forward and offered himself The citizens admired his independently of the lot. and a guardian of the principles of justice defined by him. 33 . ment was that the Athenians should furnish the ship. who were full of sorrow and vexation that he who w as the cause of all their trouble alone had no share in the punishment. and that Rhadamanthus was a judge under him." but the tragic poets prevailed. noble courage and were delighted with his public spirit. 3 Homer l styled Zeus. xix. they say that Minos was a king and lawgiver. Hellanicus. cast the lots for the rest of the youths. when he saw that his son was not to be won over or turned from his purpose by prayers and entreaties. 3-xvii. when the time came for the third tribute. who. but devolved the kingdom r upon a bastard and foreign son. thinking it right not to disregard but to share in the fortune of his fellow-citizens. royal.THESEUS. says that the city did not send its young men and maidens by lot. however. but that Minos himself used to come and pick them out." or that xvi. and that the youths should embark and sail 1 Odyssey. him " a confidant of and from platform and stage showered obloquy down upon And yet him. XVII. These things troubled Theseus. and suffered them to be left destitute and bereft of legitimate children. fresh accusations against Aegeus arose among the people. 179. Accordingly. and it was necessary for the fathers who had youthful sons to present them for the lot. as a man of cruelty and violence. and Aegeus. followAnd he says the agreeing the terms agreed upon. and that he now pitched upon Theseus first of all.

^iXo^opo? Be irapa 2. el Be {JLI].evecr0r)i> ^Kipov GvjaTpiBouv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES pevov?.pta9 avTwv TCQir)(jacrQai /cv/3epva (f)ija-i> Be TYJV vavv ^ifjLwviBr)?. 34 . TOU? \a%bvTa<s o bracketed by Bekker (near that of Scirus).rfpov 7rapa\a/3a>v ^crey? e/c TOV TrpvTaveiov. K. TOV T6pOV ^creo)? TOV TraTepa 6appvvovTo<$ KOI <yopovvTO<$ a>? %ei paxreTai TOV ICTTLOV ^ivwTavpo K6\6V(TaS { \6VKOV TO) KV/BepVIJTr). /JLIJBeira) Tore TCOV 'AOrjvaicov Trpocrey^ovTwv TTJ 6a\aTTrj' teal yap elvai TWV rjWecov eva M.v(3epv>j(nd (fracriv eKelvois TekelcrOai. >7<7fc &>? 67rdpacr0ai vTrocrrpefyovTa cr(j0^o/j. 'A/jiapcrvdo'as <&epK\o$. edrj/cev vTrep avToy r)V Be /c\dBo<? Tr)v iKGTripiav.evov TOV TO \evKov. irpcopea Be QaiaKci. B& TOV M. TW jjiekavi 7r\elv /cal TO 5 'O Be 'ZijuLWviB'rjs ov \evKov (frrjcriv elvai TO Bo0ev VTTO TOV A/^eo)?. aXXa " fyoLviiceov LGTIOV vyp(o TrefyvpfJLevov irpivov dvdei epi9d\ TOVTO 6 <w? TT}? cr&)T?. KOI 7rape\6u)V et9 &e\<piviov. co? evrl TIJV vavv eTre/jiTrov Tore Be crvfj. XVIII./cipov (frrjalv SaXa/ui'O? TOV tyrjcrea \aj3eiv KvfBepNavcriOoov.e\av ICTTIOV e^ovaav. real Trjv eopTrjv etc viJTrjv jjiev TO. TevofJievov Be TOV K~\.(j)Opa 7rpoBr)\<p. a7ro\ojjievov Troivrjv. /jiapTvpei Be TOVTOI? rjpya NavcriOoov /cal ^ata/to? elcrafj.evov ?.ivwravpov e^LV 4 Ti]v TLpoTepov fjiev ovv ovSefiia awTujpia^ vTreKeiTO' Sib KOI /j.crea)? <S>a1 \ilpol Trpo? TO) TOV ^Kipov lepS).

This 1 Fragment 51 (Bergk. Lyr. to hoist the white sail. 35 . so that he gave the pilot another sail. On the two former occasions. convinced that their youth were going to certain destruction . XVIII. as Simonides says . When the lot was cast. 3-xvm. Menesthes. son of Amarsyas. xvii. and that if the Minotaur was killed the penalty should cease. and so indicate the affliction. but otherwise to sail with the black one. Aegeus the tender flower of luxuriant holm-oak. Graeci. and therefore they sent the ship with a black sail. 413). the pilot of the ship was Phereclus. Athenians at that time not yet being addicted to the sea. Poet. says "a scarlet sail dyed with but not was white. however. the memorial chapels for Nausithous and Phaeax which Theseus built at Phalerum near the temple of Scirus. a white one. no hope of safety was entertained. then. but Philochorus says that Theseus got from Scirus of Salamis Nausithous for his and Phaeax for his look-out man. Theseus took those upon whom it fell from the prytaneium and went to the Delphinium. but now Theseus encouraged his father and loudly boasted that he would master the Minotaur. where he dedicated to Apollo in their behalf his suppliant's badge." and that he made this a token of their safety. and they say that the festival of the Cybernesia. i with him carrying no warlike weapon. or Pilot's Festival. 4 p. was his And there is evidence for this in daughter's son. 1 that the sail given by Simonides. ordering him. and that Scirus did him this favour because one of the chosen youths.THESEUS. if he returned with Theseus safe. is celebrated in their honour. Moreover. iii. the pilot.

LVCO (TTpaTiyyov. Atj/mcov Be Kal TOV Tavpov rycrew? dvaipeOijvai ^crt TOV TOV M. Be epu* CKTYJ jjLrjvos rj Kareftaivev eirl 6d- \ao~crav IcrTafievov MOVVVXLWVOS. TTJV 2 oico^iv d(f)aipov/j. eaas.eiv (Tvve/jLTTopov. co? ev ol 7TO\\ol rypd$ovat Kal aSovcri. XIX. TOV i]crea.v eKKo-^at.8 KO\.ev ev KaOiyyefjiova TTOielcrOai KCL\ trapa. Tlaai^idrj Be avTov Sid TOV Tpojrov l%ev l Kal ydp rj eVa^'^^5.. 6edcr0ai Kal ra5 yvvaiKa?. Tre/jLTrova-iv i\ao~o[jieva<s et? Be avry TOV fj. Ovovri Se TT^OO? OaXdcrarj rrjv 'A<f>po<!>iTr)v 6eov alya 6r]\eiav ovaav avTOfidrco^ rpci^ov yevecrdai* fcal KoKtiaQai rrjv Oeov 'E?r IT pay Lav.evov. cnreKTeive TOV MivMravpov /cal dire- 7T\ev(je Oeovs. ev TO) \ijjievi. Bib d^wviaauQai crvveOVTOS ev 3 %ct)pr)a-V Mtz/a)5. KOI vvv en ra? Kopas 2 \eyerat. 'ApidSvrjv dvaXafiuov Kal TOU? r)l<&epeKvor)s Be Kal rd eod^r) TWV K/7Tr)V TIKWV ve&v ^>T]cn.pjJTtjv.ovvTO<. Tavpos e^OovelTO. 6 eV/So^o? r)V a>v dTramas Trd\iv viKijcreiv. Trapd epaaOelarj^ TO \ivov a)? ecrri TOV \a/3vpiv0ov TOU? e . OiXo^opo5 TOV dycova TOV M.crea>5 d%iovvTO<$ e$oi>5 irK^aid^v. CK- TrXeo^TO?. Kal o>5 Trj TOV 6 7. 'E-Trel Be KcneTrXtva-ev els K.LVO) <rvvT6\. &Lavav{jta%ovvTa a>5 oe TOV icrToprjKe.PLUTARCH'S LIVES iepa<. 'ApidBvy Trapovaa .

god at Delphi commanded him in an oracle to make Aphrodite his guide. and that having been instructed by her how to make his way through the intricacies of the Labyrinth. 3? . wreathed with white wool. chapter xvi. it became a he-goat ("tragos ") all at once. and that as he sacrificed the usual shegoat to her by the sea-shore. and he was accused of too great intimacy with Pasiphae. Having made his vows and prayers. most historians and poets tell us that he got from Ariadne. But as Philochorus tells the story.THESEUS. was killed in a naval battle in the harbour as Theseus was sailing out. And Pherecydes ^ays that Theseus also staved in the bottoms of the Cretan ships. it was granted him by Minos. and invite her to attend him on his journey. the general of Minos. the famous thread. And since it was the custom in Crete for women to view the games. Ariadne was present. thus And depriving them of the power to pursue. who had fallen in love with him. Therefore when Theseus asked the privilege of entering the lists. 1. he slew the Minotaur and sailed off with Ariadne and the youths. Demon says also that Taurus. and Taurus was expected to conquer all his competitors in them. 1 Minos was holding the funeral games. 3 \vas a bough from the sacred olive-tree. for which reason the goddess lias the surname Epitragia. When he reached Crete on his voyage. i-xix. and was as 1 Cf. on which day even now the Athenians still send their maidens to the Delphinium And it is reported that the to propitiate the god. xvin. he went down to the sea on the sixth day of the month Munychion. XIX. For his disposition made his power hateful. he had done before. and was grudged his success.

rfvOels Se Kol 6 Mti>&>9 /uLoXicrra TOV 'Yavpov Kara7ra\aiteal TOU? 4 TrpOTrrjKaKiaOevTOS.ara [Aafcpai*. OTL KQIVOV rjv ^XKi'ivwv /jbfjSefjiLav K7r\6iv 7rpi7T\eiv TOV Se dp^ovra Tfjs 'Apyov? 'Idcrova /movov l %ip>yovTa TT}? QcCkaTTf]^ TO. 6Sov. Tr)V JJLZV ev &v/^aiTaSa)i> avroOi O Tycreu?. 49 vaval KttfCel KCLT6- ^LKekldV eVet aTTTI/e TOV /Siov. A rpiripet ir\r)pft a 33 . Se &evt<akiwv o avrou TroXeyUY/cco? (!)6vai TO ^ AaiSaX-ov avrq) ice\evwv rj dTroiCTeveiv aTreiXwv ou? e\a(Bev ex wv ^P 6 MtV<W?. et? Trapa V7TO etLtO)^09 5 (iTpetye TO.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TC TTJV utyiv e^TrXayrj TOV tj(Tea)<} /col rrjv aQ\i]<jiv e0av/. avwOev rroOev dp^d/jievos. fAijTpos OVTCL Be TT}? 'E/oe^^ew?. ^e7T\6vcre TOV TG AaiSdXov e^cov KOI after this elv Sintenis and Bekker assume a lacuna ) word. S6j/j. TratSa? Kal dvfj/ce direSwKe TTJ TW TTO\GL <yei\e irepl 'I^tw? Se 7TO)? real TreptTTw? o KXe/S?7yu. Bodleian MS.o? UTDJJTOVTWV. T^V $e Sia \av6dvew. (B a has (with a trireme jully manned).tao'6 TTUVTCOV KpaTijaavTOS. auro? 7re/3d\6TO. TOVTW fJLCV d'TTCKpiVaTO TTpadJS Trapairov/uevos dve^rLov QVTCL Aat'SaXo^ Kara ^eVo? Trpocnj/covTa.

iv. Diouorus. gives a rather peculiar and ambitious account of these matters. . pursued him with his ships of war. when he conquered all his opponents. taking Daedalus and exiles from Crete as his guides. 1 And when Deucalion. and therefore gave back the youths to Theseus. Minos. who was on hostile terms with the Athenians. Cleidemus. a general great way back. the commander of the Argo. who was his kinsman and cousin. vii. Theseus made him a gentle reply. 170 . as well as filled with admiration for his athletic prowess. and was driven from his course by a tempest to Sicily. the daughter of Erechtheus. 39 .THESEUS. Hellenic decree that no trireme should sail from any port with a larger crew than five men. sent to them a demand that they deliver up Daedalus to him. and the only exception was Jason. to put to death the youth whom Minos had received from them as hostages. Now when Daedalus fled from Crete in a merchantvessel to Athens. he says. When his ships were ready. especially because he conquered Taurus in wrestling and disgraced him. besides remitting its tribute to the city. who sailed about scouring the sea of pirates. where he ended his life. Minos also was delighted with him. being the son of Merope. declining to surrender Daedalus. however. xix. 3-6 smitten with the appearance of Theseus. and threatened. and part of it under the direction of Pittheus in Troezen. he set sail. and since none 1 Cf Herodotus. wishing his purpose to remain concealed. beginning a There was. if they refused. part of it at home in the township of Thymoetadae. 79. far from the public road. his son. contrary to the decrees. But privately he set himself to building a fleet.

IIoXXol Be \6joi Kal irepl rovrwv en \eyovrat.evKa\ltova teal rou? Sopv(j)6pov<. ol Se 6i Qivdpw TU> iepel TOV kiovvcrov avvoLKelv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES . KOI irepi rrj^ 'AyOiaSi/r. eviot 9 Be e Ka TeKev 'ApidBvrjv QivoirLwva KOL l ^r 6 X?o? "Itov ecrTi Trepl r^9 eauTOv Trore 40 . d7ro\ei(j)0?jvai Se TOV o? 2 TOVTO yap jjitv GTeipev epws HavoTrrji'Sos Tleicr At jap TO eVo? eV TWV 'HcrioSou e^ekelv (frrjirtv 'Hpea? o Meyapevs. ol fJiev yap dTrdy^acrOai avrrjv cnrdXeityOeicrav VTTO TOV Na^oi/ VTTO vavTfov KO^LaOela'av T^crea)?. axjirep av ird\iv e^^dXelv et? T?JV 'Qjujpov vetcviav TO a TletpiOoov re 0ea)v dpioeiKeTa Tetcva. TOV \i/jievos Kal aTroftas e<p0acrev et? rrjv Kvwuaov 0a>v Kal /j. d\\a vavs (f)i\ia<> 7rpo<T<ppea0ai. ovSev o yovfievov evorre?. <yvojj.? 'ApidSvrjs cnreio-d/JLevos TT^OO? avr^i> rovs * re avekafie Kal (f)i\iav 7T/309 eTroirfcre rot? XX.d%rjv ev a-vvd-fras 7 dire/crewe 7rape\TrvXcus TOV Aa/3vpiv0ov TOV &.?.evr)s.. ev 3e Tols TTpdj/jLacri T?.

just as. 2 knew of his design. according to Hereas the Megarian. z Odyssey. the gate of the Labyrinth. 6-xx. he made a truce with her. Peirithous. Moreover. and that she was abandoned by Theseus because he loved another . Oenopion and Staphylus. and among these is Ion of Chios. but they do not agree at all. 254. Some say that she hung herself because she was abandoned by Theseus others that she was conveyed to Naxos by sailors and there lived with Oenarus the priest of Dionysus. Lyr. 557 a.. Oenopion. Or. he inserted into the Inferno of Homer the verse : "Theseus. and also about Ariadne. once. 631. " 1 who says of his own native city This. . who took oath never to begin hostilities. Theseus made ships approaching himself master of the harbour. of the Cretans xix. xi. on the other hand. 4 Bergk." l This verse Peisistratus expunged from the poems of Hesiod. received back the youthful hostages. ii. p. and got to Gnossus before his enemies were aware Then joining battle with them at of his approach. but thought the to be friendly.THESEUS. Poet. p. 8 Athenaeus. There are many other stories about these matters. XX. illustrious children of 2 Heaven. he slew Deucalion and his And since Ariadne was now at the body-guard. disembarked his men." and all to gratify the Athenians." : s Cf. and established friendship between the Athenians and the Cretans. Theseus's son founded. head of affairs. some say that Ariadne actually had sons by Theseus. woman : " Dreadful indeed was his passion for Aigle child of Panopeus.

teal ypd^t. r?}? 7?}? (frepeaOai. Bvo Be fiircpovs dv^piavTicrKovs IBpvTOV yuei> dpyvpovv. 'ApidBvy. Trjv a-6elo~av VTTO TOV ^eco? KOL d7ro\ei. eV a> TOV 5 BeiKvvovcriv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES A 3 ' ecrTlv GO? eVo? v(f)r}/x6rara TWV fjLv0o\oyov/uieva)v t elirelv Bid o-To/naro? evovcriv.evov rot? fjiev eyxciopiois aTroXiTrelv xpij/Aara. eftjSijSdcrai.06vra (raa-Oai.<f>0elo'av ei? Na^ov 42 e\0iv.r)vo<$ Bevrepa TWV Icrra^evov veavlarKwv (frOeyyecrOai fcal iroielv aTrep toBivowai. <rd\ov be fcal Bva-^opovcrav.?. TOV Be %a\Kovv. TOVTMV \6yov 7jcrea etcSeB&fee TIaicov (f>t]o~lv TOV yap Be VTTO eyrcvov e^ovra. Kal Na^teav Be Tiz^e? IBiws i<TTOpovcri Bvo yeveaOai Kal Bvo ApidBvas.. ^iaKei^evi]v VTTO TOV CLVTOV et? TO) TrXotco (SoriOovvTa. \ \ \ > /^at 7re/H TT)I/ (tibiva (TV^iroveLV fcai ^ \ r\ /) > porjueiv (ITTO- 4 Od-^rai ^rj ^crea KOI irepiKvjrov <yei>6p. (j>av\a)<. a-vvrd^avra Oveiv Be rov Trj Oavovaav Be re/covcrav. rrjv TrdXw ra? TO <yv- CLTTO ouz/ eyxcopiov? 'ApLaSyqv ava\a(3elv KOL dQv/jiovcrav eirl Ty /jLOV&crei. Kal Tpotyov fJLGT avrfjs ovofia . &)? rov ^creto? ypd(j)ovTos aurfj. wv ya/LLfjOrivau <pa<Tiv ' TTJV ev Na^ro KOI Be vewrepav d Trepl ^Ta(j)v\ov Tetcelv. 'ApidBvrjs 'A^poStT?. 7r6~\. ica\elv Be TO aXcro? 'Aycta^ofcrtou?. ev Trj Be Ovaia TOV TopTTiaiov KaTaKKivofievov Ttva p. /JLOWTJV. Be Tiva irepl o 'A/JLa6ovcrios.^ara ir\a<j"rd Trpoafpepeiv.

but that he himself. was married to Dionysus in Naxos and bore him Staphylus and his brother. and the other. and left a sum of money with the people of . accompanied by a nurse named Corcyne.THESEUS. took Ariadne into their care. while trying to succour the ship. Now are in the xx. and caused two little statuettes to be set up in her He says honour. one of silver. one of their young men lies down and imitates the cries and gestures of women in travail and that they call the grove in which they show her tomb. and gave her burial when she died before her child was born. that there were two Minoses and two Ariadnes. and was greatly afflicted. ministered to her aid during the pangs of travail. driven out of his course by a storm to Cyprus. as I may say but a account of these matters is published peculiar very by Paeon the Amathusian. Aphrodite. was borne out to The women of the island. 43 . He says that Theseus. and tried to comfort her in the discouragement caused by her loneliness. brought her forged letters purporting to have been written to her by Theseus. the island. sea again. having been carried off to by Theseus and then abandoned by him. came Naxos. the grove of Ariadne . they say. and having with him Ariadne. also that at the sacrifice in her honour on the second day of the month Gorpiaeus. accordingly. enjoining them to sacrifice to Ariadne. set her on shore alone. who was big with child and in sore sickness and distress from the tossing of the sea. 2-5 the most auspicious of these legendary tales mouths of all men. Paeon says further that Theseus came back. Some of the Naxians also have a story of their own. one of whom. and one of bronze. of a later time.

TTiKrj /cat rot? rore rrpwTov Tfj fJLev UTT' Be 7rpoa<ppojj. 'E/c Se TT)? Kp^'r??? aTT07r\CL)V et? KOI rw 6eu> Ovcras KCLI A?)Xor avaOels TO o Trapa rfjs 'Apid$V)]<. /caraTrXe^cra? Be o Qrjcrevs edve fjiev auro? a? eKTr\ewv OvaLa? ev^aTO rot? #eo? QaXijpoi. eK\a9ecr9aL Be TOV VTTO %apds 6Trdpa<T0ai. a>9 el/c6$. ra? eli'ai irivOei rivl Be /cat TavTrj GTvyvo-rjTi. XXI. yitt^/za TWV ev ivdo) 7Tpi6$Gov /cat SietfoBwv. eri vvv e TWV rjWewv ^opeiav r)v &r)\iov<i \eyovcri. K6ivov (poivitca *A. e^oBe irepl rbv Keparwva ftw/jiov.eva)v e/cXa- avTov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Kop/cvvrjv. erepois KCLL cf>i\o(j)povei<T6at 44 . Kr)pVKa Be aTreareiXe T}? crwr^2 /9ta9 ayye\ov el? aaTV. aTfodavelv Be KOI Trjv 'AptdSvriv avr60i KCU irpoTepa. rfj Tifjias o/xota? Trj jiev yap e^etv ov'X rjBofAevov? KOI Bpw/j eop-rd^eiv. pevcre fiera e\a/3ev. ev rtvi p 7rapa\\d%i<. e'/c Kepdrcov pevae djwvd XXII. 779 Beifcvvcrdcu TCLQV. w? Icnopel AiKaiapxos. <f)a(Tiv avrov ev A^Xw. 2 Ka\6irai Be /cal ai/eXt^et? e^ovrt ly TO 6^0? TOVTO r9 oeta? VTTO yepavos. OVTOS eveTV^ev oBvpojjieT 7TOXX049 TtJV TOV /focTfXeW T\VTr)V KOI . TO ICTTLOV a> TTJV crcoTrjpiav avTtov eSei yvwpifjiov TU> Aljel yeveaOai' TOV Be aTToyvovTa pl^rat /caTa TT}? Trerpa? eavTov Kal Bia(>0apr)i>ai.

It is said. XXII. and his pilot forgot. and has honours paid her unlike those of the former. to hoist the sail which was to have been the token of their safety to Aegeus. and having sacrificed to the god cated in his temple the image of Aphrodite and dediwhich he had received from Ariadne. But Theseus. but the sacrifices performed in honour of the second are attended with sorrow and mourning. sacrificed in person the sacrifices which he had vowed to the gods at Phalerum when he set sail. such was their joy and exultation. being an imitation of the circling passages in the Labyrinth.THESEUS. which is constructed of horns ("kerata") taken entirely from the left side of tin head. threw himself down from the rock and was dashed in pieces. was natural. for the festival of the first Ariadne is celebrated with mirth and revels. and then dispatched a The herald to the city to announce his safe return. This kind of dance. in despair. messenger found many of the people bewailing the death of their king. i. Theseus himself forgot. as Dicaearchus tells us. xx. and that the custom was then begun by him of giving a palm to the victors. that as they drew nigh the coast of Attica. They say that he also instituted athletic contests in Delos. and Theseus danced it round the altar called Keraton. 5-xxn. XXI. and others full of joy at his tidings. Theseus put in at Delos. as VOL. who therefore. and consisting of certain rhythmic involutions and evolutions. On his voyage from Crete. a whose tomb they show and that this Ariadne also died there. moreover. . putting in to shore. he danced with his youths a dance which they say is still performed by the Delians. is called by the Delians The Crane. and eager to welcome him r 45 .

TO Be C ea>? KOI a-v|ra? 4 TOV TraTepa. veLV . TOV? Trapovras' &v TO tv /col fiev (TTrevo'ovTes ava- Traiwvi^ovTes Be el(*>6acri.a) els I KOI 10 dvefiaivov rrjv 7r6\iv. 60ev KOI vvv eV rot? fiev a)0"\0<f)opLoi<> (rre ov TOV KrjpvKa \eyov(nv. crvvecrTia&ijvai. errave\6u)v Be eVl 6d- \aacrav OVTTCO TreTroirj/mevov crTrovBas TOV T^creo)? TreptefJieLve. /*V OVV 0~T(f)dvOVS TO tcripv/ceiov avecnefyev. Qopvfiq) o-TrevSovres oi Be <rvv K\avOjj. aXXr^Xot?. 'EXeXeO. d\\a TO Se ev raZ? crTro^Sai?. Be K\dBov e\ata? epiw pe TTJV d$>opiavt tbcnrep TOTC Trjv IfceTrjpLav. eftBofirj TO> aTreBiSov TIJ TOV Tlvaveifriwvos laTajjievov TavTrj <Ta>6evTe<$. TCLI rj yap dve/Brjaav et? acrTV ovv pev e^ijcris TWV ocnrpiwv \eyet? rylveaOai &LCL TO crwOevTas CLVTOVS o-v/jL/jLiai T& irepiovTa Kotvrjv T&V criTitov KCU /cat XVTpav 5 etyrjcravTa*. TTJV o-vyfcaTCKpayeiv K(f)epovo-i.PLUTARCH'S LIVES teal <7T(f)avovv avrov enl TOt/9 rfj a-cor^pia Be^O/JLeVO^ OVCTl.rj /3ov\6jAvo<t rrjv Qvcriav rapd- TOV A/7eco? re\evri]v. TravToBaiTwv Be dvd- 7r\ewv fcaTapy/jLaTcav Bia TO \f)ai . p.

finding that Theseus had not yet made his libations to the gods. 2. that to this day. See chapter xxiii. he accepted. for After burying his father. of pulse on that day is said to have arisen from the fact that the youths who were brought safely back by Theseus put what was left of their provisions into one mess. such as Theseus used at the time of his supplication. boiled it in one common pot. and ate it all up together. the Oschophoria. and those who are " Eleleu lou at the libations cry out present " lou the first of which cries is the exclamation of eager haste and triumph. he announced the death of Aegeus. and twined them about his herald's staff. during which branches of the vine with grapes upon them (ocrxoi) were borne in procession from Athens to Phalerum. to signify that scarcity was at 1 an end. when the libations were made. and laden with all sorts of fruit-offerings. A 47 . Thereupon. 1 it is not the herald that is crowned." which is a they also carry the so-called bough of olive wreathed with wool. to Apollo sion . then. and on returning to the seashore. and as they go they sing : vintage festival. the second of consternation it Whence festival of : ! ! ! and confusion.THESEUS. with tumultuous lamentation. they went up in haste to the city. but his herald's staff. not wishing to disturb the sacrifice. 2-5 and crown him with garlands for his good news. they say. feasted upon it. The garlands. xxn. at the is. At that feast " eiresione. remained outside the sacred But precincts. Theseus paid his vows on the seventh day of the month Pyanepon that day they had come back to the Now the custom of boiling all sorts city in safety.

fjuev r. aXXa Se e//-/3aXXo^Te5 coorTe oi.d>iBooi>Liei>ov TrapaTO Tr\olov elvai. To eTrXei/cre Aral Be Tr\olov ev c5 /^era TWI/ Tpiaicov-ropov. 6(f)0)}vai Kal veapovs.e0vovaa KatTOL TavTa TLVGS eVt rot? 'H/sa/cXet&u? JL \eyovcriv. av /j. aXXa Xa^o^cra? TW^ o~vvr)6wv veavi&Kwv Bvo KaTacrTijcravTOS. Tat? KO^V Kal \eiOTijTa Kal )y. TO. dvBpcdSets Be Ta? npols T Oepfjiols Kal irept. tea TTLOVCIS aprovs Kal /jLe\L ev KOTv\y Kal e\aiov o>? dTT Kal KV\LK ev^copov.T&)9 Kal rot? (friXoaocfrois TOV auqQLLGvov \o ryoi> au. TMV p&v &>9 TO avTO. e Be 2 ft)? "Ayovcri Be Kal Trjv TCOV Q)O"%o(popicov Bereft)? ov yap aTrdcras aiiTOv Tore Ta? egayayeiv TrapOevovs. TraXw ea-coOrj. Trjv a TWV ArjfAIJTpLOV TOV OaX^yOew? ira\aia \aTTOv ol 'Adijvaioi. ot TO avTO Bia/jievoi \e<yovTwv. * XXIII. Kal biBd^avTa <>ci)VT)v Kal CFV^/*a 48 . euro)? BtaTpeffrojjLevois i i VTTO TO>J vaitov ol Be vrXetoj/e? a>? TrpoeLpriTai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES av/ca (epei.

Brings us honey in pots and oil to rub off from the body. Athens Plato. however. have done. who were maintained in this manner by the Athenians but most put the . and changed their outward appearance almost entirely by giving them warm baths and keeping them out of the sun. came as suppliants to Athens. xxn. p. was Theseus who instituted also the Athenian For it is said that he did the Oschophoria. 2 " Eiresione for us brings figs and bread of the richest." may go to Some writers. 5-xxni. XXIII. but picked out two young men of his acquaintance who had fresh and girlish faces. Strong wine too in a beaker. and put new and sound ones in their places. 2 They took away the old timbers from time to time. so that the vessel became a standing illustration for the philosophers in the matter as I mooted question of growth. of Euripides. that one bed mellow. others that it was not the same vessel. but eager and manly spirits. 2 Regent of Cf. See the Heracleidae B. his children. was preserved by the Athenians down to the time of Demetrius Phalereus.THESEUS. and by smoothing their skin and beautiIt festival of 1 On the death of Heracles. some declaring that it remained the same. bearing branches in their hands. The ship on which Theseus sailed with the youths and returned in safety. 317-307 58. to escape the wrath of the tyrant Eurystheus. not take away with him all the maidens on whom the lot fell at that time. Phaedo. by arranging their hair. say that these rites are in 1 memory of the Heracleidae. for Cassanderof Macedon.C. 49 . the thirty-oared galley.

XXIV.PLUTARCH'S LIVES j3dSi(Tiv &>? evi fjiaXiara TrapOevois opoiovcrdai KOL et? TOV rrapOevtoV dpiOjJibv 3 eTret ^e eTTavrj\. crvyKOfJLi^ofievr]^ oTrwpas eiravrfkO ov ai Be 8nrvo<j)6poi. f^rjpeOTj Se re/xei^o? aurw.6ev.iovcrai' Kal fjbv6oi \eyovrai evOvfjiias eveKa Kal 7raprj<yopia<? Sia rb KaKewas ie%ievai rot? iraiai. T0t5 CLTTO TO)V TTapaCT^OVTCOV TOV $>a<TfJLOV OLKWV CTafjev et? dvcriav avT& Te\eiv a Kal TTJS Qvalas e7reyueXouz>TO OuraXtSat. rew? cnropdb'as Kal Sva-avaKXiJTovs 717)05 oj/ra? TO KOLVOV TrdvTcov . TavTa Kal /JLCV ovv Kal Ov IcTTOpr^Kev. vvv yoviai TOU9 OCTROI'? fjid\\ov ori (frepovai 8e Atorj vvcrw /cal 'ApidSvrj ^ap^ofjievoi Sia TOV fjLvQov. avTols dfjioiftrjv TT}? <f>iKo%evia<$. 7rapa\a/jL/3dvovTai. Mera TOL/9 Be TTJV Alyecos Te\6VTrjv peya Kal aop. Kal KOIIHDT?}? vovcri Overlap aTTO^ifJiov^LevaL ra? Keiva)v TWV \a^6vrwv eire^oLrwv yap auro? Kojj.evo^ crvvwKicre epyov e? vovv TrV 'AtTTUCfJV KaTOlKOVVTa? t? V d(TTVt -TToXew? ei>a Srjaov dTre^rjve. Kal Bia\a0iv TrofJLTrevcrai <w? avrov re KOI rou? dfjLTre- veavicrKovs owrco? afjLire'XpiAevovs (frepovres.

and their gait. because they came back home at the time of the vintage. xxin. thus making one people of one city out of those who up to that time had been scattered about and were not easily called together for the common interests of all. and he ordered the members of the families which had furnished the tribute to the Minotaur to make contributions towards a sacrifice to himself. these dren. their dress. and to leave no difference that could be observed. 5' . spun out tales for them. And the women called Deipnophoroi. This sacrifice was superintended by the Phytalidae. 2-xxiv. for these kept coming with bread and meat for their children. nay. And when he was come back. in their speech. i he also fying their complexions with unguents taught them to imitate maidens as closely as possible . and settled all the residents of Attica in one city. a sacred precinct was also set apart for Theseus. them among the maidens who were going and was undiscovered by any. he himself and these two young enrolled arrayed men headed a procession. Furthermore. take part in the procession and share in the sacrifice. and then to Crete. or rather. chapter xii. they 1 Cf. and Theseus thus repaid them for their hospitality. After the death of Aegeus. because these mothers. 1 XXIV. And tales are told at this festival. arrayed as those are now who carry the vine-branches. for the sake of comforting and encouraging their chilAt any rate. Theseus conceived a wonderful design. in imitation of the mothers of the young men and maidens on whom the lot fell. 1. or supper-carriers. details are to be found in the history of Demon.THESEUS. They carry these in honour of Dionysus and Ariadne. and because of their part in the story .

jevrj. ol Se TTJV ovaav r)S?. Q)fjLo\6yij0..oiplav. e0vae Be 8e/ca teal j3ov\evrt]ptov 7TO\IV 'A#?yZ/a? HavaOrjvaia dvaiav eVotT/cre Kal Merot/aa rfj eKrrj eVi i)v rot) 'RKaTo/jiftaiwvos. s* . eri vvv Ovovvi.Xof9 TToXeiiovvTas. TI /cat ^vva^iv avrov S T^V ToKfJiav. rot? real \ BrjfjLOKpariav / avrw JJLOVOV / J /-v ap^ovn * TWV 7ro\e/j. ev vfLerep aXXa cru prj TI \lr}v Treirovri^evo^ evboOi OV/JLOV aaKos jap ev 1 o'tSfiart TrovroTropeixrei. TOU? Tdvra eTreiOev.PLUTARCH'S LIVES (m 2 /cat / S' ore Kal Biacfrepofjiei'ovs aXXr. \ffofji. (BacriKelav rr]V a<^>et?.ovro fjia\\ov ^LO^Q^VOL ravra 1 ovv ra Trap 6Kdo~TOi$ TrpVTavela /3ov\VTijpia KOI ap%d<?. be aX\. TroXXafc TOL TToXtecrcrt Traryp e'/^o? repfjiara Kal K\coarrjpa<. avejreide ~ \ Kara / 1 1 TWV TT^V \ fiev LOIWTWV icai 7rei}T(ov irapaK\r\(jiv avrov. ev Be TTOi^cra? airacn KOLVOV evravOa irpvraveiov KOI 07TOV VVV tSpVTai TO aiTTV.aKL xprjcro/jievijv.o)v ? V '/> -v 3 Trape^ovaav a'naaiv IcTO^oLpLav. TOUS p*v with Corcies and Bekker: I TOVS fJL(V. eiutov ovv jo. rrjv wcnrep SiKoo~fjii f)K TroXtretaz' %/077<7/i05 CLTTO Oewv a yap avrq) T?}9 eK 5 Alyei&rj Srjcrev.ov /cat VO/JLCOV cpvA. HirO^'iSos eKjove teovprj?. TT)V T Trpoa-rjyopevo-e Kal 4 KOivriv. e/3ov\.

in which he should only be commander in war and guardian of the laws. the bladder will traverse the sea and its surges. 1-5 sometimes actually quarrelled and fought with each He visited them. laying aside the royal power. Accordingly. as follows : " Theseus. after doing away with the townhalls and council-chambers and magistracies in the several communities. them over to his project township by township and The common folk and the poor clan by clan. which was already great. of Settlement. and others. Some he readity persuaded to this course." 53 . Then. while in all else everyone should be on an equal footing. in answer to his enquiries about the city. chose to be persuaded rather than forced to agree to it. and his boldness. xxiv. he named the city Athens. offspring of Aegeus. and this is still celebrated. as he had agreed. but with firm and confident spirit Counsel only. on the sixteenth day of the month Hecatombaeon. and that too For an oracle came with the sanction of the gods. fearing his power. son of the daughter Many indeed of Pittheus. Therefore be not dismayed. he . the cities to which my father has given Bounds and future fates within your citadel's confines. to his summons to the powerful answered quickly he promised government without a king and a democracy. and tried to win other. then. and after building a common town-hall and council-chamber for all on the ground where the upper town of the present day stands.THESEUS. proceeded to arrange the government. and instituted a Panathenaic He instituted also the Metoecia. or Festival festival. to him from Delphi.

i/3v\\av vcrrepov TTO\IV i&TOpovcriv.po9 eV z^ew^ KardXoyw AQijvdiovs 3 STJ/JLOV Trpoa-ayopevaas. "E^o^e fiovv eyx a P (*'%a apadteviov Tavpov. Trpoo'KT'rja'dfAevos Be rfj 54 . rj' Sia rbv MtVa) crrparrj5e at TOU? 7roXtVa9 7rapaKa\coi>.aXXoi> av^fjo-ai rrjv irokiv Trai^ra? ercl e/taXet rot? Icrois. araKTov ouSe fie/jLijfjievrjv Trepiel^ev VTTO eTri%v0VTOS aKpiTOV ryevofjtevrjv TTJV a\\a TT/OWTO? airoKpivas %&)/oi? evTrarpiSa^ KOI 2 fyewyu-opou? /tat &?7/<uou/xyou?. "En Be //. KOL TO ov IVe Tra^re? Xew*' /ctfpwy/Aa Srjcrews >yeve- $a<j\ Trav^^Lav nva KaOicrTdvTos. %/oeta Se 7 Be Srj/Movpywv vTrepe^eLv SOKOVV- em 'A/9i<TTOTeX?/9 (firja-i. f/ /cal d<prj/ce TO /jLovap%iv. rj 7T/309 ryeaypyiav air eice'ivov 8e fyacn TO efcarofjifioiov fcal TO Se/ea' ftoiov 6vojAacr0r]vai. Oela KOI Trape^eiv a SiSacrAraXof? cti'ai /eal ocriwv KOI iep&v t9 te rot? a'XXo^? TroXtrai? wcrTre/? fi>ev ev7raTpi$a)v. vofjiicrjjia. eoi/ce /jLaprvpelv * teal O//. d a 'Aa-/co9 fiaTni^T)' Bvvai Be TOI ov Befits e XXV.PLUTARCH'S LIVES rovro Be rjv real 2.?. euTrarptSai? Se jivu>- GKiv ra v6fJLO)V s.

"ten oxen" and "a to be used as terms of valuation. where he speaks of the Athenians alone as a "people. when they say the Sibyl afterwards repeated she cried : " Bladder may be submerged not be permitted. the noblemen being thought to excel in dignity. and the phrase "Come hither all ye people/' they say was a proclamation of Theseus when he established a people. and for the rest of the citizens he established a balance of privilege. 547. but was the first to separate the people into noblemen and husbandmen and handicraftsmen. And this oracle xxiv. Howhe invited ever. the supply of magistrates. or of Taurus. and stamped it with the effigy of an ox. but its sinking will XXV. and the handicraftsmen in numbers. he did not suffer his democracy to become disordered or confused from an indiscriminate multitude streaming into it.THESEUS. Having attached the Megara securely to Iliad. the general of Minos. or because he would invite the citizens to agriculture. seems to be the testimony of Homer 1 also. in the Catalogue of Ships. either in remembrance of the Marathonian bull. and gave up his absolute rule. men thither on equal terms. of all sorts and conditions. and the interpretation of the will of Heaven. " came they say." He also coined money. Desiring all still further to enlarge the city. territory of ii. as it were. the husbandmen in usefulness. And that he was the first to show a leaning towards the multitude." . 55 . 5~xxv. as Aristotle says. To the noblemen he committed the care of religious rites. 3 to the city. the teaching of the laws. From hundred oxen this coinage.

^rjKov Ati'. 4 /cal ovtc 'lama. teal TOV dywva ^ Te9>]vcn.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ev *l(T0jjL(a &Tr)\riv eaTrjcrev. $ia TOVTOV VTTO real ov Si* e/celvov.(v.ov Se fyaaiv 'Zfcelpwvt. ?. ri 5e with Coraes. TOV dywva TrpwTO? ft)? e6r]K Kara 'HpaAral St' K\eov<s. ri 5/.crea)9. Si* K6ivov 'OXu/ATT^a TO) IlofjeiSw^f avrbv r/ "IcrO/jiia TO) (f)L\ori/j. $ea? eVl 7rawr]yvpi(r/j. eTTiypdtyas TO Siopu^ov eiTLypafi/jLa TTJV %(*)pav Svcl TO l p.V 7T/509 0) TO l && Trpo? ecnrepav Ta8' earl H\07r6vvrjcro<>. eTa^ev ovv BicopiaaTO 7T/309 TOU9 KopivQiovs KQr^valwv 12 'TTape^iv TT/?Oe&piav o&ov av TOTTOV eVtcr^T? /caTa7T6Tacr0ev TO ICFTLOV.? TT}? e ^LVIV.ta T60fjvai. TOV <nov/Jievov TOV (f)6vov &ia TTJV crvyyeveiav yap 5 ol vibv elvai KavijQov KOLI 'Hz/io^?. "Icr0/jLia "AvSpwv 1 6 'AXiKapvacrevs I rb /xe^. T0?9 d^iKvovfjuhois TT\ TO. ov ^Keipwva. 56 . TeXeT^? e%u>v fjia\\ov TCL^LV.r)del<. o ^ap eVl Me)u/<:e/3T?7 re^el? 17 au- VVKTOS l $paro. after Reiske : ra fj. ra "I<j#/z. eviot. ayeiv TOU? EXX?7^a9.

3-5 Attica. However that may be. So Hellanicus and Andron of Halicarnassus . who was the daughter of Pittheus. Theseus made a formal agreement with the Corinthians that they should furnish Athenian visitors to the Isthmian games with a place of honour as large as could be covered by the sail of the state galley which brought them thither. : . And others have it that Sinis. celebrated Olympian games in honour of Zeus. 57 . in honour of Melicertes were celebrated in the night. and the one towards the west "Here is the Peloponnesus. not Sciron. not Ionia. in emulation of Heracles. the Isthmian games were instituted in memory of Sciron. by that hero's appointment. It consisted of two trimeters. and had the form of a religious rite rather than of a But some say that spectacle and public assembly. when it was stretched to its full extent. He tell us. being ambitious that as the Hellenes. and carved upon it the inscription giving the territorial boundaries. and that it was in his honour rather that the games were instituted by Theseus. xxv. he set up that famous pillar on the Isthmus. because of the relationship between them for Sciron was a son of Canethus and Henioche. so by his own appointment they should celebrate Isthmian games in honour of For the games already instituted there Poseidon. of which the one towards the east declared " Here is not but Ionia : ' Peloponnesus.THESEUS." also instituted the games here. and that Theseus thus made expiation for his murder. was their son.

Bekker 58 . TOVTOV ovv epwv- AjmoTr??? /cat \avQdvovra rou9 aXXou9 crvvrjOw e/ceivov TCOV rfj Be Trepl TOVTCOV evTW%ovTO<s a/Lta /cat 'AvTiOTry. TOV Be SoXoez^T09 et9 TTOTajJiov aTreyva) pi- TWO.w SoXoei'Ta.? TTJV ISio KOI /uer' aXXo? i&Toprjrai TWV TT. T^crea (frrj&i rrjv jv 3 TOTTOU?' e^ovra Siarptyai irepl TOVTOV? Tvy^dveiv Be avcrrparevovra^ avrS /cat oaira 7r/?o9 ez^a /cat dBe\(f)Ov<> ak\rj\./3f)vai efijBddrj^ Se Trapa/eaXeiv et9 TO TrXotov %evia Se Tt?.. aXXa /tat TOV Be TTJV KOjui^ovcrav fj. o>9 fJ*V ^tXo^o/309 cra?.^ avrov Bt&)z^ Se /cat 'Afjia^ova \a/3eiv alx/JidXcpTOV. 7rXei)crat varepov TOV <pacriv Hyoa/cXeoi. yap TOV ov<ja? ra? 'A/za^oz^a? ^)iXai/S/?ou? oi/re (frvyelv T/crea TrefjiTreiv TrpocrfidXXovra ry %dopa. Coraes.PLUTARCH'S LIVES XXVI. 7e'p apiffreiov MSS. vov. TTJV nev irelpav i ) TO 8 Trpos TOV a>9 Trpws eawrov evey/ceiv fca rjcrea 4 /caT'rjyoprjcrai. /tat Et9 Be TOV TTOVTOV eTfKevae rbv KaL Tives aXXot \eyovai. KOI a^t/co? /cat ' Saypo?. eVt ra? l yepas eo'Tt /cat eeKvrs Srjcrea 'AvTioTrrjv e\afBev ol Be 7rXetot>9. real /cat TO : with Cobet ytpas . Trapafcpovcrd/Lievov rau- ol^eadai \aftovra' <$>vcret. Icrropiav Trepl Nt/cata? ia TroXea)? e/cSeScdKcos.

in despair. and to come on board his ship he put out to sea. he says. Euneos. and revealed his secret to one of his intimate friends. but actually sent him them presents. and he invited the one who brought she came on board. . fell in love with Antiope unbeknown to the rest. XXVI. else among those who shared his expedition took an Amazon captive. and that there chanced to be with him on this expedition three young men of Athens who were brothers. and made no denunciation to Theseus. including Pherecydes. after the time of Heracles. . say that Theseus made this voyage on his own account. he says. This last. and and this is the more took the Amazon captive For it is not recorded that any one probable story. 1-4 into the made a voyage Euxine Philochorus and sundry others say. spent some time in those parts. who positively repulsed the attempt upon her. says that Theseus. Thoas. who published a history of the Bithynian city of Nicaea. And a certain Menecrates. And Bion says that even this Amazon he took and carried off by means of a stratagem. The Amazons. Then Soloi's. on a campaign with Heracles against the Arnazons. and did not fly from Theseus when he touched upon their coasts. with Antiope on board his ship. That friend made overtures to Antiope. but treated the matter with discretion and gentleness. . Hellanicus. and received Antiope as a reward of his valour but the majority of writers. when he learned the fate of 59 . and Herodorus. and Solois. as also xxvi.THESEUS. were naturally friendly to men. threw himself into a river and drowned himself. and Theseus. He Sea.

teal GVV aurot? "Ep/jiov avBpa TO>V 'AOtjvrjaLv evTraTpiBwv a^>' ov Kal TOTTOV oi/ciav 6p6a)<$ TTJV TOU? Hv6o7ro\i. Kparovcrai 2 Trpoae/Jii^av. el /JL^ B6av XXVII. BevTepav avXkafirjv TreptcrTrcoz'Ta? errrl Oeov aTro r//owo? fieTaTiOevTas. Ylo\vv Be xpovov OKVO? r)v Kal /jL\\r)o~i(.Kal 5 povvTa \6yiov TL TTvOo^prjcTTOV dvevejKew eavTov eivai jap avTM TT p oarer ay/jievov ev AeX<ot? VTTO TT}? TlvOias.? dvia9f) \HTTa KOI TrepiXvTros <yevr)Tai. TT}? ^ayoa? aSew? Trj Trb\ei el /mev ovv. olov eVtcrTara? KOI vojjLoOeras. ov yap av ev acTTei KarecrTpaTOTreBevaav ovSe Trjv fid^rjv crvvrj^rav ev %p) Tcepl TJJV Tlvv/ca Kal TO Movcreiov. /3apea><i eve<yKeiv.7relv Be teal rou? dBeXcfrovs avTov. TTO\LV licel avrov etc Be rovrov rrjv /j.ev ovv TavTTfv 6 TMV 'Apa^ovcov TToXe/io? ecr^e' tyaiveTai Se /j.- Be 60 . rjv e/cncrev.Ta^. TW Ki/uL/jiepiKq) BocrTroyoco TrayevTt. orav eVi eV/.fj TOV veavicrKOv.rj <^av\ov avTou fjb^Be <yvvaiKelov yevecrdai TO epyov.v6o7To\iv Trpocrayopeva'ai. KCLTO. ovtc rrjv Tlpotyaaiv p. fiapTvpelTai Kal ToZ? ovofjiacn TWV TOTTOIV Kal rat? 0r)Kat. to? 'EXXa^i/co? i&ToprjKe.ev TroX-iv. d/jt. diro TOV Oeov Y\.\t.<$ TCOV ireaovTcov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES veaviGKOV TOV 770-60. ^oKoevra ^e TOV TrKrjcriov iroTa/jibv eVt TL/j. epjov earl TrtcrTevcrai' TO Be ev Ty 7ro\ei a"%e$bv ayra9 evaTpaTOTreBevaai. Siaftdcrai irepir)\9ov.

and the adjacent river. which they crossed on the ice. nor fought hand to hand battles in the neighbourhood of the Pynx and the Museum. in a strange land. in battle. From him also the Pythopolitans call a place in the city the syllable. For they would not have pitched their camp within the city. 61 . called it. they came round by the Cimmerian Bosporus. he should found a city there. then. xxvi. to be the city's presidents and law-givers. XXVII. Whether. had they not mastered the surrounding country and approached the city with impunity. he should be sorest vexed and full of sorrow. 4-xxvn. from the Pythian god. and in his distress called to mind a certain oracle which he had once received at Delphi. Now for a long time there was hesitation and delay on both sides in making the attack. Well. For it had there been enjoined upon him by the Pythian priestess that when. incorrectly changing 1 the second and transferring the honour from a hero to a god. one of the noblemen of Athens. House of Hermes. Solois. and it. as Hellanicus writes. 2 the young man. may be doubted but the fact that they encamped almost in the heart of the city is attested both by the names of the localities there and by the graves of those who fell .THESEUS. and with them Hermus. and leave some of his followers to govern For this cause he founded a city there. giving it the circumflex accent. such were the grounds for the war of the Amazons. now. and what had caused it. was grievously disturbed. but finally 1 Literally. which seems to have been no trivial nor womanish enterprise for Theseus. in honour of the young man. Pythopolis. And he left there the brothers of Solois.

62 . KOI rrjv crrrjKrfv rrjv Trapa TO T?}? 'OXu/z5 TTta? /6po^ 7rl ravrrj /celcrdat. OVK e Trecreiv rr^v (f>acn /nera rov dvOpw^rov VTTO oTrata? real /covnovtc a-Oelaav. rj avrals. e</>' fiev ovv /-td^rj Bo^S/30yu^coyo? eyevero ra Ror/Bpo/Aia Be ^XP 1 vvv 'A^^i^atot J.pvarav r\KG. TO iev eiTLorrpefpeLV TT/JO? TO vuv KO.iv. 3ovXo/-e^o?. Oavuacrrov eVt Trpdy/jiaa-iv ovrw TraXafot? rrjv iaropiav. rerdprw Se yu^^l avvOij/cas <yevecr0ai Sia TT)? 'iTTTToKvrrjv jap OUTO? ovoud^ei rrjv avvoLKOixjav. Trepl rrjv real Tatyovs rrjv TWV ireaovrwv TT\arelav elvai TO TruXa? vai Trapa fyepovcrav eVt Ta? 13 XaX/ccoSoz'TO? rjpcoov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES n 3 \6yiov r& ?. TcG Be Be^ica vryoo? rrjv Hvv/ca Kepas Kara TIJV ^. a7ro Be Tla\\a$iov /cal 'A/oo^TToO A:at Av/ceiov 7rpoa-/3a\6vTa$ wcracrOat. TO Se^iov avrcov a%pi rov arpaTOTreSov /cal TroXXa? Kara{3a\eiv. ravry TWZ/ ^vfjLevLBwv real vTro^wprjcrai Tat? /J-eXpt> ryvvai^lv. errel KOL Ta? rerpaj/nevas ecrrtv et? ' XaX/ctSa \ddpa vai nvas eicel rrepl TO I'l)^ Aaa^oveiov Ka\ovfJLevov. fid^eadai Be Trpo? rovro *K9rjvaiov<$ drrb rov Moycretou Tat? 'Ayita- o'V^irecrovia^.\OV^oveiov.aKpif3ovv ra evu>vvov rwv icrropei e/caara KXetS??/zo?. a? fcal 4 Tleipalfcas ovo^d^ovcn.

and slew many of them. oracle. And after three months. indeed. and that with their right they touched the Pnyx at Chrysa. in obedience to an This battle. not Antiope. Cleidemus. that with this left wing the Athenians fought. and some were buried there. we are also told that the . 2-5 Theseus. he says. a treaty of peace was made through the for Hippolyta is the name agency of Hippolyta which Cleidemus gives to the Amazon whom Theseus married.THESEUS. then. And it is not astonishing that history. engaging the Amazons from the Museum. down to the present time. joined battle with the women. But that the war ended in a 63 . Here. But some say that the woman was slain with a javelin by Molpadia. near what is now called the Amazoneum. xxvn. and that the graves of those who fell are on either side of the street which leads to the gate by the chapel of Chalcodon. who wishes to be minute. the Athenians celebrate the Boedromia. drove their right wing back as far as to their camp. and that the pillar which stands by the sanctuary of Olympian Earth was set up in her memory. should wander in uncertainty. while fighting at Theseus's side. which is now called the Peiraic gate. the Athenians were routed and driven back by the women as far as the shrine of the Eumenides. and were nursed there. wounded Amazons were secretly sent away to Chalcis by Antiope. he says. writes that the left wing of the Amazons extended to what is now called the Amazoneum. was fought on the day of the month Boedromion on which. when dealing with events of such great antiquity. after sacrificing to Fear. but those who attacked the invaders from the Palladium and Ardettus and the Lyceum.

OTTOV TO \eyeTai Be KCU Trepl Xaipu>veiav erepa? a /cal Tatyrjvai. co? Atftcov Be vvv Ka\iTai' Trepl wv ev TW Arj/j. Be /cal Meyapet? vwv Oi]Kr]v Trap avTois. l < TOV viov avTOv Bvo~TV%ia$. Treptfyav&s eoi/ce /JLV0M /cal T?}? Be 'Az/Tiovr?.. Atj/Aoficovra.. /JLCV. @6/o/AcoS&)z. QaiSpav TT}? 'Ai/TiOTTT/? eTUTiQejAevi]? /cal avTr/s ^AjJLa^ovwv d/JLWOjJievwv /cal 2 TrXaayzcm. SeLKVVovai. re TOV TOTTOV TOV irapa tf TO rjaelov. errl TOV Ka\ov/Jievov 'Povv fta&i^ovaiv % dyopds. e^wv viov lTnr6\VTOV e^AvTLOTrr}<.<ret ^ovcov eTcavdo'Taciv yeypatye. &>? Be ra? Be Trepl TavTrjv TlivBapos (f)r)(Ti. aura? 'Hyoa/cXeof?.ao<j Trpo 'Ay 6 rjo~L(0v. TaOra TCOV 'A/jLa^ovwv. re fyivo/. eirel pijBev dvTi- 64 .. Tcapa TO pev^aTLOv o ird\ai eoi/ce. fyalvovrai Be /jirjBe Oovcrai' Tacfioi <ydp Trepl TTJV %eGcra\iav dirpajiJiovw^ at 'Ayu-a^o^e? Bie\avT&v ert KOI vvv ^KOTOvaaiav /cal ra? Kuj'o? / XXVIII. ovTrep 'Op/caj/j-ocriov KaKovcnv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES d\\d TOV 76 TOP ftapTvpiov earns Tr6\e/JLov et? r\ cnrovBa^ K\f)cri<.iev^ Tcd\ai Ovcrla rat? 'A//. TJV fjiev ovv aia /jLVij/jLrjs Trepl yap 6 TTJS Srjcr^iBo 7.0(r6ei>ov<i /3iq> yeypairTai.? aTroOavovo'^ eyijfjte QaiBpav.

but also by the sacrifice which. and he had a son by Antiope. 3 Thessaly was traversed by the Amazons without opposition. Hippolytus. may have 4 3 In a not xix. on the way from the market-place to the 2 2 stands. for Amazonian graves are to this day shown in the vicinity of Scotussa and Cynoscephalae. indeed. 2. when Theseus married Phaedra. then. was called Thermodon. " Rhomboid" been an irregular mound. And the Megarians. marry Phaedra. as Pindar says. as it seems. that others of them died near Chaeroneia." written by the author of the Thesei'd. place called Rhus. Stream. was offered to the Amazons before the festival of Theseus. 5-xxvin. Chapter passage a 1 From " 65 . Antiope and the Amazons who fought to avenge her attacked him. city once flowed this way. ties which befell Phaedra and the son of Theseus by Antiope.THESEUS. since there is no conflict here between the oaths of ratification." because water from the mountains above the The Pausanias. is worthy of mention For the " Insurrection of regarding the Amazons. and were slain by Heracles. has every appearTheseus did. extant. the Amazons. Haemon I . solemn treaty xxvn. which is called 1 Horcomosium. 2 is attested not only by the naming of the place adjoining the Theseum. but nowadays. show a place in their country where Amazons were buried. xli. in ancient times. in ancient times. So much. i. 4 As for the calamior. likewise. telling how. but this was after the death of Antiope. and were buried on the banks of the little stream which. concerning which names have written in my Life It appears also that not even of Demosthenes. Demophoon. too. XXVIII. ance of fable and invention. where the Rhomboid And it is said.

/cal ^IvLV aTTOKreivas /cal Kep/cvova (TwyyevecrOai /3ia rat? ftoiav Trjv Ovyarpaaiv avrcov yrj/mat Se /cal ATa^ro? /jurfrepa /cal <&epe/3oiav 1 Tlepiav6i<$ 2 Kal 'lojrrjv TTJV 'I^i/cXeou? Kal Sia TOV epwra T?}? TlavoTrecos. Kal eTepoi. TTJV /zr/ a7r6\Gi^rLV al-riwvTai eirl Ka\rjv yevecrBai Tracrt Se TTJV .14 Kal Ka\ov? a9\ov<$ KaTepydaacrOai./jLd^ov Be-rj. avveTrpa^e Be Kal 'ABpd<TT<p dvaipeaiv T&V VTTO KaS/teta 7reo~6vTCov t 66 . Xeyerat. Trepl yd/jiwv TTJV cr/cijvrjv SiairefavyoTes. Kal TOV <f "AXXo? OUTO? 777 'Hioa/cX-i}?" \6yov eV 4 Kivov Tr/v KpaTrjcrai. axrTrep eipijrat. dereov o>9 eicelvoi TceTroirjKacnv aTravr XXIX. oure OVTB euTV^elf Tehevras %ovrS jap 'A^a^co Tiva iLpoityjviav dpirdcrat. TToXXw^ Be Tore rot? apiGTOi? a6\wv TOV a\\a ' fjLovoi^ Aavrt^at? IJLGTCL TT}? eTepoi Be Kal 'Ida-ovos ev crvve%e\elv TOV Kairpov Kal Bta TOVTO Tcapoi/JLiav elvai TIJV " OVK avev Kal MeXeaypw avTov pevToi /ArjSevbs a-v/j. EiVl fievTOi \6yot. (f)vyr)v Kal o\e9pov reXevrrjcrar Trepl avrw wv o\iyov 3 varepov elprja-erai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES rrapa TWV crTOpiKwv rot? rpayi/cos.

a maiden of Troezen. The 2 In quest of the golden fleece. ! 1 Chapter xx. XXIX. and lope. without asking for any ally. and Phereboea afterwards. performed many glorious exploits. and to have brought about at last his banishment and death. and that hence arose the proverb "Not without Theseus" that he himself. which was not honourable nor even decent and finally. . historians xxvin. but others say that he was not only with Jason at Colchis.THESEUS. 2-xxix. the mother of Aias. 2 but helped Meleager to slay the Calydonian boar. Of the many exploits performed in those days by the bravest men. Herodorus thinks that Theseus took part in none. the daughter of Iphicles . however. citadel of Thebes. 3 1. He also aided Adrastus in recovering for burial the bodies of those who had fallen before the walls of the Cadmeia. other stories also about marriages of Theseus which were neither honourable happened in their beginnings nor fortunate in their endings. There are. as I have already said. For instance. . he is accused of the desertion of Ariadne. we must suppose that they as represented by the poets uniformly. his rape of Helen is said to have filled Attica with war. 4 and tragic poets. and because of his passion for Aegle. but these have not been dramatised. of which things I shall speak a little later. however. he is said to have carried off Anaxo. and that the phrase " Lo another Heracles " became current with reference to him. except that he aided the Lapithae in their war with the Centaurs . the daughter of 1 Panopeus. and after slaying Sinis and Cercyon to have also to have married ravished their daughters Periboea. 3 not by mastering the . .

'HpaK\rj<. irpwev rot? Trepl vs yeypaiTTai.evov. e/cwv 3 'E/e Be rovrov yajjicov 6 TleipiOovs &r)lBd/j. TWV Se rj J E. ev ol? KOI 6 T/crei. TOV ^creco? e\0elv teal rrjv ^wpav laro- 68 .eiav. 'IfceTiSayv ol Kara/uaprupovaL Se rwv Atcr^uXow 'EXeucrmot.? Tavra \eya)v TreTrot^Tat. &)? Be elbev arereal po? TOI^ erepov teal TO /caXXo? e^au/zacre Be Trporepos rrjv Se^idv Trporeiva^ eKe\evaev avrov rov jap v(j)e^eiv rjv av 6pio~rj SLKTJV tyrj&eus Be KOI rrjv BLKIJV d(j)rj/cev avrw teal irpovKa\elro <j)i\ov elvai teal crvfAfiaxov eTronjcravro Be rijv (j)i\iav evop/cov.eu#e/3GU5 Seircvvvrai. o 2 aXX* ai/acrTyoe-x^a? dTrrjVTrjcrev. rreiaa^ real ovrw <yap ol TT\elcrrot Xeyoucrr Be KCL ^ <TTrovBa$ Trepl ve/cpcov dvaipecrews 5 yevecrOai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 0)5 EvpnriBrjs fe ' eTTOirjcrev ra)v rj/3aiO)v par ij eras.. TCKfral &e T&V f^ev TTO\ev 'EA. on e TO? a7reBu)K6 ve/cpovs rot? TroXeyLttot?. XXX.\evcriva. Trpcoras e/ceivas. ^Xacraro fiovs ex Ma/9a$coi>o? avrov. 7rl p^/J'rj KOI dvSpeia /jLeyLar^v j3ov\6/jLevos ovv Hetpidovs e^e\ey^ai KOI Xa/3et^ SiaTreipav. Trjv Be 7T/30? TletpiOovv <f>i\iav rovrov S6av el^ei^ rov rpoTrov aurw <yevecr@ai \e<yovcri. teal TOVTO %r]aiw^ ^apua a jj. aXXa ev rpaywBia. /cal Trvdofjievo^ SiwKeiv yuera TWV OTT\WV e/ceivov OVK ecfivyev.

bade Theseus himself be judge of his robbery. G53 S. 1 69 . ' 2 Not extant. he drove Theseus's cattle away from Marathon. Thebans in but by xxix. although in the accounts of Heracles it is written that Heracles was the first to give back their dead to his enemies. and Peirithoiis. and Philochorus adds that this was the first truce ever made for recovering the bodies of those slain in battle. 3 1 battle. Accordingly. and Peirithoiis was desirous of making test and proof of it. for he would willingly submit to any penalty which the other might assign. and those of the commanders near Eleusis. account of Euripides in his "Suppliants" 2 is disproved " 3 where Eleusinians. Suppliants. he did not fly. When. stretching out his hand the first. Theseus had a very great reputation for strength and bravery. XXX. The friendship of Peirithoiis and Theseus is said to have come about in the following manner. as Euripides has it in his tragedy. Verses 1213 ff. a for so truce most to them ." by that of Aeschylus in his Theseus is made to relate the matter as above. and when he learned that their owner was pursuing him in arms. however. Then Theseus not only remitted his penalty. persuading writers say. they refrained from battle. 4-xxx. but turned back and met him.THESEUS. After this. their friendship with oaths. each beheld the other with astonishment at his beauty and admiration of his daring. when Peirithoiis was about to marry Deidameia. and this last burial was a The favour which Theseus showed to Adrastus. And the graves of the greater part of those who fell before Thebes are shown at Eleutherae. but invited him to be a friend and brother in arms whereupon they ratified . he asked Theseus to come to the wedding.

errpa^e ra f rrepl rr^v EXe^.i/. Troirjadfievov epyov evrv^eiv avrS) ircpl yevecrdai 5 Be fJLera Ti/zi}? KOI (j)i\o<ppocrvvT]$ <rr]V Kal TroXXwv 7raiv(ov ttyLi(/>OTe/509 TI<? aXXa yuaXXoi^ av ov evrev^tv. aAXa TOI) TroXe/jiov rbv Srjaea ftoriOovvra Tot? Aavrt^at? iraparyevecrOai.crea)9 TroXe/uw /cparrjcravTes v&repov e^efiaXov eV ^co/jo.Ta)?.6is a^ouX^TOu?.ev eKTeivav CLVTWV. co? 'EXXai/t/co?. avjols 'HpoSwydo? Se ravra iv ou% oi. rov 4 (rvfjL7ro\e/jLOvvTO$. Kal rare Trpwrov o-^rei yvcopicrat TOV . &>? Be rjcreXyatvov vfipet. evioi \eyovcnv OVK avrov dprrdaai rrjv 'EXe^z'. erpdirovro 7T/90? apvvav Kal TOU? p. 7rpba")(Oi Tot? TroXXaATt? TTJV auTOu? 'HpaK\el yevecrQai aXXr^Xoi? iaropovcri' Kal Qrjcrecos (nrovB ct>9 Kal rov Trpo T-^5 yLtu?.?. ervy^ave Be KOI TOU? Kez>Tau/5ou? KetcXrjKais errl TO Belrrvov. (frrjaiv "HS?? 5e irevrriKOVTa err) yeyovw?. XXXI. oOev ft>9 ^^ fAeyurrov erravopQov- rovro r&v eyK^/adrcov. aXXa "I5a Kal Auy/ceco? apTracrdvrwv rrapaKaraOrjKyv \aftovra rrjpetv Kal pr) Trpoiea-flai TO?? arrairovdiv rj vi] Ata 70 . ou /ea#' &pav.crect)? Kadapfiov Bid vivas 7rpdj. Kal fJieOvovres OVK arcel- XOVTO B ru>v ol AaTTiOai' yvvaiK&v. TOU? ?. pevoi.PLUTARCH'S LIVES prj<rai Kal a-vyyevecrOai TO?? AarrLOais.

that her own father. the Lapithae took vengeance upon them. XXXI. Herodorus. her brothers. And when these were flown with insolence and wine. friendliness. when he took part in the rape of Helen. and that it was at the instigation of Theseus that Heracles was initiated into the mysteries at Eleusis. and generous praise. where the hero was already his wandering and labours . however. i and see the country. his first sight of Heracles. who was not of marriageable age. Some of them they slew upon the spot. Theseus was already fifty years old.THESEUS. he received her in charge and watched over her and would not surrender her to the Dioscuri l when they demanded her or. according to Hellanicus. Tyndareiis. 3-xxxi. having made it his business to seek him out resting from at Trachis. Wherefore some writers. . and purified before his initiation. when he requested it on account of sundry rash acts. xxx. the rest they afterwards overcame in war and expelled from the country. if you will believe it. say that he did not carry off Helen himself. and become acquainted with the Now he had invited the Centaurs also to Lapithae. Notwithstanding. the wedding feast. 71 . thinking to correct this heaviest accusation against him. and he says the interview passed with mutual expressions of honour. says that this was not how it happened. 1 Castor and Pollux. and laid hands upon the women. one might better side with those historians who say that the heroes had frequent interviews with one another. but that the war was already in progress when Theseus came to the aid of the Lapithae and that on his way thither he had . but that when Idas and Lynceus had carried her off. Theseus fighting with them at the banquet and in the war.

evos. auro9 Be TIeipiOfp rrjv \av9dveiv rou9 a\~ vTrovpyiav a Ovyarepa TOV MoXocrcrwy /3aoY\ea>9. eVl ravrais Be K\rjpovTafr ojjioXoyia^ e\a^e ijcrev$' KOI irapaKo/j. 'AcpiBvq) 4 TrapeBoy/cev /cal Bta- v\drreLV Xou9. TW Be /cvvl Kepfiepov. Ilereco TOV . Be darepa) /jLevwv ^a^ov a\\ov. Be 7r\eio~TOV<.15 vr)Gov eiroir^cravTO crvvOijKa^. 09 rfj >yvvanci ^epa-e^ovrfv ovo^a 6ep. XXXII. (Bia^o^evov TTJV teal \afBelv. roiavTa 669 ^Trdprrjv a^orepoi KCU Trjv 'Apre/u&o? 'QpOias ^opevovcrav etpvyov TWV Be TrefJLffrOevrwv eVl TTJV ov Troppcorepa) Teyea? 7raKO\ou07j(rdvrwv t ev dSeia jevo^evoi /cal $ie\06vT$ rrjv TleXoTrov. <>o/37. 701)9 TralBa /cal \afteiv TOV /cpaTrj^ivTOi Trepl TOV Tleipitfovv ov arvve\a/36' /cal TOV j^ev HetpiOovv ev6v<$ rj Bid TOV KVVOS. <9 eTTt^e/tez/o? dvOpwTTcov TW Brj/JLaycayeiv /cal 72 . TOV lep^o ev K\ripw 3 T7]V 'ILXevrjv e%et. ovcrav el/cora ecrTtv. T&-Opt]v Be TTJ flwyarpi.PLUTARCH'S LIVES CLVTOV. e/ce\6ue rovrw Bia/jLd%a0ai TOV$ fJLVWfJLevov^ Tr)v cravTa.icre' \a(Bu>v ir}v TrapOivov OVTTW ydfjLcov <opav /cal TTJV ^re ovn ^>i\w. TOV Be rycrea KaOeip^as e(f)V\aTTV.(9fcVro9 'Qvapcrfyopov TOV T09 en vrjTTiav TO.v <yvvaiKa. 'Ev Be TW -)(povw TOVTW ^leveaOev^ o 'Qpvecos TOV 'E/3ex#6&)9 TrpWTOs.

mother a companion of the girl. pursuers followed them no farther than Tegea. with which beast he ordered that all suitors of his daughter should fight. Peirithoiis he put out of the way at once by means of the dog. made a compact with one another that the one on whom the lot fell should have Helen to wife.THESEUS. who sought to take Helen by But the most force while she was yet a child. who was not yet ripe for marriage. and so the two friends. and his dog Cerberus. and taking the maiden. With this mutual understanding they cast lots. XXXII. Meanwhile Menestheus. is as follows. as they say. grandson of Orneus. and that which has the most witnesses in its favour. with strict orders to guard them in complete secrecy. However. he seized them both. journeyed with him to Epirus. promising her to him that should overcome it. when he learned that Peirithoiis and his friend were come not to woo. the son of Peteos. and committed both to Aphidnus. probable account. 2-xxxn. when they had passed through Peloponnesus and were out of danger. Then he himself. but to steal away his daughter. the first of men. a friend of his. and great-grandson of Erechtheus. the son of Hippocoon. Here he made his conveyed her to Aphidnae. seized the girl as she was dancing in the temple of Their Artemis Orthia. his daughter Cora. T entrusted her to Theseus. This man called his wife Phersephone. and Theseus won. Theseus and Peirithoiis went to Sparta in company. and fled away with her. to affect popularity 73 . but Theseus he kept in close confinement. but should assist the other in getting another wife. xxxi. in quest of the daughter of Aidoneus the king of the Molossians. for fear of Enarsphorus. to return the service of Peirithoiis.

a/a9 eyevovro.evov dTroftXeTrcocri. rfj$ 'A/caBr)/j. o Be At/catap^o9 ^crt ' /cal MapdQov crvcrrparevcrdvrwv Eekker. els ev acrrv a-vveip^avra irai/ras v7n]Kooi. fypd^et.TTi/cr)v ef^l3a\6vTe<.eias 4 dTrefyovTO Bid rbv 'A/caS^yttoi/. c5 Brj rtvi rpOTTOp rrjv ev *A. Be aurot9 'A/ca- os . Sintenis 1 . after with Coraes. and Xylander : 74 .<i ^priaOai /ecu SouXoi?.<f>LBvais rt/jial ^WVTL irapd /cal 7roXA.evov e/cd(TTOV ra)v Kara Bfj/Aov evTraTp&wv. raOra Be Trpay/jLareuo/jievov /neydXrjv poTrrjv o TTOvecoTepicr/jira TrpoaefajKe. vcrrepov TvvBapiBwv o9ev e/ceivw re rrjv 'A. a)? ovap e\ev6epia<$ opwvras.\et7rrai. Aa/ceBai/j.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 7T/?o9 xdpiv O%\M BiaXeyeaQai. d^e\^>t]v.6vioi /cal Tracrav O/JLOV rrjv %a)pav refjivovres. ^09 7ro\ejiiov erpaTrovro. Xeyu.o9 TW rwv TvvSapiftwv VTTO 7re\d6vTcov ol Be /cal 0X0)9 (j>aa-lv TOVTOV To Trjv fJLev ovv 7rpo)TOV ovBev rjBi/covv. rovs re TroXXou? SierdparrG KCU Sie/3a\\ev. ird\ai ^apvvo^evov<. dTroKpiva^ivtov Be rwv a\X* dirprovv ev darei pyre fyeiv 3 fji^re yivwa-rceiv OTTOV Kara\. OTTO)? avT\ 7ro\\wv eva Se- dyadwv avrov /cal yvij&icav ^8acrt\6&)^ 77/009 2 crTTorrjv Trr[\vv KOLI t. TOP Srjcrea real vofiL^ovra^ dp)(rjv KOI ftaai\eiav d<pypr)/j. rou? re Bvvarovs a-vviarrj /cal Trapio^vve. prjfjievovs TrarpiScov teal epjy oe aTrecrre- KOL lep&v.

and then shut them all up in a single where he treated them as subjects and slaves. The common people also he threw into commotion by his reproaches. stirred up and embittered the chief men in Athens. xxxn. they spared But the Academy. the people of the city replied that they neither had the she had been left. Dioscuri. who had learned in some to war. they . 8. however. he said. xiii. told them about it. 2 3 Or A 75 . way or other of her concealment at Aphidnae. they did no harm. of Athens. chapter xxiv. but in reality they had been robbed of their native homes and religions in order many good kings of their own might look obediently to one master who was an immigrant and an alien.W. For this reason he was honoured during his life by the Tyndaridae. While he was thus busying himself. about a mile N. city. They thought they had a vision of liberty. Castor and Pollux. some writers say outright that he persuaded the invaders to come. 1-3. 1 Cf.THESEUS. but simply demanded back their sister. then. When. 1-4 and ingratiate himself with the multitude. 3 for the sake of Academus. and often afterwards when the Lacedaemonians invaded Attica and laid waste all the country round about. Here Plato and his disciples taught. shady precinct near the river Cephissus. At first. they resorted girl nor knew where But Academus. These had long been hostile to Theseus. in the place of blood. and thought that he had robbed each one of the country nobles of his 1 royal office. the Tyndaridae 2 came up against the city. See Plutarch's Cimon. and the war greatly furthered his seditious schemes indeed. Dicaearchus says that Echedemus and Marathus of that.

epaprvpet.apvd/A6vov Kreivev. /jLijSev rjrrov 'H^oa- 7rpocr'/)Kovr<i. ev vpv%pci) IT or T/creu? 'EAe^?. eVeicre TO^ Sfjfjiov 6 M. ^creco? CLVTOV irepl 'Hyoea? 8' LTTO cnroOavelv rbv "A\VKOV laroprj/ce. rov crco/^aro? vra(pevTO$. crvcrTparare roi? AioaKovpois.v eiVo? avrov re fi))repa /ca ra? XXXIII.cret rcov Be d\\a)v evepyeras ij^iwcrav ovra? /cal dvOp(t)7ra)v /cal crwrripas.? even? Ov j. Se avry ra Trap 2 /eXeou? 1 etceivwv ovftev yap drcdvrwv 16 rovro ovv /cparovvres rfj aXV 7r6\ei 77 ^vrjO^vat. 7ro\e/novvra$. a>? fjiovay @>. /cal liaprvpia ravrl ra eirrj Trape^erai irepl ro rv /j.eve- o~6%(T0aL rfj rroXei KOI TvvSapioas. /cal 76 . dfi ov /cal TOTTOV Ka\eicr0ai. e 'A/o/caSi'a?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES rore rot? TvvBapiSais . 'EX-^oyre? ouy eVl ra? 'A^tSra? /cai 5 tcpaTija-avres /cal evravOd e^el\ov TO 'XU>PLOV. "A\VKov Trecrelv rbv ^/ceipcovos viov. a<* ov Trpoa-ayopevdijvai rrjv vvv aft ov Be WlapaO&va rbv &r}[Moi>. rwv 'E%o/jieva)V &' ovv rwv 'A<j)iSvcov /cal ev acrrei SeSiorwv. eavrbv eKovcrifos xard irpo TT}? n \6yiov a- Trapara^eco?.

i. the son of Sciron. To Aphidnae. cites in proof these verses about Alycus : "whom once in the plain of Aphidnae. Theseus. but were benefactors and saviours of the rest of mankind. among others Alycus. Slew. since they were waging war upon Theseus alone. 4 -xxxm. since in accordance with some oracle he voluntarily gave himself to be sacrificed in front of the line of battle. xxxn. won a pitched Here they say that battle. Where he was fighting. and stormed the town. 77 . who was at that time in the army of the Dioscuri. from the first of whom the present Academy was named Echedemia. XXXIII. they came. 2 Arcadia were in the army of the Tyndaridae at that time. VOL. but Menestheus persuaded its people to receive the Tyndaridae into the city and show them all manner of kindness. was slain. for although they were masters of everything. and Alycus was slain at Aphidnae by Theseus himself." However. then. And their behaviour confirmed his assurances. the township of Marathon. since they were no less closely allied to the city than This privilege was accordingly granted Heracles. who had committed the first act of violence. At any rate. Aphidnae was taken and the city of Athens was full of fear. and that from him a place in Megara where he was But Hereas writes that buried is called Alycus.THESEUS. ravisher of fairhaired Helen. it is not likely that Theseus himself was present when both his mother and Aphidnae were captured. and from the other. they demanded only an initiation into the mysteries.

PLUTARCH'S LIVES cturoi?.a rrjv e7rL/jLe\.? dvafcws >yap e^eiv TOU? e7rifjLe\o/jLvov<. *AvaKe<> TrpocrayopevOevTes.<j)iSvov Troirj&a/Aevov llvXto? HpaK\ea' Kal Ttyita? Icrodeovs ecr%ov. "EKTopa 7ro\iv \a(3ovTa BiapTrdaai Kal with Bekker : ev @6or<raA((j. TOV ^rrepxeiov. Sia/3dX\ova-i Kal ov 2 Trjv Kpv(j)a TKovcrr)<s ev 'iXtw iSiov Se nva Kal TTapr)\\eyovcriv.m.eiav Kal K^e^ovlav TOV evSov rj iraOelv arpancts TOcrauT?. \a<yjjivov oXco? \6yov o "IcrT/ao? eV rfj rpiaKai- AWpav BeKarr) rwv 'A. 67recr0ai rfj 'E T&V . elcrl Be ol \eyovres Sia rrjv dcrrepcov liri^dveiav "Am/ca? ovo/jidTO <ydp ava> TOU? 'ArTf^ou? dveKa*. T&V iv @fffffa\la 73 . r *A. XXXIV. OTLOVV Kal TOL/? /SacrtXei? fcrco? Sia rovro tcakovcnv. &e TTJV rjcrews ^rjrepa <yevorov d7raj(6rjvaL \e<yovcriv et? Aa/cetcdiceWev et9 Tpoiav /uera ^EXeV^?' KOI ripov. a>? eviwv \eyovToyv 'A\J.Ka)V dvacfrepei Trepl AWpas. r) Bia ra? yevo/jbevas o>9 dvo~)(as ' r) 8t. AWpav . AWprjv ritT^?}o? dvyarpa CTTOS KXv/jievrjv re Ol Be /cal Tovro TO v /ULV& o\o<yiav . ovo/col dve/caOev TO dvwOev.av$pov /lev TOV Yldpiv ev Be Trapa cov Tldpiv Tlapiv.

" either on account of their stopping hostilities." " that the Tyndaridae were called " Anakes because of the appearance of their twin stars in the heavens. that Alexander (Paris) was overcome in battle by Achilles and Patroclus in Thessaly. divergent story about Aethra is given by Ister in the thirteenth book of his " Attic History. as They also obtained Pylius had adopted Heracles. and were addressed as "Anakes. 79 . and from thence to 1 Troy with Helen. after they had been adopted by Aphidnus. for the phrase "anakos large army " is used of such as care echein for. and perhaps it is for this reason that kings are There are also those who say called "Anaktes. iii. or because of their diligent care that no one should be injured.THESEUS. xxxin. and that Homer bears witness to this when he mentions as followers of Helen : f< Aethra of Pittheus born. along the banks of the Spercheius." signifying above or on high. was carried away to Lacedaemon." But some reject this verse of Homer's. Theseus. They say that Aethra. " " since the Athenians use "anekas and "anekathen for "ano" and "anothen. and carried 1 Iliad. and Clymene large-eyed and lovely. who was born in secret to Laodice from Demophoon. he says. although there was such a within the city. or guard anything. as well as the legend of Munychus. the mother of who was taken captive at Aphidnae. XXXIV." Some write. 2-xxxiv. and whom Aethra helped But a very peculiar and wholly to rear in Ilium. honours like those paid to gods. but that Hector took and plundered the city of Troezen. 144. 2 them.

crea rrepl rc\eov TleiplQov ej/ca^wv. rov Be.e\ova"r)s arcavra /cal Trpocrrjjopevcrev KaOiepwae rw dvrl Srjcreicov 'Hpa- tcXeia. rrporepov apyeiv Kal Ka9r)<yeicr0ai Trecre rov /cal rapa%d$. tyofielo'Qai TOJ fjnarelv rrpoa'BijfjLO) TW TTO\V TO Bie(j)0ap- 6eparrevecr6ai (BovKofjievov dvrl 3 TOV rroielv criwirfj TO Trpoararro/^evov.i- rovro bi>T09 XXXV. 80 . TO fca\ov/^6vov 'Apartfpiov..evos. et9 3*rcvpov 1 avdis Coraes. erravr)\6e fjiev ovBeTrco rfavrdrraari real rwv <f)i\wv re/ievr. a-wyxwprfaavTOS Be rov 'AtScoz/eco?. avrou /ceKparrj- oaa vjrrjp^e rrporepov avrw vroXect)? ej..^eipwv ovv /3ideo~0ai /careB^/jiajcDyelro teal /careuraopcov /cal fjuev /cal Te'Xo9 drroyvovs ra Trpdjfjiara TOU9 TraiBas et9 Evftoiav VTre^eTre/ji^e 77/909 'EXeavros Be Tapyrjrroi (J)i']vopa rov XaX/ca)So^TO9.6ov 6 'Hpa/cX^?. 'AiBwvecos Be rov MoXoo-crou /cat TO>Z> 7re/)l 'H/jatfXe'a TO^ 7)o~ea /cal Kara rv^rjv fJLVTjaOevTos. Xue/9 Ta? 'A^^i/a?. ov vvv ecrri crid^ero. KOI a fywpaOevres erraOov. a>9 av0L<. rc\'r)V recrcrdpwv. wero Troiijcreiv ?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES rrjv AWpav fjiev aTrdyeiv efcei Kara\ei$>6el<jav* aXXa ez. after Reiske : evOvs (at once). TleipiQovv e%et TroXkrjv dX. /card rwv 'AQrjvaicov dpa<$ 0e/j.ev aTToXcoXoro? a5o /cal ovSev rov Be a7roX\. ^et? 6 r)crev<. em.oyiav. a re rrpd- rj\.v/jLevov. ev Be TroXirev/Jiaros et9 ardcrei^ eve01)9 p<v aTreXtTre fjuaovvras yur? avrov evpia'Kwv TO ra<. fiapea? rov p. l Be /3ovXo/ze^o9 a>9 OiXo^o/309 IcrroprjKev. Trapyrelro /cal %/?> rj^iov ravrqv avrw 2 So0r)vai.

Theseus was set free. and called them Heracleia instead of Theseia. Now while Heracles was the guest of Ai'doneus the Molossian. and finally. how- very doubtful. XXXV. As for Peirithoiis. as Philochorus writes. Aidoneus yielded to his prayers. where his friends were not yet altogether overwhelmed. 3 left there. Heracles was greatly distressed by the inglorious death of the one. 1 sailed 1 away to the island of Scyros. the place of prayer. to force his wishes upon them. the son of Chalcodon. and by the impending death of the other. telling what they had come there to do. he now dedicated to Heracles. where there is to this day the place called Araterion.THESEUS. That is. or cursing. had now added to their hatred contempt. 2-xxxv. and demanded that this favour be granted him. away Aethra. who had been This. and to direct the state. he sent his children away privately into Euboea. despairing of his cause. they were told to do. then. is xxxiv. Attempting. but he begged for the release of Theseus. to Elephenor. and he saw that a large part of the people were corrupted. four only excepted. All the sacred precincts which the had previously set apart for himself. and what they had suffered when they were found out. ever. after invoking curses upon the Athenians at Gargettus. and returned to Athens. while he himself. he became involved in factions and disturbances he found that those who hated him when he went away. he was overpowered by demagogues and factions. and wished to be cajoled into service instead of doing silently what city . But when he desired to rule again as before. the king incidentally spoke of the adventure of Theseus and Peirithoiis. he thought it useless to complain. 81 .

PLUTARCH'S LIVES CLVT(0 7T/DO? TOU5 K6L <^Xta9. fo)9 C06TO. 6 Be AVKOeVt rou? 'AOyvaiovs. XXXVI. r)v Be Kal Xaftelv diropia Kal yvwvai TOV rd(f>ov dfM^i VOIKOVVTO)V AoXo7TO)Z/. %pbvoi<s a>? 8' vcnepov aXXa TWV T6 Trapecrrrja-ev ev M. etre 7rl ra d/cpa TT}? ^co dvayaywv y?. e(Ba(ri\eve Be Tore TWV ^Kupicov. f avrov. /tera 17 5 Selirvov.GVos. wcTTrep elwOei. eir iSei^cov S' a<^> eavTOv Trecreiv fyacri afycLkivra. OV Hvdia rd @77<re&)9 82 . e7rave\6bvre<$ avrol rrjv /3aa-i~\. &)? e/celdev were Kara rcov TOU? Trerpwv Kal Sie<p06ipev. So^av rov dvSpos. ev T VY](iw Trarpcov. TrepLiraTovvra.apadcoi'i OVK O\LJOL (frda/jia r^a-ea)? ev 077X0^9 Kadopdv Trpo avTcov eVl TOU? fiapftdpow? fyepbfjievov. ap%oz^T05 jjiavrevofievoi^ rot? 'AOrfvaiois dvefkev 77 dva\afBelv ourd Kal Oe/Jievovs evrljAws irap avrolv <j)v\aTreiv. Merd Be rd M^BiKa $>ai8uvo<.evecr0ei %apiop. fBoriOeiv eire Setcra? rrjv M. /caroi/crjcrcov' Trpos rovrov ovv co? evuot Se (fracri irapaKaXelv avrov fjir)$r]s.eiav dvefcofLi(javTO. rifca fjiev KOI TrapauouSet? ea"%ev avrov \6yov ov&eva ol Be e/cel Be MevecrQeco? crvvecrTpdTevcrav et? "\\iov.

while the sons of Theseus. . however. To him therefore Theseus applied with the request that his lands should be restored to him. say that he slipped and fell down of himself while walking there after supper. And after the Median wars. they came back by themselves and recovered their kingdom. however. In after times. priestess to take up the bones of Theseus. as men of private accompanied Elephenor on the expedition to Ilium but after Menestheus died there. 15. i where the people were friendly to him. and where he had ancestral estates. Some. But it was difficult to find the grave and take up the bones. 4. threw him down the cliffs. 1 XXXVI. the Athenians were moved to honour Theseus as a demigod. give them honourable burial at Athens. Tausanias. in the 2 archonship of Phaedo. as was At the time 110 one made any account his custom. xxxv. and guard them there. either against the Athenians. a 476-475 B. as he thought. especially by the fact that many of those who fought at Marathon against the Medes thought they saw an apparition of Theseus in arms rushing on in front of them against the Barbarians. 83 . 1 Cf. when the Athenians were consulting the oracle at Delphi. Now Lycomedes was at that time king of Scyros. because he feared a man of such fame. they were told by the Pythian. or as a favour to Menestheus. though some say that he asked his aid But Lycomedes.C. station. of his death. on pretence of showing him from thence his lands. since he was going to dwell there. i. because of the inhospitable and savage nature of the Dolopians. 3-xxxvi. but Menestheus reigned as k-ng at Athens. and killed him. led him up to the high places of the land.THESEUS.

KOI /celrai yvjjivdcriov. fievrj ^a\Krj KOI Ki/Awvps KOfJLiaOevrwv Be TOVTCOV rpiripovs.i/ji(i)V e\cov rrjv vrfcrov. to? (j)acrL. Be Tim Tvyri 0/j/crj re fj. a>? KOI rov ^crew? 'jrpocnarLKOV TWOS KOL OVGICLV Be rroiovaiv 3 TWV TCLTTeivoTepwv Tr]v Berjcreis.e<yd\ov crwjjLaros al^^j re Trapa/cei^t(/)09. yap TloceiBuva Tat? .? eTravrjXOev. fjLeyiar^v r)l0ecov etc a TWV oyBoy Tlvave'tyiwvos. KCLI o>? ev rot? rrepl eiceivov yeypaTTTai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES a\\a K. ro) (jro/xart /cat SfacrreXXo^TO? rot? crUyLt^po^J/cra? avecTKa^rev. co? [(TToptj/ce AtoScopo? o Trj ^7 vofjLi^ovTes eTepou paXXov e/c e/ceivq) TOV 4 <yeyovevcu apidfiov TOVTOV /ecu HocreiBfJovos \eyo/jLeva). etc Bia TO Trpwrov oyBorj Tpoifjvos d(f)i.Kecr0ai.. fjiev ev pecry Be ry irokei Trapa TO al/cercus ecm (pv^L/jiov KOI Trdcri rot? TCLTreivoTepois KOI BeBioai KpeiTTOvas. ev fj ov p^v K/)r. (/uXoTt/zoi^ctez/o? e^avev- GL6TOV TLVa TOTTOV fioVVOei) K07TTOVTOS.T7. Xa/jLirpats VTTO eVt TT}? ^crOevre^ ol re eBe^avro KOI wcTTrep CLVTOV eTravep^o^evov et? TO acrrv. TOV 'EtKarofA/Baicovos. 2 Beta. TJ d\\a Kal Tai? aXXat? oyBoais TL/uwaiv CLVTOV.

on the eighth day of the month Hecatombaeon. 17.THESEUS. By some divine ordering he comprehended the meaning of this and dug there. . i. saw an eagle in a place where there was the semblance of a mound. 1. the day on which he came back from Crete with the But they honour him also on the eighth youths. a bronze spear lying by its side. pecking. either because he came to Athens in the first place. However. and a sword. as I have related in his Life. as though Theseus himself were returning And now he lies buried in the heart of to his city. as Diodorus the Topographer states. 1-4 inhabited the island. near the present gymnasium. 2. the city. or because they consider is and number more appropriate for him than any other since he was said to be a son of Poseidon. from Troezen. Pausanias. since Theseus was a champion and helper of such during his life. sacrifice which the Athenians make in his honour comes on the eighth day of the month Pyanepsion. 2 and his tomb a sanctuary and place of refuge for runaway slaves all men of low estate who are afraid of men in power. chapter vi. 1 and being ambitious to discover the grave of Theseus. Cimon took the island. 2 8 The gymnasium Cf. and tearing up the ground with his talons. and graciously received the The chief supplications of the poor and needy. who then xxxvi. day of the other months. 3-6. the Athenians were delighted. and there was found a coffin of a man of extraordinary size. as they say. of Ptolemy. and received them with splendid processions and sacrifices. When these relics were brought home on his trireme by Cimon. 3 For they pay honours to Poseidon on the eighth day this 1 Chapter viii.

air* ovaa KOI TOV Trpcorov apriov rerpaycorov Si- ir\aaLa.oi> /cal 86 .? TOV 9eov ^vvdjjiew^.PLUTARCH'S LIVES f\ <yap oySoas /cv/3o<. TO fjiovifiov KCU Bva/clvijTov oliceiov e ?. ov aa<f)d\ei.

to whom we give the epithets of Securer and Earth-stayer. fitly represents the steadfast and immovable power of this god. The number eight. as the first cube of an even number and the double of the first square. 4 of every month.THESEUS. . xxxvr.



ot9 pd)jj.r)v oi/crjcrai.VOt.evov<?. eTrara Bi d^dj/crjv iSpvv- irepl TO TId\\dvriov. KaraTrpr^o-ai TO. ovo federal <ja<jQai' rais Be yvvaLJ^lv avrwv aTropov^vaL^ 18 KOI BvcravacrxeTOvcrcus 777309 rr]V 0d\a<rcrav fiiav.p(t)/J. TO TOi/9 . re Tip-rjv aTrovefjieLv r /ca tofJ-rj air /ceiVov at'T7}9.? OVO/JLO. ov% a)jj. KOI $6%$ &ih rrdvrwv dvOpayirwv K6^(opr]/cb<. a<' orou real Si r)v alriav rf) TTO\L yeyovev. a>9 oXCya) KpGLTTOV e7Tto9 67TpaTTOV.POMYAO2 I. To /jLeya rfj? 'Po^t?. avToOi /carKOL Bia rr/v ev rot? O7rX. teal irepl rov o-Ko/jLevty. 7T\ola' rrpa^OevTO^ Be TOVTOU 7rpa)TOV fiev d<yavciKreiv TOU? avBpas. ol Be Tyoota? aXtSicKpwyovTa? evlovs KOI irXoicov IITLTV^o^ra? VTTO TrvevfjLci'Twv rfj Tvpprjvia irpoaTrzcrelv i)fJiPpLv TTOTCI/JLOV opfiL<ppo/j. r 2 o^Tft)? rrjv 7ro\iv. r) /cal <yevei Trpov^eiv /ecu typovelv 3 icrra. Kal Be^o/J-evcov avrovs TWV irpoa-oircwv. 7rpocrayopviv re Trapajievew \eyovcrt. 'Pco/niyv ovofj. ja)? re 7Tl.a.o\6yrjTai rrapd rot? vwyypatyevcriv. aXX' ol fiev IleXacr'you? eVt TrXetcrra rr)? olKov/nei'r)^ TrXavrjOevras avOpwiTwv re JT\eLaru)V KpaTijcravras. &>9 flftTta?.

Others say that at the taking of Troy some of its people escaped. but afterwards. when they had settled of necessity on the Palatine. since she had been the occasion of their founding And from that time on. v. and of for what reason the great name Rome. say that the Pelasgians. Aeneid. 604r-G99. after wandering over most of the habitable earth and subduing most of mankind. settled down on that site. it Has been it. one of them. found sailing vessels. they paid high honours to Roma. 91 . 1 Cf. and that from their strength in war they called their city Rome. were driven by storms upon the coast of Tuscany. seeing themselves in a little while more prosperous than they had hoped. they say. who was held to be of superior birth and the greatest understanding. and actually named the city after her. since they found the country good and the neighbours made them welcome. and whose name was Roma.ROMULUS 1. proposed that they should burn the 1 that when this was done. FROM whom. . writers are not agreed. and came to anchor in the river Tiber that here. was Some given to that city. so famous among mankind. women were perplexed and distressed at thought of the sea. while their . the men were ships angry at first.

ipKr)$. 'AaKaviov rov Alveiov. 2 aTrpoo-So/cTJTws 1 and Bekker: oCoraes.vpavri rwv a\\wv o-tcacfrwv w Be rjcrav ol TralBes els fial \aKrjV arroK\iv6ivros o^Orjv drpefj. Karerrptjaav. Sintenis . ev 3 dTrpoo-BoKrjrcos. Bekker assumes a lacuna . in the text. e/c Be AvBlas ct? f 'Ira\iav rcaparyevofjievovs. 92 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES s yvvaifcas arofiao'L' /cat ol/ceiov<s avBpa? dcrrrd^ecrOai ore ra rr\ola rots KOI ovrcos jap e/cetvas. T^Xe^ou rfj ya/jbTjOelcrap.Xe/ia^ou trocOevras MSS. after this word. oiKiaai rrjv K T90tCt9 V7TO OL Be '^WJLOV > / ( a7roo~Ta\VTa rov H/m$t ft)Z'05. II. AtVeta \e<yov(7L Be. "AXXot Be ol 'PcojjLriv.iv Aarlvwv rvpavvov. TT}? jap Alveiov /cal Ae^^ea? Qopfiavros vlov ovra vijmov et? 'IraXlav KOfjUo-0fjvai. ol Be Pa)/j. ov JAIJV ouS' ol P&>- BiKaiordrw r&v \6ywv drrofyaivovres TToXew? TT}? 6jjio\ojova-t rrepl rov CTroovvfwv ol fjiev 2 7z^ou9 avrov.ev ex fjiv\ov ro5 K(3a\ovra Tvpprjvovs rou? erraXta?.a. o~co0evras ovojjiacrdr^i'ai 'Pwjjirjv. 7ro\er ol Be 'Paj- rovvo/jLa 6ecr6aL TralBa KOI K. Beo/juevas avrwv KOI rrapairi]V opyijv. 'IraXoi) Oujarepa KOL Aev /capias.v\ov ol Be Al/jiv\iav rrjv Alveiov KOI Aafiivias "Apei o~vyyei>oiJ. et? AvBiav /j. KOI rov dBe\<f)bv avrov 'Pw/jiov ev Be rw TTora/LiU) Biatydapevrcov. dcrrrd^eaOai KOI (>i\0(f)po- rovs avBpas. r P(i)/Jir)v 2 rr\rnjip. e/ceivrjs r ol Be dvyarepa TT}? TpcodBos Aarivco ja^rjOelo-av re/celv rov Pa)/j.ei>i]V' ol Be fivOwBr) rravrdrracn rrepl rfjs 1 rw T?. ol S' rou 'Hparc'X.eovs.

after they had burned the ships. i. Others again say that the Roma who gave her name to the city was a daughter of Italus and Leucaria. . 93 . For some say that he was a son of Aeneas and Dexithea the daughter of Phorbas. a son of Odysseus and Circe. tyrant of the Latins. who was sent from Troy by Diomedes the son of Emathion and others still that it was Romis. who colonized the city others that it was Romus. II. Others say it was Roma. a daughter of the . do not agree about his lineage. made use of such tender salutations as they supplicated their husbands and sought to appease their wrath. and from Lydia into Italy.ROMULUS. in another account. or. and was brought to Italy in his . Moreover. along with his brother Romus that the rest of the vessels were destroyed in the swollen river. bore him to Mars and others still rehearse what is altogether fabulous concerning his . that it was Romulus who gave his name to the city. and the place was called Roma from them. but the one in which the boys were was gently directed to a grassy bank. . 4-n. infancy. who passed from Thessaly into Lydia. Some tell us that it was Romanus. to Ascanius the son of Aeneas. where they were unexpectedly saved. in accordance with the most authentic tradition. in another version. or. who was wedded to Latinus the son of Telemachus and bore him Romulus others that Aemilia. and that she was married to Aeneas. the daughter of Aeneas and Lavinia. Trojan woman I have mentioned. even those writers who declare. of Telephus the son of Heracles. . 3 customary for the women to salute their kinsmen and husbands with a kiss for those women. after he had driven out the Tuscans.

<f)a\\ov T7/5 0epairaiviSo<.ov dveXelv Ke\evcrai'Ta. nrpocreX-Oelv /cal dve\eo-0ai.19 .epa<> TT^OO? <yd/jiov. (j)epovTa TOV TTOTa/jLOV 7r\r>criov etra \vtcaivav fJiev eirifyoiTav fjiao-Tov evBiBoucrav. Trjv S' KCLTO. a</>' ov TO) TO) Tap^eriay %prjcr/j. a>? orav e^vfajvcocri. ' ^ap^eTLov. TO. Qepdiraivav Se elair^-^ai.rjcrai.ov ware <TVJJ. opviOas Be TravToSaTTOv? i|ra)/u evTiOevai ro?9 j3pe(j)(7tv. rore v(j)ai. . TOVS virvovs aTrajopevovaav IGTOV TWO. 6 TOV Be Oelvai. avr^v p.<j)OTepas eVl QavaTw. %aXe7r<w9 (frepovTa crv\\a(Beiv Hev dfj.i>eiv Sodrjcro/jievas r)/j. a^pi ov (BovicoXov IBo KOI 6avjjLdo~avTa To\fj. jeveaOai. <pa\X. SeSe/zeVat?. TeKova-ijs BiBv/jia. eKelvas Be [Jiev ovv Si vcfiaiveiv. TOiavTT)? Be eKTpa<pevTas TT}? o-WT^pla^ eTriOecrdai. Trapejyv^crai. TraiBia. &)? eyvco. rat? fyovov. ere/oa? vvKTWp TOV TapCK Be TOV %TLOV tcekevovTOS dva\veiv TOV ICTTOV. TU> tw 94 /cal /cpaTtja-at.ev TOV Se ttTra^wcrat.- ^aayuCLTi TrapOevov ecreadai jap eg TraiSa K\ewoTaTov apery /cal rv^rj fcal (fypdcravTos ovv TO fjiavrev/jta pon/Ay Sia<f)epovTa. Sovvau TLVL TepaTico TOP Tap%6Tt.q> TWV Owya'repwv KOI crvyTrpo&Td^avTOS.PLUTARCH'S LIVES yap /3ao~i\e1 TrapavofjLCOTdro) /cal cd oaifjioviov oiKOL jevecrOai' (>a\\bv jap etc ecrrta? dvao-^elv /cal Bia^eveiv eVt TroXXa? rj/jie 4 elz ai Be TyOvos ev Tvppijvia ^p-^crr^pLov. TOV 5 Tap^Tiov ra5 /JLLO... raOra /nev ovv TIpo.

purposing to put them to death. and took the children home with him. unravelled their web. ventured to come to them. king Albans. was visited with a strange phantom in his house. and seized both the maidens. Thus they were saved. But the most . Tethys in Tuscany. and bade her consort with the phantom but she disdained to do When Tarchetius so. By day. ii. conquered his amazement. however. 95 . and sent a handmaid in to it. assuring them that when they had finished the weaving of it. and of surpassing good fortune and strength. and when they were grown up. He therefore imposed upon the maidens the weaving of a certain web in their imprisonment.ROMULUS. they say that Tarchetius. they should then be given hi marriage. carried them to the river-side and laid them down there. a phallus rising out of the hearth and remainNow there was an oracle of ing there many days. he was wroth. these maidens wove. learned of this. until a cow-herd spied them. origin. told the prophecy to one of his daughters. Tarchetius gave them to a certain Teratius with orders to destroy them. at the command of Tarchetius. 3-6 For instance. goddess Hestia appeared to him in his sleep and forbade him the murder. from which there was brought to Tarchetius a response that a virgin must have intercourse with this phantom. And when the handmaid became the mother of twin children by the phantom. while all sorts of birds brought morsels of food and put them into their mouths. namely. Tarchetius. who was most lawless and cruel. but by night other maidens. Then a she-wolf visited the babes and gave them suck. and she should bear a son of the illustrious for his valour. then. This man. they set upon Tarchetius and overcame him. accordingly.

TCOV air et? Alveuov yeyovorcov ev "A\/3rj fiacriXewv . aya/jiov /cal rrapOevov del ftiwaofjievrjv. o/ Se ^t\oviav ovofjid^ovcri. Ber]0eLaa TOV iraTpos' eip^OTj Be BiaiTav el'xev dveiri^iKTOv. eTe/ce Be Bvo 7ratSa9 i> Be fj. TrXetcrroi^ jjidpTvpas TCL fjiev KvpiGOTara TT/OWTO? TOU9 KOI Oa/3to9 o 2 " Ilt/CTCt)^ eV rot? TrXetcrroi? e erepai SicKoai' rvTTw Be eirev TOIOVTOS ecrri. xpifaara KOI TOV eic T/oota? o KOfjucr0evTa %pvcrov avridevros. etXero rrjv ftaai- \eiav ^ofirjTwp. e%cov teal 7r\eov air* T6 ovv o 'A/^ouXfo? ra avr&v Swdievos TOV 3 T/}9 OwyaTpos avTov yeveaflai 7raZ8a9 lepeiav Trjs 'EcrTia9 direBei^ev. (frcopaTai ov TTO\VV %povov Kvovcra rrapd TOV Ka9e(TTO)Ta TOU9 'EiCTTlda't VO/JLOV. Tov Be TT'KJTLV e^o/^ro? Xo<yoi. BS > o /cal /w-aXXoz/ o TOVTOV evioi <&avaTV\ov 96 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES Icrropiav eiprjfce. TCLVTTJV ol pev 'IXtai^. a V) 'Afjiov\iov Be vei/JiavTos TO. i. KOi TO fJLV iraOetv avTrjv rj TOV {3acri\ew$ Ovya /JLT) TraprjTijcraTO.eT } 4 [Meyeflei /cal rcdXXei. 'IraXiKrjv III. 0710)9 j^rj \dOoi Te/covcra TOV 'AjjiOvXiov. iravra Be fiacriXeia TO. teal <j)o/3ov/jievos eK o/ Se 'Peaz^.

Livy. This servant's name was Faustulus. but she was kept in solitary confinement. and Numitor chose the kingdom. At any rate. and ordered a servant to take the boys and cast them away. bound to live unwedded and a virgin all her days. and their size and beauty were more than human. made her a priestess of Vesta. but its general outline is as follows. Numitor and Amulius. L 3. or Silvia. But the story which has the widest credence and the greatest number of vouchers was first published among the Greeks. * Cf. by Diocles of Peparethus. easily took the kingdom away from his brother. but others 1 Cf. or Rhea.ROMULUS. setting the treasures and the gold which had been brought from Troy over against the kingdom. and Fabius Pictor follows him in most points. 2 contrary to the established law for the Vestals. Antho. Her name is variously given as Ilia. she was discovered to be with child. 97 . Wherefore Amulius was all the more afraid. The descendants of Aeneas reigned as kings in Alba. this ii. a history of Italy. and the succession devolved at length upon two 1 Amulius divided brothers. the whole inheritance into two parts. Delivered she was of two boys. in its principal details. treasure. Here again there are variations who compiled in the story. suffer the capital punishment which was her due. 4 is what a certain Promathion says. that she might not be delivered without the knowledge of Amulius. in possession of the and made more powerful by it than Numitor. and fearing lest that brother's daughter should have children. She did not. 1-5. Amulius. 6-ni. however. Not long after this. III. i. according to some. Livy. because the king's daughter. interceded successfully in her behalf. then. 4.

a^op. V0e/jLVos ovv e/9 a/cdfajv TO. OTL /cal TOU? aSeXc^oi. KeifMevois 6rj\.? yepfj-avovs ovo^a^ovcriv. 7n-/jL6X. crefiovTai /cal T) TL/JLUHTLV TO. O VVV Ka\ov(Ti. T/}9 TCOV vrjTTicov 'PovfjLi\iav. ol 8* ov TOVTOV. TTICTTLV e(T%6V TKOVaa /caiTOi TOVTO TraOeiv avTrjv e^aTraTrjOeicrav \eyovaiv.v\ov. TO. Trjv <yd\a roi9 2 Tot9 iepols evTav6a /3p6(p(ri. VTTO TOV "A/?eco9 (frda/covcra.evT]Vy Kal \vicaivav i&Topovcri BpvoKo\a7TTr]v Tiva Trapelvat T vo/^i^eTai 8' crvveKTpefyovTa /cal (j)v\d. 009 eoiicev. evBid^eiv. TfuXai Be Yep^avov. rj Sia TOV 'Pco/J.a%OV OI TTCiXaiOL.TTovTa. d\\a TOV dve\o^evov. J Hv "rj ' Se 7r\r)crLOV eptveos. &>9 ol 7ro\\ol Sia TO /jLrjpvKco/J-eva TWV etcel 8m Trjv criciav TO)V /3p(f>wv 0r)\acr/jL6v O)v6/J. ey5 71)5 Se T?}? o%dr]S KdTaOels o-TT^XXacrcreTO. Kare/Brj jaev eVt TOV TTOTafiov 009 ptywv. IV. ev avTij /ca o~vvap7ro~avTO?. eTTicTTrevoovcriv. TOV e TTOTa/ilOV KaTCLKKlt^OVTOS r) TT\->] fJbfJLV pa T1JV V7ro\a/3ovcra KOI fjLeTewpiaaaa Trpacos 6i? 'XWp'lOV 7TllK(*)S (JLOKOdKOV.PLUTARCH'S LIVES \6yovcriv.wa' AaTivoi V)KIGTCL TC/celv ef. rj /xaXicrra Sia TOV oil TIJV re drjXrjv ) KOl 060V TWO. lowv Se Kariovra TTO\\U) pevfjiaTi /cal Tpa^vvo/Jievov eSeicre irpocrekOeiv. /3pe<pr). ov e/caXovv.LcrOat So/covcrav ovo/Jidovo~i teal Srj KOi Ovovaiv avTrj vrj(pd\(a. . TOV Se pvoKd\dTTTr)v /cal "Ayoeoo9 lepa TCL t.

give this in. are called "germani. floating it gently along. Now there was a wild fig-tree hard by. 99 . the babes lay. i. 6-7. who is thought to preside over the rearing of young children. or best of all. Now these creatures are considered sacred to called animals spent the noon-tide there for the sake of the shade. and this was the chief reason why the mother was believed when she declared that Mars was the father of her babes. and was really deflowered by Amtilius himself. . And yet it is said that she was deceived into doing this. who came to her in armour and ravished her. as is generally thought. 2 name to the man who took the boys up. but formerly Germanus. Livy. 1 Cf. perhaps because brothers . went his way. from the suckling of the babes there for the ancient Romans called the " (eat ruma. or because cud-chewing. and setting his burden down near the bank. Obeying the king's orders. in sacrificing to whom no wine is libations of milk are poured over her victims." IV. 4-iv. and the woodpecker is held in especial veneration and honour by the Latins. and carried it down to a fairly smooth spot which is now called Kermalus. either from Romulus. and Mars. the servant put the babes into a trough and went down towards the river.ROMULUS. and the she-wolt of story here gave them suck. used. which they called Ruminalis. purposing to cast them in but when he saw that the stream was much swollen and violent. is still nating. or rumi- Rumilia. he was afraid to go close up to it. 1 and a woodpecker came to help in feeding them and to watch over them." and a certain goddess. Here. 4. then. Then the overflow of the swollen river took and bore up the trough.

Kal rcov ryvvaiKwv ra? eraipovcras' elvai Be Toiavrijv TJjv <>avcrTV\ov ryvvctLKa rov ra /3pejLivOcoSe ? CKrpOTrrjv rr) yap e/caXovv oi <j)rj OpetyavTos. eirl rovroi? ra? [lev vrrep ri rov Oeov avr] riOeis.aioi. &)? atria? a\. Selirvov re ru> Sew Trapefffcevacre. evcrvvOerelv Bi/caiwv e/jL^evetv rols opicrOelcn. "AfCKav Aapevriav ovo^a. Kal fjievroi Kal rov Oeov evrv^elv \eyerat. E. r V.(f)i/3o\iav err\ \ov(f)rffJ. iepto. OVTTO) crev ev Be e7Ti<f)avr).7}?.v(0v. rov 'H/oa/cXeof? rrpovOero rrpos viKijcras fiev eoi/cev. ( ravrrj Be real QVOVGIV ol Pa)/j. fcal AapevTiav Ka\ovai ryv eoprrjv. &>9 r&v TOO rro\t. . eicrria- 3 Kal yuera TO rov Oeov e^ovros avri]v. K\ivr)v vrrocrropea'as. B?j r& BeiTTVOv crvvelp^ev. .rj rrapacr^eiv. vTrenrcbv on avros e^ei rrapa rov Oeov %pr)crrov. ra? 3' vrrep avrov Be viKcojuievos. Kal rvv Aapevriav ovaav (iopalav. vrro rov Oeov Siatcvfieveiv. rjrrrjdels Be rw 9ew 20 rpdrre^av atyOovov rrape^ei Kal yvvaLfca Ka\^v 2 &vvava7rava-ofjLvr}V.irpL\\uov fjirfvo^ avrfj 6 rov"Apeaj<? iepevs. /Ma-Qcocra/Aevos. ry yvvaiKl Kal Ke\evaaL /3aBieiv eu>0ev errl rrjv dyopav Kal rov drravrijcravra rrpcorov dcrrracradTnjvrrjcrev ovv avrrj fjbevrjv 7roiL(70ai (j)i\ov.rwv dvrjp rjXiKias re rroppw TJKWV Kal 1 auTj] bracketed in Sintenis 3 to avoid the hiatus.repav Be TL^wcri Aapewriav eg rotaur???. o vecd/copos <7^oA. Aarlvoi rwv re drjpiwv ra? \VKaiva<$.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 Ot Be TO Tra? TOVVO/JLCL TJ}? 1 rpo<fiov Si' d/j. KCU %oa? eTTi^epei rov t 1 A.

where he had spread a couch. first for the god. V. salute the first man who met She was met. 273 a. then for himself. 101 . and engaging Larentia. Hercules. accordingly. when it appeared that he had lost. by one of the citizens who was well on in years and possessed of considerable property. by its ambiguity.ROMULUS." but also women of loose character. proposed to the god a game of dice. he prepared a banquet for the god. and thinking it right to abide by the contract. Acca Yet the Romans sacrifice also Larentia by name. Wishing to keep faith. iv. On these terms the dice were thrown. for The keeper of the temple of the following reason. but 1 In Morals. the foster-father of the infants. and bade morning to the forum. her go early in the visit the woman. and after the supper locked her in. he feasted her in the temple. her. and in the month of April the priest of Mars pours libations in her honour. and such a woman was the wife of Faustulus. assured of course that the god would take posAnd verily it is said that the god did session of her. deflected the story into the realm of the fabulous. she is called a public courtezan. who was then in the bloom of her beauty. 3 But some say that the name of the children's nurse. being at a loss for something to do. and make him her friend. For the Latins not only called she-wolves "lupae. They pay honours also to another Larentia. he would furnish the god with a bounteous . and the festival is called Larentalia. 3-v. p. repast and a lovely woman to keep him company for the night. as it seems. but not 1 yet famous. to her. with the understanding that if he won it himself. he should get some valuable present from the god but if he lost.

TOTTO? VI. OUTO? Kal re\evrwv TToXXot? KOI KoX-Ol^ &v eKeivif TCL vrXetcrra TW Sr. Kal IBea rrjv Be OufAoeiBeis rjcrav d/j. elBoros rov f) Ta <ypdajj. \e<yerai Se avrr]v evSo^ov vo/^i^o/jiev^v. a^avrj Kal TTJV Trporepav KaXeliai Se vvv 6 on rov rcora/jiov TroXXa/cf? vTrep^ofMevov Sierrepatovvro rropO /zetot? Kara rovro TO %wptoz/ et? dyopdv r^v Se rrop6[JLiav Be \eyovcri rrjv evioi ftifkarovpav Ka\ov(Jiv. oaa %prj TOU? ev yeyovoras.ara rrpos rd (j) 102 . on 0r)\dovres axpOrja-av rb OrjpLov.ara \eyovrat Kal TralBes et? Taftiovs KOUL2 aOevres. P(0uv\ov Tot? rpe^ovaL. Be /Spe^rj QavarvXos 'A^ouXtou av\a&a)v arcavras.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ovauav 4 /ceo? eyv(i) i/cavijv.w eSco/ee. drreXirre Kri]jJiacnv. Bevrepa Kapevrla rrapd 'Pco^aiots. Kal avtjouevot. /cal Tappovrio?. arrais Be KOL fteftta)- avev rr]V yvvaiKos.(j) orepot.//. et? rov LTTTToSpojuiov (fiepovaav ej.iv ol Kal 'Pwaov. Kal rd\\a yuavQdve. K\T] p 0V 6 /jLOV ovoaa 7rl Aapevriav KOI t}ydrrr)(je. K\r\Qrivai r Be Kal rovrovs drro TJ}? 0r)\r)$ Icrropovcn. rou? rijv 6eav rrapeevrevOev dp-^ofjiivov^' pwuaicrrl Be ro Bid ravra uev e%i lariov j3f}Xov ovoad^ov&i. co Kara ovaav 6eo(j>t\rj TOVTOV rov TOTTOV ev 5 eKeivrjv Aapevriav KeiaQai. dyopds TrdpoSov Kararceravvvvat. T$rj\avpoi>. Kal povij p. a>9 S' evioi s dvei\ero ra)V eiKorwv e^o/nevoL ud\\ov. uev ovv ev rot? (Jt^^aaiv evyeveia Kal r) ovrwv evOvs e^efyaive ueyeOet.

they were taken up and reared by Faustulus. from we are 1 That is. * Cf. 3-vi. the Circus Maximus. and . as some say with a closer approach to probability. as it often did. This spot is now called Velabrum. ferry called because say And secretly aided the foster-parents in their task. by name man took Larentia to his bed and loved her well. 103 . and the Roman word for sail is "velum.*2 Romulus and Romus (or Remus). told that they were named. a swineherd of Amulius. betokened their natural disposition and when they grew up. the street leading to the Hippodrome l from the forum is covered over with sails by the givers of a public spectacle. are meet for those of noble birth. 2 unmarried all his life. she disappeared at the spot where the former Larentia also lies buried. As for the babes." It is for these reasons that honours are paid to this second Larentia amongst the Romans. even when they were infants. it is said that the boys were taken to Gabii to learn letters and the other branches of knowledge which Moreover. to go to the forum. and at his death left her heir to many and fair possessions. Well." the Latin word for teal. VI.ROMULUS. most of which she bequeathed to the people. 1. they used to cross it at about this point in ferry-boats. because they were seen sucking the wild beast. they were both of them courageous and manly. and their word for " velatura. Numitor did know of it. childless. This from that point on. v. because when the river overflowed. "ruma. and no man knew of it or. chapter iv. And it is said that when she was now famous and regarded as the beloved of a god. with spirits which . the noble size and beauty of their bodies." is But some that it is so- and Tarrutius.

ev auTOL/9 ov/c dvao"%o[JL. 7ro\. Oepiois. dTrore/jLvomai Be T?}9 Xeta9 awxyr)v. TOU Be 'Pco/AuXoy ?ry009 Tiva OvaLav aTrorpaTTo/jLevov l <ydp TJV fyi\odvTr]<s Kal ^aviiKQ^].i? e KOL SLOTTOVS /3a(Ti\i.evoi rrjv airoviav. eTTiardra^ 0/977)9. ol rov 21 3aBi- Ka ol <yevofjievu>v rov Kal rpavfjuaTcov ev d/j.aXXoi> eBcKei e^eiv crvvea-iv. Yevofievr)? Be TLVOS Trpo? TOU9 y/coXou? Tot? 'AyLtouXiou Bia<popds /cal eXacre&)9.PLUTARCH'S LIVES KOI TOkfJLCLV real 7ro\iTiKr)V oXft>9 Be 'Pw/zuXo? yvcoarj fcal re dveK7T\rjKTOl> e^OI/Te?* O Xprja-Qai //. /cal Srj d\\a ^v^vdaia Kal TO X^crTa? dfivvaaOai TOL/? /cal 6r)pa<s /cal a? eeeaat.TopO9 Kal avv\aftov ^wvra TOP 104 .\ov$ Be Bov\ov<$.evoL Kal rpiiTOVTai.Kovs rjcrav. teal OUT' aTre^X?}? 6<ppovTiov ovre %P(OVTO Be SiatVai? /cal Btarpifiais e\evov rrjv a^oKrjV e\ev6epiov r)yov/j. Sib rot? jjiev ofjLO(^v\oi^ rj TaTreivorepois 7rpo<r(f)i\. ev rat? irepi vo^ds KwrjyLas 777309 Toi>9 yeirviwvras eirifuf-Cai? 7ro\\i]V eavrov 7rape%ayv Karavorjcriv rjye/AoviKov 3 fia\\oi> r) 7T6i0ap%iKov (frvcrei yeyovoros. Opdaovs aTro2 crrariKov Kal (frpovtjfAaros dpj(a<$ evBiBovres. dryavaKTovvros Be rov No/Arfropos GD\iy<j0povv crvvijyov Be Kal TrpoaeBe^ovTO TroXXoi'9 /Jiev d7ropov<f.(f)orepots eKpar^aav No/i?. Bid ravra VII.

. and To the displeasure intercepted most of the booty. who was 1 Cf. running. When a quarrel arose between the herdsmen of Numitor and Amulius. he gave them the impression that he was born to command his rather than to obey. the herdsmen of Numitor VII. 2-vn. the brothers would not suffer it. the herdsmen of Numitor prevailed and took Remus prisoner. With their equals or inferiors they were therefore on friendly terms. not esteeming sloth and idleness generous. while in his intercourse with their neighbours in matters pertaining to herding and hunting. but they looked down upon the overseers. 5. believing them to be no better men than themselves. vi. but fell upon the robbers. i. Livy. fell in with Remus as he was walking with few com- panions. bailiffs. capturing thieves. and a daring which nothing could terrify. and to have political sagacity. For these things. put them to flight. and rescuing the oppressed from violence. being fond of sacrifices and of divination.ROMULUS. hunting. they were famous far and near. and chief herdsmen of the king. but rather bodily exercise. But once when Romulus was busily engaged in some sacrifice. After blows and wounds given and received on both sides. indeed. exhibiting thus the beginnings of seditious boldness and temper. They also applied themselves to generous occupations and pursuits. 1 and some of the latter's cattle were driven off. But Romulus seemed to exercise judgement more. but collected and took into their company many needy men and many slaves. and a battle ensued. driving off robbers. 3 ff. of Numitor they gave little heed. 2 courted apparent danger. and disregarded both their threats and their anger.

evopcov Se 4 TO 6appa\oi> teal iTafiov d$ov\ci)TOV KCU decides VTTO TWV TcapbvTwv.aTi TC Trpqeiq 5 TCIGTIV avTU) /^er' (f)i\avdpot)7rw e'A.' ovBev cnroKpy^ofJiaL J Oappwv KCU >yap elvaL Bo/cels A/jiov\Lou fiaa-iXiKooTepos. TO Oelas. HapaXa/Soov Be eKelvos. e'if] /cdi O7r&>9 jevoiTo. d/coveis <yap teal dva/cpivei? rrplv i} Ko\d^eiv o 5' aKpiTOvs K$i$u>o~i.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 'Pw/J. j3\e/ji/j. dvayfievTOs ovv avrov 1 TT/JO? rbv No/z?. icplveiv eoi/ce vvv o KIVOVVO^. aTTTo/Jievos eTTivoia KOU CLKOVWV. aKovo/Jiev /neyd\a rrepl eavTwv' el Be mcTTa. yoz/at 106 . a&6\(f)0<.ov.^T(jOV KLVOV (3cL(Tl\iw$ 1 crvvayavatcTovvTcov Be TWV ev "AX/By KOL Seiva Trdcr^etv olopkvwv TOV avSpa Trap diai>. ^aXeTTov ovra BeBia) ? TOV dBe\(>6v. dve/cpivev ocrrt? KCU. a>? eoi/ce. oe ev aiTia 1 <? 6 Sia/3oXat9 /cal rot9 rrepl ^V^TI^ 7T/009 ere /cal a^waiv. 6 Be ere* eXeyev " 'AXX. e\0Q)v Be 7T/309 eKelvOV 6&6LTO TV)(LV BlKlJS. V7TO OlK. irpoTepov fjiev eavTovs oliceTwv fiacriXeo)9 3>avcrTv\ov /cal AapevTias r)Tno~TdfjieOa Tral' \ > \ /> / 5J/2 \ 5>\ oa9 (eo-^ev oe oiovpoi). 0)V /COL Topa /cal Ka6v/3plCTJjLVO<S 3 oVro?. [AeydXwv rrpay/jidTQ)v.^ OjiOia rot? yS Be /JLeyicrTOv. OavfJbdCLTTO TOV CTCOyLtaTO? TOV VeCLVlCTKOV V7TpfjLeyeOei KCLI p(t>[Ar) rrdvTas. w? fjicev oixaSe.- KarrjyoprjOevTOs. ai)ro? juev ov/c e/eoAacre. epya Be ai>Tov KOI rrdei. ry No//-?/- TOV ^W/JiOV Tl j3oi>\OlTO %ptf(Ta(T0ai. o 'AyLtouXto? avTy TrapaBiScocrt. yevo/jievot.7rtSo? evBiBovs. Oeov KOI crvveTrevOvvovTOS dp%a<.

but since being accused and slandered before thee and brought in peril of our lives. but he surrenders men without a trial. Remus over to Numitor himself. Then " I will hide said Remus his : Indeed. and hearing that his acts and deeds corresponded with his looks. but chiefly. servants I) children of Faustulus of the king . whether they are true or not. and perceiving by his countenance that the boldness and vigour of his soul were unsubdued and unharmed by his present circumstances. he was amazed at the young man's complete superiority in stature and strength of body. Numitor himself did not punish his prisoner. Formerly we believed ourselves (my twin brother . but went to Amulius and asked for justice. since he was brother. after getting Remus into his hands. we hear great things concerning ourselves . and had been insulted by the royal The people of Alba. and asked him who he was and what were the circumstances of his birth. and thought that Numitor had been undeservedly Amulius was therefore induced to hand outraged. because he was in fear of his brother Amulius. to treat him as he saw fit. and 107 . nothing boldly from thee for thou seemest to be more like a king than Amulius thou nearest and weighest before punishing. who was severe. as it would seem. while his gentle voice and kindly look inspired the youth with confidence and hope. our present danger is likely to decide.ROMULUS. because a divinity was aiding and assisting in the inauguration of great events. servants. were incensed. he grasped the truth by a happy conjecture. . too. When Numitor came home. 2-6 then carried before Numitor and denounced. Our birth is said to have been secret. and and Larentia. VFI.

1 08 . Kal / \ VTT avTcov KCLI TapcLTTOfJievos Trepi OVK r>5 \ fjtvBiw 7rept. a yvcopicrjjiaTa <yevoiT 1 av tcrco? varepov dvaxfreXTJ rot? TOK6v<riv rjfjiwv a. rtjv re crv\- TOV 'Pco/zou /cat TIJV TrapdSocriv.ev (3or]6elv. TOV BiS fj. VTTO^O)crjjia<Ti rypajJLfJLdrcov d/JivBp&v e^Ke^apajf^evcov.Ka\vTTT(i)v. CCTTL & rj a/cdcfrr) Kol <7(t)^Tai. %d\Koi<. Tore aa<f>M$ irepl r^9 yevecreciys' rrpoTepov Be viryviTTeTO TrapeBtfXov TO&OVTOV oo~ov Trpocre^ovTa^ firj fiticpov fypovelv' avro? Be Trjv GKafyriv tcofjii^wv e^capei TTyOO? 2 &v Bia TOV TOV No/JtlJTOpa. dX)C efypovri^ev TOVTCOV Kpixj^a a-wyyev6iJvo<$ ' <ppovpelro yap en. tcaprepw^. TOTE. GTTOvBr/S KOL BeOV<? yLteCTTO? Kdipov.7ro\ojLLeva)v" NoyLtT^Tft)/) 'O JJLl> OVV K T TWV \6jCOV TOVTWV OTT&)? (j>pd- /ecu Trpbs rrjv o-fyu> el/cd^wv TOV %p6vov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES <yap rm. VIII. rjv Be rt? ev avTois airo TV^T)? TWV Ta Tra&ia piifrai \aftovTwv Kal yeyo- VOTWV 1 OUTO? IBatv TTJV rrepl Trjv eK0friv.ievos corrected by Bekker to tpcardfifvos (questioned). ev crKacfirj Tivl KeifJievoi rrapa TOV fie^av TTOTCL/JLOV. 'O Be OaucrTi/Xo? d/cov<ra<. VTrotyiav ovv rot? rrepl ra? TOV y5acrtXe&)? Trapeytov. KOI yvcopiaas Ty KaTacrKevy /cal rot? v(f>op(t}/.wv aTropprjTOt \eryovTai. \VKaivr)<$ KOI BpvoKO\a7TTov ^rwfjLio-fjbao'LV. eppiffyrj/jiev Kal VTTO TOVTWV Tp(j)6fjLVOl. OVK e<j)v<y rrjv e\7ri$a aalvovaav. rpotyal ol? B KOI TiOr)Vij(Tis aro7ra)Tpai Ollp'lOlS. veoyvwv.

full of anxious fear lest he might not be in season. i. But Faustulus. 2 our nursing and nurture as infants stranger still. VIII. on hearing that Remus had been seized and delivered up to Numitor. This man. called upon Romulus to go to his aid. the guards at the king's gate were suspicious of him. and conjecturing the time which had elapsed from the young man's looks. girdles are engraved with letters now almost which may perhaps hereafter prove unavailing tokens of recognition for our parents. 6-vin. welcomed the hope that flattered him. only to be nourished by them.ROMULUS. and revealed enough to give them ambitious thoughts when they dwelt upon it. when we are dead and gone. and thought how he might talk with his daughter concerning these matters in a secret interview . and recognizing it by its Y: IO 9 . The trough still exists and is kept safe." Then Numitor. He himself took the trough and went to see Numitor. and then told him . vii. Now by chance there was among the guards one of those who had taken the boys to cast them into the river. clearly before this also he had hinted at the matter darkly. and its bronze effaced. by the dugs of a she-wolf and the morsels of a woodpecker. Naturally enough. hearing these words. and when he was scrutinized by them and made confused replies to their questions. in their exposure. as we lay in a little trough by the side of the great river. We were cast out to birds of prey and wild beasts. trough. the particulars of their birth and were concerned now seeing the VOL. for she was still kept in the closest custody. he was found to be concealing the trough in his cloak.

Kal Oeaadfjievos ocrov oviroy TOV fjiov ev 7repi(3o\ai<. apa oe TOV p. 7rapei%V.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Tv%ev VTCOVola TOV OVTOS Kal ov iraprj- TO TrpayfAa TM /3a(Ti\e2 3 KaTeaTrja-ev et9 e\ey%ov. be dvrjp d<pr)yeiTO ^oprov Kal KOVT& TreptKei/^ev^v dve^wv AaTivoi Ka\ovcnv air' KLVOV Kal vvv ev ro?9 (TTpaTev/maai TOVTOVS Tr\aplovs ovojjid^ovcfiv.uA.ev ' no .09 771)9 r)V TJ&TJ. TOV 7T/30? TO/309.IV 6 yap 'Pa>//. diyeiv 4 e\7TiSi fieftaioTepa TWV "Oirep ovv ol raparro/jievoL /cal pera Seovs fj opyrjv TrpdrTOVTes OTLOVV eVtet/cco? Trda^ovcn. 6 dfyucofLevos ovv ' civ0pa)7ro<.o<$pocrvvai<. Xeucra? et Tt9 r\Koi Xoyo? et? CLVTOV vrrep TWV 5 TraiScov tt>? Trepiyevo/jievcov. avbpa <yap d\\y 22 re ^ptjarbv /cal TOV NoyLt7. 7T/9O9 ' " \ ' > s-^ rp. Tr]V /cal T TTICTTIV IcT^VpaV eVot^CTe T^9 CLVTIcrvvfjv 7rapeK\V(TaTO TWV Trpay/maTcov o^ew9 Kal TrpaTTev. /cal <j>LX.ro/309 (f)i\ov VTTO cnrovSiaTrvOeaOai TOV No/jiiJTOpos /ceSfjs eTreyLt-v/re. eavTov Sie&vXaPev ' o <j)pacra<? I ' d\\a * elvcu 6(j)7J VG/JLOVTa^' aUTO? Be TOVTO TroXXdfcis rrjv 'iXtay CTT' <pepa)i> fiaSi^eiv. avveTrecre TraOelv TOV 'A/jiovXiov.\ /a -\ o o Kaipos ovoe pov\o^evoi^ QKV.. Kal auro9 TJ^TJ Kal crvve- 6 avTov e^eOeov OVK o\iyoi TWV TCO\ITMV /niad Kal (o/3w TOV 'A/jLOV\iov. Tlo\\r)V 8e Kal avv rjye <Jv\\e\o%icriJievr)v et9 e/caKacrTr)<. ev Se 7roXXat9 Kal ydXais dvdyKais 6 Q>av(TTv\os OVT OVTG TravTaTracriv eKftiacrOeis.

and entreated them to proceed at once to action. but said they lived at a distance from Alba as herdsmen . even had they wished it now close at hand. promptly joining their party himself and furthering their cause. divided into companies of a hundred men. make and truth. nor yet was his secret wholly forced from him. and beheld Remus almost in the affectionate embraces of Numitor. 2-6 inscription. the man was come. Faustulus did not entirely hold his own. for handful armies they is still "manipulus. And when Remus incited the in . who had often yearned to see and handle it. When."). him. he himself was carrying the trough to Ilia. each company headed by a man who bore aloft a handful of hay and shrubs tied round a pole (the Latin word .ROMULUS. in confirmation of her hope for her children. so it fell out that Amulius fared. and brought the man before him to be examined. And the opportunity admitted of no for Romulus was delay. men naturally fare who are confounded. For he sent in all haste an excellent man and a friend of Numitor's. and act with fear or in a passion. then. accordingly. viii. with orders to learn from Numitor whether any report had come to him of the children's being alive. conceived a suspicion of the and without any delay told the matter to the king. He admitted that the boys were alive and well. In these dire and pressing straits. As. he confirmed them in their confident hope." and hence in their call the men in such companies "manipulares. and many of the citizens who hated and feared Amulius were running forth to He was also leading a large force with join him.

TJV 5' fcra)9 7TO\\0)V rjdpOl (TfJLeVWV ava^Kolov. 'Ayuoi/Xtou Se aTroQavovTos KaTacrTdvTdov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TOU9 eVro? dfyiGTavTOS.r)Sev Oeiav TWO. TToXiv ev ot? %a)/3toi? e^ a/o%^9 everpdKTiaavTes' avTY] yap evTrpeTrecrTaTrj TrpeTTovcras. OTI jap OVK \ > ol "A\{3rjv olfcovvTes ava^i^vuvai TOV<. 112 . ol/ceTwv /cal 7T/9O9 aVTOVS. CLTCO- ovBe 7rp)Tov pev TO Tcepl ra9 ^vvalica^ epyov. &>? TV^rjV 6pO)VTa<$ o'ttoV 7T O LTf fJiaT (DV KOL TCL 'Pu>/naLO)v Trpdy/jiaTa \OJL- OVK av evTavOa TrpovftTj /cal $vvdfj. Tr\el(TTa /cal *lv TOV TOV <&a/3i. ov Bel Be a A^o/cXeoL'?. ovre Trpd^as ovBev 6 Tvpavvos ovTe (BovKevcras acoTijpiov eavrw.eaj<. Bid TO djropelv teal ( TapaTTecrdai. KaTO\r}<f)0el<> direOavev. /ecu TWV irpayol/celit A\/3r)v pev OVT* OVT ap^etv eftov\ovTO TOV /. ecTTLV. TOV Be Pa)/jivXov irpocrd<yovTos %a)Qev. e dp^v " \a/36vTa f^eya TrapdBo^ov e^ovcrav. o? So/cet <TTLV TT)V ecTTi. VTTOTTTOV pev evioi? ecrrt TO Spa/jLdTiKov KOI TrXaa/jLaTtoSes. avroSo^Te? Be Tr]V rjyefioviav etceivw jias /cal eyvwcrav oitcelv /cad' eaurou?. IX.. TO. rf /caTaXvOfjvai + TrawrdTraui TOVTWV yLter ifv^ rj avvoifceiv ibia Tr-jv >> avTcov.i^TporrdTo .ov \eyovTO? real 7rpcoro9 Tle7rapr)diov f e/cSovvai Pft)/x?79 KTicriv. /j.

was seized and put to death. is clear. and at the same time Romulus attacked from without. 6. without taking a single step or making any plan for his own safety. who seems to have been the first to publish a " Founding of Rome. i. and one which was attended by great marvels. But perhaps it was necessary. they resolved to dwell by themselves. from sheer perplexity and confusion. or else to dwell apart with them.ROMULUS. and matters settled in the city. . they were nourished and sustained l this surely seems a most fitting reason for their course. 1 Of. and to found a city in the region where. the tyrant. IX. nor even receive them as fellow-citizens. at the first." some are suspicious of their fictitious and fabulous quality but we should not be incredulous when we see what a poet fortune sometimes is. now that many slaves and fugitives were gathered about them. Livy. . from the rape of the Sabine women. Having therefore restored the government to him and paid fitting honours to their mother. Although most of these particulars are related by Fabius and Diocles of Peparethus. in the first place. 2 citizens within the city to revolt. and when we reflect that the Roman state would not have attained to its present power. nor to be its rulers while their grandfather was alive. unless as its rulers. the brothers were neither willing to live in Alba. either to disperse these and have no following at all. fugitives the privilege of intermarriage with them. VHI. owing to the lack of marriages by consent . * See chapter xiv. but one of necessity. 2 which was not a deed of wanton daring. had it not been of a divine origin. For that the residents of Alba would not consent to give the . 6-ix. Amulius being now dead. 3 f.

'HpoSaypos Be 6 HOVTIKOS laropel /cal TOV 6 'Hpa. .uXo5 fiev ovv rrjv K.PLUTARCH'S LIVES airopia ydfMWV 3 TrepiTTws. KOI eiceivov eftovXero 7TO\l^LV TOV TO7TOV. wcrre irXTjOvaai ecrrta? \eyovcn. crvvOeBe TI^V epiv opvicnv al&iois /Bpafieva-ai /cal criovs Be TW 'PwyttvXft) Trpcxpavfjvai yvTras. Pa)yu. 'PtO^tO? &6 %Q)plOV Tl TOV 5 'Pejjitoviov. e/criae. ecu 'AcruXatof Trpoaijyopevov. ^revcra<j6ai Be TOV TOL/9 \06vTO<? Be TOV 'PcD/jLOV. i'Spvo-iv erijJLrjcrav yap auras TroXew? o TTJV (j^v^ifjiov eTreira T?}? rjs. ovre 3ecr7rorat9 Sov\ov OVT6 Qr}Ta ^prjara^ OVT dp^ovcriv dvSpofyovov efcSibovTCS.^ TrXeiovas <yevecr6ai.a\ov/jivr)v 'Pwfjirjv /covaSpdrrjv. eSe^ovro TrdvTas. oirep earl rerpdycovov. c avrois 'Qpfjuficrao'i. TOT6 'PCO/JLVXOV BcoBe/ca TO) 'PwjJLiiXw (fravfjvai. Bco teal vvv yjpr]a6ai yv^rl 'Pco/Liaiovs olcovi^o/Jievovs.23 ecrrt Xea %aipeiv 7^7709 eVt Trpd^ei yap a{B\a 114 <j)avevTO<>. \anJBavova lepov TI rot? d(f)i- GTa/jievois /caTacr/cevdaavTes. ol Be rbv fjiev 'Pco/juov akydws IBelv. o Si eicelvov fJLev wi^o/jidcrOrj vvv Be 'Piyvdpiov /caXetrat. aXXa piavrevfJiarL Trvdo^p^aTO) iracrt (BefSaiovv TTJV dav\iav (pda-KOvres. Ta^v ir]V rwv %i\ia)v ir6\iv eVet ra? 76 Trpcora? p. Be TT^OO? TOV crvvoiKicr/jLov ev0v$ r]v &ia<f)opa Trepl rov TOTTOV. 'Afievrivov /caprepov. ravra 4 JJLGV ovv vcrrepov.

Romulus hill. 7. nor murderer to magistrates. and twice that number by Romulus. "5 . they say. 8. beyond measure. ix. at the present time also the Romans chiefly regard vultures when they take auguries from the flight of lied birds. now about his twelve. for they say that the first houses numbered no more than a thousand. when they had carried them off. however. built Roma Quadrata (which means square}. Livy. however. But when they which was named from him Remonium. Some. Romulus. This.ROMULUS. they made a sanctuary of refuge for all fugitives. 1 which they called the sanctuary of the God of Asylum. was later. Therefore the city was soon full of people. 2-6 for they certainly honoured the women. For it is the least harmful 1 Of. and wished to have the city on that site but Remus laid out a strong precinct on the Aventine . 2 Cf. There they received all who came. And in the second place. but is called Rignarium. i. but declaring it to be in obedience to an oracle from Delphi that they made the asylum secure for all men. delivering none up. set out to establish their city. 2 and taking their seats on the ground apart from one another. Herodorus Ponticus relates that Hercules also was glad to see a vulture present itself when he was upon an exploit. 5 f. accordingly. say that whereas Remus truly saw his six. Livy. a dispute at once arose concerning the site. when their city was first founded. then he did see the twelve. 1. i. Agreeing to settle their quarrel by the flight of birds of omen. were seen by Remus. but that when Remus came to Hence it is that him. nor debtor to creditors. neither slave to masters. six vultures.

evTavOa eVecre Be /cal ^aucrruXo? eV T^ 2 Trecreiv \e<yov(nv. Tro/JLTrfj Be Oeia ^aivofjievov.V/JLaLVeTCLL Be Bid (Tvyyeveiav ovBe vettpols Trpocreicriv. %avTos. 116 . dva- eavTwv trot? Trape^eL Sia TTavTos aioO^cnv o Be jv^r airdvLov eVrt Oea^a Kol veocricr/j. /cat air ekeivov TOL>? raei? /cat o/ Koij/TO^ MeVeXXof. rot? 8' ejjLTroBcov eyevero.dvrei$ diovcriv elvai. ol Be TWV eTaipwv TWOS KeXepo?. Li-Tret o eyvo) TJJV aTrarrjv o rco/i-o?. 6fjLO<pu\a KOI <J)OVVOV(7f KdlTOL KCIT At- s opvis TTW? av dyvevoi 7 en raXXa (Trp(f)Tai /xev ev 6<J>6a\/jLOL<. aerol Be teal <y\avKes KOL lepa/ce^ ^wvra KOTTTOVCTI TO. TO.6vov ai)Tov ol p. ov dBe\<])ov ovTa <&av(7Ti>- \ov criv. e%aXeVai^e. olov ol fj.. e^wOev d(j}' erepa? TLVO<$ 7?}? KCLTaipeiv evravda. yLta^ /cat IlXeicrTt^o?. crvve/c6 petyai o /nev rou? Trepl TOV 'PaifAvXov IcrTOpovovv Ke\ep et? Tvpprjviav yLterecrTT.PLUTARCH'S LIVES rj fyvrevovcnv rj VZ^OVGIV veicpwv dvOpwoi Tpe(j)Tai Be CLTTOKTIVVVGI 8' OvSeV OvBe 7TT77i>ot9 CLTTO ~\. ' \ \i5* y <T> " X4r?__. TO (JTrdviov KOI /Jirj awe^es. /cal TOV 'Pco/jLvXov rd(j)pov opvTTOwros f) TO T6i%o? e'yLteXXe KVKkovcrOai.ev KOL yvTros ov paBicos Kai irapea'xev eVtot? CLVTOVS evrerv^rj/core^. fiev e^Xeua^e TWV epycov. aXXa CLTOTTOV VTTOVOICLV. w? evro? etVetz^.ev avTOv ^wjjuvXov Trara- '/ . TeXo? Be Bia\\6[j. TO yu-r) /card (f)v<Ti v /JLT) 8' dfi avrov.

when he leaped across it. at any rate. no or cattle. so rare and intermittent is their appearance. nay. by Celer. and fell dead there. and as for birds. and lives on But it does not kill or maltreat anything that has life." Quintus Metellus. 226 (Dinclorf 1 Cf. i. fruit-tree. who was rearing Faustulus also fell in the battle. Celer. one of his companions). Suppliants. in the words of Aeschylus : " How clean shall a bird that preys " ? on fellow bird be Besides. it will not touch them even when they are dead. nor spontaneously. 1 when 2 his father died. always in our and let themselves be seen continually but the vulture is a rare sight. owls. 2 grain. 7. a brother of Faustulus. from some other and foreign land to visit us here. since But eagles. and from him the Romans call such as are swift and speedy. When Remus knew 2 enraged. And yet. he was Romulus was digging a trench where his city's wall was to run. hawks smite their own kind when alive. but by a divine sending. which soothsayers think should be true of what does not present itself naturally. betook himself to Tuscany. parts of the work. injures carrion. 117 . and obstructed others. and they are of its own species. X. some men have been led into a strange suspicion that the birds come eyes. and it is not easy to come upon a vulture's young. as some say according to others. of the deceit. "celeres. other birds are. for instance. so to speak. and assisted him in Romulus and Remus.ROMULUS. he was smitten (by Romulus himself. he ridiculed some At last. Livy. creatures. as well as Pleistinus. and as . . of all ix. 2. 6-x. and kill l them.

rrjv vviv Kal TO dporpov vTrepOevres * Coraes and Bekker. 779 aTrereOrjcrav 77)9 evravOa. p^ai re rrdvrwv. Kal /aev 3 rrepiopav eKrperco^evi]V. avro? pev irepieXavvcov avXa/ca fBaOelav rot9 repjbLacri. vTr o 8' oiKicrrr]^ e^L/3a\cbv dporpw ^a\Krjv vviv.fj TO d(p op .acriv Tien tcai 6ecriJLol<$ real v SibdcncovTas wcnrep ev re\erfj. Oav/jbdcravres TO ra^o? l Tr?9 Ke\epa XI.. ocrois VO/JLO) fjiev a>9 raXot? . rfj ovv ypajjip. appeva KCU 0ij\eiav. Ka\ov(Ti Be rov (BoOpov rovrov co Kal rov o\v/j. d(j)lfcro e/ca<jTO9 KOfJil^wv /3a\\ov 6i9 ravra KOI 2 GVvefJLi'yvvov. elra warrep /cevrpqy KVK\OV be ftovv irepL<ypa^rav rrjv rro\iv. with C ' : . wKi^e /jLTa-7r/ji-^rdfj. /JLOVV^OV. a9 dvicrrrjo-i /3a)Xou9 TO dporpov fcaraa-rpefaiv el'cra). rwv 67ro/Jiev(t)V S' epyov ecrriv. e Pft>/zuXo? eV TT} 'Pe/Jiwvia Odifras rrjv rov 'Pw/Aov ofjiov CK TLVppTjmas . i^ovcr i KOL /cdXeirai Kara r) olov OTTiffdev Tet%ot9 [Jiera OTTOV Se TTV^TJV fJLfBa\elv Siavoovvrai. j360jap wpwyrj rrepl TO vvv Y^o^iTiov KVK\orepr)<. e^ fjuolpav.7rov ovo/j-ari. Kal TOU? T/30</>et?. o\iyr)i> reXo?.vos <ypd/ufj.PLUTARCH'S LIVES rov Trar/oo? drro9avovro<s dycova eVotrycre. (pvcrei /ecu 8' co? dvay/caiois. 'O f Trpoa-rjyopevcrav.

2-xi. They call this trench. himself drove a deep furrow round the boundary lines. and suffer no With this line they clod to lie turned outwards. and having yoked to it a bull and a cow. 2 and in this were deposited first-fruits of all things the use of which was sanctioned by custom as good and by nature as necessary and finally. they marked out the city in And the founder." . together with his 1 foster-fathers. and it is called. inwards towards the city. taking this as a centre. there the ground. pomerium." Then. XI. having shod a a circle round it. A space adjoining the forum where the people met in assembly. and these were cast in among the first-fruits and mingled with them. prescribed all the details in accordance with certain sacred ordinances and writings. The mundits. as they do the heavens. 4. after summoning from Tuscany men who taught them to him as in a religious rite. plough with a brazen ploughshare. was really on the Palatine. x. A circular trench was dug around what is now the Comitium. . put in a gate. and then set himself to building his city. which the plough threw up. and left a vacant And where See chapter ix. in the Remonia. 3 took only a few days to provide gladiatorial contests in his honour. by the name of "mundus.ROMULUS. while those who followed after him had to turn the clods. " " by contraction. or augural centre of the city. and behind or next the wall. lifted 1 2 they purposed to they took the share out of the plough over. mark out the course of the wall. Romulus buried Remus. and the people were so amazed at his speed in preparing them that they gave him the surname of Celer." that is post murum. every man brought a small portion of the soil of his native land.

Nvv fiev ovv ovSev at 'Poypal/cal ' Se ir/v rjfiepav.aiwv ev Icrropia (3i/3\t.V aXXco? /cal jjiaOrjfjLaTiKos. TTOiovcriv. 8' aTTOTre/jkTreiv TWV dvay/caiaiv ovv rj XII. TOV TlJLOV eTTOTTOLOV. ovSev e/j. ov /jLrjv aXXa 24 /cal Trpo Kara 2 /crtcrea)? fioTiipiKrj TIS r]V aurot? eoprrj ravrrjv Trjv rjfjuepav.^. e/eri^ev. /cal TLapiXia T^? yopevov avrtjv. KTLCTIS rjfAepa yevoiro rfj Mai'&)i/ ofioX. wcnrep al I2O .-^rv)(ov eOvov. dirro(f)i\6cro(f)ov fjbevos 8e rf. TTJS ravrrjv eoprd^ovcri 'Paifiaioi. avSpa 'Pwp. "QTI Trpb Tr]V [lev evSe/ca rjfjiepav Ka\av&wv /cal pr) KaOapwv. d\\a KaOapav KOI WOVTO ryevecrea)? elv TTJ irarpLBi rrjv eTrwvv/Aov eoprifv (f)V\dTT6iv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES odev airav TO rer^o? lepov 7r\^v TWV TTV\WV vofjiL^ouai' ra? Be TruXa? lepds vopi^ovrab OVK r)V aveu SeicrLbaifJiovias ra fjiev Be^eaOai. r) TTJV 7ro\iv 6 drpeKT) crvvobov rpiaftdBa Tw%eiv \eyovcri' /cal K\i7niKi)V ev avrf) yeveaOai cre\t]V7]^ el&evau teal 'Avri/jiaxov TyOtTCO Trpo? ?i\iov.axct)TaTov. TWV \eyofJLevwv d jroTe\ecr^dTwv TOV avSpa Troirjcrdfjievov TOV av\\oyicrjji6v. TJV 3 oiovrai. </)iXocro(^o9 /J. rjv Tapovnos eratpo? avrov. 6Tl TrtaSo? crvjjLTrea'ova'av. <yeveev dp^fj B\ co? TrarpiSos ovo^a^ovTe.oyeLTai' KOI O\LOV . TOVTM Trpov(3a\ev r o Bdppcov dvayayelv Trepl Trjv 'Pay/iiiXov yevecrtv et9 r^fjiepav icdi copav. TO. T% 6KTT]^ oXu/i- ev Se TO?? /cara T$dppa)i>a xpovots.? Trepl 4 eveica /cal 8o/ca)v ev TOV TOV Triva/ca fiedoBov 6eu>pia<$ avTy irepiTTos e/c elvai.

even before the founding of the city. besides being a philosopher and a mathematician. XII. since it commemorated the birth of their country. but thought they ought to keep it pure and without stain of blood.first of April. in the third year of the sixth Olympiad. However. and that on that day there was a conjunction of the sun and moon. To this man Varro gave the problem of fixing the day and hour of the birth of Romulus. a Roman who was most deeply versed in history. which they think was the one seen by Antimachus. with an eclipse. calling it the . had applied himself to the art of casting nativities. indeed. but they say that the day on which Romulus founded his city was precisely the thirtieth of the month. and was thought to excel in it. 1 And in the times of Varro the philosopher. At the present time.ROMULUS. and called it Parilia. there lived Tarutius.C. there is no agreement between the Roman and Greek months. and yet unclean. all xi. making his deductions from the conjunctions of events reported in the man's life. space. who. Now it is agreed that the city was founded on the twenty. just as the solutions of 1 And this is the reason why they regard the wall as sacred except the gates but if they held the gates sacred. they had a pastoral festival on that day. 3-xn. as it is said. 4 And at first. in order to indulge a speculative turn of mind. they sacrificed no living creature at that festival. 754 B. without religious scruples. it would not be possible. birthday of their country. to bring into and send out of the city things which are necessary. the epic poet of Teos. a companion of his. and this day the Romans celebrate with a festival. 121 .

KOI TO. enoirjcrev ovv rb Trpoara^dev o TapOVTIOS.a rjv Kal Tpiaicocriwv iTnrewv. elvai TOL/9 jiaL/Jiovs etc Trdvrayv. /juera^v SevTepas wpa? KOI 7roXea>9 rv^rjv.d\a TedappyKOTcos KCU av&peiws a ev rfi /j.o5 e^e TrpcdTW ev 8' e/ji(j)avr) 6 TT pcDTrj fter' yevecriv ev fj.ev cnepwv Tcrco? aXXa Tavra teal ra eva) KOI TrepiTTO) Trpoa'd^erai /-taXTOiavra r< Kov rj Sia rb fj. epya TOV avSpOS CTTL^ODV KOI XpOVOV %C0fjS KOI TpOTTOV reXeim'}? KOI TrdvTCt ra roiavra crvvOeis.. pev aXXot? e%pr)TO teal TroTrouXou? a)vofjida-0rj rb n\r)9o<$' e/carbv 8e roL/9 dpicrTovs aTTeSet^e ySouXei/Ta9. Tpirrj KOI wpas. KaO* rjv 6 r/A. irepi rf\. T TTaOlJ KOI TO. TOV rei 5 KCLT <s T?}? Sevrepas oXfyUTrmSo?.rjvl el/cdSa. KTt<T^etcr779 Se T% 7roXe&>5 Trpcorov ocrov TJV ev rjKiKiq 77X7^09 et? (rvvrdy/jiaTa arpa- Tiwritca $iei\ev GKaarov oe crvvTay/j. ev fj.Lov dvaro\d<f. XIII.r)Tpl yeyovevat. UTT' KTI- aQr\vai 8e rrjv 'Pc^/jUjv fjiovdl fjLrjvbs avrov TV) evaTr) 3>ap- KOI Tpirrjs' 7rel Icna/uievov. MtJirep dv- K yevecrecos TT/JO? deoypovfjievov. AlyvTTTiOVS Xoia/c.PLUTARCH'S LIVES yovvrai irpojSXrj/uidrwv ava\vaew rfjs yap 6ewpias elvai %povov re \a/36vras avOpomrov yevecrews (3iov Trpoenreiv KOL /3ta> SoOevri Orjpevaai xpovov. Kal avrovs eTreira rot? r 122 . ra? rwv p.v0(t)Bes evo^Xijcrei TOL/? vovras aurot?.

XIII.ROMULUS. in the month Choeac of the Egyptian calendar. from the given facts of his life. he very courageously and bravely declared that Romulus was conceived in his mother's womb in the first year of the second 1 Olympiad. at sun-rise and that Rome was founded f by him on the ninth day of the month Pharmuthi. Tarutius performed. between the second and third hour for it is thought that a city's fortune. and in the third hour. then. i for the same geometrical problems are derived science. In the second place. the manner of his death. : . . he treated the remainder as a " " people. each company consisting of three thousand footmen and three hundred horsemen.a 123 . Romulus divided all the multitude that were of age to bear arms into military companies. 4-xrn. on the twentyfirst day. when the sun was totally eclipsed and that he was born in the month Thoth. he ." because the warlike were selected out of all. 1 772 B. Such a company was called a "legion. and when he had taken a survey of the man's experiences and achievements. xn. he said. and had brought together the time of his life. as well as that of a man. When the city was built. and all such details. on the twenty-third day. who were the most eminent. must be capable not only of foretelling a man's life when the time of his birth is known. / . This task. has a decisive time. rather than offend them by their fabulous character. of hunting out the time of his birth. These and similar speculations will perhaps attract readers by their novelty and extravagance. and this multitude was called populus a hundred of them. in the first place. but also. which may be known by the position of the stars at its very origin.

e. vaTepov Be ir\eLovwv TOVTO TO JJLEV crefJivoTepov TrpocDjyopevaav. rfKidTa Se (frOovov ev dp%fj ^ev ejfovrt xpot)jjii>oi TWV ovofJidTwv. a^)' CLVTOV TO) TTpdy/jiaTi TavTrjv Trjv yopiav aTroXiTrelv. avrol be 'Pajfjiaioi ircLTepas o-vyyeypa/jL^evov^. ovv TTdTepas auroL'9 5 vov<$ JJLOVOV.ye uoz'a9 y tcakovcriv. KOI rrjv 3 TLKOV. fjid\i<TTa 8' dv rt? l TOV et/coTo?. oi/ra)9 /col yap d^pi. /c\r)~ ori TraiBaiv yvrjaiwv ira- eavrwv oirep ov TTO\LV rrjv vTrrjp^e TTpwrcov OVTCO yap ol Se UTTO TT}? 7rar/3co^6/a?. et<? TWV fcd\pvv olo/jLevoi Trpoaraa-iav real Ka\ovcriv a%/ot vvv. TWV fJLOVLCl . el VO/JLL^OL TOV Pa)/uLi>\ov d TOU? 7T/30)TOU9 KOi SuVCLTaiTaTOVS TTarptKr) KCLi (fypOl'TiSl 7T p O"T) K 6 IV 7ri/ji\L<T0at. rw /u.a 7rpo9 SIJ/JLOTLKOV TOV {3ov\evTifcov $La(f)opd<i' eTepoLs Be 124 . a/aa Be Toi/9 fjLrj& . d^jdecrOaL rat9 aXXou? TWV 4 d\\d ^pjjadaL jJ^eT evvolas KOI KOI TrpoaayopevovTas TraTepas.25 yicrTOV /Ji&v d^iw/jia teal Tifjujv. tv TrarpiKLovs. CLVTW r/)9 tcai rjv ovop. YLdrpwpd Tiva TWV crvv Eua^o/D ov TWV VTroSeeaTepcov OVTO. TO Be (TvcrTij/jLa aevciTov 7rpoo-r)yoo JJLCV ovv aevaros aTpeKws yepovaiav arjfjLaivei' TrarpLKLOv^ ol fjiev Be Orjvai \eyovGiv ol TOVS /3ov\evra<. vvv TOU9 ev crvy/c^JTW ol pev e^wOev dvbpas ?. aTTobei^ai Trarepa?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 2 pevaev.

they addressed them as "conscript fathers." and their body a tf senate. xin. whence their name of Patricii. opinion for any one to hold is that Romulus thought it the duty of the foremost and most influential citizens to watch over the more lowly with fatherly care and concern." but the Romans themselves call them "conscript fathers. according toothers still. 8. and in other ways. Livy. calling the individuals themselves " patricians. was a protector and defender of the poor and needy. which not many could do of those who first streamed into the city. because they could tell who their own fathers were. one of those who came to Italy with Evander.ROMULUS." Now the word <( senate " means literally a Council of Elders. while he taught the multitude not to fear their superiors nor be vexed at their honours. they called them simply envy. 7. but to exercise goodwill towards them. and is so to this day and they suppose that a certain Patron. and left his own name in the word which But the most reasonable designates such activity. "fathers. For down to the present time foreign peoples call the members of their senate "chief men. considering ." which was their word for the protection of inferiors." as some say. he separated the nobles from the 1 Cf. them and addressing them as fathers. ." but later. "5 . 1-5 appointed to be councillors. too. and the councillors were called "patricians. and awakens the least At first. because they were fathers of lawful children 1 or rather." using that name which has the greatest dignity and honour. then. according to others." By this more imposing title Romulus distinguished the senate from the commonalty. when more had been added to their number. from "patronage. i.

' TroXeyuoi? /J. rj /carafiapTVpeiv re rre\drov TrpocrTrpoardrov TreXdrrjv.ev ovv rcepl rovrcov. *2<a/3i. aXXa /ecu Trei'O/jievoiS OvyaTepas crvve/cSiBovres tcai xpea GweKTivovres. XIV. oirep earl TreXara?' ajua Be 77/909 dXX^'Xou? evvoiav avrot? KOI /jLeyd\a>v Bt/caiwv v OVTOI /&ev jap e^ijjTjrd^ re TMV /ca VO/JLL- 7rpocn-ra<. are Brj TroXeyLtou rovro Be OVK el/c6$' 2 fjLa\\ov 77 ydfjiwv Beo/jievov./3dv6iv ovre ap^wv TWV BIKCLLWV /jievovrcov. aXXa rr]V fj. ro rrepl rrjv dprrayrjv erokprfOr) c rwv ryvvaiK&v. teal \eyovcri p. ovre v6[Jbo<s rjvdyKa^ev.ev evioi rov P<w- /JLV\OV avrov rf) (frvcrei. av Trpo? /3ta? vrrdp^ai rovs ovBe yap TroXXa?. \afj. vcrrepov Be. ol Be TroXXot 126 . ' /cal TreTretcr/jLevov e/c TIVWV apa \o<ylwv rpecpo/jievrjv on /cal rr)V rrirrpwrai yeveadat. iKao/bievois avfjiovkovs re /cal /r^Se^om? eavrovf irapel^ov.ev rrb\iv opcov erro'iKwv ev9v<$ efimrr\at wv 6\[yoi yvvaltcas GL'XOV. etcelvoi Be TOUTOL'? edepdnrevov ov JJLOVOV Tt/^co^re?.eyicrr'Tjv. TO xptfjjiara TOU? Bvvarovs rrapa rwv rarreivorepwv ala^pov evoravra /J. \afteiv avrov. real dyevves. Trdrpwvas orrep eVrl Trpoardras. aXXa rpid/covra fiovas 7rap0evov<. a>? icrropel. fyikorcoXefjiov ovra. etceivov? Be /cXievras. rdrrjv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Toov TToXXwi/ Biypci.vov<. Terdprw Be ^r\v\ /juera rrjv Krlcrw..

It was in the fourth month after the founding of the city.ROMULUS. and being persuaded by sundry oracles. So much. And there was neither any law nor any magistrate that could compel a patron to bear witness against a client. being naturally fond of war. since what he wanted was war rather than marriages. that the rape of the Sabine women was perpetrated. were their counsellors and friends in all things while the clients were . devoted to their patrons. or a client againt a patron. 127 . At the same time he inspired both classes with an astonishing goodwill towards each other. while all other rights and privileges remained taking of money by those of high degree from the more lowly was held to be disgraceful and ungenerous. in short. 2 " multitude. helping them to dower their daughters and pay their debts. xiii. not only holding them in honour. and one which became the basis of important For the patrons advised their rights and privileges. then. calling the one patrons. in cases of poverty. but thirty only. seeing his city filling up at once with aliens. protectors. and represented them in courts of justice. but actually. Livy. 1 And some say that Romulus himself. But this is not likely. on these topics. being a mixed rabble of needy Cf. that it was the destiny of Rome to be nourished and increased by wars till she became the greatest of cities. clients in matters of custom. hostilities for he did not take many against the Sabines maidens. while the greater part of them. as Fabius writes. the thereby merely began unprovoked . 9. On the contrary. i. But in later times." that is to say. in force." that is to say. too. and the other "clients. dependants. XIV. 5-xiv. few of whom had wives.

evov (jTcaad^evoi TO.evo<$. elVe /3ov\alov vvv TO avfJifBovKiov Ka\ovcri. KOI Koivwvas \6yos TOV OVTCL (K(i)i>aL\. Kal yap 6 ITTTTLKOLS 6V TO) fJLGl^OVl TWV ITTTToSpOfjLWV 6CTTIV. olov Trpo. o~vjji/3o'\. avTos Se TrpovKaOrfTO /HGTCL 5 GTCOV d\oupyiSi TT}? K6Kocr[JLrip. TOV a\\ov %povov. 6eov jap 6Ti T^wvaov. ^i^-rj Kal fjieTa TCOV 'Safiivoov.ov r)v Be TOV Kaipov eTr^eiptjcrecixj e^avaaTavTa dXovpylSa TTTv^ai Kal 7repi/3a\ea@ai e^ovTes ovv %l$ri TroXXol Trpoael^ov avru). Kal TOV cnjfMeiov yevo/u. eVeepyw rovSe rov rpoTrov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES aTropwv KOL d<f)avwv 6We? virepewKal Trpo&eBoKwvTO /jirj av/jL^eveiv /3e TIVCL p^rjv avrois TO dBlTTOiijcreiv rjjjiepwa-afJLevois ra? yvvaiKas. 6LT6 'ITTTCIQV TlocreiSa). ol Kal dywaiv oXw? <acrt TOV VTTO- Kal d(f)avovs OVTOS yeiov OVK d\6yw<.iov VTT avTOV V7TO Trp&rov <yrj$ &)? 6eov KKpVjJL/jL6VOV. /cal TOU? i/Trarou? KwvcroiiKas. Kal 7TO\\ol a-vvrjXdov. 6V 4 Be Se rot? dvaKa\v7TT6Avo$. 6eu> fBwfjiov yeveadai K6- &>? 8' dve<pdvr). Over lav re Xa/tvr pav eV ai>T& Kal dywva Kal deav IK TWV dpi 6TT6T6\6L TTaVrjyVpLK^V. /3o^? opjjiijcravTes rjprra^ov ra? QvyaTepas avTov<i Be (frevyovTas eiwv Kal 128 . TW Kpu/jifjievov.

clad in purple. xiv. . counsellors). 2-5 and obscure persons. Romulus appointed by proclamation a splendid sacrifice upon it. They called this god Census. First a report was spread abroad by him that he had discovered an altar of a certain god hidden underground. and they call their chief . Now when this altar was discovered. many of his followers kept their eyes intently upon him. while he himself sat in front. or is in the Circus Maximus. and a spectacle open to all people. Armed with swords. Some. and he was either a god of counsel (for "consilium" is still their word for counsel. simply say that since counsel is secret and unseen. The signal that the time had come for the onslaught was to be his rising and folding his cloak and then throwing it round him again. and is invisible at all other times. with games. among his chief men. and ravished away the daughters of the Sabines. but at the chariot-races it is uncovered. And many were the people who came together. it is not unreasonable that an altar to the 1 god of counsel should be hidden underground.ROMULUS. magistrates " consuls/' that is an equestrian Neptune. and when the signal was given. rushed in with shouts. were looked down upon and expected to have no strong cohesion and hoping to make the outrage an occasion for some sort of blending and fellowship with the Sabines after their women had been kindly entreated. however. but permitted and encouraged the men 1 The altar was kept buried in the earth to signify the secret processes of nature in the production of crops and For Census \vas an ancient Italian god of vegetation. he set his hand to the task. and in the following manner. agriculture. For the altar to say. then. drew their swords.

a<' wv Kal ra? (frparpias OuaXXe/Jto? Be 'Azma? eTna Kal TrapOtvov?' fAitXw' o TrevraKoaias. /j. ILiav pep Ovyarepa TLpi/jLav. dpTracrdrjvai Be $a<riv ol fiev rpidOVOJJLCL- tcovra jjLovas. rfj rd^ei rrjs yevecreco? ovrco irpoaayopevOelcrav. cr0fjvai. TWV OVK eir ify ayovras Koprjv TO) re /caXXet TTO\V Kal rw eet S' d7ravTO)VT<. dvBpl Be Kal ^prjcrTU)' evBoKLfjLy TOUT' ovv CLKOV- Be Kal 7rapaKo\ov0eiv aavTas ev^rj^elv Kal Kporeiv eTraivovvras. are vftpews ^8' dSiKias e\06vras eVl TIJV 26 ( d\\a ravrb ra 7 <yevr) 0evra<.. &)? TaXacrtw Kopl^oiev avnjv. avBpa 'PwyLtatwv eTTKpavecrTaTOV. Pa)/jiv\ov f Kal avrov bv 'AoXXtoi^ o"e&)9 fjiev VTT* avrov 6 evelvos OLTTO TT}? yevojAevrjs dOpoLTO)V TTO\tTcov owo/jiacrev.(Bi\\iov. rrjv 5' ( crvy^ul^aL Kal crvvayayelv et? Tals /jbeyicrTais dvdyKais Siavorj'E^pcnXiav ol p.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 6 Trapiecrav. aXXa ravra rot? dpTTa^ovcn ra? \eyovai.ev 'Q(TTi\iov yrjfjiat ol Be Xeyovo'iv. Sia\a0ov<rav aurou?.e0' ^pffi\iav. ov rou? veto ciyovras 2 /j. eva 8' viov /JLOVOV. 'Io/3a? Be rpel? KOL oyBoiJKovra /jLeyiaTOV rjv diro- <yvvaiKa yap ov \ajSelv ' TI -q jjilav. eviov? dvacrTpe^avTas evvoia Kal 130 . yeveadai Kal TratSa? avrq>.ev. zvioi 'Ei^ XV. ol S* i>a"Tepov A. Be rare TV%LV i.

2 Some say that only thirty maidens were seized. Livy. it chanced. 6 f. and her by mistake. from the great under him. namely. is contradicted by many. 8 were divided for i. but later ages Avillius. themselves to escape. that she was married to Hostilius. However. who gives us this account. they cried out that they were conducting the girl to Talasius. . The other party. nor even with a desire to do mischief. to Romulus himself. and that from these the Curiae 1 were named but Valerius Antias puts the number at five hundred and twenty-seven. etymology. they say. Among those who ravished away the maidens of citizens some men of superior rank met them and tried to rob them of their prize. connecting the name with in throngs. that they took only one married woman. on hearing this. Zenodotus of Troezen. a young man. XV. but one of excellent repute. and when Aollius. Hersilia.ROMULUS. then. and one son only. a most eminent Roman. : whom Romulus named concourse 2 at that time. since they did not commit the rape out of wantonness. and others. some say strongest bonds. . so called from the order of birth. xiv. that certain men of meaner sort were dragging along a damsel who far surpassed the rest in beauty and stature . shouted and clapped their hands in approval. and Juba at six hundred and eighty-three. but with the fixed purpose of uniting and blending the two peoples in the As for this Hersilia. And this was the strongest defence which Romulus could make. Prima. and some of them actually turned back 1 The thirty divisions into which the three ancient Roman tribes Cf. and that she also bore him children one daughter. political and ceremonial purposes. 6-xv. A Greek 13. all maidens.

eyeVOVTO (TwOrjKai Trepl TWV yvvaiK&v. eTrdBovai 'Paifjialoi rot? /cal yap evTW^ia OV Ta\dcriov. oure dvrfp.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TOV TaXacr/ou. TOV 'T/jievaiov. (fracrl %pijcracr@ai Trepl Be SuXXa? o Kap^So^fo?. 5 yvvai/cbs rj raXacr/ay TO T. aXXo V7rovpyr)/J. criv. eTepav av Ti? eTrel yap ol 'ZafBlvoi ei/cdcreie TnOavwTepav.ev<riv et? fyiKepyiav /cal Ta\acriav. Bid TO teal TOTC 132 . Be vv^rjv ovBov et9 avrrjv d(j) auTT/9 ya^ TOV TO Bw/jidTiov. /JLOV- ovre ^apircov f 67rt$ety9 \eyev TJ/JLLV OTL 6 ol pTrayrj^ (JvvdrjfJia rrjv (JMOVTJV eSw/C 3 ravnjv P&)yuuXo5.a Trjs Bia/jievei.^ elaayofjuevri^. KCLL TrapaKe\. KaOdirep ^yuet?.. Tot9 dvBpdcriv r) TCL Trepl TT)I> Trape^eivev ovv /cal rot9 avOi? yaTOW9 SiBovTas rj TrapaTre/jLTrovTas rj 0X0)9 velv TOV &)9 r eV ovBev Ya\daiov /zero. yLtera /3or}9 a<' ov Brj TOV TaXdaiov a^pi vvv. wv KOL 'lo/Sa? eVrt. TT/OO? TOU? 'Pw/iatOL'9 7roXeya?. TracBias.<jai'Te9 Bir)\\dyr]crai>. O7r&)9 aXXo epyov vTTOvpywcri. OUTTW TOTE rot? 'EXXT/i'i/for? ovQ^aai TWV 4 el Be TOVTO /zr/ Xeyerai eiTLKe'^yiJLevwv. aXX' el<T$>epear6ai. aXX* e%p)VTO 'Pwyu-atot Tore T^ TaXa<rta?. avra^re? ot'i' TW TaXdaiov ejBowv TrapBevovs KOfjii^ovTe^' /cal Sia rovro rot? <yd01 Be TrXetcrTot VOJJLL^OVTTapa/nevei TO e^o?. Trapd/c^ijaiv elvat.

indeed. to cry "Talasius!" merrily. xv. But Sextius Sulla. All those. and the Romans did at that " time use the word <( talasia for spinning. the Carthaginian. And it continues to be a custom down to the present time that the bride shall not of herself cross the threshold into her new home. down to the present time. Talasius is the nuptial cry of the Romans. were reconciled with them. their war against the Romans. Juba is one of them that the cry is an exhortation and incitement to industry and " talasia/' as the Greeks call spinning. therefore. or simply looked on.ROMULUS. shouting his name as they went along. a then more credible reason for the custom might be When the Sabines. out of good and favour to Talasius. after conjectured as follows. shouted "Talasius!' and this account the custom now prevails at marBut most writers are of the opinion and riages. It was on customary. Hence. in testimony that the woman was led home for no other task than that of spinning. who . at subsequent marriages. for those who gave the bride away. Italian words having not yet at that time entirely submerged the Greek. a man who lacks neither learning nor charm. but be lifted up and carried in. it was agreed that their women should perform no other tasks for their husbands than those which were connected with spinning. took the maidens away. because the Sabine women were carried in 133 . as we do. 2-5 will and accompanied them. told me that Talasius was the word which Romulus gave as a watchword for the rape. Now if this is right. therefore. or escorted her to her new home. as Hymenaeus is of the Greeks for they say that Talasius was fortunate in his wife.

ov p^v aXX* o/Arjpev/jLacri. firj el(T\06iv.aTa TOV 'Pay/jLv01 vTrotylas el%e. ol jjiev aXXoi /3ov\6v6/jievoi Kal rrapaBe /3ao-i\evs Tpiftov.)] 7ro\\rj<. Trpecrfteis aTre- Kal fjierpia 7rpoKO\ovfjL6VOi. avrovs eVSeSe/ze^ou? fjie<yd\ois Trepl TWV Qvyarepcov. KW/ACLS Se rpKovv arei^iarov^. Ol be 'Sa/Bivoi TroXXot /JLCV rjcrav 7ro\/JLiKoi. dvrjp 6vfj. e^copei Bvvd/.ia)<i err et<re\0etV bracketed by Bekker. 7rapaKa\ovi>TO<. Kal TO Trjv KofJiriv TT)? <yafj. Kal TW irpa^Qevri rrepl ra9 27 ryvvaiKas r^^T] (frofiepov r)<yov/J.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 1 evioi Be Xeyoucri vat (BiacrOeicras. Be Trjv Koivwvlav c~e%6cr0ai TOVS 3 ^aftivovs. rrpoe^aveo-Tii TM \ov 1 TroXe/ACp Kal fieTa 1 p. al^fj Bia- Kpiveo~6ai Sopariov o~vfj. ev y TWV eoprrjv ayovcriv. TOV diroSovTa Ta? Kopa? avTols Kal \vcravTO. "A/epa>i/ . 009 Trpocr'fjfcov atTot? jjieya (frpoveiv Kal ^ (froftelcrOat 2 AaKeSai/AOviwv aTTOLKoi? ovcriv. TOV r oe Pa)jjLv\ov ra9 /iev Kopas fir) rrpoie/jLevov. etra TktiQoi KOI vofjiw TrpaTTGLV rot? yeveai <j>i\iav KOL OLKeioTrjra.(3o\ov zlvai TOV l JJLCTCL /ia TroXeyiu/eco? TOV Trp&TOV ydpov <yevea8ai' ovv r) eiriTrKeov ev TOL<$ AtVtot? fiev apirayr] nrepl rrjv OKTCO- jV r)f.iepav rov Tore rrjv Avyovcrrov $e vvv. el fjirj KoXacrOeirj. XVI. 134 .evo$ iracnv elvai Kal OVK dveKTov.oeLor)<$ Kal Seivbs ev To?9 a T6 TcpajTa TO\fj.tffj.ovaevr)<. TO r^9 y5/a9 epyov.

the rape was committed on the eighteenth day of the month once called Sextilis. and intolerable unless chastised. and fearing for their daughters. namely. say also that the custom of parting the bride's hair with the head of a spear is a reminder that the first marriage was attended with war and and did not go And some on which topic I have spoken more fully in " Roman J Questions. at once rose up in arms. Now 1 2 Morals. 3. and now that this violence had been done the women. 3 in of their own accord. Acron. and demanded that the Sabines should allow community of marriage with the Romans. XT. whereupon they all held long deliberations and made extensive preparations for war. but now. the Sabines were a numerous and warlike people. Nevertheless. on which day the fighting . 135 . a man of courageous spirit and skilled in war. See chapter xiv. since they were Lacedaemonian colonists. establish a friendly reBut Romulus lationship between the two peoples. and dwelt in unwalled villages. my the Consualia 2 is celebrated. thinking that it behoved them.ROMULUS." Leaving such matters aside. by force. thinking him a menace to all peoples. would not surrender the maidens. to be bold and fearless. by persuasion and legal enactment. 5-xvi. and then. 285 c (Question 87). that Romulus should give back to them their maidens. and with a great festival of XVI. king of the Caeninenses. disavow his deed of violence. named from Consus. p. But there was one exception. they sent ambassadors with reasonable and moderate demands. August. had been suspicious of the daring deeds of Romulus from the beginning. seeing themselves bound by precious hostages. A harvest festival.

ovv alpel Be /cal TTJV TTO\IV' 17 ov fJLrjv TOU? eyKarahrj^devTas. v r) /jiera ^apa^ avOis /cal fiev ovv TTO^LTrr) TWV @pid/M/3a)v KOI %rj\. /cal rwv rov "Afcpcovos eKauTOV ev Ta^ei 7repirjpfj. TWV TroXirwv TO?.ov Trapea^e' TO Be rpojraiov dvd- 136 . 7rl crrpaTOTreSov $pvv e axnrep rpoTrcuov. irpovKaX-ovvro rcov a-rparev/jLaTcov rot? ovrXoi? 'Pw/zuXo?.r]v. eVt rot? IVot? TOUTOU rjv //. aXX' erceXevcre ra? ot/cta? eo? KaOekovras aKO\ovdelv eh 'Pcb/xrjv. 6 $d(f)vr) $e effre^aro Trjv / aav. a>9 av Kparijireiev' rrjv evyfiv rw re A<i' Ke^apLcr^evTjv KOI rot? TroXtrai? t'Set^ eTTiTepirrj 7rapdo"%oi . Viiclov e^d rfj Traiavos oVXof? CTro/JLevr) crrparta.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 4 aVTOV Kal ev o-^rei KOI O 'PtoylluXo? 67T* KLVOV.oa'e /cal auro9 5e TJ^V IJLZV eaO^Ta TrepiKaTrjpTTjcrev e^coaaro. et ev^d^evo^ KOI Kara/3d\oi. vTToXafioov Se ev TW Be^iy TO e/Sd&i^ev Tpojraiov opOov. ev o KanSovres d\\tj\ov<. rw Att (frepwv dvaOr)atT05 ra 6VXa TOU dvSpos.e^ ow ou/c ecrTiv o TI /maXXov r)v 'P(t)/j. vep. avrov re Kara/cpaTijaas KOI rpeTrerai TO o-rpdrev/j-a <yevofJLevri<s.ova'av wv del irpocnroiova-av eavrr) teal avv6 & 'Pw/zuXo?.

he promised them. where it was held and began a triumphal march. him and wreathing his flowing locks with laurel. where. was what gave increase to Rome she always united and incor: porated with herself those whom she conquered. To the captured citizens. then. after considering how he might perform his vow in a manner most acceptable to Jupiter and accompany the performance with a spectacle most pleasing to the citizens. Romulus. But Romulus.ROMULUS. he would carry home the man's armour and dedicate it in person to Jupiter. force xvi. each piece in its due Then he himself. and being received by the citizens with This procession was the origin joyful amazement. he did no harm beyond ordering them to tear down their dwellings and accompany him to Rome. they should be citizens on equal terms with the rest. not only conquered and overthrew him. and fitted and fastened to it the armour of Acron. and took his city as well. i Cf. set the trophy on his right shoulder. while their armies remained quiet under arms. 3-6 advanced against him. and the erect. Livy. 1 Romulus also marched But when they were face to out to meet him. hewed it into the shape of a trophy. and model of all subsequent triumphs. I 10. girding his raiment about order. Now this. leading off in a paean of victory which his army sang as it followed under arms. but also routed his army in the battle which followed. face and had surveyed each other. after making a vow that if he should conquer and overthrow his adversary. however. 137 . they challenged mutually to single combat before battle. more than anything else. cut down a monstrous oak that grew in the camp.

ev ovv KOI elcrtfXavvov S' TdXcLTWV /ceXXo? ySacriXea)?. TT^COTW T vTrijp^e 'PcoKTeivavri. Yo\ov^viov. TO epyov.ai 7 TOV avBpa KOI KcnafidXeiV' o-nifiia Be ra cr/cOXa. KaOort Kal Tr^v irepiovGiav \e<yovcn. 7ri0avwTpov S' av TL<? GLTTOL Sia <j)r)al OTTOU? 'yap ovo/jid^erai. Bdppwv. eVl iracri &e Kocrcro? p. Mera a\\wv ^afBivwv fivav Be Trjv KevivijTwv aKwcriv CTL ev Trapacncevais OVTWV. TOV $e 'Ptwyu-yXoi. avve- Tovpyw e pi(7T6Las o-rparr}ja) (TTpary'yv \ovri Se&orai Kal rpicrl /jiovois ^je/JLocri. ra? ei/covas opdv ecrTiv ev 'Pat/Ay ra? TpoTcaiofyopovs XVII. Mapra (frrjcriv ijBrj TeOpuTTTrois avTol Tpoiraia <^epovTe" 'Pa)fiv\ov apfACLTi OVK opOws &IOVIXTIOS. TOVTOV rv^elv 'Pa)/i.dcrO'r]. TOV Tvpprjvov 8 "A/cpajva. SevTepp JLopVTJKito Kocrcra). Tap/cvviov TOV io~Topovcn A^/tayoarou TWV /3acri\ecov ei? TOVTO TO <r^r}/za KCU TOV OJKOV e^apcu xpij(racr0ai yap fievcrai 0pidjjL^ov<f eTepoi Be irpcoTov e'c' ap/maTo? Ho7r\iKo\av. ' TWV crav ol QiBijvTjv Kal l^povaTov/JLepiov KOI ol/covvTes eirl TOU? 'Pco/maiov^' /cal 138 .a'ioi eTrcovo/j.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Ato? (freplpe 'Pca/j. ave\ovTt. TO <yap TT\r)- KaKovcnv ev^aro Be 7r\r/j.uXft).

Rom. all on foot. although others say that Publicola was first to celebrate a triumph riding on a chariot. And only to a general who with his own hand has performed the exploit of slaying an opposing general. In 222 B. but Dionysius is incorrect in saying that Romulus used a chariot. 19. only three Roman leaders have attained this honour Romulus first. iv. king of the Gauls.C. 3 Cossus indeed. Publicola. 8 carrying the trophies themselves. XVII. for slaying Acron the Caeninensian ." to smite. was first of the kings to lift triumphs up to such pomp and ceremony. 139 . the son of Demaratus. 5. while the rest of the Sabines were still busy with their preparations. Furthermore. After the capture of the Caeninensians. for Romulus vowed to smite his foe and overthrow him. xvi.. Crustumerium. ] and lastly.ROMULUS. Claudius Marcellus. For it is matter of history that Tarquin. and Antemnae banded together against the : 1 2 8 In 436 B. so named from the Roman word "ferire. i trophy was styled a dedication to Jupiter Feretrius. already used a four-horse chariot for their entrance into the city. Cornelius Cossus. and Marcellus. vii." because " is the Roman word for richness as Varro says.C. for killing Tolumnius the Tuscan . ix. 34. And such spoils were called " opirna. Antiq. See Plutarch's Marcellus. since " " opus is the Roman word for deed or exploit. ii. 4 Cf. ' been granted. for overpowering Britomartus. 4 And the statues of Romulus bearing the trophies are. 6-xvn. " opes but it would be more plausible to say that they were so called from the deed of valour involved. according to Livy. the people of Fidenae. 1-5. has the privilege of dedicating the " spolia opima . as may be seen in Rome. next.

v.Kov. ovBe Katcra/?. 6 oe ocrr. / >/ . irpo- 28 3 Socua? a fyopolev ev rat? dpicrTepals ^epcri. avrovs e%6iv eKeivovs eiacrev. $>i\elv fiev TrpoBocriav. TOVTO Kal rore 7ra0a>v 6 140 . Kal p^oXr}? eviwv Oriplwv Seovrar TTJV yap ^pelav ore \afj.ia9ov rrj<} 02)9 et^e Trepifcei/jievovs. evr)6ri TO vvv TOV 'Pco/zuXov aTToSeiKVi/ovres' aXXa dvydr^p rj ^ r ? V ia rov aovTos ovaa 7rpov6a)K rot? ZaJ..PLUTARCH'S LIVES yevoaevrj? 7. eTTidv/Atjo-aaa TWV %pvawi> KOI firr/ae p. TrpoooTrjv Be fjucreiv d\\d KOLVQV TI TOVTO TrdOos ecrrt lov TOU? TTovTjpovs Tot9 Seo/jLi'Oi<^ avTcov.<9eVre9 Oyuoto)?. ev %ov<ra 7rp6/3\r]/jLa (ppovpa KaOeicnrjKei Kal TapTT^i'o? rjye/JLwv avrr/s.{3dvovcriv dyaTrwvres. rds re TroXet? 'P&>av\a) TraprfKav k\elv Kal TTJV %a)pav ^aaaaOai l fjieroiKicrai cr0a? avTOvs els 'Pa)/jir)v. avv0e- jJLiVOV 8e TOV TdTlOV. VVKTQ)p dvOL^CKTCL 7TV\r}V fJii ow yLioz^o? OL/I^. 2 'E-Trt Touroi? /9apeo)? tyepovres ol \oi7rol TCLTIOV a7ro^et^ai/T9 (TTparrjyov eVt TpaTGVcrav' r)V $e Sva-TrpoaoSos r) TTO\I<. e rr/i/ 4 Katciav oTav ' ru^cocrt.TT?. a>? eWoi \eyovcri. /cora? Se /jLicrelv. co? eoi/cev. TOU? SayStVou?. eiTraiv eVt rou O/3a:o9 'Poi/jirjTdX.a7rirct)\iov.i/ e^ov o TWV irapOevwv Trarepe?. w K. ovy^i TapTrrjia TrapOevos. ei' <$>i\elv.

But Tarpeia. Antigonus was not alone. TT VOL. having set her heart on the golden armlets which she saw them wearing. when he ordered . and themselves to be transported to Rome. in saying that he loved men who offered to betray. The city was difficult of access. and after appointing Tatius their general. excepting that which belonged to the parents of the ravished maidens this he suffered its owners to keep for themselves. but this is a very general feeling towards the base on the part of those who need their services. then. for their venom and gall for while they feel the need of them. on which a guard had been stationed. that he loved tieachery but hated a traitor . 1 Cf. a maiden. but hated those who had betrayed nor yet Caesar. in saying of the Thracian. as some say. a daughter of the commander. whereupon she opened one of the gates by night and let the Sabines in. with Tarpeius as its captain. Rhoemetalces. was the feeling which Tatius then had towards Tarpeia. marched upon Rome. not Tarpeia. their territory to be divided. i. 14 J . xvn. thereby making Romulus a simpleton. At this the rest of the Sabines were enraged. Romulus distributed among the citizens all the territory thus acquired. Tatius agreed to this. just as they need certain wild creatures . and she asked as payment for her treachery that which they wore on their left arms. having as its fortress the present Capitol. they put up with them. I. they were likewise defeated. and surrendered to Romulus their cities to be seized. . This. 11. but abhor their vileness when they have obtained from them what they want. 1-4 Romans/ and in a battle which ensued. betrayed the citadel to the Sabines. too. Livy.ROMULUS.

'Pa)/JLV\(p Be /3ia avvoiKova-av. TT/JWTO? a/uLa TOV ^pa^LOVicTTrfpa %e/3o? tcai 7repi\oov /cal avro TTOLOVVTCOV rbv Qvpebv eireppL^e. TO* ftoXXo/JLevrj T TTCIVTWV Se xpva-y KaTa%(i)cr0eicra rot? Qvpeols VTTO TrX^of? /cal eaXa> Be /cal Tapir^'io? irpo5 ftdpovs aTieOavev.OV icrTOpeiv. Socrias VTTO 'Pw/zvXou Bico^dei^. co? 'Io/3a<? (frrjal Td\/3av ^OV\TTLKI. yu. rr}? teal wv ev TCU? dpio~Tepai<. 5* o 'AVTLJOVOS ecTTt. /cal I TavTa /cal Troifjvai iraOelv virep TOV %I/JLV\O<. TWV 8* a\\a Trepl TapTTTy/a? \e<ybvTwv airlQavoi fiev elcriv oi Tariou Ovyarepa TOV rjyefjiovos TWV ^aftivwv ovcrav avTIJV. 142 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES TWV v 6/jLO\oyia)v TOVS ^ e^owi.^ 7ro?7T^9 fcal \rjpei Sa/3tj/ot9 TT]V TapTrrjtav TrpoSovvai TO epaadeleav avTwv TOV /Saa^Xew?. Xeyet. 8e 'H 8* 7%ov TdpTreia Trapal KaTriTcaXiov vaiovcra 'Pwt? eTrXero ov/c /cal fJLGT 6\i<ya Trepl TT}? T^v 8* OUT* ap Bot'oi re ^at eOvea pvpia 'Xypdnevoi pelOpwv evTos e0evTo TldSov o?rXa 8' eTriTrpoftaXovTes dpet/jLavewv aTrb Kovprj 7rl GTvyepfj KOffpov e6evTO <f>6vov.

xvn. example. Sulpicius Galba relates. according to Juba. walls of Rome . not to begrudge the girl anything they wore on their left And he was first to take from his arm not arms. Po. These are his words : his Sabines. And Simylus the poet is altogether absurd in supposing that Tarpeia betrayed the Capitol. and "And Tarpeia. at her father's behest . steep. and made ment her doom." . only his armlet. but to the Gauls. and was living with Romulus under compulsion. Antigonus is one.ROMULUS. But hurled the shields from and the myriad tribes of Gauls exulting." little after. 4-5 All his men followed his cast them upon her. but at the same time his shield. of these. and died from the number and weight of them. and acted and suffered as she did. the leader of the Sabines. who dwelt hard by the Capitolian Became the destroyer of the chieftain. mindful of their agreement. cast amid the currents of the their belligerent arms their orna- Upon the hateful maid. And Tarpeius also was convicted of treason when prosecuted by Romulus. as. Of those who write differently about Tarpeia. She longed to be the wedded wife of the Gallic And And " a betrayed the homes of her fathers. not to the Sabines. because she had fallen in love with their king. they are worthy of no belief at all who say that she was a daughter of Tatius. and the girl was smitten by the gold and buried under the shields. speaking of her death : Her the Boii Did not.

ev o"revw (pwyas Se KOI (SpaSe rov Trorafjiov \LJJLV da avro^ ov TTO\- Xat? irpoTepov f)[Jiepai$ t ey/caraX.a i/w eV d<p' 779 TTJ? Tap7rrjia$ TOi/9 TW KaTTtrcoXtw KaXovcriv. d^pi ov Tap/cvviov roy TOTTOV KaOiepovvros ayua re ra fjLeTTjve'xOr) 7r\i]V Trerpav ert KOI rovvo/j. Kaprepdv. f / \ r\ A t~\ \ pauv /cat rv(p\ov ev ro7rot9 7rt7reoof9 Kara vvv ov<rav dyopdv oOev OVK rjv cn|ret TrpoBrjXov. /3acrXe&>9 T779 fJievroL Ta/37n. /cat 6 o avrovs 7rpov/caTar^o9 eOdppei. fjuev TWOS eTreipdro 77X77777 009 eavrbv ecrw^ev.PLUTARCH'S LIVES XVIII. eV aurot9 W VTTO KOI %a\7rbv VTTO Bvo"^(opia<. Ka'noi TroXXwv TrecrovTWV. ia)j. Se rbv /civ&vvov ol /caprepv epa^ea-avTO Kpcnv ov \a/3ovcrav. eppiTrrovv * Se 77)9 afcpas VTTO opyfjs et9 rwv ^a o re Xetro. e %a\e7rbv teal VTTOV~\.OV. el ftiafjid^(rjv opv T07T09. ev ot9 77^ /cat eacra9 TOZ> ITTTTOV 144 .ei<. aXXo)9 eVt rovro rot9 Sa/3t^ot9 direipia (frepojjievois evrv\ \ > > /cal LTTTTOV Trpb TWV a\\a)v excopev Se^a/nevov Se TOV ftapdOpov rbv ITTTTOV ci^pi.eX^el^dai. oi)S' ev(f)v\aKTOv. [iev ovv T07T09 5i' e/ceivov ert vO^ Kou/)Tto <pv\a^d/j.vot.m9 e/eet /jid^ero ra^eiV^? 6 Au Ta/?7r 77109. d/jL<porepoi<.

and Tatius was bold enough to accept. that a deep and blind slime had been left in the valley where the forum is now. seemed to impose upon both parties a sharp and grievous contest. On to this the Sabines were ignorantly rushing. a conspicuous man among them. when his horse sank in the gulf of mud. and one which was indecisive. with blows and cries of encouragement. Wherefore it was not apparent to the eye. although 1 Of. happened. if eager for glory and high design. Curtius." But the Sabines. Livy. MS . For some time he tried to drive him out. where flight and It pursuit must be narrowly confined and short. The For the worsted. when a piece of good fortune befell them. citadel thus occupied by the Sabines. was advancing on horseback far in front of the rest. the place to this day is called from him "lacus Curtius. and besides it was soft beneath the surface and dangerous. nor yet easy to avoid. XVIII. the hill was called from xvm. since he saw that the Sabines. since the river had overflowed not many days before. he abandoned his horse and saved himself. when her bones were removed and the name of Tarpeia died out. being surrounded by many hills. Tarpeia was buried there. fought a sturdy fight. too. i. but since it was impossible. 1-4 However. in which they were to join battle. had a strong place of retreat. 1 Romulus angrily challenged them to battle. until King Tarquin dedicated the place to Jupiter. and her Tarpeius. owing to the difficulties of the field. Accordingly. 12. except that a cliff on the Capitol is still called the Tarpeian Rock. from which they hurl malefactors. intervening space. having avoided this peril.ROMULUS.

afjievcu Ovyarepes rwv ^aftlvwv &Qri<jav aXXa%60ev aXXai yaeTa /8or}9 /eal 6\o\uyfjLOV Bia ra)v orr\wv 146 fyepbfJLevcu Kal ra)V vetepuv. avareivas et? ovpavov ra? ^elpa^ ev^aro ra> Ait' crrriacu ro crrpdrevfjia teal ra 'Pw/jiaicov Trpdy/jiara irecrovra yevo/jLevrjs Be TrepuBeiv. rrapaGKeva^ofJievovs eVecr^e Beivbv IBelv at 7*2^0 rfpira@ea/j. coairep e/c 0eov . co? etVco?. ( rovrov 'EpcrtXta? avBpa /ecu rrdmrov 29 Q(rri\Lov rov pera Noyitai/ /3aai\i>cravTos 76viaQai \eyovcriv. ev u> /ecu ireaetv GCLVTOS rov r 6ve&(i)/cav ol 'PwyLtatot real avre^etv v^e^evov rot? ^a TO Tla\driov <f)V<yfj TT/OO? 6 e%(i)povv e^wOovfJievot. XIX. ei'o? jjidXiara rov re\evraiov wrJiovevov(Tiv.Xo? et? e/c TT}? 77X777^9 avafyepwv e@ov\ero /jbeya (pevyovffiv evavrlwSy (3o)v 'iaracrOai teal fjid^ecrdai rcapeKaXei. Eivrav0a J B* avrovs wcrTrep et.a /cal \6yov tepelrrwv oi|rt?...eva>v. aXX' op&wcrai. ov emardcriov av rt? e/e elra avvaarcLcravre.yStVoL'? eVt T^ z^O^ 'P^ay Trpocrteal ro T^? 'EcrTta? iepov.^ rcakiv ecoaav TO 1)9 Sa.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 5 'OcTTtXto?. vroXX?}? 5e T^? (fivyfjs avrut 7rept%eo|LteV>7? /cat ra oVXa ^copelv rot? fjLijBevb? dvacrrpefaw ro\^wvro^. c rwv emrce&wv. TroXXoi'5 yLterayor? rrapcrrr) rot? earrjaav ovv rrpwrov ov vvv o rov Ato? TOW IBpvrcu vea)<. avOis Be TroXXwy dyu)vwv ev ftpayel (TVVL<Trap. -ijSr) Be 6 Pa>/zi.

then. l they say. he stretched his hands towards heaven and prayed Jupiter to stay his army and not suffer the Roman cause to fall. wished to stem the tide of fugitives and renew the battle. in which Romulus was hit on the head with a stone and almost fell to the ground. i This man. many xvin. xiv. 5-xix. and courage returned to the fugitives. which epithet might be interpreted as Stayer. namely the last. recovering from his blow. Afterwards many conflicts raged within a short time. XIX. thereupon gave way and began to fly to the Palatine. through the armed men and the chapter xiv. They made their first stand. Then they closed their ranks again and drove the Sabines back to where the so-called Regia 2 now stands. and the temple of Vesta. were seen rushing from every direction. 8 See Numa. Here. among whom was Hostilius. and no man dared to face about. But presently Romulus. abandonThe Romans ing his resistance to the Sabines. but to restore it. In historical times. 2 1 147 . 1. Livy. and called upon them with a loud voice to stand and But as the waves of flight encompassed him fight. i. as might be expected.ROMULUS. Cf. Cf. they were checked by a sight that was wonderful to behold and a spectacle that passes 3 The ravished daughters of the Sabines description. 13. now that they were repulsed from the plain. with shouts and lamentations. fell. No sooner was his prayer ended than many stopped out of reverence for their king. where now is the temple of Jupiter Stator. as they were preparing to renew the battle. but one is most memorable. the house of the Pontifex Maximus. 6 f. was husband of Hersilia and grandfather to the Hostilius who was king after Numa.

dpiracrOelaai rj Seivov VTT* a5eX</)co^ /cat Trarepcov ical ol- KGLWV OVOV TOGOVTQV OCT09 <7ra Kepdcras rat? fj-eyiarai^ dvdy/cais. rd Se Trda^ofjiev cr%eT\LG)v KCLKWV. KOI 4 SeSievai /jLa^o/jLevcov KOI K\aieiv {JI/TJO-KOVTCOV. 7TOT6 d/m<p6Tepoi. os' KOI K\av9fJLos a/Jia Bui iravTwv e O? T TToXu? OiATTO? er jia\\ov. . 2 TOU? 'Pw/zat'oL'?.cfiav KOI KCLI Trapprjaia^ re\6vra)i>ra<f. ijpTrdcrdrjfiev VTTO TWV vvv ia teal TTapavofJLWS.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Trpos re Tou? dvSpas avrwv KOI at p-ev irai&La /co/u^bucrai vrfma dy/cdXais. ei9 iK. at 8e rrjv KQ^V .S^ TreTrovOa/nev. KCLI 7TK\d(T0tja-av ovv /xecrct) Siea^ov KaraaTrjvai. $ dva/ca\ov/jL6vai Lte^ 7TOT6 TOU? 2a3u>Ol>9. TrevOepovs i]fjid<s yeyovoras /cal . TOU? rat? irdaai. Ly-ta? aurat? eV TOU? Xoou? "Tt \V7rrjpov epyacrdrd /lev ?. ov ovcrais i]\0ere fyilv yap TL/AcoprjcrovTes TrapOevois eVt TOU9 dSiKovvras. ydp TravaacrOat C 148 /cal TotavTa 3e u(/)' VIJLMV eXeou&S d\\r)v alriav e^d^ecrOe. Oeiav efceivrjs T^? ayiteXeta? Aral Trpo&oa-ias ftorjToiavra /JLGV ^airr]rat? rjfuv a6\iai$+ el VTTO TOVTCOV. /cat d\\d vvv auBpxav aTrocnrdre ol/crporepav ftorj- TGKVWV yu-^repa?.

and still more by their words.ROMULUS. wretched women that we are. 1-4 dead bodies.children in their arms. some veiled in theii dishevelled hair. it were meet that ye should cease for our sakes. when they go to battle. xix. Such is the love which we have here enjoyed. that we must suffer in the past. up to their husbands and their fathers. we were neglected by our brethren and fathers and kinsmen until time had united us by the strongest ties with those whom we had most hated. and must still suffer now. Even if ye were fighting on other grounds. such cruel evils ? We were violently and lawlessly ravished away by those to . and abundant pity was stirred by the sight of the women. and the succour wherewith ye would now succour us. but now ye would tear wives from their husbands and mothers from their children. and ended with supplication and entreaty. moved to compassion. which began with argument and reproach. and mourn for them when they are slain. sorrow ran through all the ranks. and all calling with the most endearing names now upon the Sabines and now So then both armies were upon the Romans. some carrying young. For ye did not come to avenge us upon our ravishers while we were still maidens. and made us now fear for those who had treated us with violence and lawlessness. is more pitiful than your former neglect and abandonment of us. now that ye are become fathers-in-law and grandsires and have 149 "Wherein. have we done you wrong or harm. but though thus ravished. as if in a frenzy of possession. such the compassion shown to us by you. whom we now belong. pray (they said). and drew apart to give the women place between the lines of battle .

avowal /cal aui>7J\0ov et? Se ryvvaifces irpocre^epov re rpocfrrjv /cal TTOTOV rot? Seo/Ae^oi?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 5 TraTTTrou? /cal ot/eetou? TjlLWV /-v 6Wa? \ e^p^jv.ev aura? TOU OLKOV. /cal TOU? TerpwfMevovs eOepajrevov oi/caSe /CO/JLI- opav dp^ovcras /J. /Jirj&e fCO/jLi(Tacr0e / ^ > f THJLLV aeX^cr^e TTCL\IV rr}<? TralSas /cal IK6T6VO/JL6V VJJ. epyov /cal irdar)^ \arpeia<s ir\r)V raXacrta? ol/ceiv Be /cat T^V iroKw /ca\iaOai j.ev 'Pajx?^ eVt /coivfj rfj Tartou TraTpiSi.d<? [AT) ToiavTa overt]? /cal TroXXa 'EpcriXta? Beojjievwv. raura (JvveOevro ftexpi vvv ^O/JLLTLOV /cofupe jap 'PwjjLaloi TO crvvekOelv /caXoOcrt. after Reiske : . ~ el 5* O TToXfyLtO? \ f (TTl. Tr^ocre^o^ra? 5e TOU? avSpas avrals 30 %ovcrai' /cal irapel^ov 7 /cat e/c eu^ota? iiy^p airacrav vefAOvras. /x-er' TOVTOV (jwilQevrai rwv [Jiev yvvaifccov ra? /3ouXo- crvvoiKelv TO?? %ovcriv. XX. {3acri\veiv Be OTTOV Se o-rparrjjelv d^OTepov^. AnrXacnaadeicrrjs Be TT}? TroXea)?. al re'/f j'a Coraes and Bekker. wairep ' eiprjrai. al TOVTW rot? Trarpdon /cal rot? 1 aeX0ot? TOU? ai/S^a? Trpoorijyov /cal ra re/cva. e/carbv eiri /coivfj /cal e/c 1 TO ^a/3iva)v Trarpi/cioi TTpoa-KaTeXe^Orjcrav. 7rpoa<yopeveaTreicrd'rjcrav TWV a\\a)v ev 6 Xo^ou? o/ rjye^oves. <yafjuppwv Kai Ttfcvwv vat aTrooore /cal ol/ceiovs.

however. but all its citizens 2 and that Quirites. xix. you. . chapter xiii." Many such appeals were made by Hersilia. carry us away with your sons-inlaw and their children. and that their husbands . . 3 4. 3 and the legions were enlarged XX. 5-xx. ." coire. thus doubled in its numbers. war is on our behalf. were attentive to them and showed them all honour with good will. from the to come or " Roman word . we beseech children and husbands. until a truce was made and the leaders held a conferMeanwhile the women brought their husence. Thereupon agreements were made that such women as wished to do so might continue to live with their husbands. bands and their children and presented them to their fathers and brothers they also carried food and drink to those that wanted. become prisoners of war again. exempt. Cf. i If.ROMULUS. . chapter xv. but do not rob us of our Let us not." together. 1 from all labour and all drudgery except spinning also that the city should be inhabited by Romans and and that the city should be Sabines in common called Rome. were made is to this day called Comitium. and bore the wounded to their homes for tender nursing here they also made it evident that they were mistresses of their own households. the family ties among your enemies. as aforesaid. from the native city of Tatius Romulus and Tatius should be joint kings and leaders The place where these agreements of the army. The city 1 Cf. a hundred of the Sabines were added by election to the Patricii. 1. a Sabiue town. 2 Cures. "conire. and the other women added their entreaties. and so restore to us our fathers and kindred. from Romulus.


Xeyewre? eyevovro Tre^wv
Be e^afcocrLwv.





crayre? a)v6jLiacrav TOU? [lev diro 'Pw/iuXou 'Pa/zvr[v<J r}<s> TOL9 Be UTTO TCLTLOV TaTtr/vcrr)?' rpLTOvs

Be AovKp})vcr7)S Bia TO aXcro9, et? o TroXXot Kara(frvyovres, acrt'X/a? BeBofjLevrjs, rov TroXiTeu/iaro?
2 fjL6Tecr%ov'

ra 3' aXafj \OVKOVS ovofjid^ovaiv. ort al Y)GCiv <pu\al ToaavTai, TOVVOJJLCL /maprvper jap en vvv ra? ^)uXa? /caXoucrt,

Be/ca (f)parpia^ el^ev, a? eVtoi Xeyovcriv e TOVTO Be eKeivwv rcov 'yvvaifccov.


TroXXal <yap e^ovcnv


ra? Trpocriyyopias.
V '



TroXXa rat?

et? rifjirjv aTreBw/cav,


ooov paoi^ova-ais,


wv KOI ravrd



6(f)6f)vai yv/j-vov,

Trapovcr^ <yvvaiKos favyeiv irapa rot? Be teal TOV? Ka0ea"r&(Ti, (popelv (froviKwv avrwv rrjv Ka\ovp,evr)v ftov\\av CLTTO rov







'EySouXeuo^ro Be ol ySacrfXet? OVK evdvs ev KOLVW yuer' aXX^Xd);^, aXX' e/cdrepos Trporepov IBia TMV e/caroi', elra OVTW? et? ravrbv a w/cei Be Tarto? f^ev OTTOV vvv o (Tvvrjyov. MO^TT;? vaos ecrri, 'Pwytt^Xo? ^e irapa TOI?

\eryo fjievovs ftaOfJiovs /caX?}? d/crr}?.



KaArjy d/crfjs a corruption of Ka/cou





xx. 1-4

thousand footmen and six hundred horseThe people, too, were arranged in three bodies, the first called Ramnenses, from Romulus the second Tatienses, from Tatius and the third Lucerenses, from the grove into which many betook themselves for refuge, when a general asylum was offered, 2 and then became citizens. Now the

men. 1



for grove is "lucus." That these were three in number, their very name testifies, for to this day they call them tribes, and their chief officers, tribunes. And each tribe had ten phratries, or brotherhoods, which, as some say, were named after the thirty Sabine women 3 but this seems to be false, since many of them bear the names of places. However, they did make many other concessions to the women, to do them honour, some of which are as follow to give them the right

Roman word





way when walking


not to utter any indecent

word in the presence of a woman that no man should be seen naked by them, or else that he be liable to prosecution before the judges of homicide and that their children should wear a sort of neck" lace, the bulla," so called from its shape (which was that of a bubble), and a robe bordered with purple. The two kings did not at once hold council in common with one another, but each at first sat with his own hundred councillors apart, then afterwards they united them all into one body, as at the present time. Tatius dwelt where now is the temple of Moneta, and Romulus beside the so-called Steps of Fair Shore 4 these are near the descent into the
; ;




The Greek text is probably corrupt. The " Steps of Cacus, must be meant.

Cf. chapter xiii. 1. Cf. chapter xiv. 6.


Cf. chapter ix. 3.

ecalae Caci,"




TOV iTTTroBpoaov TOV

fjiejav CK


\ariou Kard/Sacnv.

evTavOa Be Kal


veiav e<pacrav Trjv lepav yeyovevai, fj,u0o\oyovvTes OTI TreipGouevos 6 'Ptw/iuXo? avTov ^o*y%r)v CLKOVricreiev airo TOV 'Kovevrlvov TO %V<JTOV eyovaav


KaTabvcrrjs Be T?}? al^fjir)^ et? /3a$o?, TTO\\O)V ov&els [lev Treipwfjievwv

TO &e %v\ov ecne^ev

77} ^OKJIVTOS ovcra,






TWV dyicDTaTcov lepwv OTW crefBofJievoi irepLeTei^io-av.
ov TL

<j>v\dTTOVTe<$ Be irpocnovTi. B6aX,X'







(ppa% fcpavyfj rot? TrpocTTvy^dvovo-iV, ol B\ wcnrep e/uLTrprja-^a} 1 KOi <TVV~ /36a>V ^Ot]QoVVT^, vBd)p, vBwp,



Tpe^pv TravTa^oOev ajjela 7r\r)prj Yatov Be Katcrapo?, 7rl TOV TOTTOV. ra? avafidcreis eTriatcevd^ovTOS Kal TMV TrepiopvTTQVTWv TO. 7T\r}a-iov, e\a6ov at KaKwOelcrai iravTairacn Kal TO $>VTOV XXI. M?}^a5 /jLev ovv ol "ZajSlvoi TOU?

eBe^avTO, Kal Trepl avTcov oo~a Ka\w<; efyev ev No/^a /3to) yeypaTTTai' 6vpeol<$ Be TOI? etceivwv o e^prjcraTO, Kal yu,ere/3a\e TOV oTrXtcr [JLOV eavTOV re Kal TWV eopTwv Be Kal Ovarian pov dcrTriBas (fropovvTcov. aXX^Xoi? fMeTefyov, a? fjuev r^e TO, yevTj irpoTepov OVK dve\6vTes, erepa? Be OefJievoi, Kaivds, wv 77 re TWV M.aTpa)vd\Lwv ecTTi, Bodelaa rat? yvvai^lv

VSup, SSwp

with two Bodleian MSS. (Bb)








xx. 4-xxi.


Maximus from the Palatine. There also, it is grew the sacred cornel-tree, of which the

Romulus, once, in trial of his following tale is told. strength, cast thither from the Aventine hill a spear, the shaft of which was made of cornel -wood ; the head of the spear sank deep into the ground, and
no one had strength to pull it up, though many tried, but the earth, which was fertile, cherished the wooden shaft, and sent up shoots from it, and produced a cornel-trunk of good size. Those who came after Romulus preserved this with religious care as one of the most sacred objects, and walled it And if any visitor thought that it was not green in. nor flourishing, but likely to wither away and die, he immediately proclaimed it loudly to all he met, and these, as though helping to save a house on fire, " would cry " Water Water and run together from all sides carrying full buckets to the place. But when Caius Caesar, as they say, was repairing the steps about the enclosure, and the workmen dug here and there in the neighbourhood, the roots were inadvertently destroyed and the tree withered away.

Sabines, then, adopted the Roman I have written sufficiently in my Life of Numa. 1 Romulus, on the other hand, made use of their oblong shields, and changed his own armour and that of the Romans, who before that carried round shields of the Argive pattern. Feasts and sacrifices they shared with one another, not discarding any which the two peoples had

XXI. The

months, about which

observed before, but instituting other new ones. One of these is the Matronalia, which was bestowed upon the women to commemorate their putting a









tcaraXvcrei, /cal


row Kap/JLOL-

2 /j,evTa\icov.

rrjv Be

KapjmevTav oiovrau rives



Kvpiav avOpoyjrw




TiuMcriv avTrjv al


ol Be rrjv

TOV Qvdv- 31

Spov TOV 'A/9/caSo? yvvatKa, ^OLVTIKI]V TWO,
(>oi{3aaTiKr)v efJL^erpwv
xprja- JJLCOV

yevof^evrjv, Ka/oeTrtj





Ka\ov(Ti)' NiKocrTpaTrj

$e rjv ovofta Kvpiov




dfapfJLrjvevovcriv olov ecrTeprjeV rot? cvdovcnao'fJLol^ irapaSia ra9 vov, pevrjv






Be TOV vovv 6vo/jidovai.

(TTepeaQai, Kaprjpe, fj,evT[jL jrepl Be TWV Tlapt,\ia)v

Be AovTreprcdXia TO>


Bo^eiev av elvat KaOdpcria' BpaTat,


ev r]fiepai<;

av Ti9

TOV <&e[3povapiov /Arjvos, ov /caOdpatov Kal TTJV rjfjiepav efceivrjv TO ep/jLTjveva-eie,






eX\r)vi<TTl crrjuaivei A.vKaia, /cal Borcei Bia


TOVTO 7ra/i7raXato? a?r' 'AptcdBwv elvai TWV Trepl RvavBpov. d\\a TOVTO fiev KOIVOV eo-Tf BvvaTai


airo r^5 \vfcaivr)s yeyovevai Tovvoua. Kal
rr}? TrepiBpo/ji-tjs



TOVS AovTrepxovS opw-

evTcvOev OTTOV TOV 'Pa}/jiv\ov eKTedijvai \ejovTO, Be Bpco/jieva TTJV aiTiav Troiel BvcrTOTracrTOv

jap alja$, elra
Ti '

fjLeipaKiwv Bvolv cnro

Coraes and Bekker with the MSS. after Stephanua.






stop to the war and another is the Carmentalia. This Carmenta is thought by some to be a Fate presiding over human birth, and for this reason she is honoured by mothers. Others, however, say that the wife of Evander the Arcadian, 1 who was a prophetess and inspired to utter oracles in verse, " was therefore sumamed Carmenta, since " carmina name own her for is their word verses, being proper


to her

own name




interpret of Carmenta as bereft of mind, because " her ecstasies under inspiration, since "carere is the Roman word for to be bereft, and "mens" for mind. Of the Parilia I have spoken before. 2 As for the Lupercalia, judging by the time of its celebration, it would seem to be a feast of purification, for it is observed on the inauspicious days 3 of the month of February, which name can be interpreted to mean and the very day of the feast was purification, But the name of the anciently called Febrata. festival has the meaning of the Greek "Lycaea," or feast of wolves, which makes it seem of great antiquity and derived from the Arcadians in the 4 Indeed, this meaning of following of Evander. the name is commonly accepted for it can be connected with the she-wolf of story. And besides, we see that the Luperci 5 begin their course around the city at that point where Romulus is said to have been exposed. However, the actual ceremonies of the festival are such that the reason for the name is hard to guess. For the priests slaughter


some meaning




Cf. Plutarch's


Questions, 56 (Morals, p. 278 b,


and Livy, i. 7, 8. 3 " Dies nefasti."


xii. 1.

Cf. Livy,



Priests of Faunus, the




irpoffa^Oevrwv avrols, ol /xev rj/ ipa rov /merdoTrov Oiyydvovaiv, erepoi






5 TrpocrtyepovTes.


Be Bel


/jLeipd/eia fjiera rrjv

Be rovrov

Sepfiara rwv al<ywv
Trepifaajjiaa'i, <yv/j,voi,








r)\iKia yvraLKes ov (frevyovcTi TO TraiecrOai, VOJJLL^OV7T/9O? evroKiav KOI Kvrfcnv avvep<ye,v.
Be rfjs eoprfjs TO teal tcvva Oveiv TOU? Boirra9 Be Tt9 alrlas [ivdcoBei? ev
Trepl rcov 'Pco/jLaitewv






Xtou TOU9



rbv 'Pca/JLvXov fcpar^aavra^ ^a/oa9 erri rbv roirov ev c5
\vicaiva drjK^v VTrea^e,
/cal /cal

ovaiv auTot9


rov re




ToiW dirb yevovs TOU9
rvTrrovras, OTTO)? TOTC

% AXyS?79 edeov 'PwyuuXo?



^t0o? y/jLCfy/jievov irpocr^epeaOaL rw rore rov fjLera)7TG) (f)6vov KCU KivBvvov (Tv^t/3o\ov rrjv Be Bta rov <yd\aKro<; drroicdOapo'LV vTrojuLvrjjua


TT}? rpofyrjs





tcricrea) ?

ra OpifJi^ara rwv

Fato? Be 'A/ctXio? laropel Trepl rbv


TOV? Be ra> d<pavr) yevecrOar Trpocrevga/Jievovs e/cBpa/jieiv yv/Jivov^ eVl rrjv










and then, after two youths of noble birth have been brought to them, some of them touch their foreheads with a bloody knife, and others wipe the The stain off at once with wool dipped in milk. youths must laugh after their foreheads are wiped. After this they cut the goats' skins into strips and run about, with nothing on but a girdle, striking all who meet them with the thongs, 1 and young married women do not try to avoid their blows, fancying that they promote conception and easy child-birth. A
peculiarity of the festival

that the Luperci sacrifice

a dog also.


Roman customs

certain Butas, who wrote fabulous explanations of in elegiac verse, says that Romulus Remus, after their victory over Amulius, ran

exultantly to the spot where, when they were babes, the she-wolf gave them suck, and that the festival is conducted in imitation of this action, and that the two youths of noble birth run

Smiting all those whom they meet, as once with brandished weapons, Down from Alba's heights, Remus and Romulus

that the bloody sword is applied to their foreheads as a symbol of the peril and slaughter of that day, while the cleansing of their foreheads with milk is in remembrance of the nourishment which the babes received. But Caius Acilius writes that before the founding of the city Romulus and his brother once lost their flocks, and after praying to Faunus, ran forth in quest of them naked, that they might not be impeded by sweat; and that this is the reason why


Cf. Plutarch's


xii. 1.


Bia TOVTO yv^Jivovs TrepiTpe^eiv TOU? Aovirep/covs.

TOV Be /cvva


rt? av, el



OvcrLa /caQap/jios

<TTI, OvecrOai,



avrw' Kal jap

"E*\\r)ve<; ev re rot? fcaOapcriois cr/evXaKas


7ro\\a%ov ^pwvrai rot? el &e ry \VKaivr) 7TpicrKv\aKicrfjLois'




/cal rpo(j)ela /cal crcorrfpia 'Pcofiv^ov re\ovaroTTCt)? 6 KVWV a-^ciTreraL' \vtcois
el /Arj vrj




Ata /coXa^erat TO




XXII. Aeyerai



Se /cal TTJV Trepl TO Trvp ayiTrp&Tov, cnroSei-

TrapOevovs /epa? 'EcrrfaSa? Trpocrayopevo01

Be TOVTO pev







TOJ' 'PcD/jLv\ov



Be fJLavTLKov IcrTOpovcri yeveaOai, /cal fiavTiKr) TO KcCkov^evov \ITVOV, eaTi Be









/caOe^o/mevovs ev Ha\aTi<p




a$avi(j@r}vai irepl TCL }Le\Tiica TT}? elra pkvroi TWV ftapftdpcov evpeOrfvai /cara re^a? /3a^eta-9 aTca-


VTTO TOV 7rvpb<> ev iraai rot?

aAAot? diro\w-

\bcn Kal


Be /cal vofjiovs






wv cripoBpos fj.ev dTroXeinreiv avBpa,
errl <j}apju,a/ceia fcal

yvvai/ca Be BiBous eK/3d\\iv

K@d\\fiv Bekker, after Coraea




7-xxn. 3
If the sacrifice

the Luperci run about naked.


purification, one might say that the dog is sacrificed as being a suitable victim for such rites, since

the Greeks, in their rites of purification, carry forth make use of puppies for burial, and in many places " l and if these the rites called " periskulakismoi rites are performed in grateful remembrance of the she-wolf that nourished and preserved Romulus, it is not without reason that the dog is slain, since it is an enemy to wolves, unless, indeed, the animal is thus punished for annoying the Luperci when they run about. XXII. It is said also that Romulus first introduced the consecration of fire, and appointed holy virgins




called Vestals.

Others attribute this

although admitting that Romulus was in other ways eminently religious, and they say further that he was a diviner, and carried " for purposes of divination the so-called lituus," a with which those staff who take crooked auguries from the flight of birds mark out the regions of the heavens. This staff", which was carefully preserved on the Palatine, is said to have disappeared when the city was taken at the time of the Gallic invasion ; afterwards, however, when the Barbarians had been expelled, it was found under deep ashes unharmed by the fire, although everything about it was cominstitution





pletely destroyed.

enacted certain laws, and among them one of severity, which forbids a wife to leave her husband, but permits a husband to put away his wife






where puppies were killed and carried about. chapters ix. and x.

Cf. Camillus, xxxii. 4-5.








CIV el


aXX&>9 32

aTTOTre/u-i^atro, fyvvaiKos elvai, TO Be T?}?


TT}? oz)cr/a?

avTOv TO


Ar/^T/oo? lepov



4 iSiov

d7roB6[jievov <yvvaiKa OvecrOai Be TO fjLrjBefAiav BiKrjv Kara

opicravra iraaav avSpotyoviav iraTpOKTOviav eiTreiv, a>? TOI;TOU [lev 6Wo? eVa^/oO?, eKeivov Se aBvvdrov. KOI l^e^pt ^povwv iro\\wv


aTro~yvwvai rrjv TOiavTijv dSi/cla eBpacre TOIOVTOV ovSev ev 'Poo/jir) cr^eBov ercov



ToXejJiOV iCTTOpetTat

irepl TOVTCOV.

KeVKlOS O<TTiO? ouv iicava /j,ev


olfceloi rives


TrefjuTTTG) TT}?

avrou Kai crvyyeveis irpea-^eaLV djro


fiaBi^ovcriv et? *Pci)jj,r)v e 6B6v, e7r6%ipovv afycupeicrBai TO,

ap.vvofievov^ r dvelXov.

epyov Be Beivov ToX/x^^ez^To?, o /nev P&)//,i;Xo? ev0vs Beiv wero Ko\d^cr0at, TOU? dBiKijcravras, 2 o Be TaTto? e^e/cpove KOI Trapijye. Kai rovro aurot? vTrijev aitiov ra B* aXXa KaTatcocr/jLovvTes eauTou? co? evi \Lara KOIVWS e^pwvro Kai //,#' o^ovola^ Tot?
ol Be



dvyprj^evcov olfceloi, irdcrri^ Bia TOV TaTiov, diro'Po)009 Bifcaiov

avTov ev AajBtviw OvovTa yaeTa
fjiv\ou TrpocnrecrovTes,

TOV Be ^co/jivXov

Kai Tiicviev viropoXfi

with Cobet



etSuv w7ro/3oAp (for poisoning his children or

counterfeiting his keys}.



xxn. 3-xxni. 2

for using poisons, for substituting children, and for his adultery ; but if a man for any other reason sends

wife away, the law prescribes that half his substance shall belong to his wife, and the other half be consecrate to Ceres ; and whosoever puts away his wife, shall make a sacrifice to the gods of the lower world. It is also a peculiar thing that Romulus ordained no penalty for parricides, but called all murder parricide,

looking upon one as abominable, and upon the other And for many ages his judgement of as impossible. such a crime seemed to have been right, for no one did any such deed at Rome for almost six hundred but after the war with Hannibal, Lucius years Hostius is reported to have been the first parricide. So much, then, may suffice concerning these


XXIII. In the fifth year of the reign of Tatius, some retainers and kinsmen of his, falling in with ambassadors from Laurentum on their way to Rome, 1 attempted to rob them of their money, and when slew them. It and not stand would deliver, they was a bold and dreadful crime, and Romulus thought
perpetrators ought to be punished at once, but Tatius tried to put off and turn aside the course of This was the sole occasion of open variance justice. between them ; in all other matters they acted in the utmost concert and administered affairs with The friends of the slain ambassadors, unanimity. shut out as they were from all lawful redress, through the efforts of Tatius, fell upon him as he was sacriand killed him, but ficing with Romulus at Lavinium, escorted Romulus on his way with loud praises of his




14, 1-3.


l s Tfa. T?}? Kakovfjievov Be BiKrjs TOV (j)6vov evioi Be TCOV crwyypCK^ewv TO eQatye.. TOV 4 afyelvai. ' aXXa ^Pw^aiwv ' eTroiijirev . 1 Oav- 5 'E$av uabi' / Be vroXXol KCU TWV eVro? AaTivoi ' TOV P w fJLv\ov avTw ol Be Trpojevea-TepOL (piXiav 7roirjcravTO KOI ' Be ei\ev. ovoe 8ieo~TacrLao~e evvoia Ty ol 8* a>9 TOL? %a/3ivovs. et? aXX' ol TT/JO? CLVTOV. /ecu TOVTO &e \6yov jj-iv Tiva Trapecr^e vTrotyiav w? yeyovev CIVTW TO TOV avvdp^ovTO^ airakTWV be Trpay/jLaTcov ovbev i. . ol &e (po{3a) Tr/s Sfz/a Oew pu)^voi Traaav evvoiav. fyrjcravTa fyovov <povci) \e\vaOai. 6 Be TO fiev TOV Tariov /co/ucra? irepl evrifia)^ Kelrai 'AovevTivw. aTroiKiav. do~Tv<yeiTOva r/}? av &)? fiev evioi (fraaiv.ovvTe<. KOL 'Ap/jLi\ov(TTpiov ev i Sovcu roi>9 avToxeipas Tarlov.r)v dveiXev ovBe tcaTe\a/3eLv Trjv TTO\IV.. e^alfyinys TOU? tTTTrea? T Kol KeXevcras vTTOTe/^elv TWV TTV\MV TOV<? elra evrifaivels auro? (f)i<y<yas.(rav etivotav MSS.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 avBpa o~w/jLa TrpovTre/jL-^av ev(f)r]p.) (because Bekker corrects heaven favoured him in 164 . Coraes to xo^fj-fvov els Ttav eu^ue^et all his undertakings. 6 6Tpoi Be \6<yovai irpoTepov? e ekdaaaOai re \elav KOI Ka6v(Bpi(rai TroXXa %copav KOI TO irpodo-Teiov. eveBpas Be TOV fjLv\ov Oe/Jievov auroZ? KOI BiacpOeupavTa ov fj.

delivered up the murderers of Tatius. nay. in terror. and then appearing himself unexpectedly but others made an incursion. killed many of them. and sent thither i Cf. He . but made it a colony of Rome. by sending his horsemen of a sudden with orders to cut away the pivots of the gates. on the Aventine hill he took no steps whatsoever to bring his murderers And some historians write that the city to justice. but that Romulus let them go.ROMULUS. of Laurentum. 14. 165 . i. destroy or raze it to the ground. 3-6 and gave Romulus brought the body of Tatius home it honourable burial. saying that murder had been requited with murder. he took. justice. 1 as some say. and it lies near the but so-called Armilustrium. This led some to say and suspect that he was glad to be rid of his colleague. but it caused no disturbance in the government. 4-11. some through the good-will they others through their fear of his power. however. say that the men of Fidenae first and driving off booty and devastating the territory outskirts of the city. Livy. a neighbouring city to Rome. and others because they regarded him as a benevolent god. all continued to hold him in reverence to the in end. xxni. had for him. did not. and took their city. nor did it lead the Sabines into faction. and that Romulus set an ambush for them. Fidenae. Romulus was held reverence also by many ambasforeign peoples. . and the earlier Latins sent sadors and established friendship and alliance with him.

eK/caiBefca roaovrov avrw cr^eBbv ol/covvn rrjv crrrjaev aXXo^9 Xacfrvpois /cal %a\/covv reOpirrrrov e/c Ka/^epias' rovro Be dveev TO) lepw rov 'H^aiarov.XQ)9 ra Beivd- /cal Ka6apfjLol<$ o 'PcoyauXov ijyviae ra? TroXet?. TOU9 fiev (p/cicre. rovrov Xoi//. jjbrj iravTairaa-Lv e&ofcei rwv eVl Tartco <rv<y/c')(v/jLevci)v SiKaicov CTTL re rot9 rrpecrftea-i fyovevOelcn jjur^vifjia Sai17 efcboOev2 IAOVLOV d/j. ou? en vvv laro- c povcrtv errl rr)s <&epevrivr)<.CLTU>V dyovlais. eXaxprjcrev e7riSr. 33 P&)/uatoi9 teal /careBpajJLOv rrjv 3 vdrwv d/jivveaOai Bia TO rrdOos. evr' ecrrpdrevaev rro\iv e\(ov. ware 7ro\\r)v irpoaryevecrdai TO?? avayKaiois irdOecTL SeicriSaifjiOviav.o9 e^rrLrcrei.9 Karwiciaev errj Ka/Jiepiav rcepirjv /ca\dvBa{.PLUTARCH'S LIVES KOI rrevrarcocrlovs drro<jrei\a<$ ol/cij- ropas XXIV. 1 rwv Be r&v <f)oi>ecov /cal /co\aa0evrcov Trap d/ji(f)oreyooi?.?.$. ev Be T0t9 eavrov vrro XXV. rrv\r)s avvre\el<rOai. fiev 'EA. dire/crewe" r]jJLlcreL<$ /cal rrjv rcov rcov ei9 rrjv e/c Pa)yu. f a>9 dBvevOvs ovv o avrovs /cal pd^r} xwpav.(f)orepa<. atyviBiovs dv9pu>rroi<s dvev voawv emfyepwv. ejrel Be real rot? TO AavpevTov olreovcriv o/JLOia avvefiaivev. TroXi?. drrrofjievos Be KOI /caprrwv a<f>opiai<s KOI 0pe/jLvcrdrj Se Kal <TTa<y6criv ai/uaros H. e\avveiv ra? TroXet?. Ovray ol Be pcovvv^evoL^ TO?9 rrpdyfjuacriv pew dcrOevearepoi rwv rrpoGoiictov vweBvovro 166 . TIplv Be X^^at rov \OLJJLOV erreOevro Ka/xepiot.

and the mischief visibly abated. XXV. 6-xxv. twenty-five April. of heaven down upon both cities. The Roman state thus gathering strength. xxni. For it he had a statue made of himself. all agreed at once the miscarriage of justice for the death of Tatius and the slain ambassadors which brought the wrath The murderers. i hundred colonists. that it was people of Laurentum. say are celebrated to this day at the But before the pestilence had ceased. therefore at once marched against them. and afflicting the crops with unThere fruitfulness and the cattle with barrenness. transplanted half of the survivors to Rome. After this. were delivered up on both sides and Romulus punished. four-horse chariot from Cameria. bringing sudden death without previous sickness upon the people. and So many citizens had this on the first of August. He also took their city. therefore. he to spare after dwelling in Rome less than sixteen Among other spoils he brought also a bronze years. with a figure of Victory crowning him. and sent to Cameria as colonists from Rome twice the number he had left there.ROMULUS. its weaker neighbours submitted to it. and killed six thousand of them. the people of Cameria attacked the Romans and overran their of defending territory. a plague fell upon the land. also purified the cities with lustral rites. so that many to their unavoidable superstitious fears were added And when similar calamities visited the sufferings. and were 167 . which they Keren tine gate. and dedicated it in the temple of Vulcan. overcame them in battle. thinking them incapable Romulus themselves by reason of their distress. on the Ides of XXIV. was a rain of blood also in the city.

p. dTcefScikov. Te%vijv re P. tcai TrpocrijKovcrav .evii<: Be T^? T/JOTT^?. [JL6V Tft) JJLCV eVe/ceiz^TO T& drTl-jVTWV. KaOvfipiaQevres ovv TOV 'PwjJLvKov . dvOpwjrLvrjs icpeiTTOvi 6/jiO\oyovcn' TO 8' UTT' evLwv \ey6fjLevov yu-u^wSe? ecfTi. avTol<$. OTL fjivplwv Kal TerpaKio-^iXiwv TreeovTcov virep. teal ^iS^vrjv e/za^ecra^TO' TO fjiev av0L<? Se irepl TrXetcrroi/ ep<yov avTOv 'Pw/jivXov ryevicrOat. aXV eaairo\k(iQai TOL/? di'Spas. on Kiv^vvevovon Tore l iro\eiJiov[jLevoi^ cra^re? VTTO ov irpoaafJivvavTes. a^el? Qevyeiv 1 68 . evio'Tao'dai rfj av^aei. oiKias KOL ryrjv aTraiToiev a\\a>v e^ovrwv. rjcrav 01)9 auro? IBia %etpl 'PwyttuXo? eOTTOV je Kal Mecrcr^woi KofJLTrw rrepl 'A/)tcrTO KaTOjjLcf)6via Ovcreiev CLTTO 4 Tevojj.Vaf? cravTe? 3 Bia")^i\Lov^ 'Pcojuaicov /cparr)dire/cTeivav. TO S' OVK aSitcov r)v d\\a real <yG\olov. 7T/309 Se 7T/309 *P(i)/J<V\OV ovv $i8r.GTCL ro irdaav em^eL^afJievov pd>fjir) re real TTO\V S6avTO<.v rat? drroKpL(je<JL eavTOvs.d\\ov Be oXw? CVTUGTOV. VTTO 'Pco/jLv\ov oe vucr)0evT6S vjrep OKTaKi(7^L\iov<. KOI TO> TV/JiaTL.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Tvy%di>ovTs /cal ttSeia? rjydTrwv ol Be Svvarol fyOovovvres OVK MOVTO Beiv rrepiopdv. /cal Ko\oveiv TOV rrpwTOi Be Tvpprjv&v Ovrjioi.

Accordingly. thought they ought not to tolerate. Once more a battle was fought near Fidenae. but suffered them to perish. 1-5. gether fabulous. But there is a statement made by some writers which is alto. more than half were slain by Romulus with his own hand for even the Messenians seem to have been boastfully extravagant in saying that Aristomenes thrice offered sacrifice for a hundred . 169 . then demanded their houses and land from those who had come into possession of them. which they said belonged to them. but resist and check the growing power of And of the Tuscans. and confronted Romulus with the other. After the rout of the enemy. the people of Veii. and here all agree that the victory was chiefly due to Romulus himself. out of fear and jealousy. Lacedaemonian enemies slain. Before Fidenae. i. 15. upon which they divided themselves into two armies. then. who war. attacked Fidenae with one. namely. were the first to begin war Now Fidenae. satisfied to xxv. they overpowered two thousand Romans and slew them but they were defeated by Romulus with a loss of eight thousand men. possessed much territory and dwelt in a great l with a demand for city. that they. but the powerful ones. and seemed endowed with strength and swiftness far beyond the lot of man. i -4 be let alone . who had not come to the aid of the people of Fidenae when they were in the perils of Romulus. who displayed every possible combination of skill and bravery. wholly incredible. Livy. nay rather. this was not only unjust. Romulus suffered the 1 Cf. Romulus gave them contemptuous answers. it was actually ridiculous.ROMULUS. that of the fourteen thousand Tuscans who fell in this battle.

aXX' e/cre0appr}/c(o^ %/oa>- rot? et? Trpdy/Jiacri fiapvrepft) (f>povrffj.PLUTARCH'S LIVES irepiovras o yevo/LLvr)$. Tovrov eW\ ovS* a^ro? Bie<f)vye /cal iraOelv. /cal TCOV apiarcov ofjLrjpov^ y^etpio'avTe<. /cal 7rap7]\\aTT6v erca^Orj /cal ~\. /crjpvTTet.. OvtjtcDV. yap eveBvero ^rwva. eTToXe/jiTjcrev.y 6\iya)V Trda-'^ovcn Trdvres ol /jueydXats /cal TrapaXo^yoi? apOevTes VTV%iai<$ et9 Bvva/j. ev 6pbvw Be dvaK\Lrw /ca0r){ievo<> del Trepl TWV rjcrav irepl avrov e^prjf^dri^ev. r)V '2<7rTe/ji7rd'yiov KO\OVaiv.ari.iv /cal oy/cov. /cal o 'PctfyUuXo?. OTrep ecnlv CTrra/jLopiov.O7rr)<yia)v.aTO? 2 d\ovpyrf <f)6pei irpwrov u> /career^ ^dn^ev eavrov.V7rouaav diro rov cr^7. Tvppijvol yap aTTOiKOi ^apSiavwv Xeyovrai. /cal Trap" rjXiKiav aTreipux? rot? $10 /cal vvv ri Ovovres eiriviKia. ecr^arov TTo\e^ov 6 'Pw^uXo? o TroXXo/. eV avrrjv e-^wpei rrjv OVK aXXa et? BerjOevres ofJLO\oyiav eiroirjo-avro err. vewv ol KaXovpevoi KeXepe?. e/3dBiov Be Trpocr- 170 .ev ayovcri Si dyopas et? KaTTtrcoXioi/ eV 7repi. /3ov\\av avrw irai&ucriv atyav- T9. ^copav re TroXXrjv eavrwv. /cat rwv Trapa rov Trorapov e/cardvres a\. S' o /cf/pvj. XXVI.7rop<pvpfp.//. {ia\\ov Be 7rX?. (f)i\iav CLTTO TOVTWV re TroXXoi)? a^/LtaXcoTou? e^wv /cal rov TWV tc%pfj(r0ai. diro TT}? ra? virovpylas o^vrt]ro^. Tvpprjvi/crj Be TroXi? ol Ovtf'ioi. e^iararo TOU fjiovap^iav fjiev B^/ULOTLKOV. av&pa Trpea-fivrrjv. yu-e^09. ryepovra p. 5 e/carov. ^ap&iavovs a)i>iov<. /cal rrjftevvov 34 ' Trepnropffivpov.

who seems to have conducted the campaign unwisely. i. 1 Others. and Veii is a : ! boy's toga with a bulla Tuscan city. 15. Afterwards. even he was emboldened by his achievements to take on a haughtier bearing. too. in offering a sacrifice for victory. 8. and delivering up fifty of their chief men as hostages. called Septempagium. xxv. to renounce his popular ways. they lead an old man through the forum to the Capitol. nay. or the Seven abandoning their salt-works along the river. But they could not hold out after so great a reverse. Romulus also celebrated a triumph for this victory on the Ides of October.ROMULUS. chapter x. and to change to the ways of a monarch. 4-xxvi. And he had always about him some young men called Celeres. 1 Cf. survivors to escape. which were made hateful and vexatious first by the state which he assumed. while the " For the Tuscans herald cries " Sardians for sale from colonists are said to be Sardis. wearing a attached to it. an elderly man. 2 . and sat on a recumbent throne when he gave audience. This was the last war waged by Romulus.without the experience to be expected of his years. Wherefore to this very day. XXVI. and suing for peace. like almost all men who have been lifted by great and unexpected strokes of good fortune to power and dignity. having in his train. the leader of the Veientes. went 171 . their territory. and wore over it a toga bordered with purple. For he dressed in a scarlet tunic. besides many other captives. giving up a large portion of Districts. from their swiftness in doing service. made a treaty of friendship for a hundred years. like many. 2 and moved upon their city itself. and. and Livy.

el/cbs Se XtTc6/?et9 VTi6efJLvov TOV KaTnTa vvv ovo^d^euOai. KOI iro\i.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 6ev erepoi /3aKTrjp[ai. edrjKe Trjv avTW (3a<TL\eveiv TrpocrijKov. TOO 7} yvayfJLris dQpoi^opzvois TO ftov\ev- o~iyfj TrpoaTaTTOVTOS rjKpowvTO' /cal TrpoTepoi TO BeBoyjjt.i/69 7T\fj0os ovofjid^ovcriv.TTOva' TI}^ Be 7^5 TTJV 172 . fcal yap TO \aov TO Srjfjiocriov eri vvv f/ X\7.evov eKelvu> TtvQzaQai TCOV etra ov e^o^T69 aTT^XXaTTo^TO. dveipyovTes cocrre TOV o Be IdvTas. eBiBa^e KCLI rov? eV 'Pco/ty &VVCLTOVS aftaaiKCIT' \6UTOV tyreiv ev teal CLVTOVO/JLOV /cal Tro\iTeiav. vvv Se Ka\ovcriv 60ev .<. $ia TO rore fiatcr^ piais. 'ETrel XXVII. o't re pa/38ov^oL \IKTOO- al re pdfiSoi /3d/cv\a KaKovvrai. Brffiaywycov. a\X' teal crxfj/jLa Trepirjv GVTLJJLOV aurot?. et? /necrov Be TOV TraTnrov NO^TO/JO? ev *A\{3r) TeXevTijaavTos. rjv /cal TaXXa e\a.Telav evtavTov ajreBeifcvvev ap%ovTa rot? 'AX/3avols. irpo- iTwpeis. ovBe yap ol TraTpiKioi irpayiJidTwv ^eTel^ov. /o%o- fJLepei ap^ovTas..ev \iyape. avvBelv evOvs 3 To Be Bfj(rai Aarlvoi ird\ai /j. 'EXA/^tcrTt Be \eiTovpyovs 6Wa?. eOovs eveet? paXkov 2 Tijpiov.

2-xxvn. keeping off the populace. in Alba. and they assembled in their council-chamber more from custom than for giving advice." as now the word was formerly " litores. in the Latin language. has been added. 1 But it is that the " c in the word likely before him with staves. Once there. where all in turn were subjects and rulers.ROMULUS. and went away with this advantage only over the multitude." which is the Greek "leitourgoi. but a name and garb of honour was all that was left them. xxvi. The . XXVII. I. importance 1 but rest of his proceedings were of lesser when of his own motion merely this assumed use of cf. of bakteriai. chapter xv." from the use. and appointed an annual ruler for the Albans. 173 . "lictores. and they were girt with thongs. and that But when his grandfather Numitor died and its throne devolved upon Romulus." and the wands themselves " bacula. with which to bind at once those whom he ordered to be bound. in the time of " Romulus. they listened in silence to the commands of the king." which is the Greek word " for staves." meaning public servants." 1 used." and the people "laos. 3. To bind. that they learned earlier what he had decreed. For by this time not even the so-called patricians had any share in the administration of affairs. he courted the favour of the people by putting the government in their hands. was formerly " " now it is " whence the ligare. For Greek words by the Romans." though alligare . VOL. 2 wand-bearers are called " lictores. For the Greeks still call a public hall "leiton. In this way he taught the influential men at Rome also to seek after a form of government which was independent and without a king.

OTTOV AtypiKauov /nera BCITTVOV OIKOI T\evrrj- OVK ecr^e TrL&Tiv ovB* eXe^^ov o T/^OTTO? ^?. KOI nva Be rov TrdOovs KOI zeTaXXaaz'TO9 ovre GOO/AUTOS ovre \etyavov eadfjTo*. cnroOavelv. Spdrai Tore.eva)v e/eeivcov.v elica^ov ev TW ieput TOV 'H^atcrrou TOU? /3ouXevra? eTTavaaTavras avra) KOI BicKfrOeipavras. aXXa TV%eiv /AW e^ft) irepl TO KaKov^evov a/70? vei/jiavTas TO 174 . ovSev eiVetv fteftatov ovBe TrvOeaOai Trepl TT}? re\evrrj^ CLTTO\t.7T(t)v.. aXX* ol fj. OL Be TOVS e^Opov^ rrjv avairvoriv airo\a(3elv avrov vvKrwp Trapeicnrea-ov- 5 ra?. Ka'iTOi ^KT^TTLCOV CKGLTO veicpos e/AC^avrjs ISeiv TO crw/jLa irapel^e Trdcriv opcbfjLevov Tracri. ol 8' avrbv v$> eavrov (>apjj.I fJLijre ev ( TO> lep& TOV H(j)aicrTov /i^re fiovwv T&V (3ov\evTCOV TrapovTwv <yevea6ai TOV d^avia^ov. o>? vvv ovo^a^ovdiVt o>? Be y Ku^T/Xtai?. 6/j.' ol /mev auTOyaara)? oi/ra (frvcrei voad)Br) KCLfJieiv \eyovcriv.aKoi<. aXA.. TTJV e'Boge KO- ryepovcriav TrpOTfri\aKi^eiv. oOev ei? KOI Sia/3o\r)v eVeVecre TrapaXoyoos a<paavrou /ACT' 6\Lyov ^povov. d()V(t) 6 craiyLta real yLtepo? e/caarov evflepevov et? TOV KO\TTOV e^evey/ceiv erepoi S' OLOVTO.o\oyovfji6vov <yap 4 en vvv ofjioia TO> rore irdOet TroXXa tcara Ou Bel Be Oavfjid^eiv TTJV dadfyeiav. r}$>avia6ri \ov\iai<f.PLUTARCH'S LIVES avrbs </>' eavTov Ba&d/jLevos rot? KOI TOU? QfJir)pov<$ rot? Q vr}to i<$ 7reta0VT(i)v OVTC j3ov\o/j. aXX* T) TOI* XpovoVj a>9 Trpoeiprjrat.

and gave back their hostages to the Veientes. Nones of July. xxvn. was neither in the temple of Vulcan nor when the senators alone were present that he disappeared. but some say that he passed away naturally. And yet Scipio's dead body lay exposed for all to see. but that he was holding an assembly of the people 175 . But some conjectured that the senators. without the consent or wish of the patricians. put each a portion into the folds of his Others think that it robe. leaving no certain account nor even any generally accepted tradition of his death. 2-6 he divided the territory acquired in war among his soldiers. denly. then Quintilis. then cut his body in pieces. which I have just given. since although Scipio Africanus died at home after dinner. there is no convincing proof of the manner of his end. Nor need we wonder at this uncertainty. being of a sickly habit. as they now call the month. and all who beheld it formed therefrom some suspicion and conjecture of what had happened to it whereas Romulus disappeared sud. fell upon him and slew him. he was thought to be insulting their Wherefore suspicion and calumny senate outright. convened in the temple of Vulcan. day many ceremonies are still performed which bear a likeness to what then came to pass. aside from For on that the date of it.ROMULUS. and some that his enemies broke into his house at night and smothered him. fell upon that body when he disappeared unaccountHe disappeared on the ably a short time after. and so carried it away. and no portion of his body or fragment of his clothing remained to be seen. some that he died of poison administered by his own hand.

OVK eav TOU? SvvaTovs e^eTa^eiv ovBe vai d\\a /cal TL/JLCIV Trapa/c\veo~0ai 35 ae^edOai /cal 'Pw/jLuXov. rjdei TTHJTOV KCtl ffVvuT.evayv ^r^crt? rjv TOV ySacrtXea)? /cal TTO^O?.uXo? e'^ evavTias Trpoa-iuiv (paveir).PLUTARCH'S LIVES dfyvw Be OavfiaTOV depa TrdOrj TOV pep yap /cal /zeTa/rtoXa? amorous: r)\iov TO <a>9 eir i\. XXVIII. Trepl KpeiTTOva \6yov err el S' ek^ev 1} Tapa%r) /cal fjieT a\\r)\wv TO <cu? e^eXa/A^e /cal TWV TTO\\O)V et? TavTo Trd\iv ffvvep'^op.. Coraes. Sintenis : 176 . auTM re yevei. ovBe i]av)^ov. a\\a (Spovrds re real Tr^oa? ave^wv d\r)V e\avvovT(0v ev Be TOVTW TOV /JLCV TTO\VV 1 eyovaav atceSaa-OevTa <$>v<yelv. ov irpaelav. 1 2 Trpot\66vTa MSS. vv/cra Be Karaa^elv. Ka\bs ovv Coraes. following Stephanus and C. has ovr<as ovv raparro/j-fvcav (while such disorder prevailed). rou? Se SWCLTOV? crv(TTpa<j)rjeKK\T]crlav real ayovra TOV 'Poa/jLvXov.iTC elv . avTOvs Be TOV /3ao~i\ecos avTO'xeipas oVra?. /cal els dyopdv Trpoe\- dyia) rarco v evopicov iepwv d iTrelv ev rrao~iv a>? 6Bov avTw (3a$i TMV f Po)yu. a>? dvtjpTraa-fjievov els Oeovs 8 xprjaTov j3a(ri\(t)S. TWV CLIT t Tlp6/c\ov. ra ^ Oeov ev/Aev^ yevrjGo/jievov avTOis e/c TOU? pep ovv rro\\ov<? Tav7ret^o/>te^ou? teal ^aipovTa^ aTraXXaTTecrdat \7riS(i)V O'L dyaOwv TrpocricvvovvTas' elvai Be TO TTpdy/na iri/cpMS /cal Bvcr/jievcos e^e\eyCTapaTTOv TOVS TraTpi/ciovs fcal Bie/3aX\ov a/SeXrepa TOV Srj/jioi> dvaTreiOovTas. irpwTOV. OUT&)? ovv 1 avBpa TWV TraTpiKiwv re Bo/ci/AcoTaTov.

Livy. 16. anxiously sought for their king. instead of a ingly. who tested the matter in a bitter and hostile spirit.ROMULUS. not with peace and quiet. At this pass. but with awful peals of . it is said that one of the patricians. thunder and furious blasts driving rain from every which the multitude dispersed and and fled. Cf. 6-xxvin. but the nobles gathered closely together when the storm had ceased. the nobles would not suffer them to inquire into his disappearance nor busy themselves about it. Julius Proculus by name. xxvn. but exhorted them all to honour and revere Romulus. and night came down upon them. i. it is said. as he was travelling on the road. 1-4. and of the most reputable character. he had seen Romulus coming 1 good king. and the sun shone out. i outside the city near the so-called Goat's Marsh/ when suddenly strange and unaccountable disorders with incredible changes filled the air the light of the sun failed. i. The multitude. a man of noblest birth. 16. now gathered together again in the same place as before. XXVIII. since he had been caught up into heaven. 177 . and confounded the patricians with the accusation of imposing a silly tale upon the people. and was to be a benevolent god for them quarter. accordand rejoicing in it. and of being themselves the murderers of the king. and the multitude. Livy. then. a trusted and intimate friend also of Romulus himself. went away Cf. 5-8. 2 went into the forum and solemnly swore by the most sacred emblems before all the people that. but there were some. during . and one of the colonists from Alba. believing this to worship him with good hopes of his favour .

avros fiev " *fl /SacrtXeO. a> ITpo/cXe. Coraes.r]Krov re yevofJievov (j)vd fjiavLKov ovra. iracrav Se T^V 7roX." ovv K7r\ayl$ Trpo? rr^v o-^riv <f)dvai. /cat TeXo9 ev K. " S' aTroKpiva&Oai. Sintenis 2 transposes to follow ovpav6v. eSotcet. Sintenis . eiceWev KTIG avr as avQis oliceiv ovpavov. p(^/^y KOL fjieyeOei aai/juaro^ vrreprw rporra) KO\ [Ji7r\.\O/jir)&r) 1 1 fKfiQev ovras MSS. " ri Brj rraOwv rj SiavorjOel? 97/ua? ' fj. 0)9 ovrrore rrpoaOev. TroXXa Spdv ftiaia. KOL 3 f9O9. Tavra iricrTa jiev elvai &ia TOV TpOTrov rov \yovro<. aXXa irdaav VTTOVOICLV KCU Sia- n {3o\yv 4 dtyevras jitv ev^crOaL Kvpivai ical OeoK\v- TGLV eiceivov. I 7 8 . 077X049 Se 2 Xa/ATTyOofc KOI <f)\eyov(Ti KeKoa-fjLrj/jLevos.PLUTARCH'S LIVES O(p0fjvai KOI [leyas. . /cal TO <pL\a)V dtyaves fJLerLovrwv avrov rwv o~6ai' \eyetv Se n. and Bekker . a\\a ^aipe.va<$ ev6v< <jwfjia tVTV%eiv 'Apia-Tea rrjv eVl Se. "Eot/ce ovv Tavra Tot9 OKOVVrCTLOV KO\ T tCTTeOV TOV rov 'AcrTU7raXateft)9 fjiev yap ev rivi Kvafyeiw reXevrrjaai fyam.iv GKGIVOV optyavrjv ev fjLVpitp irevOei 7rpo\e\oi7ras. eoi? eSo^ev. roaovTOV ^yu-a? <yei>ecr6ai yaer' avOpcoTrw %p6vov.ev ev alriais aSt/cot? KCU Trovrjpais. KOI Sia rov GVVov fjbr]v aXXa /cat Saifjiovtov opicov fjLrj&eva e(^d^ra<j6ai rrdOos ofioiov IvOovaiacf^' yap dvreiTreiv.

that I should be with mankind only a short time. and add to it valour. and arrayed in bright and shining armour. they will reach the utmost heights of human power." These things seemed to the Romans worthy of belief. Quirinus. a fuller's shop. some influence from heaven also. Herodotus. what possessed thee. 2 Cf. 1-4 meet him. is said to have done deeds 2 many 1 Cf. For they say that Aristeas died in Astypaleia. I should dwell again in heaven. akin to inspiration. from whom I came. 6 ff. from the character of the man who related them. and from the oath which he had taken . it had vanished out of sight .ROMULUS. and that when his friends came to fetch away his body. So farewell. affrighted at the sight. Pausanias. then. who was of gigantic strength and stature. moreover. or what purpose hadst O Romulus had replied " It was the pleasure of the O Proculus. Now this is like the fables which the Greeks tell about Aristeas of Proconnesus l and Cleomedes of : thou. 179 . that thou hast left us patricians a prey to unjust and wicked accusations. He himself. fair and stately to the eye as never before. 14 f. for no man contradicted Proculus. And I will be your propitious deity. and the whole city sorrowing " without end at the loss of its father? Whereupon gods. of uncontrolled temper. and that after founding a city destined to be the greatest on earth for empire and glory. but all put aside suspicion and calumny and prayed to Quirinus. and honoured him as a god. to xxviii. and like a mad man. had said : " King. Cleomedes also. and presently certain travellers returning from abroad said they had met Aristeas journeying towards Croton. laid hold upon their emotions. and tell the Romans that if they practise self-restraint. iv. ix.

vr) yap 180 .9 yvveiv yrjv d(3e\repov. ovv aTrocrretXai OeoirpoTrovs els /tao/Lte^ou?* TlvOlav rjpcoatv 6 \ej6Tai ve/cpbv Se KOL y rbv A\rcju. KaOapov navrdA. eocrre O/JLOV aTroaTrdacu Karaa-^io-avra^ e rrjv KiwTOV ovre ^covra rbv avQpwnov evpelv ovre ve/cpov.7royva)vai. e/cet S' dveicnv. rrjv ra A. ov /merci cra)/j.aTos r CTCD- /jLaros. a\\' edv ort //-aXicrTa dira\- \ayfj /cal Sia/epiOfj /cal yevrjrai teal acraptcov real dyvov. Kara TlivSapov. 7 TJKGL yap e/ceWev.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TIVI opocfyrjv Si$aa-Ka\iM TraiSwv rbv vTrepeiSovra rrjv Ktova irard^avra rfj %ei/?l K\dcrai fjbeaov Greyrjv Kara/3a\eiv. 609 fjiev Trdvrcov eirerat Oavdrw TrepiaOevel. ovpavy Se /JLIeareov ovv. teal 0X0)9 TroXXa roiavra /jLV0o\oyov(Ti. a7ro\o/jLevwv Se ra)v els /ci/Bwrov SicoKOfievov KOL rb irwjia KarafcXeicravTa 5 KOI rrjv eVro?. fjiev ovv TrawrdTraat dper^js dvocriov KOI dyevves. e^o /JLCVOLS T?. en (TTl JJLOVOV \ei7T6Tai al&vos ei8a>\w TO ydp K Oewv. \i6ov 7rl Be (fiavfjvai /cei- fievov rf)s K\lvr]<$. .ijvi]<$ a&r)\ov yeveaQai. 1 Trapa TO 6^09 K0eid%ovT<.

were impious and base but to mix heaven with earth is foolish." comes from them. closed the lid down. Pott. they sent or dead. not body. were carrying her forth for burial. took refuge in a great chest. but only when it is most completely separated and set free from the body. 1 that ascribe . i. xxvin. to reject entirely the divinity of human virtue. many such fables are told by writers who improbably It is said also that as they divinity to the mortal features in human nature. and a In short. then. 4 p. and undefiled. survives. For dry Yes. Let us therefore take the safe course and grant.ROMULUS. But something living life. and becomes "a altogether pure. it with its 1 Fragment 131. the man was not to be found. and to them it returns. Astypalaean. In their dismay. 181 . as well as to the divine. "Our bodies all must follow death's supreme still behest. Lyr. and Cleomedes. The boys were killed. stone was seen lying on the bier instead. broke it in two. 4-7 of violence. in a school for boys. . Bergk. messengers to consult the oracle at Delphi. being pursued. 427. fleshless. and brought down the house. he smote with his fist the pillar which supported the roof. Gr. and the Pythian priestess gave them this answer " Last of the heroes he. with Pindar. an image of for this alone Comes from the gods. and held it so fast that many men with their united strength could not pull it up but when they broke the chest to pieces. Cleomedes. At any rate." alive : the body of Alcmene disappeared. and finally.

er 8e Sai/Jiovcov.ev. e/c S' rjpwwv els Sat/xoi/a?. aXX* real Kara rov elfcora \6yov els 6eov<$ TO Kd\\ivrov KCLI /Aa/capicorarov i. SvcregaTrros ecrrt efJLJ3pi0r)<. Bekker 01 8e iroXlrTiv. axjjrep dcrrpaTrrj ve- 36 &e <Ta>/j. ev Be rfj 'Prjyia Sopv /ca0i8pv/j.ari 77 SiaTrrajjievrj rov crwyu-aro?.vpinBo<$ H/?a9 a7aXyaa Ka\etv eV ai^ft?}? iSpVfjvov. XXIX. with two Bodleian MSS. ovSev ovv Sei ra tro^ara Bvaava/copicrros. olov dvaOv7re(f)vpfjievr) 8 tfcu teal o/u%Xa>&79. lepbv /jiev ovv avrov /carea/cevao'fLevov ev r& Xo^co ru) Kf- pLva TT poaa<y opevofjievu* &i e/celvov.evov "Apea Trpoaajopeveiv.rov. a\\a ra? apera? /cat r<X9 -^rv)(a^ iravraTracriv oteadai KCLTO. o^Xou aplffT-rj (fivryrj /ca\eirai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 1 dpicrrrj. KOI K. av reXeov wajrep ev reXery icaOapteal ocriwOwaLV ciTrav a7ro(f)vyovcrai TO Oa)(TL KOI TraOrjTircov. /cal Bopan rovs ev TroXeyu-oi? dpicrrevovras yepaipew 0)9 ovv dprjiov riva rov 'PwytiuXov 77 2 alxfjLrjrrjv deov ovo/JLaaOr^vaL Kvpivov. /cal vwvai e/c KaTrparivai Sid rb Oveiv 2 els : TO T^9 alybs eXo9 aurr. 182 . </>oi>9 Ka0* *Hpd/c\ei. TWV ayaQcov avvavaire^Treiv irapa (fiver iv ei'<? 0?)pavov. (fivaiv /cal Bixrjv Oeiav /c fjiev fjuiao-LS dvOpWTrcov et? rjpwas. /cal 7re/)t7rXea>9 crcojjiaros. ov vo/np vroXea)?. fjivXa) rov Kvplvov ol ol Trjv Se yvo/jiei>rjv eTrcovv^iav r& 'Pa>fJLev 'Ejvvd\iov TrpoaajopevBe rro\irr}V? on KCLI TOU? TroXtTa? ol &e rrjv al^/Jirjv r) TO 6pv ovaiv Kvplra? wvo/JLa^ov TOU? TraXatou? f/ Kvpuv ovofjid^eiv. rf S* rffxepa rj fjLerrf\\at. STI Coraes and Bekker.

and have freed themselves from mortality and sense* to gods. from heroes to demi-gods. like a damp and heavy exhalation. ascend from men to heroes. because they go out of the city and 1 Fragment 74 (By water. not by civic law. and the day on which he vanished is called People's Flight. soul is xxvm. p. and Capratine Nones. and it a from cloud. violate nature by sending the bodies of good men with their souls to heaven. therefore. However that may be. and from demi-gods. prize to those who performed great exploits in war and that Romulus was therefore called Quirinus . some give the meaning of Mars. but in very truth and according to right reason. god.ROMULUS. after they have been made pure and holy. 30). To the surname of Quirinus bestowed on Romulus. in accordance with nature and divine justice. We must not. as a martial. XXIX. others that of Citizen. because the citizens were called Quirites but others say that the ancients called the spear-head (or the whole spear) " quiris. 7-xxix. 2 flies 1 best/' according to Heracleitus. but implicitly believe that their virtues and their souls. 183 . and a spear as a the soul which is . a temple in his honour is built on the hill called Quirinalis after him. thus achieving the fairest and most blessed consummation. Heraditi Ephesii reliquiae. is slow to release itself and slow to rise towards its source. or spear-wielding. and the name Mars to a spear consecrated in the Regia. from the body as lightning flashes But contaminated with body." and gave the epithet Quiritis to the Juno whose statue leans upon a spear. and surfeited with body. as in the final rites of initiation.

A.aTO)v (frQeyyovrai pera /3o7?9. Fat'ov. elpiqvrjv eaeaOaL teal 019 V7rrjp. %iovT<. ap^ovra Ai/Siov Hoa-rovTOV (TTparov ov e%ovTS. co9 S* evioi-\ey overt..PLUTARCH'S LIVES 7roXeG>9 Kariovras' rrjv yap alya Karrpav ovofid%ov(Tiv.OVKLOU. olov Mdprcov. Trawa OiX&)Tt9. ravra aKovaavres (f)O/3oVVTO TOV T TToXe/JLOV 'PwKOI TTJV TTCLpd Soaiv TWV ryvvaiK&v ovBev afc^yt6aXft)(j/a9 eTTteiKe- airopovcri S' avTols Oepd(TTepov e'xeiv evo^L^ov. fJLLfJLovjJievoL TTJV rore TpoTrrjv Koi avdK\r)crtv a\\^\wv fiera Seou? KOL TO fjii^fjia TOVTO $>acri fir) (f)vyr/s. et? alriai> eVet KeXrol roiavrrjv dvafyepovres TOV \6yov. Se rrpbs T^V Ouaiav TroXXa TWV 7ri%(0piO)v 6vo/j.e 7rpo9 avuv<? ol nrpo- repov /JiaLOL etc TWV ofjLOiwv. \eya)V rovs Aartz^ou? K\i7rov(Tav 7/877 TTJV ira- 4 \auav oLKeiorrjTa /cal crvyyeveiav IK fairv prjcrai. eVe/^ew? elvai teal crTrouS^?. teal ryvvaiK&v ra? avdv^povs. KaraXaftovTes e^e/cpovo-O^o-av VTTO 'P(iofjir)v KOI Si daOeveiav rj ?roXi9 OVKCTI paeavrrjv 7TO\\ol TWV Aarivcov. TouroXa tca\ovfJLevr]. aWis avaKpaOevrwv eVt^yaytttat? T&V Kaivais av ovv Tre/ji^rcocri irapOevovs re trv%v&$ ryevwv. d\\a ^prjo-aS6\w &ia(j)v<yeiv apa TOV Troke^ov teal TTJV 0X09 avrtjv re Trjv 7)v S' o teal <rvv 9 avrfj vv/CTCop deparraiviSas ciTco&TZiKai 7T/DO9 roi>9 e\v0epas CITO. Trjv ^tX&mSa Trvpcrbv 184 . OWTO? e Kaaas 3ov\ecrdai. o-vveftovXevae /JLrjSeTepa Troielv.

such as they had formerly made with the Sabines on the like terms. Now the stratagem was this. on the day when Romulus disappeared. Lucius. they shout out many local names. like Marcus. the Romans would send them a goodly number of virgins and their widows. Gauls had captured Rome and been driven out by Camillus. and Caius. therefore. and the surrender as of their women. at which the . they should have peace and friendship. Some. Tutola) advised them to do neither. an expedition was made against it by many of the Latins. under the command of Livius Postumius. but of haste and eagerness. On hearing this message. in imitation of the way in which. And as they After the referring to the following occasion. by fresh intermarriages between the two peoples. and sent a herald with the message that the Latins wished to renew their ancient relationship and affinity with the Romans. 2-5 . and with her other comely serving-maids arrayed like free-born women then in the night Philotis was to display a signal-fire. say that this imitation is not one of flight. sacrifice at xxix. which they feared. however. that they should send to the enemy Philotis herself. and explain it the Goat's Marsh word for she-goat.ROMULUS. the Romans hesitated between going to war. but by the use of a stratagem to escape alike the war and the giving of hostages. This general stationed his army not far from Rome. they called upon one another in fear and confusion. '85 . a serving-maid called Philotis (or. which they thought no more desirable than to have them captured. But while they were in this perplexity. If. as some say. and when the city was still too weak to recover itself readily. " and " capra is their go forth to the sacrifice.

PLUTARCH'S LIVES apai. \eyeTCii Se r yovdjs. rrddrj avveTV^e yeveadai. TOU9 & fcal ' 'Pa)fj. a. eu^u? e'^eeTreiyo/uevoi real Sia rrjv eirei^LV aXTu/Xou? ra? TruXa? avatcakovvTes vroXXa/a?. 7Tpt cr^ovcr a vea")(v 77 teal TrpOfcaXv/ji/jiacrt TrapaTrerdcr/bLao'tv OTTiffdev.K\i](76i T0)v ovofjiaTcov KCU TO 2 7T/90? TO eXo? TO /Sao'i^ovTas eoi/ee TW aiyos 009 eVt Ovaiav \6ya) TCpocrTiOeaOai fjLa\\ov. Pa) uuXo9 Tecrcrapa fj. rot? 7ToXe/^tot9 doparov Given TO ^)co?. TTJ dva. ravra e&pdro TreiadevTcov TCOV AaTivcov KOI TOV Trvpaov wr? etc TIVOS epiveov. ecni&cn Be (f)i/cov at 6e 6 epaTT divide? dyeipovcri elra Tr\rais KOI Trepiiovaai ' KOI 37 TCLI Trpo? aXX^Xa?. tcai Ka?r parlv'at CTTIVLKIOV ayova-i rrjv eopTrjv. a>? /tat rare rot? Trapayevo/JLevai KCU <rvvaya)vicrd/j. : 8 Ovfflav with Coraes (as in xxix. VMvai KaXovwrai Sia TOV epivebv Karrpi/^. 1 86 . a>? ovv CTreiBov.ev eTr] /cal rrevT^/covTa yeoy$oov &e ftacriXevwv e/celvo /cal TptaKOCTTOV et~ d ) 1 ofiv with Cobet : ou (by feiv).XXa :ai TO yu-e^' ij/nepav %pfj(T0ai.e^ at VTTO 'Pco/^aioiv ovo/uia^o/^evov.evai yaa Taur' ot>^ x TroXXol TrpoaievTai TCOV a~vyypa7 (f>ea)v. rot? TroXeyLttot? a7rpoa'$ofC'>JT(i)S KOI KparijcravT6<>. rot? Se aTci&rjXov. el fir) vrj Ata Tr)? auTr}9 7/yaepa9 eV ^povoi^ erepois d^oTepa TO.aiovs e7re\0elv fiera TWV xptjo-aadai KOLIMW^GVOL^ rot? 7roXe/uo9. 2) 6d\mTav (sea).

5-7 Romans were to come in arms and deal with their enemies while asleep. they sallied forth once in great haste.ROMULUS. but their calling out one another's names in the day time. screening it behind with coverlets and draperies. And the Nones on which it falls are called Capratine from When. both actions happened to take place on the same day in different periods. and because of their haste calling upon one another many times at the gates. 187 . 1 Cf. the Roman name for which is which they strike and throw stones at one another. and now celebrate this festival in memory of their victory. serving-maids run about in companies and play. at caprificus. Camillus. They fell upon their enemies when they least expected it and mastered them. and their marching out to the Goat's Marsh as for sacrifice. they beheld it. seem to be more consonant with the former story. with the approval of the Latins. but visible to the Romans. xxxiii. accordingly. so that its light was unseen by the enemy. after the wild " fig-tree. and in the thirty-eighth year of his reign when he disappeared from among men. and Philotis displayed the signal-fire from a certain wild fig-tree. Romulus is said to have been fifty-four years of age. unless. This was done. 1 These details are accepted by many historians." and they feast the women outside the Then the city in booths made of fig-tree boughs. xxix. in token that on that earlier day they assisted the Romans and shared with them in their battle. to be sure.

A.ev epyov earl TO Be dve\eiv eva rvpavvov. fjicv ovv d^ia f/creo)? fjivrjiJit]^ TcvOeaOai rj/jiiv. ecr^ara iraOelv CTT! TO 8pai/ fjieydXa Bi avdyKyv Trapayevoe/ceivo 7retra TOVTOV jj. TW 'Pco/jivXco \ B* ov iraprjv //.v n > ixrrjs real Ti/xco/ota? 7ri<f)epofjLvr]s. 'EXXaSa Beivwv rvpdvvcov TOU? UTT' irplv 6'crr9 Herri yLvaxr/ceiv /cal [lev TraprjV airpay/jiovM^ Bta daXdrrrj^ dBi/cov/uLevco ^Bev VTTO . 6 "AX/BTj? Ko/of^^T?. piov fjiev >^V yap ovoev auTo? >\>C> fieya Be TOVTOV / aoiKOVfJievos icaKoos VTrep a\\a>v eirl TOU? Trovrjpovs. e/ceivov Kal Trpodycoves rjaav 6 ^/ceipwv. rrepl KOL 1 &. TO rou IlXaTcoi/o?. 3 e%eiv 'A^oiAtof o '\ ^WI^TO?.r.evov ap^rjv ovtc aBo^ov.?. are^oi? UTTO Seovs av8/oeto? ryevbuevos. oi B' ocrov avrol OVK erraa^ov VTTO TOV Tvpdvvov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES KAI PQMYAOY 2YFKPI2I2 A I.dfj. oft? TTJV TOV 6 TlpOKpovarrjs. KOI <o/3&> TOI) TO. KOI ftr)V el fieya TO Tpa)07Jvai 188 .XaTT6 /j. S 1 ovoevos LpoiftacriXeveiv Sia$e!.evov<}. rrepiecopcov dBifcovvTa TcdvTas. a-vjjL/3e/3)]Kev e/c ' raur' rr\ Be Trp&Tov 6 /xef \ Trpoaipecrea)?. aX\ > /t '-v -v ' egov aoeco? ev '>. 6 avaip&v KOI avTov KO\da)V a7r?. eavrov fteydXcov ope^Oei ^' o Se Bov1 avayKa^ovros.

of his own accord reached out after great achievements whereas Romulus. . the chief deed of Romulus was the slaying of a single tyrant of Alba whereas for mere by-adventures and preliminary struggles Theseus had Sciron. first of all. Procrustes. SUCH. And surely. as long as they themselves were not harmed by the tyrant. then. And there is strong proof of this for Theseus. and suffering no outrage at the hands of those robbers whereas Romulus could not be without trouble while Amulius . i. for Romulus 68 d. . became simply courageous out of fear. lived. to escape present servitude and " impending punishment. .THESEUS AND ROMULUS. of own choice. Sinis. sallied out in behalf of others against those miscreants while Romulus and Remus. are Romulus and Theseus which I have been able to learn. Athens by sea without any trouble. place. his And it appears. 1-3 COMPARISON OF THESEUS AND ROMULUS the memorable things about I. . 189 . p. that Theseus. and Corynetes. when no one compelled him. if it 1 was a great thing fhaedo. by slaying and chastising O whom he freed Greece from dreadful tyrants before those who were saved by him knew Theseus might have travelled to who he was. but when it was possible for him to reign without fear at Troezen as heir to no inglorious realm." as Plato phrases it. although he had suffered no wrong at their hands himself. suffered him to wrong everybody else. 1 and through the dread of extreme penalties proceeded to perform In the second great exploits under compulsion.

TOLVVV Trj (f)V(T6l II.PLUTARCH'S LIVES /cal dveXeiv A/cpcova /ca /cal ecrTi VOL? epyois KevTavpofjia^av o S' ra TT/JO? 4 *A/<taoz>a9 TTCpl 7rapa/3a\Lv TOV KpTJTLKOV 7rpocr<f)a<y/j.? /cal epw? Traz/ro? }JLa\\ov eoi/cev fjLijxavr) ryeveadai crwrriplas el epyov eveica TOV dvSpos. fjir) d\\a Tft)9 BavjuLa^etv el 5' TTJV epaaOeicrav. A.fJL<$OTepO)V TpoTrov e^e&Tr) ev Srj/jLOTiKrjv.u77<re Coraes second chapter here. Be 6 real yaere^aXe Tupavvifctfv. 6 yap 6eov 'AyOia&j'T. LT6 TIV\ etre rot? 'AvBpoyeo) ra^oi?. el/coav avTrjv d^LepaaTov dew <yeyo/cal (fuXdyadov /cal rcov dpLo'Twv ovaav. Trdvres ovrco KOI Trdaai BiCTedijcrav eyayye (fraiijv vivai. OVK av GLTTOL earl ToXya?.eya\o(f)poa-vv?]<.a SaCTfJiOV. aeTa/3o\rjv 6 Se TavTOV 1 ft 5' <?TJA. ^ecrOai. fcal OVK d^Lov alridaOai. (f)L\6/ca\ov epcoTitcrjv '' e/ceivrj /jiovrj TOVT erraOev. \aTpev6iv Trap" dvSpdaiv v/3pi(rTaL$ KOI Sva/Aeveo'iv dtc\Gr) Xarpeiav /cal ari/jiov eV^Sov? eavrov. rj Stirepl TO KOIVQV rj TroOov SO^T. W<TT' TOU<? TT/DO? ejAOtye ^aive-rai /JLTJ /ca/cw? <j)i\ocr6(f)ov<$ pealav TOV epa>ra @ewv 7Ti/ji6\iav KOI awrrjpiai' vecov.? /cal 5 dperfjs. eKOV&lws yttera irapdevwv TrXeucra? /cal TTCLI&WV vewv. and Sintenia would begin the 190 .? 77 /j. eW\ o KOV(j)6rar6v eVrt T&V Xeyo/jLevcov.

p. a god's work. and to conquer many enemies in battle. that she was properly worthy of a god's love. on the part of Theseus. the former in the direction of democracy. whether that was food for some monster. or whether and this is the mildest form of the story he offered himself for inglorious and dishonourable servitude among insolent and cruel men when he volunteered to sail away with maidens and young boys. and slay Acron. 1 opinion that the philosophers give an excellent definition of love when they call it "a ministration of the gods for the care and preservation of the young. 191 . words cannot depict such courage. since she was fond of virtue. to be to i.THESEUS AND ROMULUS. and a device whereby Theseus should be saved. for my part. and a lover of the highest qualities in man. 1 Polemon. neither maintained to the end the true character of a king. but rather wonder that all men and women were not thus affected towards him and if she alone felt this passion. fond of goodness. I should say. with these exploits we may compare. aa cited in Morals. or It is therefore my yearning for glory and virtue. magna- and his . i wounded in a battle with the Sabines. but both deviated from it and underwent a change. And we should not blame her for loving him. 3-11. righteous zeal for the common good." For Ariadne's love seems to have been. II. the latter in the direction of tyranny. 780 d. Although Theseus and Romulus were both statesmen by nature. making thus the same mistake through opposite . his battle with the Centaurs but as campaign against the Amazons which he showed about the Cretan tribute. more than anything else. or a sacrifice on the tomb of Androgeos. for the daring nimity.

6^09.' r)<rea Be TT^O? rov vlov. e/JLTroiei rj KarcKppoveiv rot? apxpfjievois. 6 &' evBiBovs TJ emrelvwv ou 7} /JLCVCL fiacriXevs ovBe ap^wv. ev eTriei/cei'as erceivo &OKi fcal dfjidpTrj/jta ta? III. ^aXevrwreyoa? 2 dvarparrivra. o oe fjia^ov ecrriv. 6/30)9 \ eV >r I -N <N \ /co9 eacpijA-av.' rjOiicas Kal TTaOifTfc/ca? %r)Tiv ev auroi? $ia<j)Opd$. Kal Kardpas rfj r jrpecr{3vTiK'fjs jrporj\0e.os et9 epyov e^eVecre Kal rrpa^iv OVK 6vrv%S 77crea>9 opyrj fJ^Xpl ^oyov e^ovaav TeXo9.' ' f v C T) '-\ JJLZV rco/jiv\ov 6vp. cr/ce^/rea)? vojjievr)<$ 'PcoyCtuXw jmev yap e/e ySofX^}? Kal KOLVMV cruutfiepovroov Siacfropd? yeOVK av ij^iaxre Tt? acfrvw rrfv Sidvoiav rrepl rrfKiKOvrw irdQei yevecrOat. ra S' aXXa fyaiverai Tv^y %pijaaav rts diro- adai TO Bolrj fjieipaKiov. Bel yap rov ap77 B* ov% YJTTOV aTre^ofjievr) rov jj. rj Be Kal i f3\acr<j)r)/jiia<. rovro Be (j)i\avTLa$ KOL Et Se Be2 Kal ra Svcrrv^OevTa ^ iravrd38 iracn TTOielcrOai SalfJiovos. o "O.PLUTARCH'S LIVES evavriwv rraOwv dfjiaprovres.d\\ov rrapairelrai rov VTTO IJLL%OVOS alrias wurrep iirro 7r\7jyfj<.rrav okiyoi rwv ovrwv SiaTrecfrevKal ^ri\orvrria Kal Bia/3o\al yvvaiyacriv. elvai. a irdp.rj rrpoarY)Kovro<$ 2 Trepie^o/jLevr} rov TrpocnjKovros. Mare ravras /Jiev 192 . aXV TO ou SecrTTOT^? 747^0/0. dvfiov [lev d\oyicrrov teal fjirjre TJ? eiceivov ev e^oixrrj^ a/3ov\ov opyfjs rot? Trpo? rov doe\$>ov rovrov ev rot? Trpo? rov vlov 17 Se Kivrjcrao-a ra^o? rov Ovf^bv dp%r) fj. aAA.

becomes either a demagogue or a despot. but to the different habits and passions which will be found underlying them. and the rest of the youth's calamities seem to have been due to fortune. On these counts. the first error seems to arise subjects. if the misfortunes of men are not to III. nor Theseus in dealing with his son. the second from from kindliness and humanity selfishness and seventy. Theseus. therefore. common welfare. affections. although the cause which stirred his anger leads us to be more lenient towards the one who was overthrown by a stronger provocation. and implants hatred or contempt in the hearts of his However. he his authority is no longer a king or a ruler itself. as by For since the difference between a heavier blow. 11. . And what is of greater weight. 2 the realm For the ruler must preserve first of all and this is preserved no less by refraining from what is unbecoming than by cleaving But he who remits or extends to what is becoming. then no one shall acquit Romulus of unreasoning anger or hasty and senseless wrath in dealing with his brother. jealousy. there could have been no good reason for his flying into such while Theseus was impelled to wrong a passion his son by love. the anger of Romulus vented itself in action and a deed whereas the wrath of of most unfortunate issue Theseus got no farther than words of abuse and an old man's curse.THESEUS AND ROMULUS. and a woman's slanders. one would give his vote of preference to . Romulus and his brother arose from a deliberate y investigation of the . 1-111. . 193 . Aorain. o be attributed altogether to fortune. the overmastering power of which very few men have escaped.

Trpoa-ve^ecrOai' TO Be irpcoTov ou {jLeraTiOels OL3' av^wv TTJV virdp/cal KT(t)fji6vo$ eavrq) %(t>pav O/JLOV. yap Trplv fcal crv(f)Op{3)V TralBes oVo/aa^oevl \i>06poi yeveaOai. dvypei fiev ovoeva aiT<a>\\vev./3evo-e /cal V. (povels e^Opwv KOI (Twrripes oiKeiwv fcal /3acrA. rot? veviKr)xocri. e/c TTO\\MV crvvTiOels /cal GVVOIKQty o So/iicov ev olKTjTijpiov. Bov\oi /JL6VOI. Kal TO fievov fiev 'Pa^ou TtdOos dfj. rydfiovs. evepyeTei Be TOU? e^ CLOIKWV /cal dve- O-TLWV erra? Brjfjiov e6e\. OU /jLTOlKl<TTaL. XT.e?5 eOvwv KOI OiKKTTCU TTO\(i)V.<f)icr/3 r)Tov- e^ei TOV avro^eipa. /cal TO Tr\elaTov et? ereyoou? Tt}? atVta? rpeTroucrf Trjv Be firjTepa arifiw^ els TOV Alveiov 7ro\\a (JLGV e/cwv evepyev >0>\J/ \r>\ t'V oe avTov ovoe a/cow.ovTa<$ eivai /cal TroXtra?. " /O-\ I teal epAai^e . 'E/cetVw Be TrpwTOV /jLiKpordras fjiev virdp^ei /meya TO TO. Opovov 194 e/cddtcre. /cal TOV TfanrTfov a/cXew? BovXeuovra n 2 Trj&ev. be Trjv /cal > Bio\\v/jLvr)v ecrwcre Trepufravcos. Trdvra? o\iyov ACITLVOVS. KaOaTTGp ?7creu5. ol/ceiOTijTas.uXo? Se ravra /JLCV v&repov eSpa. TOU? /JLIOVS TTO\dvay/cdfav ra oiKeta /carafe dXXovras /cal d(f>aviovTa<. <yevY).PLUTARCH'S LIVES IV. \aj3eiv Si] ap^as ejrl Trpdy^ara. avaipwv Se TroXXa? 2 eTrco^u/xou? (3acn\etov /cal rjpwwv 7ra\ai(ov //. aXX' q / irpoa-ijydyeTO TraiXe/Acp /cal TroXei? /cal /3acrtXet? e0pid/j.- Be /cal /cafcovpyovs OVK aireKTeivev. Beiv rfXevOepwcrav xpovw TWV Ka\\i(TTwv ovojJLaTWV afia TV^ovre^.

and yet they not only made themselves free. Besides. he ruined no one and killed no one. i-v. citizens of a common city. Romulus. but by creating one from nothing. he did not slay. but demolished many cities bearing the names of ancient kings and heroes. did this later.THESEUS AND ROMULUS. laid cities low. not even inadver195 V. but he subdued nations in war. founders of cities . as . this great that he rose to eminence from the For he and his brother were smallest beginnings. iv. upon the throne of Aeneas. kings of not transraces and peoples. kingdom. . enjoying at one and the same time such most honourable titles as slayers of their foes. who put together and consolidated one dwelling-place out of many. Theseus was. superiority. but freed first almost all the Latins. and he set his grandfather. clans. 2 But Romulus has. and did him no harm. and triumphed over kings and commanders. . Moreover. who wished instead to be a people and Robbers and miscreants. he did him many favours of his own accord. there is dispute as to who actually slew Remus. and most of the blame for the deed is put upon others than Romulus but Romulus did unquestionably save his mother from destruction. but was a benefactor of men without homes and hearths. reputed to be slaves and sons of swineherds. compelling his enemies to tear down and obliterate their dwellings and enrol themselves among their conquerors but at first. IV. in the first place. marriages and relationships. it is true. it is true. not by removing or enlarging a city which already existed. saviours of their kindred and friends. planters. country. and by acquiring for himself at once territory. who was living in inglorious and dishonourable subjection.

ois (unmarried). a\\a ravra /xev V vftpiv /cal Ka(f rj&ovrjv Be 7rpG)TOV /lev OKTaKoaiwv o\i*yov dpi0/4q> Seoixras ov Trdaas.a%6vcov dveyyvoi. Kat [JLr)V ra Trepl ^cret /ie^ <ye<yov6. evSea TrpwTov [lev OTI TroXX-dfcw ijpiracre jap 'ApidSvrjv KCU 'AvriOTrrjv KOI 'AvaJ. d\\d rydjJLwv vrj-jriav real acopov auro9 upav e^wv eTreira ij8rj 7T67raucr0ai KOI vofttfjuav Sia TTJV aiTiav ov yap 76 nraiboTToiol royv 'A0rjvrj(Tiv *EyoeKOi K. 196 . VI. iKaaTais alriav avjiOL^ 6 Brj KOI arvviSayv rt? 'ArriKOS dvrjp to? 7ray%d\7r6v ecrrt (3ov\ofjievoi$ dTroXoyelcrffai. fiera rfj ravra ra9 Kal dyaTTijaei Kal SiKaioavvrj 1 Trepl eKeivrjv Kal ayaOols MSS.TTav 6$ov (TTrevSovri Trapovcnjs TLVOS OepaTreias.PLUTARCH'S LIVES f (B)?7crea>9 \r]6 r]V yu-oXi? KOI afjLe\eiav TT)? irepl TO icrriov e av ol^ai /naKpa TIVI TrapaiTrjcrei. W9 . AaKO)va)v 2 rjcrav.Kp07Ti$(t)V dl TpOl^TjVLOtV Kal 'A/j. 39 eae. Swv rrjv wcnrep ojraeVl 0d\a. and ayd/j. 1 f) r eTreira rff ftiav : T&V TroXiTwv TTtoei^e rrjv edd. rot' Alyla rr}? yea>9 TTpoa^epofJLevr]^ VTTO avaTpexpVTa TT^O? r^ dfepoTroXiv Oeas eprjftov. ra? dpTrayas TWV <yu6V(T^fjiovo<. 7rapi]Kfj. d\\d fjiiav.a) 7rl 7racra9 5e rrjv *Ei\evrjv. rj evefca real a(j)dX\6jji6vov KaTaireereiv.aKO)$ ov/c aK/md^ovcrav. rrjv Tpoifyiviav.

Furthermore. 2 -vi. or servants. first. and were no worthier. Hersilia. . but only one. he made it clear that his 197 .THESEUS AND ROMULUS. and righteous treatment given to these women. conscious that would-be defenders of Theseus have a difficult task. secondly. as they say. by the subsequent honour. but was an unripe child. Indeed. be the plea of his advocate ever so long and his judges ever so lenient. as though he were without a rewas hurrying down to the sea without any his rapes of women admit of This is true. reason for them for the daughters of Troezenians and Laconians and Amazons were not betrothed to him. And in the second place. love. on the contrary. But one may suspect that these deeds of his were done in lustful wantonness. and distributed the rest among the best of the citizens. feigns that Aegeus. cliff. v. escape the charge of parricide. surely. a certain Attic writer. for his forgetfulness and neglect of the command about the sail. took them not all to wife. Anaxo of Troezen. ran up to the acropolis in his eagerness to catch sight of her. although he carried off nearly eight hundred women. I think. for he carried off Ariadne. to be the mothers of his children than the daughters of Erechtheus and Cecrops at Athens. Theseus. the transgressions of Theseus in no plausible excuse. and at last Helen. can hardly. 2 tentl y. in the first place. Antiope. while he was already of an age too great for even It is true. when he was past his prime and she had not reached her prime. because there VI. on the approach of the ship. on the other hand. were so many . because of the lawful wedlock. and stumbled and fell down the tinue. Romulus.

a\X' ejraOe ^rrjp f) ra TT}? 'E/ca/9^?. etye X&xrta?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 KaXXicrrov epyov KOI 7ro\LriK(0rarov Koivwviav <yevo/jLvrjv.r} iraOelv a T/3W6? eiraOov $C A\et. rw Be Xpovw crvfjifjiaprvpel /cal ra epya. ra yevrj. eBei ye ra TrXetcrra rwv a'XXwi/.avBpov.' wcnrep ev 'Ej\\rj(nv ol (T(f)6$pa Treptrrol TOV Trpwrov e^ovcriv elrreiv iraTpOKTovov pi]rpo<^ovov.<f)opdv. o ^pbvos eo-rl ev jap erecri rpid/covra /cal Sia/coa-iois ovre dvrjp ToXyLt77CT6 JWaiKOS OVT JVV7) KOlVCOvldV a^S/30? ejKardXtTre'Lv. 77 /jbevroi Bereft)? OVK eKivSvvevaev.. f)v elpyd<raro Trepl TOU? ydfjiovs. teal fte/BaiOTrjTos. &)? pr) eyKara\i7r6vros /cal irkirKaaiai ra T?}? Kal rovro ^evSo^ elvai eVel Kal rd Trepl rov iro\\rjv iroiel Bic<. ovrw crvvefja^ev d\\rj\oi<s Kal i<> <TVve7rrjj. aXA. Oetov ^v9o\oyovfjiva 198 . Kal yap d KOivu>vr]<jav ol ySacr^Xet?. oura) 'Pco/jiaioi Trdvres idacrtv on f rj 4 TO?. KOI Trapecr^e Trrjyrjv rrjs avdis evvoias Kal bwdfjuea)? rot? 7rpdy/j. eyQpai Be /cal iroX.a(Tiv. rov TraiBos.o)V AOqvaiois <fyi\LKov /^ev ovBev ovBe KOLVWVIKOV 7T/905 Kal <f)6voi ovBeva crv/jb^oXaiov. aTraiSiav aiTia<rdfjvo<.LTMv Kal reXo? 'A^tSz^a? fjbo\i<s Kal UTT' OLKTOU TWV Tro\/JiCo>vf J 5 Kal 6eov<$ dvenrovras. Kal TroXtreta? ra Bia rrfv eTTLjafjLiav e/ceivrjv avro Be rcov @^<re&>? /j. fj. alSov? Be Kal <f>i\ia<.

witness in favour of Romulus. nor any woman her husband but. just as the very curious among the Greeks can name the first parricide or matricide. wars. example. vi. but actually suffered the fate of Hecuba when she was deserted and abandoned by her son. so the Romans all know that Spurius Carvilius was the first to put away his wife. because of that intermarriage the marriages of Theseus the Athenians got no new friends at all. compassion on them worshipfully as when they gods. only because their enemies took . . tenderness. the mother of Theseus was not only in danger.THESEUS AND ROMULUS. accusing her of barrenness. for Romulus was 199 . the tale of her captivity is fictitious. time is witness. and it may well be For false. and at last the loss of Aphidnae. as well as most of the other stories. and was a most honourable supplied his state with a flowing fountain of strength and good will for the time to come. the tales told of divine intervention in their lives are in great contrast . nor even any community of enterprise whatsoever. And the immediate results of his act. and one most adapted to promote In this way he intermixed political partnership. but enmities. in two hundred and thirty years no man ventured to leave his wife. slaughters of citizens. and the two peoples the rights and duties of citizenwhereas from ship. unless. called upon them However. 2-5 deed of violence and injustice achievement. and blended the two peoples with one another. indeed. and stability which he imparted For to the marriage relation. the two kings shared the government in common. and an escape from the fate which Troy suffered by reason of Alexander. And to the modesty. as well as the long For lapse of time.

'Xea-Oai yvvaiKos eVt eoi/cev a 200 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES /Vco jjLi> jap rj awrripia fJLera TroXX?}? V Oewv irapa evfjievelas. o 8' Kl<jel SoQels %evr]s.

THESEUS AND ROMULUS. vi. 5 preserved by the signal favour of the gods. forbidding him to approach a woman while in a foreign land. while the oracle given to Aegeus. seems to indicate that the birth of Theseus was not agreeable to the will of the gods. 2OI .



dirotyaivova'i rfjs TT/JCOTT.o&&)/)O9.6VK66\iyoi<? erecri rrpecr/Bvrepov ' rwv Kal ava\6<yofjLevoi rov %povov. afirbv %povov.lT6iaV Trpay/jiareia Sia(j)6povs ea^rj/cev ia"ropla<s. ol ftev jap *I<j)iT(p awaK^do-ai. v rov 'OXu/ZTT/acrt &ICTKOV ev 2 TOU u> AvKOvpyov Biacrcti^eTai Karayeypa/ji^pov ol Be rals BiaBoxals rwv ovK ev ^Trdprrj {3e/3acri\.' ov ov rroppw . Ka& ovs yeyovev o avrjp op.ia Kal re\evrrj Kal TT/JO? arracnv 97 7T6/34 TOU? VOfJiOV^ aVTOV Kal T1JV 7TO~\. rwv 'Ojjirfpov evLOi Be Kal O^TLV evrv^elv O/j. 204 . Tt/iato? Be vrrovoeL.AYKOYPFOS I.o\o<yovvraL.is B6av Kar dvatcelcrOai. Bvetv ev ^rrdprrj yeyovorcov ov Kara rov BLO.A. ov <ye Kal yevos teal a7roBr]fj. Kal Kal 'ApicnoTeXrjs 6 (f)i\6(TO(f)OS. TJK terra Be ol xpbvoi. r Trpd$. Hcpl AvKOvpyov rov vo/Aoderov KaOo\ov ovBev ecrTLV elrrelv dva/JL^Ha-fB^r^rov.rjpq>. ra> rrjv AvKovpycov erepw ra? dfjL<poLV Kal rov ye yeyovevai.? 'O\u fjumdoos . warrep ^parocrdevr]^ *A7roA.

Among these is Aristotle the philosopher. Cf. jectures at different times. 20. and he alleges as proof the discus at Olympia on which an inscription preserves the name of Lycurgus. . owing to his greater fame he thinks also that the elder of the two lived not far from the times of Homer. A stay of hostilities was observed all over Greece during the festival. CONCERNING Lycurgus the lawgiver. the Olympic games. in 776 B. his death. v. two were that there Lycurgus at Sparta. of his work as lawmaker and statesman and there is least agreement among historians as to the times in which the man lived. H *5 . and Apollodorus. . 1 But those who compute the time by the successions of kings at Sparta. 5 f . like Eratosthenes . 4.O. Some say that he flourished at the same time with Iphitus. 2 776-73 B. his travels. the date assigned to the first recorded victory. since indeed there are different accounts of his birth. 1 As joining with Iphitus in founding. and that to one of them the achievements of both were ascribed. or reviving.LYCURGUS I. and some assert that he actually met Homer face to face. i. and in concert with him established the Olympic truce. nothing can be said which is not disputed. in general.. 1. Pausanias. and above all. prove that Lycurgus was many years 2 And Timaeus conearlier than the first Olympiad.C. VOL.

Ov fjLrjv a\\a /caiTrep OI/TCO? 7T67r\avTjf^V7]^ T^? icrropias. ^LjJiwvi^r]^ rr]v ov/c 4 Strjyrjcriv. 6 TOU? TT/JWTOU? eteetvovs /cal $ eoirce (3ov\oiJLevw Gvveryyvs 'Hpa/cXeof? ovojjid&iv 'Hpa/fXetSa?.ev /c\eiBas. Zoov Se JZvpvTTcovTa. \eyeTai Be TOV Ka\ Sintenis would begin the second chapter here.ov<i ol ^TrapTiaTai ^wpav Trpoo-e/CTijcravTo 7ro\\r]v 'Ap/cdBwv aTTOTejAOfAevoi. ol Se 2 7r\io~TOi a")(ov fiev ov% ovTco fyeva\oyovcrLv f TOV 'Apio-Tobijuou jevecrOat ^oov. 2 ol 8e with Bekker oi : 206 . Treipacro/jLeQa rot? ^pa^vrdra^ eyovcriv dvTikoyLas rj jvwpL/xcoTdrov^ /jidprvpas eTrofievoi TWV yeypafjLfjievcov irepl TOV dvSpos cnrobovvai. e/c TOVTOV 8e RvvofMov. e<^)' ov /cal TOVS et'Xwra? eTrot^aavTO /cal Bov\. TOVTOV &e Tlpvravtv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 BiBcocri Be /cal 'evo(J)a)v vTrovoiav ap^cuor^TO? ev 40 ol? TOV avBpa \eyei yeyovevai Kara TOU? 'Hpayevei fjt.ov eVet /cal 1 o TTOLrjrvjs \ey6t TOV Av/covpjov TraTyoo?. d\\a Hpvrat'iSo? teal TOV Av/covpyov /cal TOV ^LvvofJiov. Eu^o/toL' Se Ho\vSe/cTtjv e/c yvvai/cos.. r II. evBe/caTov Be a<fi 'H/oaXeou?. assuming also a lacuna in the text preceding. CKTOV ^ev a?ro Tlpo/c\eov<. a)? d\\a TIpoK\OV<? AievTv^iSas Av/covpyov 8e veooTepov e/c laToprj/cev. Ya)v Be Trpoyovwv avTOV fid\LO'Ta ftev eOav[jLaffOr] Xoo?. rjcrav /cal ol vecDTaroi jap 'Hpa/cXelBai BrjTrovOev TWV ev ^Trdprr) fiacriXewv. EiVi>6jj.

so famous in story. iii. Herodotus. although the history of these times is such a maze. Soils begat . or who have the most notable witnesses for what For instance. Dionassa. of the time of the Heracleidae. " 207 . the son of Heracles. vii. 3-n.LYCURGUS. x. but that both Lycurgus and Eunomus were sons of Prytanis whereas most writers give a different genealogy. 1 i. 8. It is also 1 Reip. as follows Aristodemus begat Procles. See Pausanias. under whom the Spartans made the Helots their slaves. from whom sprang Eunomus. Lac. : Eurypon. I shall try. and Lycurgus. making Lycurgus sixth from Procles. and he begat Prytanis. also. as Dieutychidas has written. 204 and viii. 1-10 ." 3 Aristodemus. who was a younger son by a second wife. 2 II. Of these ancestors of Lycurgus. in presenting my narrative. Soils was most famous. was the son of Aristomachus. Lycurgus is said to have lived in the times of the Heracleidae. Xenophon. Simonides the poet says that Lycurgus was not the son of Eunomus. and acquired by conquest from the Arcadians a large additional tract of land. and eleventh from Heracles. from whose twin sons Eurysthenes and Procles the elder and younger royal lines at Sparta (the Agids and Eurypontids) were descended. the latest of the Spartan kings were also Heracleidae but Xenophon apparently wishes to use the name Heracleidae of the first and more immediate descendants of Heracles. Procles begat Sous. to follow those authors who are least contradicted. and from Eunomus Polydectes by a first wife. i in the passage makes an impression of simplicity where he says that Lycurgus lived in For in lineage. 131. they have written about the man. course. the son of Hyllus. the son of Cleodaeus. However. .

6f40\o<yr)crai rr]v SopLKrvjrov yrjv avrols d<f)ij(Tiv 9 el rfioi Kal avros Kal ol //.6Lav ovSevbs Be a Trvrwv TUOVTCOV. acrvvo/jLevov. 'ATToOavovro? B& Xpovov <j>ov eSet. 1 with Bekker and Cobet fy/cfwc 6/j.elav. TW Trpea-flvrepw Traiol Ho\vBeKry Kara- \irra)v rrjv (3acrL\.ev 3 X-oZ?. OVK a7ro rovTOv Trfv d\\d rov rrfs avrov Trpoa'rjyopevcrav ^vpvrrwvrL^a^. rwv 8* vcrrepov /3a(Tt.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ev 'xwpiw %a\7T(a Kal dvuSp(p vov VTTo KXeiropiwv. avo- Kal dra^ia Karecr^e rrjv ^irdprijv eVl TTO\VV vfi 779 Kal rov narepa rov Av/covpyov (Bacn\evovra crvvefii] re\evrrjcrai. BiepvKwv yap dtyifjLa%iav nvd. 6pKlu>v : Kal rovrov per oXiyov a>9 rrdvres wovro.o\oyt&v. /jiayeipiKfj KOTriBt.er' 2 avrov rrdvres drfo &% rfjs ir\r](Tiov 77777779. ori SOKCL TT/JCUTO? RvpVTrcov TO dyav fJiovap^iKov dvelvai /Sao^tXeta?. TWV TTO\ejmLc0v Trapbvrwv d7re\0eiv Kal rrjv ^wpav KaraKalirep 7rl rouroi? OavfJid^ovres avrov oiKiav. III. rd Be 7T/90? xdpiv r) Si daOeveiav vTro^epo^evwv.\ea)v ra o/nevcov rq> fiia^zaQai rovs TroXXou?. ftacrikeveiv. jevo/Jievcov TWV l 6p/cio)v (rvvayayovTa TOU? />te^' eavrov T& pr) ITLOVTL TIJV /3acTi\. TrXrjyels drre- 0ave. AvKovpyov Kal rrpiv j errel (fravepdv jeveadai xvovaav e/SacriXevev. Brj/jiaycoycov xal ^apL^ofjievos rot? TTO\IK $e rfjs roiavr^ dvecrea)? rov p. rov rr)V jvvaiKa rov a8e\- 208 . avrov eir \\a KarafldvTa Kal Trepippavd/aevov en.

whereupon Soils himself went down last of all to the water. sprinkled his face merely. so that lawlessness and confusion prevailed at Sparta for a long time and it was owing to this that the father of Lycurgus. he assembled his men and offered his kingdom to the one who should not drink no one of them. lost his some rioters. For as he was trying to separate life. and then. leaving Polydectes. But although on these grounds he was held in great admiration. but all of them drank. After the oaths to this agreement were taken. seeking But in favour and popularity with the multitude. . 209 . and succeeding kings were some of them hated for trying to force their way with the multitude. while the enemy were still at hand to see. the kingdom devolved upon Lycurgus and until his brother's wife was known to be with child. i related of this Soils that when he was besieged by the Cleitorians in a rough and waterless place.LYCURGUS. III. but were called Eurypontids from his son. and some were brought low by their desire for favour or through weakness. he was king. i-m. ii. a reigning conquered . kingdom to his elder son. consequence of such relaxation the people grew bold. on the plea that all had not drunk. could forbear. however. as was generally thought. his royal line was not named from him. because Eurypon appears to have been the first king to relax the excessive absolutism of his sway. But as soon . he agreed to surrender to them the land which he had if he himself and all his men with him should drink from the adjacent spring. Polydectes also died soon afterwards. he was stabbed to death with a butcher's the knife. king. and then marched away and retained his territory.

co? \6j6Tai. :at TrXeto1 wpoSlKws with A vpoSiKovs with most MSS. crvvoiKelv ^09 TT/JO? Se TOZ^ \6yov avrov OVK 3 a\X' liraiv^iv KOI Be^ecrOaL TrpocrTroiovLV a^\icrKOvaav avrrjv /cal OVK e(>rj /cat o~c5yLta (f)apfjLaKevo{ievrjv ^La\vjJLaivecrOai TO Kiv&vvevew avT<a yap /jL\. rov TOKOV TTjV avOpwTTov. (corrected).PLUTARCH'S LIVES e a7T(j)rjv TOVTO rd^Lcrra ya-Oero. TO /Specio? eVl TW erceivw (Bacrikevovrt. apyfiv airro? l rrjv 8e co? eVtT/ooTro? StetTre. rrjv fjiev ftacn\eiav TOV Trat&o? ovcrav.QVIQI eVtT/ooVoL'? Aa/ceSai.6^ /3ov- \ojj. TO crrja-e.rf(reiv OTTO)? evQvs etcovrco $6 Trapayajobv 7ToSa)z/ ecrTat TO <yevvr)Qev. Trpo&eTrefjiTre KOL \6yov$ eVoietro. . ayjpi. KO/jLicrai TT^O? eavrbv o TI av TV%rj CLVTOV fJLTa TV% B SeiTTVOVVTOS T&V 41 4 ap%6vTU>v aTTOKvr)6ev appev KOL iraprjaav ol VTrrjo Se Se^dperai TO iraiSdpiov avrut KO^I^OVT^. appev. Tat? yvvaigiv. ot? ^^ Trpocrrerayjuevoi'. the Doric form. TOI>? Se TWV optyavwv f3aa-i\ewv TrpoBiKov? rcpixfia 2 H. \evcre Se /urivas OKTU> TO (rv/JL7rav. /jievos.Se 77 ryvvrj o>? WVO/JLCI^OV. : TaAAa 2IO . yt/. co? TJcrOero TLKTOVTat? coStcrtv avrrjs etcreTre^^re TrapeSpov? Kal (f>v\aKa<$. T^? ^Trdprr)^. "BacrtXeu? V/JLLV yeyovev. Kal TT/QO? TOU? Trapovras elircov. co vev ev TO TOU? Trat'Ta? eti^at (f)p6wrj/J. TJV avrov TO e/Sacri- 8e /eat Trept/SXeTTTO? VTTO TCOZ^ TroXtTcof. and edd. eav <rav. avirep apprjv ryevrjrai.a Kal rrjv SiKaioavvriv. TCOV. eav drfkv Te^(6fi^ TrapaSovvai.vrj &La<f)0ipa(.

to hand it over to the women. because all present were filled with joy. thereby injuring her health and endangering her life. pretended to approve and accept it. lofty spirit and his he was king only eight months in all. if a girl should be born. as we are told. but ' .LYCURGUS. and more than admiring as they did his righteousness. but if a boy. and when he learned that she was in labour. and himself administered the government only as Now the guardians of fatherless kings guardian. however. he sent attendants and watchers for her delivery. or People's Joy. are called " prodikoi by the Lacedaemonians. He told her. to bring it to him. . and his servants brought the little boy to him. But on other accounts also he was revered by his fellow-citizens. with orders. O men of Sparta then he laid it down in the royal seat and named it Charilaiis. as in. " A king is born " unto you. He took it in his arms. proposing to destroy her unborn babe on condition that he would marry her when he was and although he detested her a king of Sparta character. And so 211 . 1-4 he learned of this. for he would see to it himself that as soon as her child was born it should be put In this manner he managed to out of the way. the woman made secret overtures to him. and said to those who were at table with him. if it should be male. bring the woman to her full time. however. that she need not use drugs to produce a miscarriage. a male child was born. he declared that the kingdom belonged to her offspring. he did not reject her proposition. no matter what he was doing. And it came to pass that as he was at supper with the chief magistrates. Presently.

6 Be dBe\(j)bs avrrjs Kal Opacvrepov irore TO) Av/covpya) \oiBopi)0ei<. *Hi> Be rt.e\Xovra /3acrL\eveiv avrov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES eyevovro TCOV f]V o>? eTTirpoTrw ySacrtXew? Kal j3aeov(riai> e%ovTi ireiOofJievwv ol Si dperrjv avrw Kal iroie. ev r)\iKia <yevo/jievo<. i 8' &v KaTetypovqaev. VTiovQiav StSoi? Tradelv. (JLaXlCTTa /JiV ol crvyyeveis Kal oifceloi TT}? TOU /3acriXeo)? v[Bpl(r6ai Bofcovar)?.v/covp<yov.lv edeXovre? eroijjicos TO TrpocrTarro/jievov. crcxpwv eva Be TWV vo^i Kal Kal TTO\ITIKWV ^dpiri irotijrrjv ff fiev BoKovvra \vpiKwv fjLe\wv Kal Xr)/Jia r *l v re)(vr)v ravrrjv ireiroirujLevov. KOI TO <f>6ovovv KCU TT/OO? rrjif avfycriv OVTl V6CO 7TlpOi)/jL6l>OV eVlGTaaOcLl. BidBo^ov IV. Kal av arj o dBe\(f)iBov<. OI/TO)? a-Trayoa? irpayrov fiev et? Kprjr^v d(piKTO' Kal Ta? avToOi TroXiTeta? KaTavo)']aa<$ Kal avyyevbfjievos TO?? Trpwrevovai Kara B6av e'^Xcocre Kal fjbev jrape\a^e T&V dvBpdcrt.. ol<$ to? dTrifteftovXevKOTa. \ei KOI TrpoKardXa/jL TL crv^airi r&> TOV el Bia/3o\fj A. epycp Be airep ol KpaTiaroi T>V vofjL00Ta>v BiaTrparro- 212 . virelirev &)? elBeir) cra<a>5 /j. a>? oiKaBe p^eroiawv KOI %/O^<T beeves. \6yoi. ftapews Kal BeBoiKcos TO a eyvco (frwyeiv aTroBrj/jiia rrjv virovoiav.. TT)? /3a<JiXeta?. T7}9 TOLOVTOL Be Kal irapa (frepcov <yvvaiKo<. ra eari VOJJLWV.

but in reality he did the work of One 213 . assuring him that he knew well that Lycurgus would one day be king. actually railed at Lycurgus once quite boldly. in consequence of which Lycurgus was sorely troubled and fearful of what might be in store for him. who thought she had been treated with insolence. and came first to Crete. i those who obeyed him because he was guardian of the king and had royal power in his hands. and to continue his wanderings until his nephew should come of age and beget a son to succeed him on the throne. however. Here he studied the various forms of government and made the acquaintance of their most distinguished men. With this purpose. in. 4-iv. and screened himself behind this art. were those who clave to him for his virtues and were ready and willing to do his bidding. out of favour and friendship. Leonidas. Of some things he heartily approved. .LYCURGUS. He therefore determined to avoid suspicion by travelling abroad. that he had plotted against his life. IV. whom Lycurgus persuaded. There was a party. which envied him and sought to impede the growing power of so young a man. to go on a mission to Sparta. and adopted some of their laws. of the men regarded there as wise statesmen was Thales. in case any thing happened to the king. especially the kinsmen and friends of the queen-mother. he set sail. Now Thales passed as a lyric poet. Some such talk was set in circulation by the queen-mother also. thereby promoting suspicion and paving the way for the accusation. that he might carry them home with him and put them in for some things use he had only contempt. Her brother.

? 6 A-V/covpyos eirl 'Acr[av 7T\ev(7. co? eoifce. TT^COTO? e yvo)pifjLi]v Se avrrjv /cal paKiara Av/covpyo?. evreXecriv oucrat? KOL ava-riypais. rov Av/covpyov oiovrat. ftov\6/j. 7ro\vr6\6La<s real rpv<pds.. ra? J Ia)i>i/ca<. G'lropdS'rjv TT}? iroiricrew^. r)v yap Ti? ijSij &6a rwv eirwv d/j-aupa irapd Tot? "E^\\rj(Tiv. eypd- crvvrjjayev &>9 Sevpo /COJJLIWV. Trapa rot? teal K/oeo^^Xou Siarrjpov/Aevois.. teal \6yoL yap rjcrav al a)Sal Trpo? evrreiOeiav oaovoiav dvafc\r)riKoi. rat? KprjriKals Statrai?.d\iara Qav^daavra 214 .vo<. Sia jjLeXwv a/ua ical pvOjJLWV 7TO\V TO KO(TfJLiOV rircov. e/ce/crrjvro Se ov TroXXol pep?) nvd.<riv fj. 3 'ATTO &e TT}? K/OT^TT. to? Xejerai. S fcal TT^O? at/Tou? dtyuceaOai. rrjv SiCHpopav roov {Bicov KOI 4 rajv TroKireiwv. /cal rrjv ajro rwv a\\wv yev&v rov IJUI%L/JIOV Sid/cpt.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 2 fjicvov. eicel Be /cal rot? 'Q/jLijpov TTOLIJ<ra)fjia(Tiv eirrv%G>v rot? Trpwrov. a>5 eVu^e. 5 Alyinmoi. &v aKpoco/jievoi ra K 7J0rj real e^OVrWV KOL Karen paiivovTO TWV crvvy/ceiovvTO ra> (f^X ra> eTncoiaovcrr^ Tore ware rpoTrov riva jrpooSoTroieiv rrjv TraiSevcriv avr&v Trs Av/covpyqy eKeivov. wcnrep larpos vyiewois vTTOvKa /cal vocrco&r]. Trapafta\cov aTToOewpr/crat. /cal KariBa)V ev avrois SiaTpiftfjs rr}? TT/JO? r)$>ovr]V /cal TO iro\LriKov crTrov&rjs /cal aKpacrtav TratbevriKov ov/c eKdrrovos aiov tyaro TrpoOvfJLws dvafie/jLiy/jLevov.

therefore. 2-5 one of the mightiest lawgivers. For these epics already had a certain faint reputation among the Greeks. he could then study the difference in their modes of life and forms of government. after a fashion. insomuch that they renounced the mutual hatreds which were so rife at that time. iv. Thales. and their measured rhythms were permeated with ordered tranquillity.LYCURGUS. which was simple and severe. and dwelt together in a common pursuit of what was high and noble. as it would appear. Crete. posterity political and when he saw that the lessons and disciplinary of no less incentives to pleasure worthy contained in them were serious attention than the and license which they supplied. he made his first acquaintance with the poems of From Homer. which were preserved among the of Creophylus . that Lycurgus visited them also. and a few were in possession of certain portions of them. For his odes were so many exhortations to obedience and harmony. just as a physician compares with healthy bodies those which are unsound and sickly . to make them but Lycurgus was the very really kaown. that of the lonians. so that those who listened to them were insensibly softened in their dispositions. he eagerly copied and compiled them in order to take them home with him. was a forerunner in Sparta of Lycurgus and his discipline. Lycurgus sailed to Asia. which was extravagant and luxurious. with the desire. and so ardently admired their separation of the military from the other classes of society that he The Aegyptians think 215 . as the poems were carried here and there by chance first . There too. as we are told. of comparing with the Cretan civilization.

ij3vr)v eirrfkOev o KvKOVpyos KOL irepl rot? Tv/jLvoaotyicT ' 42 rrjv \avr]0el<.ov eKeivov crv/jurjv ov fjLijv ovBe 2 TrapbvTOS TJTTOV vfBpi^ova-i yjpr)(iQai rot? 7TdV6\0U)V OVV 7T/90? OVTQ) BldKeL/LLeVOV? ejre^eipei C ra TrapovTd el prf rt? Kiveiv Kdl yue/jo? \jizQ L<JT aval 7ro\LTeiav. &>? TWV KdTd v6p. wcnrep cra^fjidTi Trovrjptp ovBev epyov KOI TravToBdTrcov vocrrj/j-aTtov Trjv VTrdpy/ovaav Kdl fJLeTd/3d\O)V KpdCTlV Kdl 3 &Ldvor)9ei<$ Be IITTO KdOdp^wv eTepds ap^eTai Kdivfjs TdVTd TrpcoTov pev dTreBij/jL^crev et? AeX^oi. ovSeva TT\r]V ^ApiaroKpdrrj TOV A. X\' ij\7n. &>? TOU? Bia- ev (Bacri\els ovofjid Kdl rifirfv.vfcovpyov CTTO- V. rot? (Sacri\ev(TLV r]v ay3ou\^TO9 f) Trapovaia TOV dvBpos. ev e/ceivq) Be (frvcriv Kdl Bvvdfjuv avOput'jrwv aywyov ovcrav. evvofJiLas Be 77 dVTov HvQid . a\\o Be fjLrjBev 7ro\\toi> e^ovTas.?.ayv ovBe 0^)6X09. Ol Be AaKeBaijuLovioi.Kdl TW dew Ovaas Kdl xprjcrdftevos KO/JLL- eTravri\6e TOV Bia/BorjTov eKeivov xprjcrfjLov fav.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Kdl TOU? fiavavGovs KOI ^eipOTe^va^ daTelov &>? a\rj$o>9 TO 7ro\LTev fjid Kdl KdOdpov aTToBel^dt. crev. fj. TOV Oovv dTTovrd Kdl ra)i> fjiereTre/JLTTOVTO vroXXa/ci?. <p 0eo(f)i\f) fJLev rj Seov fjLd\\ov 216 TrpoaeLTre Kdl avOpwirov.ev ovv AlyvTrTiois evioi real TO)V KCLI 6 o-vyypafietov ^aprvpovcnv OTL Be teal A.

LYCURGUS. he first made regimen. The Lacedaemonians missed Lycurgus sorely. ever. made his civil polity really refined and pure. and rather god than man. while in him there was a nature fitted to Howlead. no one has stated. and introduce a new and different Full of this determination. They felt that their kings were such in name and station merely. and sent for him many times. 3 to Sparta. and a power to make men follow him. but hoped that in his presence their subjects would treat them with less insolence. he at once undertook to change the existing order of He was things and revolutionize the civil polity. but in everything else were nothing better than their subjects. then. Returning. But that Lycurgus visited Libya and Iberia also. so far as I know. and that he wandered over India and had conferences with the Gymnosophists. this assertion of the Aegyptians is confirmed by some Greek historians." and said that the god had granted . At any rate. and by removing mechanics from participation in the government. convinced that a partial change of the laws would be of no avail whatsoever. 5 -v. a journey to Delphi. to a people thus disposed. 217 . not even the kings were averse to having him at home. except Aristo- and artisans crates the son of Hipparchus. he returned with that famous response in which the Pythian priestess addressed him as " beloved of the gods. V. the Spartan. and after sacrificing to the god and consulting the oracle. but that he must proceed as a physician would with a patient who was debilitated and full of all sorts of diseases he must reduce and alter the existing temperament by means of drugs and purges. transferred it iv.

o-vve^drrreadai Trape/eaXet. 218 . XapiXaos (froftrjOels co? CTT* CLVTOV 0X779 r^9 7rpdea)<. O)0V <jf>6/3of TT/JO? irpoe\0elv e/cTrX^eco? eveica Kal TOU? &v rot"? aveypa^re" TOV Be Av/covpyov epywv /coivcovrfo'avTa TTCIVTCOV KOI 7rpay/jLaTev(Td/jL6VOv ra Trepl rou? 5 Bav ovofJid^ovcrLv. <TV/j. /care<f>vy 717)09 T^V Xa\KiOLfcov elra Treicrdels KOI Xafiwv op/cov? Kal W9 fierel^e TWV TrpaTTO^vwv. elra oi/Tft>9 /cara TrXeiovwv teal crvvicrTas eirl a>5 S' o /caipbs fj/ce. (>v(Tt TTOV /col \6yerai.evr)v /j. fJiCTO. rpid/covra rou? TOU? K\eV(T TWV O1T\WV eifcocrt. a-vvidTa^evr]^. ijv <prjcriv HXdrcov rfj r&v afia \ecov dpxfj (j)\eyiiiaivovo"rj /jLL^Oelcrav Kal yevo/j. dp%o /Jievi)<$ Be TTJS Tapa^r)^ o /3a. /Jii/cpov aTTTOfjievos .PLUTARCH'S LIVES BiBovat Kal Karaiveiv e<f>rj TOP Oeov 1 rj rrokv Kparicrrrj rwv a\\wv ecrrat. 09 o^Se rot9 irovripols ^aXe7ro9 ecrrt.eyiara crcorrjpiav : Kal Cobet irpoffjjye.(Ti\v<. Trpocnjyero rov? TOU9 teal <yo/Avo<./3acri\vovTa TOV 'Ap%e\aov avTw Trpos rou9 eytcwfjud^ovras TOV veavivKOV elnrelv " n&>9 5' av eirf XaptXao9 avr^p ayaObs. rcpixpa &ta\TO?? ^>t\ot? Trpcorov." IlAeoi'ft>i> 8e KaivoTOJLovevtov VTTO TOV Au- Kovpyov TTOWTOV r)v Ka 6 fJieyicTTOv ) TWV yepbviwv.

which. The names of twenty of the most eminent among them have been recorded by Hermippus . the first and most important was his institution of a senate. being of a gentle and yielding disposition. he ordered thirty of the chief men to go armed into the market-place at break of day. 3-6 his prayer for good laws.LYCURGUS. fearing that the whole affair was a conspiracy against himself. then little by engaging more and uniting them to attempt the task. he tried to bring the chief men of Sparta over to his side. v. to strike consternation and terror into those of the opposite party. and having exacted oaths for his safety from the agitators. when he " Among 1 A temple of Athena. And when the time for action came. 2 by being blended with the " feverish government of the kings. Thus encouraged. and by having an equal vote with them in matters of the highest importance. as " Plato says. his royal colleague. When the tumult began. has no severity even for the bad ? the many innovations which Lycurgus made. that Archelaiis. fled for refuge to the Brazen House . p. bore the name of Arthmiadas. good man. l but he was soon convinced of his error. King Charilaiis. or Council of Elders. so much so. C91 e. indeed. explaining his designs secretly to his friends at first. and promised him a constitution which should be the best in the world. and exhorted them to put their hands to the work with him. 219 . and even joined them in their enterprise. is said to have remarked to those who were extolling the " How can Charilaiis be a young king. 8 Laws. left his place of little refuge. but the man who had the largest share in all the undertakings of Lycurgus and co-operated with him in the enactment of his laws.

o Av/covpiyos ware l fjiavreiav e/c irepl avrijs. Be /cal 'A^az/a? 2<v~\XavLas /cal OI/T&)?* 1 iSpvcrdjAevov. TO ToO dpiOjAov St' e/BSo/jidSos to*05 wi^ ey av TCH? rerpdSi 7ro\\a7r\acriaa'0ei(T'ri<z dTroTe^ovfjievov. /jLepecriv e/nol S^ Bo/cel pera TI^V ed$a TeXe^o? pakicna TO<TOUTOU? a-Tro- Selgai TOU? fyepovras OTTO)? ot irdwres elev rpidrcovra. /cal alcopovjjievr) yap 17 Xet? 7 7rl airoKKivovaa vvv jj. r)v pijrpav " Ato? %v\\avLov Ka\ovcnv. Tot? OATTO) Aral ec/coai rolv Svoiv ftacriXeoiv 43 VI. OTI V TrpooTwv fJLTa Av/covpjov <yevoBvo Trjv Trpagiv eytcareKLTrov d i 8 n /cal TOV 9 rs yvoofjur)? jneTaa-^ovTa^. Trpocmoaov dvTiftrjvai TT/JO? Brj/JLOKpariaVf Be VTrep rov firj yevecrQcu rvpavviSa TOV crradrjvat dvappwvvvvTwv. /cal on avrov eanv. Sfj/jiov ^epovrwv rot? /JLCV fiacriXevai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Trapaa-^elv. rpidfcovra yepovcriav <rvv d of Bekker adopts the corrections Bryan to 'E\\aviov and ' 22O . (^uXa? <$>v\d%avra a)/3a? lepov wySa- %avra. TOO-OUTOU? Se $>r)cn naiarou? yepovra? 'A/ofcrTOTeX?. del TWV OKTCO /cal ei/coai Oefievwv av0i<.ev &><? TOU? ftacriTvpavvi^a. vvv Se a>? TO TrXfjOos Brj/jLOKpariav. e^ei. olov epfJLa rrjv TWV ev yue<rco 0e/JLevrj /cal IcroppoTrrjcraa'a <yep6vra)v rr]v ac o-rdrrjv rd^cv ecr^e KOI /cardcrracnv.?.

apart from the fact that. v. according to Aristotle. The number of the senators was fixed at twentyeight because. since the twenty-eight senators always took the side of the kings when it was a question of curbing democracy. always strengthened the people to withstand the encroachments of tyranny. being equal to the sum of its own factors. that this was originally the number of those who shared the confidence of Lycurgus. inclining at one time to follow the kings towards tyranny. Lycurgus made the senators of just that number in order that the total might be thirty when the two kings were added to the eight and twenty. Possibly there is some virtue in this number being made up of seven multiplied by four. including the and established a senate of thirty mem' archagetai/ then from time to 221 . divided the people into ' phylai and ' into ' obai. and at another to follow the multitude towards democracy but now." bers. it achieved the safest and the most orderly arrangement.LYCURGUS. on the other hand. that he obtained an oracle from Delphi about it. and. i and due moderation into counsels of For before this the civil polity was veering and unsteady." And this is the " When it runs perfect way : thou hast built a temple to Zeus Syllanius and Athena Syllania. which they call a " rhetra. 6-vi. two of the thirty original associates of Lycurgus abandoned the But Sphaerus says enterprise from lack of courage. brougiit safety state. But in my own opinion. number after six. VI. So eager was Lycurgus for the establishment of this form of government. it is the next . by making the power of the senate a sort of ballast for the ship of state and putting her on a steady keel..

OVT TWOS KaTCKTKevrjs. with the MSS. Trelv /J. /cal TOV vvv OlvovvTa rrpoaajopevovcriv 'Apt<TTOTe\r)<. /jia\\ov Be ftkaTTTeiv. Kal r'bv KvaKtwva. after E. TOL/? /cal aXX' oX&)? d^lcTTacrOai /cal some other later name. dp^ayeTai. Be TOV /Jiev Kvatawva TTOTa/jiov. K\rjcria<. Be ol \eyovrai. ovrcos elcrfyepeiv re d^iffTaaOai' BdjAfp Be TCLV Kvpiav r)jj. or . (j)\vapa)Beis /ca avvov^ (ovi/jiaTi /cev ra? Biavoias TWV o-v/xTropevofjLevwv. Coraes and Bekker have T^V Sf Pcloponnestii.ev real 2 /eparo?. TO Be drreXXa^eiv KK\rjcnd%eiv OTL Kol Trjv airi'av rr}? TroXireta? et9 TO^ IIu1 dvij\fr. IToXu^coyoo? /cal @eo7royu/7ro? ol ySacr^Xet? e ra8e T?} p^Tpa At TOVT ecTTi fJLrj o~KO\idv 6 Bd/j.PLUTARCH'S LIVES re /cal Kva/ciwvos. ra? Se /cal a)/3a? Trpocrrjyopevfcev. rjyov. Trjv Be 3 Ba/3v/cav yetyvpav. oiav et9 djdX. e TOVTWV ra? Kev yLtecrw TraaTaBcov ovcrwv OVTC aXX?. 4 yepovTwv /cal TCOV J3acri\ewv emfcpvai /cvpios rjv o Brj/^o<^. rrapeveeXoiro.fj.ev ovBevl <yvw/J.aTa /cal 7pa0a? rj Trpoo-Krjvia OeaTpwv r) trre^a? /9ou- \evTiipiwv rja/crj/jievas TreptTTw? e/c/cXriaid^ovTes roi) Be TrX^ou? d6poLcr0evTos ela7ro/3Xe7r&)cri." ev TOVTOLS TO /JLCV <uXa? <>v\dt. this. 315 /cvpovv. is thought to have fallen from the text by Sintenis-.e\eii> eari /cal /caravel/nai TO a)/3rt? 7rXr}^o? et? /AepiBas. p. 222 .? ovOev jap WCTO raura Trpo? v(Bov\Lav elvai. TTJV Be ^Qaftvfcav Xe/y^appo?. wv Ta? yLtez> <pv\ds. vaTepov UTTO TCOV /JLCVTOI TO>V TTO\\WV dffcaipecrei /cal Trpocrdecrei ra? ^z/co/^a? Bia<TTpe<f)6vTCi)V /cal 7rapa/3iao{ieva)v. Curtius.ai KOI a)/3aat Bt. ii.o<.r)v TWV d\\wv e(f>elTo.

when the people by additions and subtractions perverted and distorted the sense of motions laid before them." people must have the deciding " " In these clauses. . or brotherhoods by " archagetai " the " " means to kings are designated. ' vi. but dismiss outright and dissolve the session. since the serious purposes of an assembly were rendered foolish and futile by vain thoughts.LYCURGUS. and Babyca a bridge. and apellazein . 1 and there introduce and rescind measures but the voice and the power. polity. held their assemblies. or scenic embellishments. having neither halls nor any other kind of building for the purpose. with a reference to Apollo. Between these they Pythian god. . that is. 223 . should not ratify the vote. or extravaWhen gantly decorated roofs of council halls. on the : 1 Probably names of small tributaries of the river Eurotas. Afterwards. the senators and kings shall have power of adjourn" ment . the multitude was thus assembled. but rather discouraged. and the Cnacion Oenus but Aristotle says that Cnacion is a river. For by such things Lycurgus thought good counsel was not promoted. assemble the people. but the motion laid before them by the senators and kings could be accepted or rejected by the people. 1-4 cime ' appellazein between Babyca l and Cnacion. however. no one of them was permitted to make a motion. the " phylai and the " obai refer to divisions and distributions of the people into clans and phratries. as they gazed upon statues and paintings. Kings Polydorus and Theo" But if pompus inserted this clause into the rhetra the people should adopt a distorted motion. the who was the source and author of the The Babyca is now called Cheimarrus.

iraicn. erecrt eufBaXKovaiv avTrj TTJV TWV 7TOV fld\L(7Ta Tpld/COVTd KOI CKaTOV /JLTOi 2 yov TrpcoTcov TWV Trepl "EXaroz^ etyopow 6evTwv eVl eoTro/iTrof (3acn\evovTo<$' (fracriv ov KCLL eo? i] VTTO TT}? eavTov ryvvaiKos ove&i^ofJLevov eXarra) Trapao'cocrovTa rot? irapeXa/Be. olov e<f)Opa>v Svvafjiiv. ert TTJV o\iyap%iav KOI lcr%vpav ol ^er' CIVTOV opwvTes o'lrap^wcrav KOL co? ^cnv o TlXaTwv. ware 224 iraOelv . OUTW TO TroXtreu/xa TOV Avrcovpyov fii- dxparov 0v/jLOV/jLevrjv. Be KOI avTol Trjv TTO\IV &>9 TOV 6eov TavTa Trpoa- w? TTOV Tuprato? i'ni^k^vi^Tai Sia TOVTWV d/covcravTes TlvdcovoOev ol'/ca& eveircav ia? re Oeov Kal Te\eevT eVeer olai yiteXet ^TrdpTas re ifJL6poea'(ra <yepovTa<>. GO? efcrpeTrovra KOI 5 OVVTCL rr]V yvcofiTjv irapa TO /3e\Ti<TTOv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES &t.a\viv TOV Srjfiov. "ocrw TW yap OVTI TO ayav diroftaXovcra yu?) TOV (pdovov Bie<pvye TOV KivBwov. Trfv (Bacrt\eiav Tepav" "Met^w JJLZV ovv" tLTreiv. VIT.

said " Nay.LYCURGUS. in that it will last longer." as Plato says. charm Second to them are the elders. vi. on being reviled by his wife because the royal power. 692 a. "imposed as it were a curb upon it. as Tyrtaeus reminds us in these verses : " Phoebus Apollo's the mandate was which they brought from Pytho." was still years after Lycurgus that the first ephors. p. would be less than when he received it. royalty at Sparta escaped its perils. but greater. Although Lycurgus thus tempered his polity. namely. And they were actually able to persuade the city that the god authorized this addition to the rhetra. 2 ground that it was perverting and changing the motion contrary to the best interests of the state. so that the Spartan kings did not experience the fate which the thirty : 1 Laws. 4-vii. 225 . and his successors. they say. the It was about a hundred and power of the ephors. Elatus and his colleagues. by renouncing excessive claims and freeing itself from jealous hate. nor were his words unfulfilled : Sway and honours divine belong to the princes Under whose care has been set Sparta's city of in the council ." men VII. This king. were appointed. 1 seeing it "swelling and foaming. in the reign of Theopompus. and next come the of the people Duly confirming by vote unperverted decrees. Voicing the will of the god. nevertheless the civil it oligarchical element in unmixed and dominant. when he handed it over to his sons." And in fact.

VV %pOVOV aXX' vftpei fmev r&v ftacriKewv. yap a^w/^aXta? /cat vroXXwi^ aKrrj- /JLOVWV Kal dTropwv eTrifapo/Aevwv TTJ TroXet. raOra /xez^ ow verepov. 7T/J09 aXXry? erepw TpOV OVK 226 . a>? TO 8e irpwrelov apery jAenovras. TT\OVTOV Kal irevLav. e%e\avva)V. veaviKanaTOv ovcriys o TT}? 7% avabacrfjios can.PLUTARCH'S LIVES a Mecrcnjvioi <rfXe? T?}? /col e&paaav. afyopwcnv. ovtc . 'Apyeioi TOU? irap aurot? /3aevSovvai /J. OUK 7rl 7TO\. ireicre dp*)(flS cruz/e- rrjv ^(opav airacrav et? /Aecrov Oevras e dvaSdaacrdai:.etft> voarujbara 2 TroXireta?. VIII. TOI) Se TT\OVTOV TravrdiracTLV et? 0X1701/5 a-vveppwriKoros. T&V o^Xwy. ra KaOecrrwra crvvrapav on Oeiov r\v a)? aX^ rot? ^Tra/marai? 1 o T^Z/ TroXireiav xal Kepdaas Trap auroi?. KOI fiacriXecov ardo'l Kal /caKO7ro\iTeia<.r)$e %a\dcrai /j. Kal /jLaXtara TI^V AvKovpyov crofyiav Kal irpovoiav avepav 3 cret? et? ra? TAecrcrriviwv ^rffJLwv KOI ryeLTovaiv. rcov Icrwv dp%r)s reTU^Ty/core?. v/Spiv Kal <f)06vov Kal KaKOvpyiav Kal Tpv^v Kal rd TovrctiV ert TT peer ft v re pa Kal yu.dra)v Kal $6ivfj<. Aevrepov $6 rwv AvKovpyov 7ro\irev/j. Kal t/f)V yu-er' aXX^Xa)^ dirav:al ra? oyCiaXet? laofcXijpovs rot? ftiois yevoiAevovs. ev Se TO) K\t^pw /cal TrXeov KiVO)V 8oai>TS.7]$ev o e^ofcrta? eTrl TO BTJ/HOTLKOI' e0e\rfo-avras. real 'Apyeiwv.

Spartans in the beginning. their established institutions were confounded. and to live with one another on a basis of entire uniformity and equality in the means of subsistence.LYCURGUS. VIII. however. and a very bold political measure For of Lycurgus. he persuaded his fellow-citizens to make one parcel of all their territory and divide it up anew. who were kinsmen and neighbours of the They were on an equality with the Spartans. were of polity later date. who were VH. the city less was heavily burdened with indigent and helppeople. Determined. poverty and wealth. therefore. seeking pre- eminence through virtue alone. unwilling to yield at all or remit their power in favour of the people. 2 Messcnians and Argives inflicted upon their kings. 2-vin. A second. to banish insolence and envy and crime and luxury. in his redistribution of the land. And this brings into the clearest light the wisdom and foresight of Lycurgus. assured that there was no other difference or inequality between man 227 . their and prosperity yet they. there was a dreadful inequality in this regard. and wealth was wholly concentrated in the hands of a few. when we contrast the factions and misgovernment of the peoples and kings of Messenia and Argos. These events. and those yet more deep-seated and afflictive diseases of the state. but what with the insolent temper of their kings and the unreasonableness of their peoples. and in the allotment of off than territory were thought to be even better did not last long. and they made it clear that it was in very truth a divine blessing which the Spartans had enjoyed in the man who framed and tempered for their civil them.

J ciXXou Be Bevb? 7TOT6 BeriGo/jLevois. yvvaitcl Be BcoBefca. eTrel ^aXeTrco? ecopa irpoaBe^op. irpwTov fjLCV yap d/cvpcocras TTOLV vofjucrfjia aovv Kal dpyvpovv fiovw ^pfjadat TO> TrpoffeTa^e' /cal TOVTO) B& O-TTO vroXXoi) 228 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES 7T\r)V oarjv alcr^pcov -^0705 opi^ei teal 3 'E. 'E7Ti%e^r. TeOepicrfjievriv. aTroS^/zta? opwvra TOU? awpovs TrapaX/cal KOI o/a\et9.evov^ Tr)v avTiKpvs dcfraipeaiv.7rdyci)v 8% TO* \6yw TO epyov evei/jie TTJV Aa/ccoviKrjv K\i]pov<?. \eyerat B avrov vcrrepov %povw rrjv apri. erepa TrepirfkOev 6Bqt /cal KaTeiro\iTevaaTO Trjv ev TOVTOL? Tr\eove^iai>. Trjv Be et? TO acrrv T^V ^Trdprr^v crvvreTrepioifcois a\\r)v TOi? \ovaav Kkrjpoi ^TrapriaTwv lvaKia'%L\iov<$. /cal TT/OO? eve^iav KOI vyelav ifcavfjs.roaovroi yap eyevovro GVLOL Se (jjacn rbv JJLCV Au- /covpyov e%aKia"%i\lovs vel^ai. irapovras co? rj Aa/cayvt/cr) elrrelv Tr^oo? tya'tve-rat iraaa evai vecocrrl IX. T/otcr^tXtou? Be ravra nrpoaOelvcu Tlo^vBwpov ot Be rovs TWV vaKi(j'%i\iwv TOVTOV. ee\oi TO avicrov /cal avwOTTCO? TravTOLTracnv fjia\ov. TWV vypwv KapTrwv avakoyws TO apiczcreiv yap (aero TOCTOVTOV avrois.cra? Be Kal ra eTmrXa Biaipeiv. /jLeLBiaaai. TOU? Be Avicoupyov. 0)crT 6 Be K\f}pos r]v efcd(7TOV aiTofyopav (pepeiv dvBpl fjiev efBBofcpi0a)v /xeStyU-^ou?. %a)pav Biep%6fjLevov ei.

229 ." or free provincials. and vin. he took another course. as he traversed the land just after the harvest. and saw the heaps of grain standing . with a proportionate amount of wine and oil. in order that every vestige of unevenness and inequality might be removed and when he saw that they could not bear to have it taken from them directly. that Lycurgus distributed only six thousand lots among the Spartans. and overcame In the first place.LYCURGUS. and that three thousand were afterwards added by Polydorus others still." IX. Next. and that which belonged to the city of Sparta. and them that were by " All Laconia looks a family estate newly divided among many : brothers. to as many genuine Spartans. their avarice by political devices. Lycurgus thought that a lot of this size would be sufficient for them. Then to a great weight and mass of this he gave a trifling . And it is said that on returning from a journey some time afterwards. and ordained the use of iron money only. that Polydorus added half of the nine thousand to the half distributed by Lycurgus. in thirty thousand lots. he withdrew all gold and silver money from currency. Suiting the deed to the word. he smiled. he distributed the rest of the Laconian land among the "perioeci. 2-ix. he undertook to divide up their movable property also. The lot of each was large enough to produce annually seventy bushels of barley for a man and twelve for his wife. parallel said to like and equal to one another. i man than that which was established by blame for base actions and praise for good ones. and nothing else. since they needed sustenance enough to promote vigour and health of body. in nine thousand But some say lots.

dvri<$ eraipwv r/oo^eu?. 6Bbv OVK 6%ovo~r)<. ware ovBe TrpiaaOai ri T&V %VLKWV KOI pa>- TTLKWV VTrijp^ev. ra Trpo^eipa TWV o~Kvwv Kal dvayKala ravra. 4 are OVK oWo?.al r&> K. cr/3ecra9 vafJLiv. ovB* etVeTrXet fyopros e/ et? TOU? Xf/zeVa?. TO yap aiBrjpovv dywyt/jiov OVK r^v TT/?O? TOJ)? aXXot9 "EXXtyi/a? ovB* el%e Ti/jirjv KarayeXco/jLevov.dT(i)v Brj/jiiovpyos. OVK dpyvpwv Ka\\ct)7Ticr/j. ySeXncrra irap avrot? eBTj^tovpyelrOt Kal K0)0a)v 6 cyKaryKoBo/jLTi/JLevr)? aXX' 230 . TO crroyLtw/ua 005 Xeyerai. ov ^(pvaajv TIS.apaivTO' Kal rr\etov ovBev rpefyovTwv avrr) &i 45 rjv roi? TroXXa K6KTrj/jievois. Siajrvpov (TiBijpov /cara- a^etXero rrjv et? raXXa xpeiav Kal BvdSpavovs KOL Buaepyov yzvo/jLevov. ware BeKa fjivwv d/jiOi/3r]V 2 SeicrOai TG yueyaX^? eV oltcia Kal ^evyovs ayovros. fy KaraKo^rai \vcnre\es' 6%ei yap. Bib Kal r /j.v ff 7ro\\d o rr}? rj epeXXev aTrocrrepelv r) dpTrd^eiv d\\d pijSe Svvarbv r)v /jLrjre KKTrjcr0ai. TOVTOV B tcvpwaTTo6riKr)<$ dBiKrjfjidT(0v yevr) rt? jap ff K\eirTei. Mera Be TOVTO rwv d^pijarrcov Kal eVotetro re^vcov fjevrj\aariav efjie\\ov Be TTOU vos e%e\avvoi'TO<s al TroXX. e/9 fieo-ov T% ev- Kal dpyovcrrj?. aXXa OVTCOS dTreprj^coOelaa Kara rpv(prj TI TMV (i)7rvpovvTC0v Kal avrfjs Tropias.PLUTARCH'S LIVES teal oyKOv Bvva/jLiv o\iyr}i> eSw/cev. KXwrfjpes Kal Blcfrpoi Kal Tpdire^ai. BidOeeiv TWV epywv OVK TCOV. ovBe eVe/Satz^e r?5? ov cro<^)tcrT^5 \6ya)v. ov p.OLVW (jvveKTrecreicrdai.

It was not possible. And even without such banishment most of them would have departed with the old coinage. ix. nor had it any value there. so that ten minas' worth required a large store-room in the house. and tables were most excellently made among them. robbing it of its temper and making it worthless for any other purpose. or $200. or plunder that which could neither be concealed. he banished the unnecessary and superfluous arts. transport it. but was rather held in ridicule.LYCURGUS. In this but had to be stored up at home in idleness. no gold. nor possessed with satisfaction.or silver-smith. way it came about that such common and necessary utensils as bedsteads. nor even cut to pieces with any profit? For vinegar was used. and a yoke of cattle to When this money obtained currency. For who would steal. thus gradually deprived of that which stimulated and supported it. since there was no money there. or receive as a bribe. because their wealth found no public outlet. and men of large possessions had no advantage over the poor. and the Laconian "kothon. when once it had become brittle and hard to work. many sorts of iniquity went into exile from Lacedaemon. nay. to ." or drinking-cup. chairs. was in very high repute therefore. no vagabond soothsayer. to quench the red-hot iron. or rob. since there was no sale for their proFor the iron money could not be carried into ducts. In the next place. 231 . no . But luxury. buy any foreign wares or bric-a-brac merchant-seamen brought freight into their harbours no rhetoric teacher set foot on Laconian soil. 1-4 1 value. the rest of Greece. About 40. no keeper of harlots. died away of itself. as we are told.

TroXXr}? Be r)<TV%ias Kal rpoirov Tiva voat]\eia<$ KaOrjuepivfjs Beoaevijv. /c repov 7T\tjcria^e rq> GT opart TO Tnvofjievov.ay pevoi. Eri B v a^prjffTwv f ev TOIS rrjv Ka\\i re')(i>iav. axnrep 2 dBf]<f)dya rot9 ijOecri rd (Ttoaara 7T/70? iracrav 7TL0v/j. 717)09 ra? ra yap dvayKaiw Kptrta?. 6ep\ovrpwv. uei^ov Be TO TOV TT\OVTOV atynjXov.. Kal 3 dirXovrov aTrepydw? (j)rj(7i eo^>pacTT09.iav fjiaKpwv fiev VTTVWV. peya [lev ovv Kal Tovro rjv. TO TroA irev/jia /cal Ka\\icrrov eirrjye. xpfjo'is yap OVK rjv ovBe a7roXauo-9 ovBe otyis oXw? rj eTriSei^is TT}S TroXX^? TrapacrKevrjs. eVt TO auTo Belirvov T<> TrevriTi TOV irKovcrLov /3aBi%ovTO<?' coaT6 TOVTO Brj TO Opv\ovev fJ^ovrj TWV VTTO TOV rj\iov Tro\ewv V owra TOV TT\OVTOV 231 . Kal aaaOai ry KoivorrjTi TWV BeiTrvwv Kal Trj irepl TVJV BiaiTav evTeXeia. TrX-rjcr/jLOvrfv. oiKoi Be /JLTJ BiairdcrQai. jap ol TWV X. fjLa\\ov tiriQzaBai rfj rpv(J>f) Biavor)0ei^. 619 (JT/oco/ti/a? TroXureXet? Kal Kal fjLayeLpwv VTTO CTATOTO?. rrjv rcov \cr0ai rov TT\OVTOV Karaa'Kevijv. TMV vBaTcov KOI BvcrcDTTOvvTa T7)v o^riv a T6TO rfj XP a > Kal TOV do\epov evTos Kal r jrpoffLO")(OfJiei'OV rot? d/jiftcoo-i.PLUTARCH'S LIVES evBoKiuei /jLaXiara 5 <O9 (frijcri. atrto? Be Kal rovrcov 6 vo^oderr]?' a7rr)X\. wcrre Senrveiv per d\\rj\a)v avviovias 67rl KOivols real rerajfjievois Kal aiTioi*.

for usefulness Critias tells ix. and. since were now freed from useless tasks. and ruining not only their characters but also their bodies." by this community of says. and not take their meals at home. X. when he went to the same meal as the poor man so that it was in Sparta alone. 527 b. of all the cities under the sun." as Theophrastus " * unwealth. and lying as lifeless sleeps. and its curving lips caught the muddy sediment and held it inside. delivering themselves into the hands of servants and cooks to be fattened in the dark. reclining on costly couches at costly tables. which call for long abundant rest. he introduced his third and most exquisite political device. as it were. and displayed the beauty of their workmanship in objects For all this their artisans of constant and necessary use. as its colour concealed the disagreeable appearance of the water which they were often compelled to drink. like voracious animals. by surrendering them to every desire and all sorts of surfeit. us. they had to thank their lawgiver . namely. so that they might eat with one another in companies. 4 -x. 233 . 3 among For soldiers in active service.LYCURGUS. p. hot baths. so that only the purer part reached the mouth of the drinker. daily This was surely a great nursing and tending. 1 Cf. With a view to attack luxury still more and remove the thirst for wealth. and even meals and simplicity of diet. For the rich man could neither use nor enjoy nor even see or display his abundant means. a Plutus blind. that men could have that far-famed sight. achievement. the institution of common messes. of common and specified foods. Morals. but it was a still greater one to make wealth "an object of no desire. .

ovBe jap oiKOt TrpoSenrvrjcravTas e^ijv eVl ra o-vo-crina TreTrXrjpoj/jievov^. fievov Kal ^>L^)6ap^evrjv rrjv o^lnv atSco? 5e ?roXX^ TOU? ISovras axrre TrapaSovSe vai rbv "A.\KavSpov ovSev OVT KaTavoev Trjv Kal TO aTra^e? avTOv Tr}s -^TU^T}? /cat TO BiaiTav ava-Trjpov Kal TO TT/OO? TOU? 234 . Tr/JOTre/rv/rat ytte%pt 6 AvKovpyos Kivovs fiev eTraivecras d<pf)K. o yLtez/ SIWKCOV 2 7ricrTpa<f)evTOs TOZ^ o</>#aXyitoi> avTOv rfj /3aKTrjp[a ira6 ra^a? Kovpyos ovBev eVSov? evavrios e'Set^e /cat KdTrjfyeia fiv ovv AvTO 7rd6o<$.a). Ato teal fjLakiard fyacri ra> Av/covpyqy TT/OO? TOUTO TO 7ro\iT6v/jia ^aXeTTOv? yevecrdai ral o-ucrrai/ra? eV avrbv aOoovs /carafiodv Kal dyava/CTeiv UTTO reXo? S^ TroXXw^ /Ltei' e'^7reo'6 T^? dyopd? Sp6/j. TT/OO? ea")(ev. TO 1)9 aXXou? $>0aa-6v et? el? Se Ti? reatacr/co?.\Kav$pov avrw Kal TT}? otVta? crvvayavaKTOVvras. TOV fir) irLvovra /cat a/cparij r Trpo? rrjv KOivrjv a jro^a\aKi^6^evov Siairav.PLUTARCH'S LIVES tcei/Jievov wcTTrep ypa(f>r)V d^frw%ov Kal aKivrjTOV. aTraXXa^a? 8e TOU? crvvrfOeis Kal OepairevTripas CKCLVOV Ke\evcrv 6 e ou/c wz^ dyevvrjs eVotei TO Kal 7rapafj. aXXco? ie/3o^ ou/c dcfrvrjs. ev TO) TOV Be *A. 3 elaayaytov oiKa&e KaKov fiev OVT elTrev.V(0v dfia TU> AvKovpycp Kal fj. aXX' ol XotTTOt 7rapa(f)v\dTTOVT<. /z.er' eo~6lovTa avrwv IKOLKI^OV &>? XI. aXXa <TTa? Tot? TroXtVat? TO irpoawnov rj/jiaye^eKO-^rev.

smote him with his staff and put out one of his eyes. that so filled with shame and sorrow they placed Alcander in his hands. therefore. denounced him publicly with angry shouts and cries . 3 and motionless as a picture. and abiding thus with Lycurgus. who was of a noble disposition. to this last political device above all. otherwise no mean nature. without any words. but confronted his countrymen. He succeeded in reaching sanctuary before the rest laid hands on him but one young man. however. The youth. so that he ran from the market-place. and showed them his face besmeared with blood and his . XI. and his 2 35 . that the wealthy citizens were incensed against Lycurgus. eye destroyed. where he did the youth no harm by word or deed. and sharing his daily life.LYCURGUS. ordered him to minister to his wants. did as he was commanded. 3-xi. Lycurgus. x. and conducted him to his house with sympathetic indignation. but hasty and passionate. and as he turned about. Whereupon they were at the sight. the rigid simplicity of his habits. finally many pelted him with stones. and dismissed them. and reviled him as a weakling. but after sending away his customary servants and attendants. was far from yielding in consequence of this calamity. but the rest kept careful watch of him who did not eat and drink with them. and one too effeminate for the common diet. the calmness of his spirit. Lycurgus com- mended them for their conduct. Alcander. but took Alcander int the house with him. and banding together against him. pressed hard upon him. he came to know the gentleness of the man. For the rich could not even dine beforehand at home and then go to the common mess with full stomachs. It was due.

dvBpa. ol ^Trapriarai. crvvreray/jievos rrjv Aa/ccovifcrjv TrXrjyfjvai fiev (fracriv. fiera rrjv ffvpfyopav eKeivrjv direfjiaOov. avros re 1 Beivcos BiereOi) rrepl rov ovB avOdBij? 6 Av/covpyos. XII. /ecu <tXou? e\eyev TO? dvrjp /cal (TO)(j)povi/c(t)TaTo<j yv6/j. OVTQ) [lev ovv ouro? e/ceKoXaaro /cal Toiavrrjv virea"%t] /eei $L/er)v.ovs oTTTtXou? ol ryfte Acoptet? Ka\ovevioi fjiivroi rov Avrcovpyov. a>o~7T6p evLoi fyacriv. etre rov /cal ^JtXta? /cal <pi\o(f)poo-vvr]s vTrap^ovrcav. Ta Be crvcro-irta K/j^re? JJLCV Aarcebaifjiovioi. aXXa>9 236 . Be tyibiria &)? i 7rpoo~a yopevovo~iv. o-vv^p^ovro Be dva Trevre/caCBe/ca teal j3pa%ei rovrwv eXarrou? r) TrXetof?. rov TT}? V7ro/JLvrj/jLa Av/covpyos ISpva-aro yap criv. eire co? vr/oo? evreXeiav ovBev Be K<a\vei /cal 0eiSft> GweOi^ovrwv. dvrl X TO B \afjLftdvovres. oivov %oa? ri /co/AiBy o/crot). ov rv<fi\a>Qr)i>ai rfj o rov o$>6a\iJi6v i aXXa /cal rb lepov 0q> r^? fievroi a/ce<70)9 xapicmjpiov ISpvcrao'dai. &v /cal A^oecrrlv o taz/. lepov.vo<. rov Trpwrov e^cD0ev eTrt/ceLadat. aXXa 46 4 /AOVOS TJfj. (fr&oyyov. eBiriwv Trapa rrjv Biairav /cal rrjv 2 eBcaBrjv \eyofjLevcov. etc TrovTjpov veov /cal avQd&ovs eyu-yLteXeVra<TK\r)pb<. crvKcov rjiJLLfJLvala rrevre. KOI rrpabs eart rot? aXXot?. rb <f)epeiv (3aicrr]piav eKK\r]cridovT<.PLUTARCH'S LIVES aKajJirrrov. rjv 'QTrriXtnv Trpocnyyopeva-e' TOU? 6<>0a\/j. etyepe Be l/cacTTO? /card /jirjva rwv avaairwv rvpov irevre d\<f)L- rwv fieBi/jLvov.. dvSpeia. TT/OO? Be rovroi? et? o- viav fiucpov vo fticr juai'09. o>9 ov /cal TT/DO? rov<$ (rvi>r)0ei<.po<.

built a temple young man. but the mildest and gentlest of them all. namely. then. "phiditia." but the Lacedaemonians. practice of carrying staves into their assemblies was abandoned after this unfortunate accident. for which their word is letter of the some say. instead of a wild and impetuous youth. moreover. as he had supposed. say that although Lycurgus was struck in the eye. a very small sum of money for such relishes as flesh and fish. XII. making "phiditia" merely to meals and eating. 2 unwearied industry. Lycurgus. a few more or less. and in addition to this. They met in companies of fifteen. 3-xn." plicity and thrift. but he built the temple to the goddess as a thank-offering Be that as it may. to become. Some writers. as meal. Such. five pounds of cheese. who wrote a treatise on the Spartan civil polity. philitia " pheido. was the chastisement of this laid upon him. the Cretans call them "andreia. two and a half pounds of figs. and used to tell his intimates and friends that the man was not harsh nor self-willed. whenever any one made a VOL. of whom one is Dioscorides." which is the local Doric word for eye. in memory of his misfortune. and such the penalty to Athena Optilitis. I. so called from "optilus. Besides this. that the first " word " phiditia has been added to " out of editia. xi. and each one of the mess-mates contributed monthly a bushel of barleyBut it is quite possible." either because they are conducive to friendship and to friendliness. the Spartan for its healing.LYCURGUS. a most decorous and discreet man. T 2 37 ." which refers it. eight gallons of wine. his eye was not blinded. "phiditia" being equivalent " " or because they accustom men to sim. As for the public messes. He thus became a devoted follower of Lycurgus. however.

rwv 8' elcnovTtov " e/cd(TTCt) Bei^as 6 Trpea-fivraTos ra? Ovpas. /cal \6ycov r)Kpowvro TroXiTiKwv KOL TraiSevTas e\. Xa/5a>v arvao'Lrwv e/cacrro? diro^ay^a\iav et? rr]v rov Bta/covov <j>epovTO<$ dyyelov eirl r^ rov Gvaairiov r&v e/3a\\e (nwirfi /caddjrep a-TrXw?. 6 jj.epav UTT' opyrjs Ovo-Lar. ov TrpoaBe- 238 . /cal 6 (TKCOTTTCDV ejreTravro. fj<expi> ra? crucrcriT^crei? dfcpificos Bie(f)v\arTOv. cr(j)6Bpa yap eBo/cec ical TOVTO Aa/cwvi/cbv elvai. e^rjiJLiwcrav CLVTOV.PLUTARCH'S LIVES /cal 0vaa<$ et'<? ri$ airap-^v KOI drjpevcras <rvcrcririov. avroL re nraCCpiv eWi^ovro /cal cr/cwTrTopevoi /cal /j. Am TOVTCOV" " faicriv. (jK(t)fjL[JLaro^ di>e%e(rdai' /AT) (frepovra Be e^rjv 5 7rapaiTt(70at.ev rfj eKKpivwv (T<p6$pa rljv rffi X et e%et Bv- 6 TI yap rreiTLeo-iJievr) rerpTj/Aevrj? va[uv. * 76 TroXXoO "A^tSo? /SacriXea)?. wcnrep BiBct(TKa\ia a-axfypocrvvris dyo/ievoi. crv<TcriTia ical TratSe? e^otra)^.evdepias et? eutpcov.." Bo/cifjud^eardat. ol TroXe/^ap^oi. Trapelvcu.rj GKanneiv Bva")(6pai. Be rov /3ov~\. icav fiiav evp(DO~i roiavTqv. firj irapa rf) <yvvai/cl SeiTrvelv /cal ra? fLepl&aSt ov/c eTre/jityav rov eBei Be fieP r)/j. TOl"? aXXou? TOU eBet. 4 dvcravros fjv Ei? Be TO. e^a) \6yo$ ov/c eKTropeverai. Tj /te/)o? TO e^rjv yap oi/coi Bei- 07TOT6 Ovcrd? Ti? 3 Be KVVl^WV /cal O"fylO~eie. o S' tyfjtyov.- avev ySco/xoXo^ta? vetv. to? eiravrfkOev CLTTO TT)? (TrpaTa7r67ro\e/jir]KGL>$ A Or)vaiov<$.evoi> fjirao")(eiv ovrco <$)ao~i.6jj.

he sent a portion to his mess. but the rest had to be at the mess. For whenever any one was belated by a sacrifice or the chase. also scurrility. the polemarchs l refused to send them to him and when on the following day his anger led him to omit the customary sacrifice. and when a servant came along with a bowl upon his head. Boys also used to come to these public messes. it seems to have been especially characteristic . the eldest of jester ceased." And they say that a candidate for membership in one of these messes underwent the following ordeal. the company pointed to the door and said to him "Through that door no word goes forth outside. but if he disapproved. Each of the mess-mates took in his hand a bit of soft bread. Indeed. as if they were attending schools of sobriety there they would listen to political discussions and see instructive models of liberal breeding. xii. 2-6 sacrifice of first fruits.LYCURGUS. For a long time this custom of eating at common mess-tables was rigidly observed. became accustomed to sport and jest without and to endure jesting without displeasure. : it tight in his 1 hand first. There they themselves . wished to sup at home with his wife. squeezing For the flattened piece kinga. like a ballot. At Sparta. . on returning from an expedition in which he had been victorious over the Athenians. he was allowed to sup at home. and sent for his rations. leaving it just as it was if he approved of the candidate. military commanders under the 2 39 . and the As each one came in. then they cast it into this without a word. or brought home game from the hunt. of a Spartan to endure jesting but if any one could not bear up under it. he had only to ask it. For instance. they laid a fine upon him. when King Agis.

ev rot? coero /cal rat? dyayyals TWV fcivijTa /cal ftefiaia. rrpos ^>a>? /SaBi^ecv./jLevov<.??A.ou? Be <ye<ypa/ji. XIII.r)Be Trap" avrois 6 /-teXa? ^w/wo?.aTiKa crvjjL/36\a{.o9 (Tvvelvai.evov<? eTrotyaa-Oat. Tia TOiavTrjv %ei TU^LV. OVK edijKev.PLUTARCH'S LIVES yjowrai TOV eTreicnbvTa. /3a<JiXe&)^ eveica \eyeTcu Be TIVCL TWV HOVTIK&V TOV fafjiov /cal irpLacrOai. /cpeaBlov TrpecrfivTepovs.. TOVTOV Bel TOV a)/j.ov TOVS 7 fievovs kcrTiacrOai. 6/9 o ra? dTro/jiayBa\ia<i yLtaXtcrra TWV Be o\lra)v euBoKi/nei /j. LITTO- Ta Ke/caBBiaOai \eyovai' /caBBi^o? yap Ka\eiTai TO dyyeiov efj. /3ov\6/j.evoi TrdvTas TOV Be OUTW? aAA. TCL Be fJiiKpa Kal %pr)p. Becr/Jibv Icr^vpoTepov TraiBevais efATroiei rot? veot<. VO/AOOGTOV Btddecriv dTrepya^o/jievrj rrepl e/caaTov av7.a ecrTiv avTrj. fj. Noyu.a /cal 240 . oure OVTB TavTijv jap e^ecrTi." OV TTl6vT$ Be fJLGTplU)^ CLTTICLGI Bfya Xa/iTTaSo?. d\X. OTTO)? eQi^covTCU CTKOTOVS Kal VVKTOS ra /iev ovv crvaalKOI aSeco? oBeveiv. wcrre Belcrdai. AaKco- VIKOV /jbdyeipov etra yevadimevov Bva"%epavai' /cal TOV iJidyeipov elTcelv "Tl /SacrtXeu. d\\a rot? veavlcTKOis. aurou? Be TOV a)/j.ov ev Tti> l&vpwTa \e\ov /j. Trjv TrpoaipecTLV dvdy/crjs.ev 6 AvKovpyos 47 TWV /caXov^evcov yap /cvpia)TaTa /cal /cal evBaifAoviav rjOecriv TroXeco? dpeTijv. r)v 2 T&V.(3d\\ovcn. jv 6B6v. fiia TO.

The candidate thus rejected is said to have been "caddished." " for " caddichus l is the name of the bowl into which they cast the pieces of bread. Of their dishes. xii. ant and binding principles which conduce to the prosperity and virtue of a city were implanted in the habits and training of its citizens. is the fashion of their common messes. None of his laws were put into writing by Lycurgus. while they themselves have the broth poured out for their meals. XIII. or negative. when he tasted it. ballot." from which the verb in the Greek text is formed. and then. one of the so-called "rhetras" For he thought that if the most importforbids it. 6-xni. And it is said that one of the kings of Pontus actually bought a Spartan cook for the sake of having this broth." After drinking modfor they erately. because they wish all its members to be congenial. either on this or any other occasion.LYCURGUS. And if one such is found in the bowl. those who relish this broth must first have bathed in the river Eurotas. a of bread had the force of a perforated. but leave it for the young men. : . they go off home without a torch are not allowed to walk with a light. Or "caddos. the candidate is not admitted to the mess. indeed. 241 . the black broth is held in the highest esteem. so that the elderly men do not even ask for a bit of meat. unchanged and secure. that they may accustom themselves to marching boldly and without fear in the darkness of night. having a stronger bond than young by education. which performs the 1 compulsion in the fixed purposes imparted to the office of a And as for minor law-giver for every one of them. Such. disliked it whereupon the cook said "O King. then. they would remain .

Mta Kara fiev ovv r&v piyrpwv vo/jiois XPfa@at TTJS opocfrrjv eyypdcfrois. a? eOecriv. (TwrjOeias <$>acrl Kal AecoTv^iB^v rbv Trpe repov ev }LopLv9(o Benrvovvra. v\a (frveTai. erepa Se rrdXiv TroXureXeta?. oz)S' eanv ouSet? /cat dvoyros ware et? oiKiav t Srj/noTiKrjv elcr^epetp K\iva<$ dpyvpoTroSas Kal Kal cTro/jLevrjv Oai K\ivr]Vy Kal TroXvreXeiav. {3e\riov eyypd(j)0i<. Kal Oeacrd^evov (TTeyrjs rov OIKOV TTJV KaraaKevrjV 7ro\VT\r) Kal (fraTVMfjLaTiKrjv.vr)fjLovevovcri. TOV AvKovp- yov t 242 Trjv Kw\vovcrav errl roi)? . dvdyKai? /j. TrpocrKal dtyaipeaeis. a\X* avdyKij avv(rvve^ofJLOLOvv rfj f^ev oiKia Tr/v Se K\ivrj TTJV ecrdf)Ta. ravrrj Be rrjv "rfi e/c Be 5 a\\r)v %oprjyiav Kal KaracrKev^v. TO jap av ol 6\ov KOI r5 eh TJV. waTrep e'iprjrai. &)9 oiKia Toiainri ov 'wei Kal TroXvreXeiav. TOVTO TO? evorjcre Au/cou/?70?. rov jfevov el rerpdywva TT}? Trap auTot? TO. Xa/mfidvovra 7T7raiBevfjievoi BoKipdawa-t. TpiTrjv Be pr)Tpav Bia/j. &>? TO TOLOVTOV apLCTTOV OV ^ft)/36t 7T pO$0<TiaV. oVep <ydp vcrTepov ^TrafjueivcovSav elirelv 4 \6<yovcriv eVl rf)? eavrov T/oavre^?.. OTTCO? ol/cia Tracra rrjv fj. epcorr/a'ai. ra? Be 6vpa<$ aTTO Trpiovo? povov Kal {jL^Sevos rwv a\\wv epya\La)V.PLUTARCH'S LIVES d\\ore aXX&>?. ov irav vojLo8ecria<.r)Be aXX* lav eVt TWV Kaipwv.v aTrb 7reXe/ee&>9 elpjacr/jievrjv e^rj.

gold drinking-cups. and senseless as to introduce into a simple and common house silver-footed couches. asked his host if trees grew square in that country. ordaining that every house should have its roof fashioned by the axe. It was because he was used to this simplicity that Leotychides the Elder. directed against extravagance. and its doors by the saw only. as in later times Epaminondas is reported to have said at his own table. For. when he was dining in Corinth. but to suffer them. as occasion de- manded. not to hamper them by written constraints or fixed usages. but one must of necessity adapt and proportion his couch to his house. his coverlets to his couch. as we are told. purple coverlets. it was better. and saw the roof of the house adorned with costly panellings. so Lycurgus was the first to see clearly that such a house does not comport with Nor is any man so vulgar luxury and extravagance. One of his rhetras accordingly. such as business contracts. that such a meal did not comport with treachery. Indeed. 2-5 matters. and all the extravagance which goes along with these. xin. as he thought. which forbids making frequent expeditions against the same A 243 .LYCURGUS. he assigned the function of law-making wholly and entirely to education. and by no other tool. third rhetra of Lycurgus is mentioned. Another was prohibited the use of written laws. and cases where the needs vary from time to time. as I have said. and to this the rest of his supplies and equipment. to receive such modifications as educated men should determine.

/ecu TOVTO ye yLtaXtcrra KaT^yopovcriv 'A.vve- 6 crOat. icpaTwv r^5 TroXX?}? ai/ecreft)5 /tat yvvaiKOKpaTta? 5a ra? TroXXa? (TTyoareta? rw^ dv&pwv. 7ravcraTo fir. 227 c iro\fj. avriirakovs OLO ^ V ' rot? V Aa/ceSai/AOVLois / TeTpco/nevov avrov LOOIV KaXa. -tjyeiTO XIV. 244 .i/col yevwvTai. ov yap. : p. avveOi^o/jievot.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 7roXXa/9 l arpareveiv. /cat Sm 2 Trevov TOVTO /jLa\\ov TOV TTpocrtf/covTos aura? eOepdKal Sea-Trowa? Trpoariybpevov aXXa KOI TWI' TOVTWV TTJV ra fuev ye crcoyuara ?raXat9 crev. adopting the conjecture of Sintenis -e believed to come)." (j)r). Tr}? Be TratSem?. before o-Tparfveiv to agree with Morals. &)? ra? yvvaifcas.lovs ffrparfveif. to? irapa 2 TOV 6eov Ko/jLi^o/jbeva teal xprjcr/jiovs ?}i ovra. SiSaaKaXta irapa KCLI >\5Pv\ /cara- ra uez^ ovv rot- avra vop-oOei^/JLara pijrpas tovb}JLacrev. Co? irapdevwv &po/-to? /cat /9oXat? SicrKutv KOI CLKOVTIWV Sieirovr)^ re rwi yevvwfjievwv pi%a>cri<s la^vpav ev \a/3ovcra /cat 1 iro\\a. 7ro\jj.yijo~i\dov TOV fiaaiXea)9 v&Tepov.Kts inserted . 7roppa)06v evdvs eTrecrtcoTrei TO. 3 Cobet. ev at? rjvayicd^ovTO Kvpias d7ro\ei7reiv e'/tretVa?. 'iva fjirj TroXXa/a? d/j. rrepl TOL/? KOL ra? 76^ecret9. "TO. teal ^k^Knov TOV KaXXicnov epyov elvai.^ rov<. a>9 rat? avve^ecrt KOL TrvKvais Trjv Itioiwriav ejufioXai? KOI arpareiai.

and gave them the title of Mistress. in order that the fruit of their wombs might have vigorous root in vigorous bodies and come to better maturity. 245 . because he could not overcome the great licence and power which the women enjoyed on account of the man}' expeditions in which their husbands were engaged. XIV. and did not know how. as Aristotle says. 1 that. 8. he began at the very source. that by his continual and frequent incursions and expeditions into Boeotia he rendered the Thebans a match for the Lacedaemonians. 5-xiv. ii. when they did not wish to do it. He made the maidens exercise their bodies in running. And therefore. namely. by carefully For it is not true regulating marriages and births." Such ordinances as these were called "rhetras" by Lycurgus. which would make them warlike. in order not to accustom such enemies to frequent defence of themselves. implying that they came from the god : and were oracles. 2 enemies. xiii. and for this reason paid them greater deference than was their But even due. G. which he regarded as the greatest and noblest task of the law-giver. and hurling the javelin. he tried to bring the women under proper restraint. wrestling. In the matter of education. but desisted. And this was the special grievance which they had against King Agesilaus in later times. when Antalcidas saw the king wounded. to the women Lycurgus paid all possible attention. for teaching them how to fight. During these the men were indeed obliged to leave their wives in sole control at home. casting the discus. he said "This is a fine tuition-fee which thou art getting from the Thebans.LYCURGUS. and that they themselves 1 Pol.

avopas. cfrpovriiJLaTOs TO 0fj\v jrapeyevev OVK eflicr/Jiov a)? fjitjBev rjTTov avTw /cal dperfjs teal o6ev avrais KCLI \eyeiv e /jLerovaiav ovcrav. dywvi^oivro TT^O? ra? coSt^a?. o yap eV eyfcw/Aiacrdels eV dvBpa- <ya6ia /cal /cXet^o? rat? 7rapOevoL<$ fjieya\vv6^L6vo^ VTTO rwv TraiSias KOI cr/cco/jLj^dro)v 87^6^9 yeyova)? iira'ivw ai Be ov$V rjaav.ov *Hi> {lev ovv /cal ravra Trapop/JLrjTi/cd \eyca Be ra? Tro/ATra? TWV irapOevwv 246 . a0eXft)i> Be Opv^iv KOI crKiaTp KOI 0r)\vrr)ra Tracrav ovBev fJTrov eWiae Kopwv ra9 Kopas yv/jLvds re Tro/jLTreveiv KOL TT/JO? 48 tepols riaiv o p*)(.era pw/J.ei' Trapovarj^. ^evrjs TTyoo? avrrjV a>? ai > Adrcawai" " Momj ydp" yap TWOS. " Movai ra)v dvBpwv a e(f)f]. Kal (frpoveiv ola /cal Trepl Topyovs la-Toprjrai elTrovorrjs AewviSou vfjieis a ^ yvvai/cos. a>9 eoi/ce. XV. /IGT' wS?}? TreTroirj^eva Ste^- (f)i\ori/jLi.av TroXXrjv KCU %rj\ov eveirolovv rot? veavivKois. yd/j.la-0 ai /cat ci&eiv /caXw? a/za //. ecm de ore /cat TOI)? \eyovcrcu TT^O? ercacnov ev^priarw^ vovro TWV afjiapTavofjLtvwv' KOI iraKiv et9 avrwv eyKMfMia i.r)<. KCLI paBicos TOU? TO/COU? VTTO- rwv vecov irapov- 3 rwv /ecu 6ea)/jLeva)V. at'SoO? yu. are real Brj TT/OO? TTJV 6eav O/JLOV rot? aXXoi? crvjj. d/cpacrias Be d- aXX' /cal d^eXrj /cal rj\ov eve^ias eveipyd^ero.PLUTARCH'S LIVES avrau re /jLevovcrat.7ropeuo- TWV ySacrtXecov /cal TWV yepovrwv v.

said to her Spartan women are the " Yes. and wantonness was banished nay. only ones who rule their men. for modesty attended them. i might come with vigour to the fulness of their times. : : 247 . He freed them from softness and delicacy and all effeminacy by accustoming the maidens no less than the youths to wear tunics only in processions. to woman-kind a taste of lofty sentiment. for they felt that they too had a place in the arena of bravery and ambition. Wherefore they were led to think and speak as Gorgo. rather. went away exalted by . was no less spectacle. it produced in them habits of simplicity and an ardent It gave also desire for health and beauty of body. There they sometimes even mocked and railed goodnaturedly at any youth who had misbehaved himself and again they would sing the praises of those who had shown themselves worthy. xiv. When some foreign woman. For he who was thus extolled for his valour and held in honour among the maidens. especially as the kings and senators. while the sting of their playful raillery sharp than that of serious admonitions." she answered we are the only ones that give birth to men.LYCURGUS. as it would " You seem. were all present at the their praises . the wife of Leonidas." XV. and at certain festivals to dance and sing when the young men were present as spectators. is said to have done. Nor was there anything disgraceful in this scant clothing of the maidens. I mean such things as the appear. together with the rest of the citizens. and struggle successfully and easily with the pangs of child-birth. there were incentives to marriage in these things. Moreover. and so inspire the young men with great ambition and ardour. 2-xv.

ifiaria) Be dvBpeiw Kal u7roS?. rrjv Be dpTraadelaav vv/Affrevrpia Ke<f)d\r)v KCL\OVpevr) 7rapa\a/3ov<Ta. aVTOV? rrjv K\VOV ol 2 ryvfjivovs et? Trepilevai. CLVTW TWV vewrepwv ri? eSpas ov ft f f\ CITTCOV./j.aaiv eva-fcevdaacra /care/cXivev eVl crrifidBa jjLovrjv avev (^>&)T09.iav Tiva Trpoaedtj/ce rot? a^ayuot?. BeBenrvrjKws ev irjv rot? <f)iBirioi<i. o Be vv^io^ ov jjieOvwv ovBe Bpv- jTTOfJLevo^. TrapeiQ-eXOwv eXi/e ^vr^v Kal 248 . ayopdv. w? <yeft>yueT/}fctfCU9.' fJLV eipyovro rov Be /JLtoVOS Ol ap%OVT<. aXXa vrifywv.T|raTO. teal TO Trpbs AepAruXXtSaz/ prjOev ovBels KctiTrep CTTIOVTI . aX-Xa /cal aKfJia^ovaa^ 77 7re7ret/)ou?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES T<X9 cLTroBvcreis dyojjievwv $r)<jiv ov KOL TOU? aywvas ev o^ei rwv vewv. (Jvoe >S>\ \ > \ yap ejAOL w TOV \ v r / vTrei 3 'Eyd/jiovv au>pov<$ TT/JO? Be Bi apTrayf)?. Trjv fiev ev ftpy Trepie/ceipev. prjvro. (oBrfv nva TreiroirujLevriVy w? Bi/caia on rjv TO?? ^o/zot? a7rei0ovcri' Ttyu?}? Be /ecu e'crre- QepaTreta? veou Trpea-fivrepois irapel^ov.//.eyu. wcrTrep del. O06V eyu. yap ev ra?? yv/jwoTraiSiais TT}? 6ea<. aXXa KOL dn. aXX' epwriKous. dvdjKais' ov IJLTJV o IlXaTa>z>. ov yu-t/cpa? ovBe teal fydfjiov. Be auTou? . jap 5 evBo/ci/jiov ovra arpaTrjyov.

1-3 much clothing in pro- and athletic contests where young men were " looking on. necessity 1 Nor was this all Lycurgus know. Besides this. so called. took her in charge. but when they were in full bloom and wholly ripe. not but the sort of which lovers geometrical. but said " Indeed. for these were drawn on by necessity. also put a kind of public stigma upon confirmed bachelors. After the woman was thus carried off. reputable general though he was. p. after supping at his public messtable as usual. but composed and sober. and in winter the magistrates ordered them to march round the market-place in their tunics only." For their marriages the women were carried off by force. one of the younger men would not offer him his seat. . 458 d. put a man's cloak and sandals on her.LYCURGUS. ance of the maidens without cessions xv. on the Then the bride-groom. not flown with wine nor enfeebled by excesses. and bore her 1 Republic. and its burden was that they were justly punished for disobeying the laws. they were deprived of the honour and gracious attentions which the young men habitually paid to their elders. slipped stealthily into the room where the bride lay. namely. not when they were small and unfit for wedlock. and laid her down on a pallet. they sang a certain song about themselves. alone. loosed her virgin's zone." as Plato says. : the bride's-maid. Therefore there was no one to find fault with what was said to Dercyllidas. and as they marched. floor. They were excluded from the sight of the young men and maidens at their exercises. As he entered a company. 249 . in the dark. cut her hair off close to the head. thou hast begotten no son who will one day give his seat to me.

GTLOVTWV (nfrayaLs /cal TroXeyuoi?.K(f)8r) %r)\oTV7riav. TWV 7 co? a/jLi/cTa dtcoivcovrjTa TavTa P. Be /cal Te/cvcocrecos 49 Kowwvelv rot? /cal a^tot?.Xoi? crvfJuropevoLVTo. /cat r)/j. ev Ka\y /caTacrTijaa? vftpiv /cal dva^iav iracrav eipyeiv diro TOV yd/nov. e^i}v aev jap dvSpl TrpeafivTepw ^ea? yvvai/cos. TOt? JJLV r)\iKict)Tai<? (Tvv^L'rjiJLepevwv teal fJLGT Jir o? Be Tr)V vvfuprjv Kpv<pa KOI SeSoftfcw? /ecu Ti? aladoiTO r? OTT&)? 5 e7n.TvQ)jL6vr^ KOL av ev /eaipw KOI \avddvovTe<$ vvJL<>rs KCLI aXXr.i.PLUTARCH'S LIVES dpdfjievos evrl TIJV tc\ivr)v. ovBev r\TTOv e%e/3a\6 Trjv /cevr/v /cal yvvai. elaayayeiv Trap* avrrjv /cal yevvaiov crvre/o/wiTO? iBiov avrot? TT\IJ- 250 . 69 rj TOVTO eTrpaTTOv TratSa? k ovtc O\LJOV ^povov. Be %pbvov ou TTO\VV dirrjet KOCT /Altos ovTrep ela)0ei TO irpoTepov. Kal TO \OLTTOV Ol/Tto? 7TpaTT6.epav OedaaaOai ra? 8e TOiavTr) crwoSo? ov JJLOVOV eytcpareta? /cal awfypocrvvris acrKrjcris rfv. el Bt) Tiva TWV KCL\WV /cal d<ya0MV dcrirdaraiTO vewv /cal Bo/ci/jid(7ii>. ciXX' ware irplv . d\\a rot9 re /cal TW <fri\elv del /caivovs /cal 7)76^ eVt TTJV tcoivwvlav.Tr)\ov$ \eityavov /cal rat? dveSrjv KOivwviaLS. aXX' deu vTreK/cav/jia iroOov /cat %d 6 ^oaavTTfv Be TO?? jabots eVto-r^cra? at'Sw /cal Ta^Lv. oil $ia/copels ov& TI ej. /caQevBrjcrcov fjLera T&V ciXXcov VeCOV.

he went away composedly to his usual quarters. 4-7 in his arms to the marriage-bed. might introduce him to her. not for a short time only. to share with other worthy men in the begetting of children. but long enough for some of them to become fathers before they had looked upon their own wives by daylight. and resort to murder and war rather than grant them. he none the less freed men from the empty and womanish passion of jealous possession. if he looked with favour and esteem on some fair and noble young man. laughing to scorn those who regard such common privileges as intolerable. and sleeping with them at night.LYCURGUS. while keeping the marriage relation free from all wanton irregularities. and adopt her offspring by such a noble father as his 251 . Such interviews riot only brought into exercise self-restraint and moderation. was always left behind in their hearts some residual spark of mutual longing and delight. by making it honourable for them. After giving marriage such traits of reserve and decorum. spending his days with his comrades. For example. Then. there to sleep with And so he continued to do the other young men. but united husbands and wives when their bodies were full of creative energy and their affections new and fresh. his bride also contriving and conspiring with him that they might have stolen And this they did interviews as occasion offered. full of dread and fear lest any of her household should be aware of his visits. but visiting his bride by stealth and with every precaution. not when they were sated and dulled by unrestricted intercourse and there . from that time on. after spending a short time with his bride. an elderly man with a young wife. xv.

yeya/jLij/jLevrjv. d<ya8 real crwyyevels eao/mevov?. KCLV iraprjXiKes. co? ov%l irpa)TOt? T0?9 KKrt^fJiVOl<i KOI Tpe<J)OV(Tl TUV ryivofjievwv irovripayv. dvSpl Trelcrai TWV VTKVWV <yvvai/ca)v eVt'po) TOV av&pa avve\6elv. d\\d KOIVOVS r^? TroXew? o Av/covpyos. edv e/c Trovrjpwv TOLCLVTTIS KOL TOvvavTiov %pr]crTwi>. tcvvas TO)V T0t9 KaTLCTTOL^ rj fua0(p /cav TOVS KV- piow. aXX' e/c T&V dpicrrcov 6fjLaL{iov<? 6wv e/3ov\ero ryeyovoras sivai TOU? 7roXtra9. Trpwrov OVK Ibiovs rjyeiTO T&V Trarepcov rou? [lev <ydp TralSas. Mai. av 7e^e(7ea)9. fjiovcov CLVT&V 9 ri/creiv a^oiWe?. TOT6 TOCTOVTOV aTTet^G V(TTpOV 10 avTols. 09 VTTO %evov Tt. Trda^ovcriv 01 /JLoi%ol Trap" 252 . uxnrep ev (frvrevovra real iroiov/jievov TralSas dyaOovs. l ravra Se ovrw? TrpaTTOfJievcL TTJS 7TO\ITIK(*)<. r9 Se ryvvai/cas e^KKeiadfJievoL (frpov poverty. wcrre 0X0)9 aTnarov elvai TO Trjs /zot^6/9 Trap' Kal ^0709 dTrofjivriijLoveveTai TepdSa TLVOS e ^TrapTiaTOV TWV a(j)6Bpa 7ra\aiwv. f^rjv Be ird\LV TIVOL KOA. TroXkrjv eTretra dfte\TepLav V7TO /cal rvcfrov eveoopa rot? Trepl o't ravra rwv a\\wv ITTTTOU? voJLoOer^jiacriv. odev OVK e/c rwv TV^OVTWV.. KCLV voacoSeis.PLUTARCH'S LIVES aaa-Oat TO yevvriOev.

on being asked by a stranger what the punishment " for adulterers was among them. The freedom prevailed at that time in marriage relations was aimed at physical and political wellbeing. but from the best there was. for And might enjoy her favours. thus planting. show their badness to those first who possessed and reared them. 20). if her husband would consent. as though children of bad stock did not stock. in a soil of beautiful fruitage. infirm. a worthy man who admired some the fine children that she bore her husband and the modesty of her behaviour as a wife. a Spartan of very ancient type. demanding that they have children by none but themselves. answered Stranger. xv. even though they be foolish. but they keep their wives under lock and key. 253 .LYCURGUS. And a saying is reported of one 1 Geradas. which thus : 1 The name is Geradataa in Morals. Lacon. their goodness. he saw much folly and vanity in what other peoples enacted for the regulation of these matters in the breeding of dogs and horses they insist on having the best sires which money or favour can secure. Lycurgus did not regard sons as the peculiar property of their fathers. who would have the blood of noble men in their veins. and therefore would not have his citizens spring from random In the parentage. p. own. second place. 228 c (Apophtheg. or . 7-10 woman again. so much so that adultery was wholly unknown among them. or diseased . and begetting for himself noble sons. but rather as the common property of the state. and children of good contrariwise. and was far removed from the licentiousness which was afterwards attributed to their women. as it were. who. For in the first place.

69^7." KOL (f>r)aavTOS' " Ilw? 8e r^Xf/coDro?. To Tpe<f)eiv. TOi? jme\e(Tt. KOL voy yap e^io~Ta<j6aL ra crwSrj Trpo? TOZ^ a/cparov a7roa^>aKe\L^ovra ra 8* vyieiva JJLCL\\OV crTO/jLOvo~0cu Kal tcparvvecrOai. >/ i /zo%o " 'Eay ovv ' f Lavpov. Trapa Taiiyerov fiapadpa)1 oure 2 TOTTOV. eKeivov rp V7ro\a/36vros.7raprrf ^tot%o? ryevoiro. ov&els yiverat. ravra /JLGV ovv icrroprjTat irepl TWV lyevoiro /3ov<? > P. dyevves KOI afj. r\v Se Trepl Ta? rpofyovs eVt/xeXeia TIS fiera wcrr avev cnrapydvwv e/crpe(j)ov(7a<j ra Te-^vrjs.ii>oi> : 254 .aQi]^voi T&V (f)v\erwv el ol irpecrjBvTaToi." yeXda-a^ 6 FeyoaSa?.X' o6ev ovSe vBart TrefyvKos. T)? /cpdaeco? eiriJX^rjTrrLKa avrwv. aireire^Trov els Xeyo/jievas 'Avro^era?. o? TO Tavyerov ' < ev 2. rpefaiv eitekevov. oiv<> irepieXovov al yvvaiKes. TIVCL Troiov/jLevai. ZKTIVG.I peyav. a. aXX' Be <yevvii6ev OVK fy /cvpios 6 etyepe \a/3a)V els roirov TLVCL . jSdcravov \eyerat. rrjv 3 effiv. <prj o T"* 1 '? r ' tV epaoas. '110)90 a^. /cal Tot? el^eaiv e\ev0epia ftpeffrr} iroielv. \e- G^V KO\OV nevov ev w K.PLUTARCH'S LIVES elirev ft "Tl Be > %eve. dpxfj? Trpo? eve^iav TCL KOI pco/jLijv fipefir). Kara/jLaQovTe? ev euTra/ye? CLTJ KOL pw^a\eov. &)? ovre avry t/f]v a^eivov ov 77 el 8' TTJ TroXei TO jj. e/ceivov | tt'K*' V f '* XVI.5 TT J/ >/ CLTTO TOV Eupwra Trterai.op<pov.rj /caXw? ev0v<? ej. TO TraiSdpiov. en Be ev/co\a Tat? Stairais Kal /cal d0a/ji/3rj 1 GKOTOV Kal lv supplied Tryoo? eprjfuav afyofBa by van Herwerden &/j.X.

IO-XVT. they reared infants without swaddling-bands." "Suppose. XVI. exercised great care and skill . like steel. and given a firm habit of body. xv. they taught them to be contented and happy. "would be his forfeit." bull/' said Geradas. the women used to bathe their new-born babes not with water. and assigned it one of the nine thousand lots of land but if it was ill-born and deformed. but with wine. nor fearful of the dark. besides. in the conviction that the life of that which nature had not well equipped at the very beginning for health and strength. they ordered the father to rear it. 55 . but was taken and carried by him to a place called Lesche. then. while the healthy ones state. where the elders of the tribes "A : : examined the infant. they officially built ." replied the stranger. Their nurses. was of no advantage either to itself or the sent On the same principle. it to the so-called Apothetae. thus making a sort of test of their conFor it is said that epileptic and sickly stitutions. and if it was welland sturdy. and thus left their limbs and figures free to develop .LYCURGLJS. Offspring was not reared at the will of the father. nor afraid to be left alone. a chasm-like place at the foot of Mount Taygetus. with a smile "But how could there be an adulterer in Sparta?" Such. are the accounts we find of their marriages. then. a bull so large that it could stretch over Mount Taygetus and drink from the river Eurotas. not dainty about their food. too. "there should be one. are rather tempered by it. infants are thrown into convulsions by the strong wine and loose their senses." Then the stranger was " But how could there be a bull astonished and said '' so large ? To which Geradas replied. 3 there is no adulterer among us.

XKifiiuB'rjv TLTOevcracrav 'A/Au/cXav yeyovevai.dv0avov d\\rj Trdaa fraiBeia TT^OO? TO dp^eaOai eyivero Kal Kaprepelv irovovvra Kal VIKCLV Bio Kal rrjs rf\. ap^ovra iraplararo TT)? dye\T}<^ TOV TW fypovelv $ia(f)epovTa teal OvfioeiSeaTaTov ev ra> /uid^ecrOaf Kal Trpo? Tovrov dfyewpwv real TrpocrrdTT rjKpowvro /cal KoXd^ovro? eKaprepovv. dyevvovs KOI K\av0/j. ev y^py -re Keipovre? f) S' 1 256 . w? TlXaTcov (frrjcri Traibaywyov Tlepi/c^rjs. Trpoep^ofievr) .vpia-/j. TWV e^co0ev evioi rot? TCKVOIS AatcwvLKas TLT0a<>' CGOVOVVTO Kal TIJV ye rov 'A0rjvalov icrropovei 'A.d^tv.wv. a>9 ovS' e^rjv e/cdary d\\a eftovkero rov VIQV./3d\\ovTS del Kal (j)i\oveiKias. oit&ev n a\\cov $La(j)epovTa SovXcov rov? Be ^TrapTiarwv 50 OVK eVl w^rot? ouSe /Aicr0Lois eiroDjcraro o Av/covpyos.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Btb Kal direipa BvcrKO\La<. rpd/jb/jLara 6 JJLZV ovv eveKa rr}? p^/oeta? e/J. KaKCLivav.iKias fjievov. ware TraiBeiav elvai /me\err)v evTreideias. Kal rd 7ro\\d fid%as Tivas e/j. TrdvTCLS evOvs eTrraeret? yevofievovs irapaTraiSeveiv /cal ouSe TTOIWV KOI crvvrpotyovs yuer* 5 a eWi% avrois avfji'jrai^eiv teal crvcr^oX. ou Trapepycos KarepdvOavov OTroio? ecrn rrjv (frvcriv eKacrros avrutv TT/OO? TO roX/Aaz/ Kal fj^rj (f)vyo^a^elv ev rat? a/uAAat?. Be oi TrpeafivTepoi irai^ovras avrovs. 4 'AXXa TOVTW eTreaTfjcre /j. eVereivov avT&v rrjv da'Krjatv.ev.

as they grew in age. Alcibiades. practice used to of obedience. This is the reason why foreigners sometimes bought Spartan nurses for their children. watch their sports. where they were put under the same discipline and nurture. p. Therefore. 257 . were close-clipped. and submitting to his punishments. nor was it lawful for every father to rear or train his son as he pleased. and they 2 Cf. was made captain of his company on him the rest all kept their eyes. and by ever and anon egging them on to mimic battles and disputes. so that their boyish training was a . the elderly men increased 1 . obeying his orders. set over him by Pericles. Alcibiades i. who was just a common slave. 1 And yet Alcibiades. the nurse of the Athenian Alcibiades. But Lycurgus would not put the sons is said to of Spartans in charge of purchased or hired tutors. Lycurgus ordered them the state and enrolled in companies. The boy who excelled in judgement and was most courageous in fighting. Amycla. 2. one Zopyrus. their bodily exercise was . as Plato says. their heads i. and conquer in battle. learned accurately how each one of them was naturally disposed when it was a question of boldness and aggressiveness in their struggles. xvi. for instance. and so became accustomed to share one another's sports and studies. have been a Spartan. Of reading and writing. 122 b. they learned only enough all the rest of their training was to serve their turn calculated to make them obey commands well. but as soon as they were seven all to be taken by years old. endure hardships.LYCURGUS. 2 had for a tutor. 3-6 nor given to contemptible peevishness and whimpering. Besides.

i KOI dye\.aTa /ca 7 rivas TOV eviavrov T^? Toiavrrjs e/cdQevSov Be O/JLOV tear Opwirias /jLTi%ov. ijBrj elpevas Be /caTraiBcov yeyovo- \ovcn TOU? ero? BevTepov e/c ra?. /cal KOLT 258 .a%oyLte^ot? teal <rKco7TTOVcrtv a\\rj- 7rapaTvy%dvovT<> TTOV Tiva TrdvTes olofievoi. ev Be TW %6i/ji(ovt. /cal av'X/mrjpo ra cra)/i. a? aurot? avve<f)6povv. XVII. 76701/0)5. Qep/jLCLVTiKOV e^eiv TL TT}? v\r]s Bo/covcnjs.PLUTARCH'S LIVES KOI /SaBi^eiv dwrroBijTOVS rrral^eiv re yvfivovs o>? TCL TroXXa avveOi^ovTes. ev Ifjidriov et? TOV eviavTov avovTe<. /cal yu.rjv eVl cmfidBwv. /cal KCLT a^eXa? avTol 7rpo'L(7TavTO Tcov XeyojJLevwv elpevoyv del TOV crwelvai /cal TraiBaycoyol /cal <f)poveo~TaTov /cal fxa^i/jLcoTaTov. vTre/3d\\ovTO TOVS \e<yo/jievovs \vfc6(j)ova<> KOI KaTe[JLi<yvv(7av rat? <rri/3acrt. yevo/jievot Be BwBe/caeTels avev XITWVOS rjBr) BieTe\ovv.. TOV Tcapa TOV ]&vpa)Tav 7re(f)VKOTOs /ca\d/jiov TO. eitcocri ITT. a/cpa rat? ^epcrlv avev cnBijpov /caTafcXdcravTes. euro? ovv 6 eiprjv. ov Trapepja)^.a\\ov eTrupotTwvTes } et? r <yv/jLvdcria. "HS^ Be rot? Tr)\iKovToi<$ epaaTol evBofci/jiwv vecov ol TrpeafivTepoi. wcrre Kaipov aTro\eiTCo-6ai /jujTe ^wpiov eptj/Jiov TOV vovOeTovvTos TOV d/jbapTavovTa /cal KO\dovTO<?. /jLe\\eipevas Be TWV rraiBcov TOVS TrpecrfivTaTou?. 2 ov prjv d\\a /cal TraiBovo/jiOS etc TO)V /cdXwv /cal dyaOayv dvBpwv eTarrero. d\Xa TporcdvTwv /ca ap^ovTes. avvaveaTpefyovTO' /cal Kal /j. ap^ei re Twv vTroTeTay/jLevzai ey T-at? yu-a^a^?.

but with the idea that they were all in a sense the fathers and tutors and governors of all the boys. twelve years old. or Would-be Eirens. and Melleirens. several companies. 259 . added to the stuff of these pallets the so-called "lycophon. commands his subordinates in their . had hard. they no longer had tunics to wear. 6-xvn. in troops and companies. They slept together. and observing their contests of strength and wit. XVII. In this way. received one cloak a year. coming more frequently to their places of exercise. not cursorily. in their boys. a youth for the oldest of the boys. 2 were accustomed to going bare-foot. and to playing When they were the most part without clothes. dry flesh. on pallet-beds which they collected no for themselves. the boy who went wrong had someone to admonish and chastise him. The elderly men also kept close watch of them. and knew little of baths and ointments only on certain days of the year.LYCURGUS. When the boys reached this age. of twenty years. they along the river Eurotas." or thistle-down. which was thought to have warmth in it. was the name This eiren. and under his directions the boys. then. reputable young men. at every fitting time and in every place. Nor was this all one of the noblest and best men of the or inspector of the city was appointed paedonome. who had been for two years out of the class of boys. did they indulge in such amenities. put themselves under the command of the most prudent and warlike of the soThis was the name given to those called PLirens. and few at that. breaking off with their hands knives allowed the tops of the rushes which grew In the winter-time. they were favoured with the society of lovers from among the . for xvi.

(j)v\dr- TW Se d\6vrt. VOVCTLV. axTTrep a/xeXet :al TW^ eV TW Kveiv KaOaipo/jLeva)v yvvaifcwv le"vva JJLGV./co?. paOv/jiw^ &OKWV K\67TTIV KOL aT^VO)?. K\eirTOV(TL Se KCU TWV CTLTLCOV o TI av SvvcovTat. r /caOevSovaiv paOv/jiax.aXXo^ Trpotcelada) crKorcetv. fjLav6dvovTe<$ )} eu0uw? eTriTiOea-Oat. OTV TO 7rvev/na /XT d(T%o\tav VTTO et? (3d0o<$ teal TrXaTO? Trie^ofievov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 OIKOV vTDjperat^ rcraet Oi e rot? em^prfrai 777)0? TO Seljrvov.lv epyov T?}? o rwv yLt?. rwv di'Spwv avcra-ina Xa? Trapeicrpeovres ev Travoupyuxf fcal 7re(f>v\a<y/uieva)<s' av S' a\u>.. tyi/Aia 7T\rjyal /cal TO ?ret- r)v. Ovrco ol 7raiSe9> wo-T Se KKerrrovai \eyerai Tt9 r)^l O-KV/JLVOV aXa>- 260 . yu. al $e Sia /3ttyOO? (LVTiftai6yK(t)$6lS KOL 7TO\VTpO<f)Ot.51 81^77 5m Kov$>oTr]Ta. evei&fj Se KOI y\ayiverai ra Kparov/jLevrfs KOI aXXa yap 1} /j. Kat TOUTO et? fj. TTO\Xa/z/5ai^et TrX^^ya? rrj /jLacmyi. rov o-co/xaTO? eVXuT 5 paSia)<i eVtSiSoi'TO?. TO? oe yoot? va KOI AV errl TOl? fC7TOV<i fta&l^OVTeS. aXV ai/a> ^a. Oi $ t? TO. TO?? 4 TOVCTI. nev (eeiv. TO 8' auTo TOUTO /cat So/eel 7ro(.ev Sia TTJV e\a(j)p6rr)ra rfj$ VTTO rov TVTTOVVTOS.eiv al yap Icr^yal KOL SiaKevoi. yLtaXXoz/ e^et? v7rafcovovcri Trpb? T^V Sidp0pa>atv. atria rov crv/jiftaivovro? ev j3pe(f)ri. XVIII. i y\ia"%pov jap auTOt? rrjv cm avTwv dfjLvi'ofjLevoi evSeiav v /cal Travovpyelv.

grows freely and easily. xvn. and others creeping right slyly and cautiously into the public messes of the men but if a boy is caught stealing. XVIII. we may be sure. They steal. as a careless and unskilful thief. that one of them. For the meals allowed them are scanty. He caught gets a flogging and must go hungry. and the smaller ones potherbs. this I must leave for others to investigate. contributes to height of stature when the vitality is not impeded and hindered by a mass of nourishment which forces it into thickness and width. and when the body . but ascends of its own lightness. because the lightness of the parent matter makes it more However. women who take physic while they are pregnant. whereas the gross and over-fed are so heavy as to more 261 . as the story goes. it may be. The same thing seems also for lean and meagre to conduce to beauty of form . The boys make such a serious matter of their stealing. he is soundly flogged. and learn to be adept in setting upon people when asleep or off their guard. some of them entering the gardens. in order that they may take into their own hands the fight against hunger. This is the main object of their spare diet a For it secondary one is to make them grow tall. readily to the force of articulation. i and in doors makes them serve him at commissions the larger ones to fetch wood. bear children which are lean. too. the reason for susceptible to moulding.LYCURGUS. Just so. habits yield resist it. whatever food they can. And they steal what they fetch. . but well-shaped and fine. But the boy who his meals. mimic battles. 3-xvm. and so be forced into boldness and is cunning.

e'/c TOVTOV be Kal tcpivetv TO.ei>(os Kal TO? eTreTi/Mjcrev r) TovvavTiov el Be Kal jJLTa \6yov Kal v /jiev OVK 4 *E>KOIV<MVOVV Be ol eV 1 d/j. ocrrt? apicrTO? eV rot? dv$pd<Tiv. dyaQos. 3 dperrjv dcf)i\OTLfj. diroo a>9 Bel Ko\dei. a-Trapa&crojuevos VTTO TOV drjpiov Trjv yacrTepa rot? ovv^i Kal T0i9 oSovcriv. wv TroXXoi)? eVt rov fico/mov rr)<. rt? TroXtrr. with the MSS. Trpea-ftvTepwv irapovTWv o eipjjv eKoka^e roi/? TratSa?. rj TO yap epwrrjOevra. teal TOVTO JJLEV ovSe OTTO rwv 7T6/C09 vvv efyrjftwv aTricrrov ecmv. TWV &e TraiScov avreXBOVTWV ev6vva<$ virel^ev. vTTep TOV \adelv ey/caprepwv aTToOaveiv. rj Troia TIS rovBe Trpa^is. and Bekker.PLUTARCH'S LIVES :e/<.? TOV cLTTOKpivacyOai. Kw\veTO.Xo0G09 Kal TW TpifiwvLfp 7repicrT\\(i)v.ov rroicpicriv rt? OVK evSoKi/jios. Kal TTJV a 262 . 'OpOias ewpaKa^ev 2 AeiTr^^Va? 8e 6 eiprjv KaraKeiAevos ra> aaai Trpoa-era^e TWV TraiSwv. 77 rca\a /cal TroXvTrpajfjiovelv evdvs e^ dp%fjs elOl- %OVTO irepl TWV iro\iTWV. el Tpa^vTepov TOV SeovK\e\v/j. diropelv vw6pa<$ eTroiovvro KOI Trpos ^u^?}? crrj/jueiov. eSei B rrjv Ka atrta? elvai Kal riva o-vvrjry/iievrjs \6yov Kal /xer' 1 \a/ji/3dv(i)V o Se TrX^/i/zeXw? aTroKpivdiAevos VTTO rov e'lpevos et? KO\dero TOV avrfyeipa. Kal Coraes.<poTepa' TT}V airtfcpiffii' : epaaTal rot? iraicrl r^ Kal Xeyera/ TTOTC ?ra^o9 ev TW Sintenis 1 . TW Se epwrrj/jid ri irpovftaKe Tre^povna'iJLevr]^ Seopevov aTroKpicrea)^' olov.

and to another would put a question requiring a careful and " Who is the best deliberate answer. many of whom I have seen expiring under the lash at the altar of Artemis Orthia. as. or. xvin. he suffered no restraint. The eiren. the eiren punished the boys in the presence of the elders and magistrates. but also be couched in very brief and concise language. he was brought to an account if his punishments were harsher than was necessary. 1-4 who was carrying concealed under his cloak a young fox which he had stolen. man in the city ? " or. too mild and gentle. and died And even this rather than have his theft detected. or who an infamous one. too. for instance. story gains credence from what their youths now endure. and one that would not aspire to excellence. as he reclined after supper. While he was punishing them. Often-times. thus showing whether his punishments were reasonable and proper or not. would order one of the boys to sing a song.LYCURGUS. but after the boys were gone. And the answer must not only have reasons and proof given for it. For if one of them was asked who was a good citizen. 263 . on the other hand. and had no answer to make. suffered the animal to tear out his bowels with its teeth and claws. " What thinkest thou of this " In this way the boys were man's conduct ? accustomed to pass right judgements and interest themselves at the very outset in the conduct of the citizens. The boys' lovers also shared with them in their honour or disgrace and it is said that one of them . and the one who gave a faulty answer was punished with a bite in the thumb from the eiren. he was judged to have a torpid spirit.

" eiTrev. w? eiprjrai. rjuels 3 TWV 7TO\e/jLL(ov" eya) Be Kal TOV \6yov 6pa) TOV AaKwviKov ftpa^vv /nev elvai 80KovvTa.evcov. OUTW? TO \a\elv ciKpacria Kevov TOV \6yov Troiei 77 TTyOo? 2 Kal dvoijTOV.PLUTARCH'S LIVES (fiwvrjv TOV epav eyKKpifjievov Trap avrols. TO Be rov \6yov vofj. Kal Tr)s Siavoias dirTo/jLevov T&V aKpocofj.r}%av(*)/JLvos. KOI \6yay yapiTi Kal euro /3pa%eias Xe^eco? dvaOeoopTjcriv.io'/^a rovvavriov air vre\ovs Kal 0X^7779 Xe^ew? e/? ?roXX^ Kal rrepiTTrjv KareaKevacre Sidvoiav. yaaXicrTa 5e TWV rrpay/jidTcav efyiKVOvfjievov. d\\a /j. TO arrepf^a TWV TT/OO? T9 avvovcfia^ a. 'Ayis fjiev ovv o ySacriXeu?. KOi $lT\OVV crTTOV$d%OVT<. (TKCOTTTOVTOS 'ATTIKOV TIVOS Ta? kaKWviK et? TT)^ jj. Kal yap 6 AvKovpyos avT09 /3pa%v\6yo<.KO\d(?Ttov ayovov a>? TO. 52 TOt9 ey)(ipL$loi<$ 264 .z/ yitaXtcrTa.LKpoT'rjTa^ Kal \eyovTO<$ OTL paStco? ot OavfMaTOTTOLol KaTarrivovaLV ev Tot? " " Kal yu. OTTO)? apLCTTOV Be TOV XIX.a\\ov dp^rjv eiroiovvTO TOV epacrrrjv vrr 1 dyevvrj Trpoe/jLevov TOOV e p^ovTwv. rrj TroXX^ TOI)? TratSa? cnrofyOeyiJiaTiKovs Kal rl)? yap vovs Trpo? T? diTOKpLcrei^ {J. axrre KOI T&V irapOevwv epav ra? /caXa? Aral dyaOds yvvaiKas. TroXXa Kal aKapjrov ICTTLV. OVTCO Be (f)i\ia$ 7T/50? aXX^Xou? KOivfj ol rwv avrwv epaaOevres.r. TO 'EiBiSatTKOv TTitcpiav rou? vratSa? /jie/jLLji^evijv e^ovn yap crL^ripovv vofjLLcrfJLa /jiiKpav e^eiv eiroirjaev airo TTO\\OU (naOjJiov Svva/jiiv 6 AvKovpyos. TO dvTepdv OVK r]V.

And indeed Lycurgus himself seems to have been 1 Chapter ix. yet it certainly reaches the point. His iron money. duces unfruitfulness and sterility. when a certain Athenian decried the Spartan swords for being so short. Moreover. xvin. though this sort of love was so approved among them that even the maidens found lovers in good and noble women. XIX. King Agis. 1. accordingly. replied: " And yet we certainly reach our enemies with these And I observe that although the speech daggers. The boys were also taught to use a discourse which combined pungency with grace. so intemperance in talking makes discourse empty and vapid.LYCURGUS. 3 was once fined by the magistrates because his favourite boy had let an ungenerous cry escape him while he was fighting. as discourse indeed. and said that jugglers on the stage easily swallowed them. and condensed much observation into a few words." also of the Spartans seems short. still. and persevered in common efforts to make their loved one as noble as possible. by make the boys contriving that the general habit of silence should sententious and correct in their For as sexual incontinence generally proanswers. 1 but the current coin of he adapted to the expression of deep and abundant meaning with simple and brief diction. but those who fixed their affections on the same boys made this rather a foundation for friendship with one another. and arrests the thought of the listener. Lycurgus made of large weight and small I have observed. value. 4~xix. there was no jealous rivalry in it. 265 .

XX. OTI Trapa\r]^)6el^ 619 TO Gvacrinov ovBev etSa>9. Brj/jLOKpaTiav ev rfj vroXet* Kal Trepl ev Trj OLKia o~ov Troirfcrov BtjuoKpariav.a\iTra)Liev" Kal e/ ravra Tot'9 7roXtTa9 ev ot9 X Si ^P OVK ava 7TC09 (frepovrai Be avrov Kal TOU9 eTTicrToXwv TOiaVTai 7T/309 7ToXtT<X9. /jbeaBcov arepos Oarepa) epdre fjaev. TTO\\O)V.PLUTARCH'S LIVES el Bel yevtcrdai Kal dTroffrOey/naTiKos. T^9 Be 7T/909 ra fjujKi] TWV \oyayv Biaroiavra TWV aTTOf^OeyfJiaTwv eo~Ti. TOV AvKovpyov Trepl r^9 6\iyoTr)Tos avTov TWV VO/JLWV epGOTrjOefc." TWV OvffLwv 7Ty009 Toy TTvBouevov Bia rL jjuKpas eoLKe / /i j T9 ' OVTCD Kal " Iva LLII euTeXei9 eratev." e(f)rj.dTa)V : OVK tfLvSpeffffi Cobet 266 ." (f)7jv 2 'ApyiBaLLiBas Be aeucboaevcov TLV&V 'EiKaTaiov TOV "'O a Be TWV TTiKpwv 1 dTroui"r)iJiovev/u. av Kal yu-?." XaptXao9 Be o dBe\(f>iBov<." " OVK av Kal iraKiv Trepl rwv Tei^wv eirj dreiKal ov ecTTetydvwTai" Trepl jjiev ovv TOVTCOV Kal TOIOVTMV eTTio-ToXcov OVT6 a7Ti(TT>)crat pd8i. "\6yov Kal icatpov olBev. eiirev a>9 ol \6yots fjiT] xpw/Aevoi 7roXXot9 ovBe vofjiwv BeovTat." etyrj. / / > T0i9 aTro/JLvr)jjLovv/j. 6 ySao-iXe^ aKaipws TIVOS Trepl TrpayOVK OVK ev BeovTi %pey TW SeovTi.' y TO Oelov Bt.ov ovre Trio-Tevcrai.aa-iv olov earn TO Trepl 7roXiTeta9 7T/309 TOV d^iovvTa " %v yap. ti TTOTe.

he answered " By remaining poor. to one who demanded the establishment of democracy in the city " Go thou. short xix. if we may judge from his recorded sayings that. " and first establish democracy in thy household. the King Leonidas. 3 -xx. again. belief and scepticism are alike difficult.LYCURGUS. he Again. Of their aversion to long speeches. how they could ward off an invasion of enemies." said he. knows also when to speak. but not the time." ilaiis. answered " Men of few words need few laws. he answered "A city will be well fortified which is surrounded by brave men and not by bricks. answered how. when a certain one discoursed with him out of all season on matters of great concern. when asked why his uncle had made so few laws. the matter urges." Now regarding these : : and similar letters. 267 . when certain ones found fault with Hecataeus the Sophist for : saying nothing after being admitted to their public " He who knows mess. to one who inquired why he ordained such small and inexpensive sacrifices " That we " may never omit." said he. the nephew of Lycurgus. 1 There handed down similar answers which he made When they asked by letter to his fellow-citizens. said : " My Charfriend. XX." Archidamidas." Instances of the pungent sayings 1 After the manner of men begging their conquerors to : spare their lives." That." they asked about fortifying their city. and by not desiring And when to be greater the one than the other. 2 and sententious in his speech. gods. to honour the in of the matter athletic contests. on forms of government." allowed the citizens to engage only in those where . following apophthegms are proof. for instance. : : there was are also no stretching forth of hands.

evois VTT eWL^ovro yap TTCO? rw \6yw 6 Trapepycos. "Xeyei?' /Jiovoiyap ovSev KCIKOV ^e/JiaOrjKafxev Trap" TTOOTOL elal "^rrapTidrai. Morals. ^97. TroXtrai/ /eaXeicr&u. 268 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES dfjuoipeiv %dpiTO$. 67raivovi>T(i)v TLVWV TOU? 'HXetou? &>? " Kat /caXco? ra 'OXu/XTT^a /tal SI/COLO)? ayovras." IlXefo-TCO^a^ Se o Hav<raviov." 6^)77. " 'HXetot TTOIOVVTI a/j. >' yap ' 5> \ TOV iJUfJiOVfJievov rrjv drjSova TrapaKakovfJievo^. roiavr real Srj earl.. KQr^vaiov TOU? AaKeftaijiLOViOvs apaOels /^^co?. 1 . " *' ' A "-t tr afcovKa revets. TOU? "Ecrrt TOW /^era Tratta? TeKjn?jpao-0ai rbv eOicr/Jiov. ^eVe.\\IOV Cobet. 2'2le : naXbv (it were well)." etyr)' "'Q rlv dvofJLOiO'raTOs" ^A^yt? Se. cf. OVK a/^w? 76 IJL&V el^e d/covcrai. O? &)? evvoictv Kal <pd- 4 irapa rot? avrov TroXtrat? " KaXXtoi/ x " co L. Kpe1ff<rv KO. " Ti<? 3 ^TrapTtaT&v." eljrev. > \ d^iav ' Stdvoiav./3evvvi>Tas irore rovaBe rvpavviSa elXe* ^eXivovvTOs dfJLl TruXa? & ^a Wavov. A^/Aayoaro? av~ 6/360- 8pU>7TOV TTOVfJpOV KO7TTOVTOS aVTOV CLKdlpOlS rovro 7roXXa/a? e/owrw^ro?. " 'Ifcavoi" elirev. ai <$wvr)V ijris ipr)/j. van Herworden p. "a> ^ez^e. Tt fjie<ya" e^rj.epa fiia xpco/jievoi St* eVwz/ Trevre eovroyLtTro? ra SiKaiocrvva" vSeiKvv/jLvov. TO 7raAAa rovro' 2. o oe avayvovs Aura?. 77^ rot.

the son of Pausanias. at random. i. ousness one day in five years ? when a stranger kept saying. when an Athenian orator declared that the Lacedaemonians had no learning. said " And what to practise rightegreat matter is it for the Eleians " And Theopompus." . answered at last And Agis. it were better for thee to be called a lover of thine own city. when some one asked him how many " Enough.LYCURGUS. K 269 . said " True. and who was the especially with the oft repeated query " He who is best of the Spartans. 1 Chapter xix. and to let slip no speech which did not have some thought or other worth serious attention. VOL. as he showed him kindness. 1 are the when a troublesome fellow Demaratus. to Spartans there were. following. replied men evil away. he said heard the bird herself. when one of them was invited to hear " I have a man imitate the nightingale. For instance. when certain ones were least like thee. on reading : : : : : : the epitaph " : Tyranny's fires they were trying to quench when panoplied Ares Slew them Selinus looked down from her gates on their death. of which spoke. 1. remarked My good Sir." And another." keep And even from their jests it is possible to judge of For it was their wont never to talk their character. good Sir. we are indeed the only Hellenes who have learned no evil from you." praising the Eleians for their just and honourable conduct of the Olympic games. that in his own city he was called a lover " of Sparta." And Pleistoanax. c5 xx." And Archidamus. ' was pestering him with ill-timed questions. 2-5 I not devoid of grace.

TCOV TpecrdvTwv. " evravOa Kadicrac oOev OVK ecrnv v eiTrev. teal Trpay/AaTi/cfjs. a-rijvai Trpecr/SvTepw" 771^ /jLarayv elSo? OVK aroTTco? on ovv T&V a7ro(f)0jteal ~\. (Biov.e\rj jrai- 53 TJTTOV e&TrovBd^eTO TT}? ev TO?? \6<yois evi]\ia<i KOI KaQapiOTrjTOS.dx<T0ai" ere/so? Be rt? ISwv ev a " Oa/cevovras eVl Sitypcov dvOpwirov^. "M 76. <w? d\yivbv eirayyeXia T Tat? Trpo? irpeTrovaa dpeTrjv /jLeya\av%ia 2 <bv eveKa Se^y^aTo? ov %eip6v CCTTIV ev TL TrpoTpLwv yap 'xpp&v KaTa Ta? evejKaaOai. ftiovvrwv crvvicrTa/iAevwv ev Tat? eo/OTat?. d<pe\r)<? Kal Kal a6pwjrTO<s eVl Trpdy/Aacri eirawoi <ydp fjcrav co? TO.<yeiv TWO. 'H v% Be Trepl ra? wSa? KCU TO. 6 fiev TTOK ^/te? \Ki/jioi 270 .ev 7T/30? o\av avrav " reOvd/cavTi rol avBpes' e&ei jap veavlaKos Be KaTarcad/jLev. "d\\a So? yu-ot TWV dTro/CTeivovrcov ev r& fj.? fjid\\6v eVrt TO <f>i\oa'0(f)e'lv rj TO TO fiev TOIOVTOV wcrre XXI.PLUTARCH'S LIVES .'* eiTre. KevTpov el^ev eyepTi/cov r]V OVJJLOV op/tr}? ev6ovcria)Bov<." TOV eirayyeXXofjievov avrw BcoaeLV d\Kcrv ev rc5 ^decrQai. rjdoTTOiols." ciTrev. 6 d$>ejj. d\\a KCU teal TO. /j. TO)V TeOvTJKOTCDV V7Tp T?}? Kal ^royoi.

corresponding to the three ages." The character of their apophthegms. picturing their grievous and ill-starred life and such promises and boasts of valour as befitted Ot the last. their training in music and poetry concern than the emulous purity of any their speech. . nay. 5-xxi. They were for the most part praises of men who had died for Sparta. and the choir of old sing first : men would " We once did deeds of prowess and were strong 271 young men. ." Another. "Don't do that. " The fires the seeing I men sit seated oil stools in a privy. said. Nor was effectual effort the style of them was simple and unaffected. said let : xx. was such as to justify the remark that love of wisdom rather than never where I love of bodily exercise was the special characteristic of a Spartan. amiss to cite one. then.LYCURGUS." . by way of illustration. but give me some of the kind that kill fighting." And a youth. it may not be the different ages. said " : May cannot give place to an elder. and their themes were serious and edifying. when some one promised to give him game-cocks that would die fighting. . calling them blessed and happy censure of men who had played the coward. their very songs had a stimulus that roused the spirit and awoke enthusiastic and less serious a XXI. They had three choirs at their festivals. 2 men deserved to die they should have burn out entirely. .

(first hand) 2 'PeVet Scaliger's correction of epnei. and S jre'ipav Aoj8e (come ae a ry). p. rot' av\ov /ca/i<W9 pvO/uovs dvaXaftwv.6/3oyiiei/o? * S ^ -\ " >- / P. i o e T/HTO? o TWZ.ifMvtfcTKa)v. ot? eypcovro eTrdyovres rot? TroXe/uo^?. e y' 3 Xw? TOJ)? 7T/9O? e az/ rt9 (bv en eTTicmcras rot? tad* T^a? eWa Si(T(jt)^eTo. Bergk. 35). 51 (Alcman. i/jL6V en be X?. ^ragr. yua^ai? 1 TrpoeOvero co? rat? Mouaai? r?}? dva/J. iii. 544 e.v jap ourco? 7T7roi>rjKe "Ey^' afyfjid re vecov teal Sifca Trepl TWV Xuyeia fJLOVLWV evpvdyvia Od\\i -- Kal fjiovcra /cal vecov /3ov\di yepovrwv dv&pwv dpicrrevovTi a al MoO<ra Kal dykata. pp. teal /ji/3aTr)pLov<. Cf. : 272 . 01) rjyijaaiTO /cal rov TepTravSpov nal rbv /novai/cfj 6 HivSapov Tr)V dvbpeiav TTJ /J. eoiK. TratSaa? aii7a<r5eo Cobet. avya&beo. KLKal yap ev rat? o /tat PeVet 2 yap dvra T&> a-iSdpw GO? o AaKwviKos Tronjrrjs elprjKe.a Kal TO Ka\a)<. 238 b. as in Morals. oe 7 a/i.?. Or. 4 Z-yr. yap ' a/j.fji<.PLUTARCH'S LIVES o Se TWV aKjjLafyvTwv / v A ^ / A/j.

of which some specimens were still extant in my time. and if you wish. the Muse. And young men's conquering spears." . behold and see. when charging upon their foes. that of the boys. king sacrificed to the Muses." Justice." The Spartans are thus shown to be at the same time most musical and most warlike " In equal poise to match the sword hangs the sweet art of the harpist. 2-4 : We are so young men would respond now. and makes himself familiar with the marching songs which they used. i. 4 p. of their training. and of the firm 1 Fragment 199. and joyousness. Poet. 448. to the accompaniment of the flute. he will conclude that Terpander and Pindar were right in associating The former writes thus of the valour with music. the as their poet says. 273 ." In short. For just before their battles. walks the broad streets And Pindar l says : " There are councils of Elders. reminding his warriors. .LYCURGUS. if one studies the poetry of Sparta. would " We shall be sometime mightier men by far than both. Bergk. as it would seem. And dances. Gr." And then sing the third choir. Lacedaemonians : " Flourish there both the spear of the brave and the Muse's clear message. Then the " choir of xxi. too. Lyr.

T?)? TCOI' ecfrrjftatv \j^ rjXiKias. r)$ri Be a-vvTTa<yfjievr)<. 274 ..( CIO TTyOO? TOV? a^WZ/a?. /cal XXII.r}v \nrapav re d7ro/LLvy]jJbovevovT6<.aipav r cTTefyavovardai Traprf y ye\\e Trdcn /cal TO av\elv e/ceXeue av\Tjrd<. xiii. wcrre (JLOVOLS dv6pci)7rwv e/ceivois T?}? et? Toi^ TToXe/jiov ddKi'^ew^ dvaTravcnv TT}? TOP TToKe/Jiov. Reip. with Xenophon. Troiel. <yavpicoai ica ~ \ c. teal fjiev icbp. p re 7rpo9 TOZ/ av\ov e/jiftaivovTwv /cal /J. Trepl ra o-/c\rjp6rara K(*)\vov fca\\u>TTLi/ KO^V teal Koa^ov oirXwv KOI WTTTO*?. yap 1 <po/3ov OVT6 QV/JLOV eyyiveaflai . 7r\eovdovra : irap6vTo>v (in the sight 1 MSS. AvKOvpyov \6yov (po/Septorepovs. Lac. AraXou? evTrpeTreaTepovs 2 %/ooi)? e^pwvro 8e rovs KOI Tiva rov? Se ala- Trapa ra? arpareiaf. Kacrropeiov o /cal f roi'9 3 aytta S' e^rjp'Xjev e/J>/3aT7]piov nraiavos. ovra) /cal dvvov rot? elvat. fiaXicrra Trepl rov$ cj)ai- KIV&VVOVS eOepdirevov rrjv vecrOai KOI o'laKetcpifAevrjv. Trapa ra \6yov TWOS ata9 Trape^waL ra? . d\\d 7T/oaco9 ovre VTTO TOV [Jie\ovs dyo/jLevwv eVl TOI> KIV^VVOV. (j) z^eot? Trapel^ov. ort. cocrre r dfj.a /cal Ka raTr\riK'nKr]v rrjv O^TLV elvai. Trepl TT}? #0/^779.IJT (TTTao-fjia Std- TTOLOVVTWV ev Tij (frdXayyi fi'rjre rat9 at l\apco<> x/ruvat9 6opv(3ov[jL. Coraes.PLUTARCH'S LIVES iva wen Trp6%eipot. TroXe/jiLcw aXay^709 avrwv /cal ra)v /3acu\v<. 8. Sintenis and Bekker of). afia rrfv re ^ip.vwv. Tore 1 Se KOI rot? veots ov/c r?}? dywyr) ? eTravievres. r Seivd.

excessive fury 1 is likely to possess men so disposed. prance and neigh for the contest. so that they were the only men in the world with whom war brought And when at last a respite in the training for war. and the Their bodily exercises. in order that they might be prompt to face the dread issue. and permitted them to beautify their hair and ornament their arms and clothing. Therefore they wore their hair long as soon as they ceased to be youths. 1 XXII. The Greek of this sentence is obscure. and the translation doubtful. rejoicing to see them. and might perform such martial deeds as would be worthy of some record. less rigorous during their campaigns. they were drawn up in battle array and the enemy was at hand. too. were ugly more terrible.LYCURGUS. commanded all the warriors to set garlands upon their heads. 275 . they relaxed the severity of the young men's discipline. without any gap in their line of battle. then he himself led off in a marching paean. that a fine head of hair made the handsome more comely still. like horses. and with no confusion in their souls. and ordered the pipers to pipe the strains of the hymn to Castor. and it was a sight equally grand and terrifying when they marched in step with the rhythm of the flute. but calmly and cheerfully moving with the strains of Neither fear nor their hymn into the deadly fight. In time of war. too. and particularly in times of danger they took pains to have it glossy and well-combed. remembering a certain saying of Lycurgus. xxi. 3 decisions they had made. 4-xxn. and in other ways their young warriors were allowed a regimen which was less curtailed and rigid. the king sacrificed the customary shegoat.

<f)ei8oi>Tat. yeyove Sia elirev avTw. et'/co? <f)povr)/jLa ^er Be e'A-TrtSo? <TTLV. TLpo rov /3acn5 Xeo)? Terayfj-evos fjia^ovjuai Tot? 7roA. XXIII. /jLeiSidaavra. r) dvBpb? 276 eTTivoia rrpaov Kal 77/309 elpijvrjv otVet&)9 " elvai. aXX' Gv Kal Opdaovs. d\\a TTOVW KaTa7ra\aL(Tai>Ta rov dvTaycovicrTrjV. yevecrOai Kal r)v Tro\\.8o/jievcov avTU) yu. Se^afJ-evov. Avrbv Be rov KvKOVpyov 'Imrias uev o cro</ucrTr?9 TroXe/Jii/cwrarov (frycri." r/oeocrov eKJBe^rdfJievoL Be Kal vLKrja-avTes eSiw/cov (3ai(jL>o-a(j6aL TO viKrifjia rfj (f)vyfj rwv TroXe/xtco^.evovs Be ov /JLOVOV /ca\bv rovro al %pr)criijiov. a>9 ." <j)dvat. rou fj. uiKr)<> 2 \ireiav.TTtoi? $t. E*\\7]ViKov <f>oveveiv dird\eyo[i. " r?}? VIKV)<S . Be TWV evBiBovrtov. et'Sore? yap ol fia^b^evoL rrpos ainovs OTL TOU? vtyicrTauevovs dvaipovcn. Kairoi <j)aai rives.evoi<.eveiv TO fyevyeiv rjyovvro \vaire\ea-repov.o)v Kal 009 euTretpov crrpareiwv. OVTG yevvalov ovre ical . 6 Be Trpa^ecos ev elp^vrj KaracrrrjcaorBai rrjv TTOCOIKC Be Kal rr}9 'Q\vfji7riaKf)<? eKe%eipia<. Imrewv rrevri]KOvra 7r\rj~ v rerpaywvw a^jaari rerayaevcov. QiXocrTeQavos Be Kar* ov\a/jiovs ra)V imrewv Biavo/^rjv AvKOvpyM rrpocrriOrjaiv elvai Be rov ov\auov. " Tt cro^ irXeov.r.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ?9 ovrco BiaKi/J. 4 'Ea>?e rcai $a<Ji o eavrov GTeavirrjv ywva 54 ye Tiva Xprj/jLarGov 7ro\\)v ev 'O\v/j. rrjv $09 eKelvos crvvearrja-ev. a>9 rov 6eov crv/jLTrapovros.6yLttot?. w A(LKWV. etra c ev0v<$ dve^wpovv.

and says he engaged in no warlike undertakings. indeed the design of the Olympic truce would seem bespeak a man of gentleness. Hippias the Sophist says that Lycurgus himself was very well versed in war and took part in many campaigns. was a troop of fifty horsemen in a But Demetrius the Phalerean square formation. 3 -xxm. with a smile king when I fight our enemies. knowing that they slew those who resisted them. some one said to him then " What advantage. thinking it ignoble and unworthy of a Hellene to hew men to pieces who had given up the fight and abandoned the field. but it was also useful. And this was not only a noble and magnanimous policy. and Philostephanus attributes to him the arrangement of the Spartan cavalry by "oulamoi." explaining that the "oulamos." When they had conquered and routed an enemy. but showed mercy to those who yielded to them. hast thou got from thy victory ? " in front of I shall stand my answered. believing as they do that Heaven is their ally. and predisposed to And yet there are some who say." as constituted by him. they pursued him far enough to make their victory secure by his flight. : : and then at once retired. For their antagonists. The king marched against the enemy in close companionship with one who had been crowned And they tell of a victor in the great games. and after When a long struggle outwrestled his antagonist.LYCURGUS. to 277 . And established his constitution in a time of peace. O " he Spartan. xxn. 2 but rather a firm purpose full of hope and courage. were apt to think flight more advantageous than resistance. certain Spartan who refused to be bought off from a contest at Olympia by large sums of money. as peace. XXIII.

v/covpyov ov Tr pocre^eiv ovSe KOivwveiv ev apxfl T fc irepl TOV "Ityirov. SiKaGTripiwv OVTWV. Kal 7rvQ6/JL6v6s Tiva Bifcrjv dpyLas 278 . OVTW cvv^LaK eopT?]V evBo^oTepav tcai fteftcuoTepav fcara- XXIV.aKapiwv a Trapecncevaae rot? eavTOv TroXtrat? o Av/covpyos. /cal Siairav a>pLcr/i. eTriSrj/jLwv Se a7ro(j)opav Trjv elprj ^evrjv T6\ovvT$. olov ev aTpaTOTreSy Trj 7ro\et. real oX.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TOV A. ^p^jjiaTLfffjiov Se (rvvayGoyrjv e^o^ro? epywSrj teal Trpay/naTeiav ovS* OTLOVV e&ei.evov. "I<f)LTOv rjyrja'dfj.evov aKuvaai 8e (pwvrjv toGTrep dvOptoTcov TWOS e'oTnaOev eTmiiJLWVTOS avT& KOI Oavfjid^ovros on. SLOL TO fcojjii&fj TOV TT\OVTOV atyi\ov yeyovevat Kal 3 aTifjLOV.w? vofJii^ovTes ov% avTwv.a)v rj 2 avTol Trapd TWV Trpea-ftvTepcov. elvai SieTeXovv. TT} 8o<. TOU? TroXtra? ov TrporpeTrercu Koivwvelv yvpew TOV rrjv W9 Se ^teracrTyaa^e^TO? Oeiov TparrecrOai. ol Se e^Xcore? avTols elpyd^ovTO TTJV yfjv.djbLevo<s rjv. dffrQovia cr%oX^5. real ovSajjuov o (f)Qeyj. 'H ' Se TraiSeia ^e^pt TWI> evrj\iKwv SieovSels jap rjv dfieifitevos a>? J3ov\TO ^ijv.V a^aaOai fiavavcrov TO Trapdirav OVK efaiTO. /cat TI TMV %p'r)O'ijJ. el /AT? TI TrpdrTeiv erepov d\\a eVicr/coTroO^Te? rou? TraiSas.vr)v /cal SiaTpifirjv irepl ra KOIVCL. ot? Te^yr)^ fj. /cal ^avQdvovT^ yap ev TI TOVTO TWV Ka\wv rjv /cal jj. d\\d Tvy^dveiv aXX&)? 67rt$r)/jiovvTa KOI Oewp. Tt? *K6r)vr]cn.

LYCURGUS. there was no need of it at all. one of them who was sojourning at Athens when the courts were in session. since he forbade their engaging in any mech?nical art whatsoever. or learning it themselves from their For one of the noble and blessed privileges elders. 2-xxiv. training of the Spartans lasted into No man was allowed to the years of full maturity. 4. the Helots tilled their ground for them. he concluded that the voice was from heaven. he in the great festival did not see the speaker anywhere. but in their city. and as for moneymaking. live as he pleased. and paid them the 1 Therefore it was that produce mentioned above. and be a spectator at the games that he heard behind him. on turning round. . considering that they belonged entirely to their country and not to themselves. was laid useful which Lycurgus provided for his fellow-citizens. and assisted him in giving the festival a more notable arrangement and a more . with its laborious efforts to amass wealth. Besides. 3 Hermippus reminds us. 279 . watching over the boys. was abundance of leisure. but happened to come that way by chance. enduring basis. if no other duty XXIV. and therefore betook himself to Iphitus. and learned that a certain 1 Chapter viii. that at the outset Lycurgus had nothing whatever to do with Iphitus and his enterprise. they always had a prescribed regimen and employment in public service. The upon them. what seemed to be a human voice. since wealth awakened no envy and brought no honour. xxin. however. as in a military encampment. and either teaching them some thing. chiding him and expressing amazement that he did not urge his fellow-citizens to take part and since.

T^i/d? KOI TOV ^pr) IJLCLT icr fjiov ao"%o\iav. after Bryan. ore JAW <ye veu>T6poi TpidKovra erwv TO ov rccneftaivov 6i? dyopdv. 1 MSS. TT/V eXevOepias eaXco/cco? ovro) SofXoTiyoeTre? rjyovvTO Trjv irepl ra? BIKCII fitjre 4 8e. iBpvaaa'flat ^walfiios i&Topei.PLUTARCH'S LIVES KOI Kal TrpOTre/jLTTo/jLevov VTTO rcov <p[\cov fapovTwv. d\\a /JLTJ TO TrXeicrrov rr}? rffjiepa^ Trepl ra Kal ra9 /caXof/ze^a? Xecrya? dvaaipeKal 'yap et? rai^ra? crwiovTes eTrieiKws v /^er' aXX^Xwi/. yap auTO? ^^ aKparaxs avcrrrjpbs 6 AvaXXa /cat TO TO) FeXcoTO? dya\p.. 280 . 7r\eove%la<$ /JuJTe airopias CLVTOLS Trapovar]^. l %oyool Trepl &e Kal 6a\lai /cal evw)(iai Siai-pi/Bal re 6r)pa<$ Kal yvpvdcna Kal /JLTJ rbv ajravra %povov eTre^wpia^ov. rr)i> $idv waTrep ijSvcr^La TOV TTOVOV Kal T?}? 1 2 \ev6eplas.driov tyeyetv. ef~e\nrov a/J. Ot epyov ZTraivelv TI rcov perd Treu&a? /cat yeXwros. alv^pov rjv a-vve^ws opaffOai Trepl ravra Biarpiftovcriv.a Sia 55 TWV avyyevtov /cal TWV epao-rwv eiroiovvro ra? rot? 8e TrpearfBvrepois ava^Kaia^ olKOVopia^. e'XaVTro<f)epovTos ei? vovOe&lav Kal SiopOwcriv. Sintenis . &>? etAro?. e'Setro Sel^ai j3apeu><$ rou? l crvfJLTrap- ovras avTW Tt? IGTIV o &i/cr}v. efpfav with Coraes. XXV. ouSe^o? fjifjiv^p. Sintenis and Bekker.evot. a rco vo /ucr /jLan. dX\. iaoVT\eiav T/7TO? Be ev evTropua KOL paartoVTjs Si ^e^evr^fjiei'ri^. ra>i> rj 7T/3O? xprjfjLaTia-fjiov ^peiav dyopalov avvre2 Xo^Tcoi" aXXa TO 7r\elcrTOv rjv TT)? irapciTrav &iaTpi{3r]<.

And law-suits. not even Lycurgus himself was immoderately severe . indeed. Sosibius tells us that he actually dedicated a little statue of Laughter. begged the bystanders to show him the man who had been So servile a thing fined for living like a freeman. Choral feasts and festivals and hunting and bodily exercise and social converse occupied their whole time. nay. for the elderly men to be continually seen loitering there. but and equality in well-being was established there. vanished from among them with their gold and silver knew neither greed nor want. making no allusions to the problems of money-making or of exchange." 1 spent their time suitably with one another. 3 -xxv. with jesting and laughter which made the path For to instruction and correction easy and natural. 2 for idleness and was going home in great distress of mind and attended on his way by sympathetic and sorrowing friends. and introduced seasonable jesting into their drinking parties and like 1 Places where men assembled for conversation.LYCURGUS. they "leschai. XXV. did they regard the devotion to the mechanical arts and to money-making. 281 . dances and easy living based on simple wants. but had their household wants supplied at the hands of And it was disreputable their kinsfolk and lovers. for they did not go into the market-place at all. Those who were under thirty years of age coinage. when they were not on a military expedition. Athenian had been fined xxiv. they were chiefly occupied there in praising some noble action or censuring some base one. of course. instead of spending the greater part of the called day in the places of exercise that are For if they gathered in these.

epofievwv avT&V TTOTepov ISia Trdpeicrtv rj 8^/xocrta 7re/j. fiifcpov Sew e'^ecrrwra? eavrwv VTT evOovcnacriJiov KOI e <j)i\OTi/jLia<.. TroXXou? Se av&pas Aarce&aifjiajv e%ei rr]vov Kappovas" XXVI. CLTTCV.(f)0 cures. Toi/9 Se yepovras avrbs /J*ev.eyere. /cal ft -v ' -\ on v v 282 . crv/jLTroaia /cal ras To oXou? THTIV elvat. " AiKa elirev. %evoi' KaXos f*>ev yap TIV /cal dyaObs 6 Bpacrt'Sa?. TT}? TrarptSo?' &>? ecrrt /cat (frcovals avrwv aTrrjei aTroOecopfjcrai TTJV Bid- 4 voiav.ez> 7a/) TlaiSap^ro? /Jia\a ouy^ ey/cpLOels et? iaKocriovs ^>at8p /3\Tiova<. /caipbv els TO. a>? % a^LKOfjievoL rives els Aa/ceSai/jiova rwv elcrf)d\ov irpos avrrjv. 009 eip^rai. aXX' waTrep ras ue\irras rw KOLVW <rvu(f>vels ovras ael /cal /xer* aXX^Xto^ eiXov/jievovs Trepl rov ap^ovra. 6 yu.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Kara roiavras e o\ov eWi^e rovs TroXiras /XT) /3ov\ecrdaL erriaraaOaL rear ISiav %fjv. 'xwfjiev. rjpu>rri(Tev el B/oacrt^a? arceOave /cal ras ^rcdpras /jbeyaXwovrcov 8e eKeivwv rbv avbpa teal 6 a)S OVK er^et roLOvrov d\\ov rj ^irdprrj' \eyovrwv " * ^ TV/T V ft * *' co Mr) A. aL/ca arrorvISla" r) 3e RpacriSov fjwjrrjp *Ap7iXeft)^t?. ^/xocrta. /carecrrrjae rb irpwrov e/c rwv aeraa-^ovrcov rov /3ov\ev/jiaros' v&repov Se dvrl rov reXevrwvros era^e KaQiardvai rov apiarov dperfj KpiOevra rwv vrrep e)JKOvra err) yeyovorwv. rv^wfiev. avrov TpiaKoaiovs 1} oXuAryoart^a? Se o Trpecrftevcov TT/OO? /3acriXea)? aTparr)yov<i /JLeO^ erepwv.

when he failed to be chosen among the three hundred best men. as I have said. in a private. when some Amphipolitans who had come to Sparta paid her a visit. be traced also in some of their utterances. as were. to xxv. clustering together about their leader. Strangers . The senators were at first appointed by 1 Lycurgus himself. 283 . he trained his fellow-citizens to have neither the wish nor the ability to live for themselves . : than he. For instance. In a word. And of all the contests in . said that Sparta had not such another. Paedaretus. Argileonis. the mother of Brasidas. 7 f. on being asked by them whether the embassy was there in a private or a " If we succeed. 2-xxvi. diversions. replied capacity if we fail. it i sweeten. Brasidas was noble and brave. asked them if Brasidas had died nobly and in a manner worthy Then they greatly extolled the man and of Sparta. in a public public capacity." XXVI.LYCURGUS. but like bees they were to make themselves always integral parts of the whole community. their hardships and meagre fare. one of an embassy to the generals of the Persian king. 1 Chapter v. but Sparta has many better men : . Polycratidas. went away with a very glad countenance. to which she " answered Say not so." Again. almost beside themselves with enthusiasm and noble ambition. and This idea can to belong wholly to their country. as if rejoicing that the himself. from those who but afterwards he arranged shared his counsels that any vacancy caused by death should be filled by the man elected as most deserving out of those above sixty years of age. city had three hundred better men than And again.

rd^icnov ev ia"xypols Icr^vporarov.ev ryvvvro n\T](jiov et? ol'Krjfjia. Bevrepas Be fiepiBos avrfi . 7r\r)V OTI TT/OCOTO? rj SevTepo? oTTOcrrocrovv eiTj rwv elcrayo/jLevoyv. TroXt? ravrrj ripa ry rparce^r).ov Trdvrwv. vovres. OVK rj OTW rj yevoiro. 4 rwv re yvvai/ces eyKco/Aid^ovcraL Si dperrjv fcal rbv f3[ov e Be eTTiniBeLwv etcatno^ avrco Beijrvov rcapa- TroXXat 56 riOels e\eyev on . jap w? raXXa ov% 6/j.ev aXXa 284 eyivero crvv7J0a)<i. O-^TLV ov~% opoovres ov&e opw/Jievoi.. teal TOU? d/jLL\\w/jievov<> e/cpivov. a>? eiTrelv. T/OITO? orw Be TOVTOV dvijyopevov. fcpaTOS ev TroXtreta. dOpoKrOeicrris avSpes aiperol tcaOelprrjv /j. aXX' ev dyadois KCU crcofipocriv dpiarov ica\ KpiOevra vi/crjTijpiov c^ew crwfypovea-rarov eBei T?}? aperi}? &ia fiiov TO rfj a-vfjLTrav. 7repie\0o)v Be et? TO avcrairiov diryei' KCU rd /j. cricoTrrj aXX' efcdcrrov Kara K\r)pov elaajofievov KOI 3 SiaTTOpevo/nevov rrjv eKK\rjcrLav. e^oi/re? ovv ol /jLcivovro TT? /cpavyTs TO /Aeyeos. Kvpiov teal ovra Koi davdrov KOI eyivero &e < drifJLias oXw? TWV rj Kplcris rovSe rbv rpoTrov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TWV 01)8' ev dvOpwirois dycovcov ovros elvai ov yap ev ra^ecri. rrjv Se ftof) Kpavyrjv JJLQVOV d/covovres eKK\r}crLa^ovTU>v. yevoiro KOI /JLeyicrTrj. 6 Be vrefyavwcrdiJLevos Treptyei TOVS 0eov<$' eiirovro Be TroXXol veoL tyXovvres rov dvBpa KOI jueyaXvTrXetcrT?.

who celebrated his excellence in Each songs. the cries of the assembly decided between the competitors. nor the strongest of the strong.tablets with them. or third. who praised and extolled him. as the lot fell. of his relations and friends set a repast before him. who had writing. so here. recorded in each case the loudness of the shouting. These did not appear in a body. not knowing for whom it was given. Then the secluded judges. but the best and wisest of the good and wise who was to be elected. chosen men were shut up in a room near by so that they could neither see nor be For seen. but a second portion of food was set before him. him they The victor then set a wreath declared elected. 1-4 the world this would seem to have been the greatest and the most hotly disputed. but only that he was introduced first. xxvi. as a victor's prize for excellence. as in other matters. An assembly of the people having been convened. the following manner. with the most and loudest shouting. and have for the rest of his life. honour and dishonour. upon his head and visited in order the temples of He was followed by great numbers of the gods.LYCURGUS." finished his circuit. but only hear the shouts of the assembly. and so on. saying: "The When he had mess-table. as well as by many women. and passed silently through the assembly. what I may call the supreme power in the state. he went off to his Here he fared in other ways as usual. Whoever was greeted second. For it was not the swiftest of the swift. and all the The election was made in greatest issues of life. 285 . lord as he was of life nnd death. but each one was introduced separately. young men. and dwelt on the happiness of his life. city honours thee with this table.

^ 1 veovs. after Bryan aurJs (himself). TavTrjv avTos i]v fjiaXicfra Tvy^dvoi Trpo(TeKa\elTO.ev avrot?. TTJ Se SaSeKaTrj Qvcravras e ovSev yap rp dpybv \veiv TO TrdOos. ol? dvayKalov fy evTV<y)(dvovTa<s del ov^ ayeaOai Kal KaTaa-^fjiaTi^eaOaL TO KO\OV. eVetra avvdaTTTeiv ovSev p/t] wcne eia&ev. XXVII. TOVS d-fyapevovs ve/cpov crcoyuaro? 77 Sia rd(p(t>v SfeX^oz^ra?. rj\ov fJLevrjv viro TWV a\\wv Trpoteal TO. Trpwrov ev yap fivrj- SeicriSaipoviav TOI)? veicpovs. eTr^pd^raL >e TOVVOfUt Bd^ravTa^ OVK %fjv TOV vercpov. 7r\r)v ev Tco\efJiU) Kal <yvvaiKo<? TWV iepwv diroev d\\d TO crco/AO. ov8e d<pei/Jievov. KOI BiSovs TTJV polpav e\eyev Xa/3&>i> on ware KaKeii'rjv dpta-reiov e/ceivp SlSwaiv.epa<> eV8e/ca- ^rifj>r)Tpi TCO\LV. : 7T/30? Coraes and Bekker. airacrav rfj TTO\I KOI 7T\7jaiov ej(eiv ra rwv lepwv OVK rat? roiavrais e/ca)\vo'. 2 Oewres </>om/at KOI (frvXXois e'Xata? 7repiiaT\\ov. 1 yvvcu/cwv. TapaTTGcrOai fjLrjS oppa)Belv rbv Odvarov &>9 fJuaivovTO. d\\a Tracri KaTefiiyvve rot? dpeTr)<$ Tiva %fj\ov rj KaT67TVKvov Ka r)/j. 286 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES e^>v\aTTev apd/juevo^' Sei7rvov CTTL rat? Ovpais TOU (piSiTiov /cat perk TO TWV olicelwv TI[JLWV Trapovcrwv yvvaiKwv. crvvrpotyous TTOLWV TOL*? S^ecri KOI avvrfie. Kal dv\o)V /JLTJV irepl ra? /j.

After the supper was women who were related to him being now assembled at the door of the mess-hall. over. they were to sacrifice to Demeter and cease their sorrowing. To inscribe the name of the dead upon the tomb was not allowed. nothing was left untouched and neglected. they simply covered the body with a scarlet robe and olive leaves when they laid it away. but with all the necessary details of life he blended some commendation of virtue or rebuke of vice and he filled the city full of good examples. he called to him the one whom he most esteemed and gave her the portion he had saved. whose continual presence and society must of necessity exercise a controlling and moulding influence upon those who were walking the path of . the xxvi. 4 -xxvn. and to have memorials of them near the sacred places. saying that he had received it as a meed of excellence. thus making the youth familiar with such sights and accustomed to them. In the second place. and had no horror of death as polluting those who touched a corpse or walked among graves. she too was lauded by the rest of the women and escorted by them to her home. 2 which he took and put by. and as such gave it to her. he did away with all superstitious terror by allowing them to bury their dead within the city. He set apart only a short time for mourning. so that they were not confounded by them.LYCURGUS. unless it were that of a man who had fallen in war. 287 . Indeed. Furthermore. he permitted nothing to be buried with the dead . twelfth. or that of a woman who had died in sacred office. honour. XXVII. To begin with. Lycurgus made most excellent regulations in the matter of their burials. eleven days on the . Upon this.

afia jap \6yovs i'ne.9 Icrroprj/ce.ias. el ye ev TOVTO TWV AvKovpyou 'jroXLTevfjid'Twv Tavrrjv av e'irj /cal TW TlXarcow Trepl T-^9 7roXtreta9 /cal rov dvSpos rcov vetov 2 eveipya&fjievT] So^av. r\v Se Toiavrrjol dpxovres Bia %p6vov TOU9 fid\Lcna vovv eyeiv 0)9 'A/3io-ToreX7. ifKp /cal irapeia-peovra^ 6/9 rrjv TTO\IV CLTT^- \avvev. o rjfiepav ^e fie a /cal T6Vou9. ^evifca crvvdyovTas rjOrj KOI ytu/u??iwv dTrai&evrwv /cal 7ro\iTv/jidrwif SiadXXa /cal TOU? adpoi^ojaevovs eV ovbevl . a>? 5e ?rpo9 717309 dvbpelav.KJi^vai %ivov<S' \6yoi $e Kaivoi Kpiaeis Kaivds 67ri(f)epovo-iv. eVSew? Be fca\ov/jLev7j ^X vo<^ v$ Kpvirreia Trap avTols. dp/JLOViav. frf%eipLSia /cal Tpotyrjv dvay/caiav. e dvdyfcr) TrdOr] TroXXa <j>vecr0ai Kal Trpoaipeaeis djK'r] fra? TT/JO? Trjv KaOearcoa-av iroXiTeiav. eviot rot? Av/covpyov vo^oi^.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 "O0ev OV& teal aTToSij/Jielv eBw/ce TO?? /3ouXoyLiei>o9 TT\avaa-0ai. Sio paXkov wero xpfjvai <j>v- \drreiv crerai rrjv TTO\IV OTTW? r)6wv OVK rj d Trowrjpwv 'Ei> o-co/jLarctyv vocrepwv XXVIII. aireKpvirTov eavrovs 288 . aSi/cta? fJLev ovv TOVTOIS rjv ovbev I 7T\eovJ. KOI TT^O? apeTrjv KCLKOV n TWOS VTrdp^wcnv.

3-xxvm. . In the Funeral Oration of Pericles. The magistrates from time to time sent out into the country at large the most discreet of the young warriors. as Aristotle says it was. Now in all this there is no trace of injustice or arrogance. ii.LYCURGUS. This secret service was of the following nature. assuming foreign habits and imitating the lives of peoples different forms of who were without training and lived under government. scattered into obscure and out of the way places. Nay more. as 1 Thucydides says. but defective in producing righte- The so-called "krupteia. 8 Laws. 1. but rather that they might not become in any wise teachers of evil. 39. XXVIII. not because he feared they might become imitators of his form of government and learn useful lessons in virtue. ousness." or secret service. of the Spartans. Therefore he thought it more necessary to keep bad manners and customs from invading and filling the city than it was to keep out infectious diseases. For along with strange people. declaring them efficacious in producing valour. he actually drove away from the city the multitudes which streamed in there for no useful purpose. This was the reason xxvu. equipped only with daggers and such In the day time they supplies as were necessary. strange doctrines must come in and novel doctrines bring novel decisions. 289 . if this be really one of the institutions of Lycurgus. 630 d. p. from which there must arise many feelings and resolutions which destroy the harmony of the existing political order. may have given Plato also 2 this opinion of the man and his civil polity. 2 did not permit why he them to live abroad at their pleasure and wander in strange lands. which some attribute to the laws of Lycurgus.

290 . 5 Sto /cat <f>acriv varepov ev rfj rj/3aia)v et? T^V AatcwviKrjv Grpareia rovs d\iaKOjjLevovs eTXcoTa? Ke\evo/jLevovs aBeiv rd TepjrdvBpov /cat 'AX/e//. ev Aa/ceBai/AOVi. (incl. vvKTcop Be Kariovres et? ra? T&V i\ot)T(DV TOV dXicrKo/Aevov aTreacparrov. cf. orav et? TVJV dp^rjv rot? OTTO)? evayes rj TO Be Kal raXXa Tpa^ew^ /cat Trpoaefyepovro irlveiv /ecu aurot?.az/o5 /cat 2<7revBovTos TOV Adfccovos irapairelaOai. Be varepov aTravras a(paveis rj Sicr^tXtou? 6Wa?.r)T6 vcrrepov e^eiv Tiva \eyeiv orw 2 4 ^Le^Odprfcrav. wcne rovs XeyovTas. aBetv l fcal %opei.a\iaTa eXevOepov elvat /cat TOV Bov\ov TOVS aypovs after Coraes. TroXXa/a? Be teal rot? dypois 1 7ri7ropev6/jievoi TOV? /cat 3 Kparia-Tovs CLVTWV dvypovv. aypo'is MSS. 80. aTre^ecrdaL Be rwv e\evOepwv. 4 : T<?. <pd<TKOVTCLS OVK e6e\eiv TOU? BecrTrocrvvovs. wcrre TroXvv a/cparoj' ei? ra crvcrcri'ria Trapetcrrjyov TO /neOueiv olov earn Tot? i>e0?. iv. vBiBr)S eV TOt? Tie\O7TOVVr](naKOL^ icrropei TOL? eV* avSpeia TrpoKpiQevras VTTO rwv ^frapTtaTwv aTe^avuxracrOai /AW cb? e\ev6epovs 57 yeyovoras KOL 7repie\06iv ra TWV Oe&v lepd. Thuc.PLUTARCH'S LIVES dveTravovTO. real 'ApiaTOTeXrjs Be fia\iard rovs etyopovs. S) : 2 ZT V Cobet.a<$ %opevei /eaTO/yeXacTTOu?. &><? fiijr fj. Kal TOV e\ei>6epov yu.

and visited the temples of the gods in procession. in order that there might be no impiety in slaying them. 2-5 . as soon as they came into formal declaration of war upon the office. . thus proving the " In correctness of the saying Sparta the freeman is more a freeman than anywhere else in the world.C. in such a way that no man was able to say. they actually traversed the fields where Helots were working and slew the sturdiest and best of them. on the plea that their masters did not allow it. made too. and Spendon the Spartan but they declined to do so. And in other ways also they were harsh and cruel For instance. but a little while afterwards all disappeared. Helots. tells us that the Helots who had been judged by the Spartans to be superior in bravery. in his history of the Peloponnesian 1 war. more than two thousand of them. 80. And therefore in later times. to show the young men what a thing drunkenness was. they say. too. And Aristotle in particular says also that the ephors. set wreaths upon their heads in token of their emancipation. how they came by their deaths. they would force them to the Helots. when the Thebans made their expedition into Laconia. to drink too much strong wine. every Helot whom they caught. and then introduce them into their public messes. So. where they hid themselves and lay quiet but in the night they came down into the highways and killed Oftentimes. * Under Epaminonclas. They also ordered them to sing songs and dance dances that were low and ridiculous. 291 . but to let the nobler kind alone. xxvin. Thucydides.LYCURGUS. Alcman. : 1 iv. 369 B. either then or afterwards. 2 they ordered the Helots whom they captured to sing the songs of Terpander.

crvvayayoov ovv airavras et9 e/c- fxev iKavus o e 7T/909 e%(. Ta9 fjiev ovv roiavras ^aXe7TOT?. TO. eirl 7rp(i)T7jv rw KOCT^W rea wcnrep Kal 6 Kwqcriv jieedos ev ev^pavG^vai TOV Oeov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Bov\ov. fcd\- <ya7n(ra$ TO CLVVCTTOV /cal rrpovolas. (fiepeiv eau<yevo/jiivw Kal atofciv Si eavrrjs. KOL rfy? TroX^reta? KOI SvvajJievr)<. jJLeTpiws d\\a KvpicoraTov e'cTTi Kal /jueyta'TOv OVK av veyKelv TrpoTepov 777)09 avTOVs rj XpijaacrOa dew.ar6i\r)/jifjiei'wv UTT' Be rols edia/JLOis rj KVpiwraTtoV pa^/iLevr]^ l/cavo)? avTOv. TO Bai/J>ovtov XXIX. co avveTTiOeo'OaL TOU? erXcora? yuera Metrcr^^tcop icrropovcri. K\r)(Tiav..? fjnapov ovrct) TT}? avrov TrpaoTrjros u> KpvTTTeias epyov CLTTO KOL Si/caiocrvvrjs /cal TOV rpoTrov. K. ov <$av\ws TeQewp^Kevai TIJV Sia(j)opdv. oeiv ovv eKeivovs e/JL/xeveiv Tot9 vofjiois Kal {Mj&ev a\\do~creiv /joySe /JLeTaKirelv eTrdveicriv e'/c AeX^coi/ awT09' 7rav\6a)v <yap o TL 292 . KOL TrXelcrra rfj " /carca eprydaaaOai KOL /JL^/LCTTOV KIV^VVOV.ra? v&repov ey- 6 TOV aeyav <yevea6ai roi? ^TTapridratf vo/jLi^a). ov yap av eywye Aufcovpyfo aXX?. fid\tcrra fiera creicr/iov.v e^rf Kal u(Hai jjLOViav Kal dpeTrjv T?}9 7roXe&)9. aOdvciTOv avTrjv aiToXnrelv Kal axi 2 et9 TO /jie\\ov.

but that something of the greatest weight and importance remained. so far as human forethought could accomplish the task. now that it last firmly fixed in his civil polity had in operation and moving along its pathway. 8 4G4 B. 37 293 . 2 slave more a slave. and the xxvin. When his principal institutions were at the customs of the people. when the Helots and Messenians rose together up against them.C. 5-xxix. he assembled the whole people. and sufficient growth and strength to support and preserve itself. Plutarch's Cimon. such cruelties were first practised by the Spartans in later times. Cf. They must therefore abide by the established laws and make no change nor alteration was He in them 1 until he came back from Delphi in person c. 3." However." judging of his character from his mildness and To this the voice of justice in all other instances. particularly after the great 1 earthquake. . wrought the widest devastation in their territory. which he could not lay before them until he had consulted the god at Delphi. and brought their city into the greatest peril. Accordingly. therefore ardently desired. just as Plato says 3 that Deity was rejoiced to see His universe come into being and make its first motion. and told them that the provisions already made were sufficiently adapted to promote the prosperity and virtue of the state. and let it go down unchanged to future ages. Timaeus. in my opinion. xvi. to make it immortal. p. 8 See chapter v. the god also bore witness. I certainly cannot ascribe to Lycurgus so abominable a measure as the " krupteia. 2 XXIX. so Lycurgus was filled with joyful satisfaction in the magnitude and beauty of his system of laws.LYCURGUS.

Xt/aa? 76701/009 ev y Kal fiiovv vlov. Q^W^OKQCH xprjcrOai. yLtei/o? eTe\evTr)crev ovv aTroKaprep^a'a^. eyva) /jirj/ceri TO? d(j)e2i>ai. rov op/cov. Kal avTov LKavws TT^O? ev&aipovlav e%eiv So58 KOVVTWV.o\oyovvTO)V TCGLV- TWV TWV a\\wv Tro\iTwv. /cal ov 294 . irdXiTeiq aTTTJpev et9 /SaSi^eiv. TOP en 5 /cal nreTravaOai.e%/3i? Ke\evovTwv Kal yjpv) ere aBai Ty av 67rave\0g 6 Av/Jiavreiov /cat vrpo? u> TO rut Ovaas. ijyov^f)r]vai rcov 7ro\iTiK(ov dvBp&v jj. evSaifjioviav KOI aperrjv TroXea)? aTroKpivapevov Se rov deov Kal /ca\(i)S rfj Ketadai fcal rrjv 7r6\LV e Av/fovpjov %pwfjLevr]v TroXireia. 7. TO 8e TO) 0ew ira\iv Bvaas Kal TOU? /cal (j>i\ov<. op/covs \a/3(t)v Trapa jSaaiXecov /cal TWV yepovTwv. eireLTa Trapa e^/Jievelv yu. fiiov Trapea-Kevaae C /cal T0?9 7roXtVat9 wv Sia TOV (f>v\a/ca Trj KO\WV Kal dyaOwv TOV TTO- OdvaTOV drroXetyeiv. 6/j. /cal 7rpa^e&>9 avTW Te yap a>9 \icrTa Tr)v TeXevTrjv e^eipyacrfievq) TCL /cd\d\r)0a)5 emTe\eLO)a-iv elvat T^9 euSaiuovias. \iTeia /jLexpis av eKelvos 7rave\0y. /3ov\o/jLevois ra)v rrepl wpalov eari.r)Se TOV /3iov TeXo?. rjpc^rricrev el /caXw? ol VO^IOL /cal i/ca- 4 Tvy%dvovcriv. Odvarov d7ro\LTevrov elvai ^rjSe dpyov TO TOV aXX' ev dpeTfjs /xepiSi. jevofjievov. avrov Be Kara\vaai TOV @iov e/covcriays.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 av TW 6ew TCOV /cal &OKTJ Troirfcreiv.

and the ending of his life not void of effect. 3-6 then he would do whatsoever the god thought best. the end of life would actually be a consummation of his good for. considering that even the death of a statesman should be of service to the state. and asked if the laws which he had established were . 295 . But for his own part. he would make his death the guardian. . and afterwards from the rest of the citizens. When they all agreed to this and bade him set out on his journey. took affectionate leave of his friends and of his son. wrought out fully the noblest tasks. of all the blessings he had secured for them during his life. since they had sworn to observe and maintain And he was not his polity until he should return. as it were. he sacrificed again to the god.LYCURGUS. good. and that the city would continue to be held in highest honour while it kept This oracle Lycurgus to the polity of Lycurgus. On reaching the oracle. that they would abide by the established polity and observe it until Lycurgus should come back then he set out for Delphi. appeared to be sufficiently prosperous and happy. tune and happiness and as for his fellow-citizens. but of his own accord to put an end to his life where he was. wrote down. Apollo answered that the laws which he had established were good. and death no longer a terror when he and his friends. he sacrificed to the god. xxix. and sufficient to promote a city's prosperity and virtue. he exacted an oath from the kings and the senators. and sent it to Sparta. moreover. and resolved never to release his fellow-citizens from their oath. He therefore abstained from food till he died. but recognized As for himself. He had reached an age in which life was not yet a burden. since he had as a virtuous deed.

jap TWV (j)6pwv Karacrraai^ ovtc ave(Ti<$ a\X' eVtracri? TT}? 7ro\iT6ias. KO- TvpvVOV<$. OVTOV 296 Treptfjv wcnrep al ^k\KJ<jat fyavevTOs Kal KaTaKOcr/jLov/nevoi.. c5 TrdvTes evdvs eiroiovv TO Trpoa. fj.iTevcrdfj. KOI //.a\\ov S'. OUTW? . TroXXa/^f? ovo' aXX' eva Tre/x-v/racra jjiiav. waTrep ol l TOV 'Hpa/^Xea iJLv6o\oyovaL Seppa Kal . aXX' dvSpos do-KrjTov l XXX. yaer' ^povov erceivov rot? ' AvKovpyov /3aai\ecov ^eKareacrdpwv TOV eh rjv. V7r\rj(7 Tpv(f)ris. evvofjiia^ Ty TroXei Kal 7/76- TOCT- . Kal TroXe/i-of? eftpdfteve Kal crracrei? KaTGTrave.\O7T\OVTLa^ KOL fJiCLTWV. KOI So/covcra TOV &r}[Jiov yeyovevai atyo&porepav e 77 "AyiSos 8e /3acrt\evovTo$ elcreppvr) voTrpwrov ei? Tr)v ^TrdpTrjv. T! TToXt? CLTTO CTKVTdXrjS fLLCLS KCU Tpl- KaTeXve Ta? aSlKov? SvvacrTLas Tvpavvi&as ev rot? TroXiTev/jiacri..2 i^o? vbfjbovs. 65 auro? wv avakwros VTTO T7]V TTaTpiSd (^i.era TOV a KCU TT\OVTOV ^}Xo9 Sta AiKTavSpov. wv 67riKpaTovi>Twv TrpoTepov ov TTOXe<w? r) ^TrdpTij 7ro\iTeiav. aofiov ftiov e%ovcra. xpvaov fcal cipyvpov e/c TOV TTO\/HOV KCLTayaycov Kal TOV? Av/covpyov KaTa7ro~\.PLUTARCH'S LIVES \oyicr p&v TOGOVTOV 7rpo)TevcrV r) *EXXa&o9 ou? evvo/J-ia real &o?.

filled his country with the love of riches and with luxury. Nay rather. but of an individual man under training and full of wisdom. so we may say that Sparta. often without so much as moving a single shield. Sparta led the life. gold and silver flowed into Sparta. observing as she did for five hundred years the laws of Lycurgus. greed and a desire for wealth prevailed through the agency of Lysander. not of a city under a constitution. as the poets weave their tales of Heracles. it really made the aristocracy more powerful. whose commands at once obeyed. institution of the ephors did not weaken. in which no one of the fourteen kings who followed him made any change. But first money different states. though incorruptible himself. and thus subverting the laws of Lycurgus. Such a surplus fund of good government and all justice did the city enjoy. simply with the dispatch-staff and cloak of her envoys. kept Hellas in willing and glad obedience. but rather strengthened the civil polity. who. so long did his city have the first rank in Hellas for good government and reputation. swarm together and array themselves about him. by bringing home gold and silver from the war. xxix. when their leader appears. arbitrated wars. While these remained in force. just as bees. how with his club and lion's skin he traversed the world chastising lawless and savage tyrants. 6-xxx. and though it was thought to have been done in the interests of the people. but merely sending one ambassador. For the down to Agis the son of Archidamus. put down illegal oligarchies and tyrannies in the XXX. and quelled seditions. in the reign ot Agis.LYCURGUS. 2 deceived in his expectations. 297 . and with money.

alai> oiKovvres "EiXXrjves. eiTrovTO? T^O? crco^ecrOai aQai /jiev SaifJLOVlOl. 5^a TOU? TroXtra? 7m- 4 6ap-%iKOV<s oWa?-" oy (JLrj 7<z/> a/coveiv VTrofievovcri T. eVitrT?.d07]- 5 x ecrTLv TOV a/3^oi/To? (e/JLTToiei jap 6 TO CTreaOai' KOI /caXw? aycov KaOaTrep i re'Xyris aTroreXecr/JLa irpaov LTTTTOV KOI 7rapao"%iv. ^TrdpTrjv Bta TOU? /3acrt\et9 ap^iKov? 7670" " MaXXo^.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 "OQev 670)76 ySecrav. wcTTrep TvklTnra) ^. ap%eiv Be OVK rjTria-ravro Aa/ceKOI TOV eOTTO/ATTOf TOV /3a<7Xe&>9 ejraivovvTWv \6yov. Trjv i^ora?." etTre. roC a^%oi/Tos with S : a^ dfj-aprdvaxTiv 298 . TOU? fjuev avSpas apyuocrra? KOL aa><f>povLcrTa<$ T&V eKacrra^ov Srf/jiwv /cal KpariSa ojJid^ovTes. Aafce&cufjiovioi 8e OVK evTreiOeiav.7ro/3Xe7roz>Te9. e d ry(ovo0eTiv. aXXa eva ^irapTidrrjv rjyefjiova' KOI \a/36vres e%pwvTO fiera Seou?. co? /caXXicrra TOVTO . ovTO) fBacri\iicri<. rwv Trpocrraretv fjLa fjuev Svva/Jievwv. 1 Aa/ceSai/jioviovs Se. TT/JO? ^Trapnarwv 6 iro\iv 8e av^iracrav Trjv axnrep TraiBaywybv 77 /cal TToXtreta? a./^?. eTTLaKw-fyai /ce\. 05. aXX' eiriOv^iav eveipydfcovro rot? aXXot? roO ap^ea-Oai KOI viraKoveiv avrois.\dq) Travres ol TTJV 'A.Troi'Te?. /JLera et? o TratSta? vojJLoOeTwv /cal 'AOrjvaiov 5 ayeiv fiv&TTjpia real TrofMTrds.6V(0v So/cei. rjrovv jap ov vau? oi>$ ^prj/jiara Trap avTcov ov$e oTrXtra? Treyu. AvadvSpq) Be /cal KaXXi1 /cal *Ayr)(Ti. aXX' Treidap^ua jj.iK\ia)rai rt/AT}? Kol KCU BpacrtSa XaX/fiSe??.? epyov avOpcoTroi? evjreiOeiav evepydaacrOai).

3-6 Wherefore. as the Sicilians treated Gylippus. but did not understand how to command. or hoplites. wherever they came. when some one said that Sparta was safe and secure because her kings knew how to command. the Chalcidians. Agesilaiis. Callicratidas. or money. and the city of Sparta from which they came was regarded as a teacher of well-ordered To this position private life and settled civil polity. Lysander. And the Lacedaemonians implanted in the rest of the Greeks not only a willingness to obey. in jest. since herein lay their special excellence. Brasidas and all the Greeks resident in Asia. but that the Lacedaemonians should be cudgelled if the others 299 . so it is the task of the science of government to implant obedience in men. and quote with approval the story of King Theopompus. xxx. but for a single Spartan commander . but obedience is a lesson to be learned from a commander.LYCURGUS. " replied Nay. and that the Eleians should preside at games. were styled regulators and chasteners of peoples and magistrates. rather because her citizens know : For men will not consent to obey those who have not the ability to rule. but a desire to be their followers and subjects. and how to obey. of Sparta Stratonicus would seem to have mockingly alluded when. and just as the final attainment of the art of horsemanship is to make a horse gentle and tractable. 1 for one am amazed at those who declare that the Lacedaemonians knew how to obey. For a good leader makes good followers. and when they got him. People did not send requests to them for ships. These men." . he proposed a law that the Athenians should conduct mysteries and processions. who. they treated him with honour and reverence.

7rl ovBev avrovs efirj $>ia$>epeiv 59 TW awy/co^ai TOV Tovro 76 TW AvKovpyay K(j)drjyov/jLevrjv XXXI. lepov re jap Kairrep e%ovra ra? p.oo'o<f)ovo'ai'. ypdjji/. 7r\eLcTT(ov a. ev Bi TrcoTrore TroXirefcrayu-eVou? eV orrep /cal 'A/jicrTOTeXr. /cal Ovovai /cad' e/ca- \eyerai Be /cal rwv XeL^dvwv avrov Ko^iaQkvrwv OLKaBe Kepavvbv els rov <rrov eviavrbv a>5 Oew. TT/JO? rovro (Tvveraj.ara /cal Xo^ou?.iara /cal \6yov? drto\trcovre<s JJLOVOV. KOI crwfypovovvres errl ravrrjv KOI TlXdrcov i e\a/9e TT}? TroXtre/a? vrroOeaiv KOI &io yev')']s fcal Ztrjvwv /cal rrdvres oo~oi ri rcepl aavres elrrelv rovrwv em^eipr)ercaivovvrai. Kal rot? avvrraprcrov elvai rrjv \eyojjL6Vtjv Trepl rov <ro(f)bi> Sid0eo~iv vrroXaiJiftdvova-iv cTrtBei|a? 6\r)v rrjv rro\iv <f)i\. KOI avrdpfceis 2 7r\Lcrroi> /cal crvvripfjioa-ev.7ro\nrelv /cal 0X775 VO/JLL^COV evScu/uLOviav a?r' aperr}? ai teal oyLtoz^ota? TT}? Trpbs aitr^v. 300 . Ov \atov rjv [irjv rore. eariv avrov.v0eptoi ^evo/jievoi %povov Siare\a)(ri>. /za^? opwv TOU? $>povovvra<>.<yicrra<. orrcos e~\. Bepeadai. ei/corcos vrrepfjpe 3 ry B6r} rou? f/ TOt? EXX77(7. aXX 6/3700 rro\ireiav djjLijurjrov et? (w? rrpoevey/cdHevos.? eXarrorj Trpocrfjfcov r]V avrov Aa/ceBai/jiovi. o Be ov <ypdfjLfj. rov ye\oiov 'AvricrQevr)? Be o ZiW/cpari/cbs drrb rj/fotou? TT}? ev AevtcrpoK.PLUTARCH'S LIVES KOI rovro pev clpt-frai ovrot..

Zeno. on the other hand. The aim. says that the honours paid him in Sparta were less than he deserved. his his Cf. 2 said in all seriousness that they were just like little boys strutting about because they had thrashed their tutor. said that when his remains were brought home. 6-xxxi. when the Thebans under Epaminondas broke the supremacy of Sparta. Lycurgus. to those who maintain that the much talked of natural disposition to wisdom exists only in theory. the chief design of Lycurgus then to leave his city in command over a great many others. 3 . 4. when he saw the Thebans in high feather after the battle of Leuctra. It was not. and because he gave. although they left behind them only writings and words. by Plato. 1 VOL. but an actual polity which was beyond imitation. L 3 01 . self-sufficing. chapter xviii.. and moderate in all their ways. and by all those who have won approval for their treatises on this subject.C.LYCURGUS. therefore. however. like that of a single individual. his fame rightly transcended that of all who ever founded Therefore Aristotle polities among the Greeks. produced not writings and words. 2 In 371 B. although he enjoys the highest honours there. of all arrangements and adjustments was to make his people free-minded. This was a joke but Antisthenes the Socratic. did amiss. and sacrifices It is also are offered to him yearly as to a god. XXXI. an example of an entire city given to the love of wisdom. depended on the prevalence of virtue and concord within its own borders. but he thought that the happiness of an entire city. I. Diogenes. and to keep them so as long as His design for a civil polity was adopted possible. 1 xxx. For he has a temple.

co? eirav- avTov AvKOvpyov. ta9 Trepl Ta</>ezm wcrre airoXoy^/jLa /cal fiapeivau rot? ayaTrwcri TOV \Lvpnr l$r)v TO Tvpiov jneya ApWovaav. TeXeur^crai Se TOV Avfcovpyov ol 'A7roXXo#e/u5 Be et5*H Se ' /j.Ba<. avTOV TTOTC apa TWV p. raura pev ovv Trepl TOV 1 The words /cal yeveffQai following TfXevrrjv are deleted 2 by Bekker and Sintenis (in critical notes). /cal rd<j)ov 'AptcrTo^e^o? avrou rrj<f Hepya/jiLas Trepl rr)v viov Be \ejeraL ^ovoyevr} KardXiTrelv ^Kvriwpov ov Te\evTrjaravTos dre/cvov TO yevos VTTO Kprjrwv 6B6v. yuera- TIJV 7To\iTeiav. TeXevrtfaavTi. 302 .6vo) crvfjiireaelv avrw l yaera re\. Trpoa-rjjopeva-av. 'Apio-TOKpaTrjs Be 6 *\TCTcdp')(pv <pi)crl TOU? evov$ TOV Av/covpyov ev /cal -r Kavcrai TO trww-a /cal BiaffTrelpai T?)V Tefypav et9 Trjv Ber)0evTO<. 5 ef-eXnrev.' TOVTO Be ov paBio)? erepy irXrjv real Tivl T&V '} eirifyavwv RvpiTTiBrj v&Tepov. fj. teal ol B' eraipoi eirl crvvoBov KaTecTT^araVi /cal KOL OLKLOL BtaBo%rfv TLVCL TroXXou? %povovs Bia/jLeivacrav ra9 ^/tepa? ev at? crvvijpxovTo Av/covp<yi.V ev at 'Ap^TTO^ero? eV K/DT^TT.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Karaa/crj-^rai.r) et? Aa/ceBau/JLOva KOjjacrOevTwv.6vrr)V a ry ^eo(/)iXecrTaTft) xal ocricordrtt) Trporepov crvveTrecre. <fiv\agafjievov /cal 0d\aTTav. TO>V op/ccov \e\v/jLeva)V.

after his death in Crete. 3-5 this hardly after him tomb was struck by lightning. and that this was done at his request. Lycurgidae. and Aristoxenus adds that his tomb is shown by the Cretans in the district of Pergamus. Antiorus. that he was brought to Elis and died there . instituted a periodical assembly in his memory. This. The lovers buried at of Euripides therefore regard it as a great testimony in his favour that he alone experienced after death what had earlier befallen a man who was most holy and beloved of the gods. near the It is also said that he left an only public highway. burned his body and scattered the ashes into the sea. death without issue. however. on whose family became extinct. is what I have to say about Lycurgus. and because he wished to prevent his remains from ever being carried to Sparta. on the plea that he had come back. the His friends and relations. that he ended his days in Crete . and that happened to any other eminent man except Euripides. who died and was Arethusa in Macedonia. parchus says that the friends of Lycurgus. then. son. xxxi.LYCURGUS. and that they were therefore released from their oaths. and they called the days on which they came Aristocrates the son of Hiptogether. . Some say that Lycurgus died in Cirrha Apollothemis. Timaeus and Aristoxenus. 303 . which continued to be held for many ages. lest the people there should change his polity.



"E(jrt Be /col Trepl /caiTrep Soxovi'Twv. ol JJL^V No/i-a9 yevoi. 1 ^9 eVet Aral No/i.60 0X0)5 Kaddjrep 7T/30? fj (frvaei rj Svvarov KOI avrdp/crj dperrjv fBe\Tiovi Tlvdayopov fiap 3 TOV /3a<7iXea)9 diro^ovvai irai^evcnv ol Be TlvQayopav ^ev otye ^vkaQai. eg dpxijs fc TOVTOV Kard<ya0aL TWV I. (OUTO) d\\a KXcoSto? T? aia<> ev yap TTW? eTTiyeypaTrrai TO iev ra? e/ceva? ev rot? KeXri/tot? TrdOeai TT)? TroXeco? ra? 8e v{)i' fyaivoptvas ov/c a\7]OS)^ awyKelaQai Si dvSpwv xapio/j. Tr\avr} Trepl TTJV 'iTaXtav cwyyevecrQai TW No/ua 306 . Xpovcov.7Tia vevitcTjKOTa TrfV eVt TT}? eK/caiSe/caTr] ? 'OXf/i-Tria^o?.? eTn^avecndrov^ OIKOVS e 2 el<T/3ia%o{jLVois. veaviKrj Biatyopd.NOMA2 r&v Noyua TOV Ka6* ofo 76701/6.a9 et9 T^i> jSacn\eiav KaTearr). TWV No/xa ^povwv O/AOU Ti irevre yevectLS djroXeiTro/jLevov. Tlvdayopav Be TOV ^TrapTidTqv 'OXu//.eva)v Tialv et? ra Trpwra ov TOI. \eyofievov 8' 76^ ovv co? TO Tlvflayopov avvr]&rfi.

1-3. or that the culture of the king was due to some Barbarian superior to Pythagoras. who was Olympic victor in the foot-race for the sixteenth Olympiad 3 (in the third year of which Numa was made king). some deny utterly that Numa had any Greek culture. Camillus.NUMA I. Others say that Pythagoras the philosopher lived as many as five generations after Numa. in a book entitled " insists Examination of Chronology/' records were lost when the city was sacked by the Gauls/2 and that those which are now exhibited as such were forged. holding either that he was naturally capable of attaining excellence by his own efforts. their that the ancient An compilers wishing to gratify the pride of certain persons by inserting their names among the first families and the most illustrious houses.-xxix. although from the beginning down to him the genealogies seem to be made out accurately. Lyciirgus. But a certain Clodius. and helped him arrange the 1 1 390 Cf. 307 . Of. and that in his wanderings about Italy he made the acquaintance of Numa. i. but that there was another Pythagoras. xix. B. where they had no cause to appear. THERE is likewise l a vigorous dispute about the time at which King Numa lived. the Spartan. Accordingly. when it is said that Numa was an intimate friend of Pythagoras.C. 3 657-654 B.C.

rot? eTriTrjSev/jiao'i TWV Aatccovt/cwv dvajLLe- Tlvdayopov SiSd^avTos. TOV fiev a\\ov O{JLI\OV TOV K7r\ayevTa r Be crvveftr) <pvyelv /cal cr/ Pco/jiv\ov yu-^re d<pavr/ yeveaQai. /cal avTov ert acoytta TeOvrjtcoTOs evpeOfjvai. \7rrjv Be TLV VTTOVOICLV atyacrOai TWV Kal pvrjvat \6yov ev rw $rf/j. aXXa Oewv Tavrrfv JAW Trjv vTrotyiav edepdnevov ei? 308 . air O. ovSevos op/Jiay/^evoi' \.vov yu-^t/?. eai(f)vr)<. Se /j. Kal yap efto/cei Tpa^vTepov rjStj 3 7rpocT(j)p6cr6ai /cal /jLovap^tKCDTepov avTols. '\a\eTrov fiaXtcrra TOU? e/c rwv 'Q\v/jL7rioviK(ov a dvaytcaiov wv rrjv dvaypa(f)}jv o^jre fyacnv ^lir rov 'HXetoi'. oOev OVK 0X170. v rjv /c aXXco? Se ^ajBLvwv.r}(rai rrjv 7ro\iTiav. E/3So/xoi' eviavTOv rj 'Put/jurj KOL rpia/cocrrbv <7Ta/j.ev ovv %povovs e^affpiftwa'ai. rot"? cm.eva-0ai.CVT avT&v 0)9 ftapwofjievoi TO /3acri\.<p K.ov 2 TO 7r\ei(TTOV.eraTO KpaTOS et9 avTOvs de\ovTe$ dve\oiev TOV /^acrtXea.ev dp%r}v ol/ceiav \a- ftovTes.PLUTARCH'S LIVES SiaKocrfj.6jov Trepl No/la. &iegi/J. rv vvv ?/jLepav voova? Ttvas KoXovcrL. dvcriav riva Br)fjLore\r) irpo TT}? 7ToXeW9 'PwyLtwXo? 60U6 TTCpl TO Ka\OV^VOV At70? 6X09. real nraprfv rj re ftov\r) KOI rov 8/jju. 'Za/B'ivoi 4 AaKe&at/jLovLtov eafrou? cnrolicovs yeyovevai. /cal ve<povs eVt TTJV jrjv epelaavro9 a/Ha TTvevfiaTi Kal %d\rj. /cal //. f/ II. /cal fj.eyd\r)s irepl TOV depa rp07T^9 ryevo[Mvr)<.

The point. II. time that he treated them with greater harshness and arrogance. and a cloud descended upon the earth bringing with it blasts of wind and rain. as Pythagoras taught them to Numa. now. Numa Sabines will have it for his work. and was never found again either alive or dead. 3-11. and especially that which is based on the names of victors in the Olympic games. however. and on the fifth of the month of July. For thirty-seven } ears. and relate the noteworthy r throng of common directions. 39 . Upon this a grievous suspicion attached itself to the patricians.NUMA. but folk were terrified and fled in all Romulus disappeared. in the presence of the senate and most of the people. i. and the that they were colonists from Lacedaemon. 3 it whence came about that many Spartan customs were mingled with the Roman. Chronology. who had no fully authoritative basis at all events. and had therefore made away with the And indeed it had been noticed for some king. I shall therefore begin at a convenient facts which I have found in the life of Numa. Romulus was offering a public sacrifice outside the city at the so-called Goat's Marsh. government of the city. Suddenly there was a great commotion in the air. which day they now call the Capratine Nones. and an accusing story was current among the people to the effect that they had long been weary of kingly rule. Rome had been built and Romulus had been its king. the list of which is said to have been published at a late period by Hippias of Elis. and desired to transfer the power to themselves. This suspicion the patricians sought to remove by ascribing divine honours to Romulus. is hard to fix. And was of Sabine descent.

evct)v TroXXa Kvaivovro^ TraTpircicov TroXtrcu?. fjioipas" Kal TlpoK\os.av ol TraTpir. 310 Tat.. 1 TOV f/ 6Wo9.^ (Tvyvvariv TOV TroXtreu/j^Tecopov aTrepydcreTai.d<f dvdyovTes 009 /ce\evovTos avrbv ovofJid^ecrOai Kvplvov.6(TaTO 'P(OfjLv\ov IBeiv et? oupavbv <TVV TOt9 07rXo9 dva(j)ep6/jievov. 'Ere/pa Be rapa^rj KOI crracri? KaT\dfJi/3av ir6\LV vTrep TOV /AeXXo^ro? aTr . dvrjp e7u<ai79.iQi) irevT^KovTa 61 . irpoayevecruai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES f ov redvrj/cora TOV aXXa KpeiTTOvos OVTO. aXX' e'iaaav ap^eiv fjiovov. eBo/cei ov [J. 5 Trape^ei d\\a Kal ^eVou?. OVK ecTTacriacrav TT/OO? 'PwfjLvKov. OUTTO) rcoz/ e7rr]\v$o)v /co/jiiSfj TO?? rot? crv<yKKpafj.eve<j0ai BiecrTricrav ' TTCLGIV. Kai Trpoaye7r\t]det. TOU? raXa/3o^ra9 ap^eiv ftid^ecrdai T&V eVl raura Kal rot? ^aftivois rjv rt? eVet Tartou roi) /SacrtXew? avTwv airo. 6 Kal <yap ol /zera Tr)v TTO\LV OVK eiroiovvTO Troea)? Ka )a<. virep ovv TOVTWV >e K T^9 dvap%ia<? rj O7r&)? yu. rjyefjiova. ijpiaav vTrep dvBpbs povov.' Trap avT&v. aXX' ert TOU ev eavru) Kal re ev inrotyiais GK TOV Bia(f>6pov TT/DO? OVTWV. OVTG yap K ra> ^ ' Q ireivoTepwv KpeiTTOcri. Bia)/j. avOus dfyovvTtov TOV dpyovTa ryevecrOai. Kal <^o)^r}? aKOvaai Tifj. re pcocrat Kal vrpoayayeiv et? TToXeco? e/vet^ou? ytte^' eavT&v.r)v aXXa Be KCU (3a<TL\.

On these questions. for the new comers were not yet altogether blended with the original citizens. For those who had built the city with Romulus at the outset thought it intolerable that the Sabines. 3" . since on the death of their king Tatius they had raised no faction against Romulus. factions. but held rather that their addition had brought the strength of numbers and advanced both parties alike to the dignity of a city. but the commonalty was still like a surging sea. but blessed with a better lot. but also about the tribe which should furnish him.NUMA. they were divided into . but suffered him to rule alone. 3-6 on the ground that he was not dead. They would not admit that they had added themselves as inferiors to superiors. xxvii. should insist on ruling those who had received them into such privileges and the Sabines. But in order that their factions might not produce utter confusion from the absence of all authority. after getting a share in the city and its territory. ii. 1 Cf. and the patricians full of jealousy towards one another on account of their It is indeed true that it was different nationalities. the pleasure of all to have a king. took oath that he had seen Romulus ascending to heaven in full armour. then. Romulus. The city was now beset with fresh disturbance and faction over the king to be appointed in his stead. a man of eminence. 3. and had heard his voice com1 manding that he be called Quirinus. but they wrangled and quarrelled. not only about the man who should be their leader. now that the administration of affairs was suspended. And Proculus. 3 xxviii. had a reasonable ground for demanding that now the ruler should come from them.

va Kal xprj/jLari^eiV l /^. Kairrep OVTCO TTO\ITIKCO<S Kal aveSOKOVVTGS. wcrre rr^v erepav 2 TT}? K erepa? aTroSa^at ftacriXea' yLtaXicrra 7/) ai^ oi/Tft)9 eV re ra> Trapovri TravcraaOai rrjv <f>i\o- veiKiav.afiivwv No/uay TlojJLTri\iov.r)v aTryKicr/jievcov ov 312 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES ercarov ovrcov avrwv. >yap%iav Trpdy/jLara yae^crra^re? Kal et? ev O-^LCTLV ai)Tol<$ Trjv GK TOVTOV crvvefSiicrav a Be OVK ede\oiev. inrovoiais Kal &)? TrepieTTiTTTOV.epa<^ s TOV fyOovov. Kal Trpbs TOV ST/HOV r j3o\r) rry? e^ovcrias atyaLpeiv r]p. rot? rapaari/jLois Koa-^ov/jLevov Oveiv re rot? TO. op&vra l8ia>Tr)v TT)? Kal VVKTQS TOV avTov /3acrtXeft>9 ryivo/Jievov.ecr8ai SeiKvvovcriv TCOV {lev et? etc r 'S. eSoge jud\\bv e\. e Be TT/S rj/uepas. Kal icrov TOV arroSeL^devTa Trpo? a^oTepov^ yeveaOai. roi? Se evvovv 6vTa &ia crvyyeveiav. rot? 'Pwyua/ot? Trjv rcoi' 3 ^aftivov avTOU? aTToSet^az/ra? ^7 Trapaa")(elv 'Pco/maiov eKeivwv Kal Bov\evcrdfjieiwi Ka6* eavTovs drroe\of. Kal <yap r) TWV Kaipwv eKarepov Trpos Ivorryra /eaXco? &OKi TOi? ap-^ovcn. frdvrcov Se rrpoTepOi<. a'tpeaiv.iV(j)v. 'AXXa 7ra^$a)9 6opv/3oi<$ a^^eldOai TO. ercacrTov ev fiepet. III. Trpo? aXX?. vevo/jLio-fj. avSpa Pco/j.? at crracref?. TO Se cr^/ia TOVTO f aaiXeiav Pa)/tatot Ka\ovcnv.ev upas 1 rr)? VVKTOS. rou? yuev a>? eXoyu-et'ou? ayarrcovTa.Xa.

Romans III. being gracious to the one as his electors. 3 was arranged by the senators. than to have a Roman made king by the Sabines. Therefore it was agreed by both factions that one should appoint a king from This was thought the best way to end the other. for the space of six hours by day and six hours by night. Romulus. it seemed to them better to have a Sabine king of their own nomination. They took counsel. make the customary sacrifices to the gods.NUMA. become king and then a This form of government the private citizen again. 1 that each of them in his turn should assume the insignia of royalty." But although in this way the senators were without thought to rule constitutionally and oppression. it ii. 313 . This distribution of times seemed well adapted to secure equality between the two factions. and transact public business. 1. and were holding the state in tutelage among themselves. and nominated Numa Pompilius from among the Sabines. Then. when they saw the same man. and were unwilling to be ruled by a king. among themselves. therefore. and the king thus appointed would be equally well-disposed to both parties. in the course of a single day and night. 6-m. who were one hundred and fifty in number. xx. a man who had not joined the emigrants to Rome. and friendly to the other because of his kinship with them. 1 Cf. they roused suspicions and clamorous charges that they had changed the form of government to an oligarchy. call "interregnum. their prevailing partisanship. as the Sabines gave the Romans their option in the matter. and the transfer of power likely to remove all jealousy on the part of the people.

Kal depaireiav 0ea)v Kal Oewplav Bi. .v\ov 5 eari Trpo 8era/xta9 7T/309 Ka\av$wv Mai'wy. ou fjiovov rd \oiBopov7rd9r) rr)<.a \6yov re avrcov Kal Bvvd/jiecos.eva iraaav dperr)V ev KeKpa^evo^ TO r)0os. notes). ical etc avru) tcdOeipfyv rjyov- rovrov Trdaav oitcodev d/Jia Tpv<f>r)v 7ro\vre\iav e^e\avvwv. Travrl Be 7ro\iry eavrov Kal cry/x/SofXo^. avrovs No/xa? eTttfyavovs ev ^9 Kal Kuptra? rot? dvaKpaQelcn a/j.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ' ovro) BL dperrjv ovra TTCLGIV wcrre ovo/iaaOevros avrov Be^aeflat rou? *2. 'v/^L'%^9. <t>i\offo<t>iat omitted by Bekker. typdaavres ovv rw BTJ/HW rd BeBoy/jieva. eri avrov e^/uiepwcre Bid TraiBeias /cal /ca/co2 Tradeias Kal ^>tXocro<^ta9.\ojuieva)v TrpoOv/jiorepov r&v \eiav.a d(j) IIo/iTrw^o?.d\\ov fj. Teacrdpwv d&e\(j)a)v i/ecoraro?* rj/jiepa 8e 7670^009 Kara 8tj nva delav rv^rjv ev Trpocrrjjopeva-ai'. dvBpeiav Be aXr^r) rrjv VTTO eTTiOv/jLi&v ev \6jov rwv 6 fjievos. aAAa /cat T^ evBo/ci- /jbovcrav ev rot9 ftapfidpois /Slav /cal 7r\eovej. (frvcrei avrrj Be Be fj. 4 'Hi^ Se TToXew? /jiV 6 Kvpecov. 17 vios Se 1 T^I/ 'Pco/n^v eKriaav ol Trepl 'Pci)/j. iJKiv Serjao/Jievovs KCU TrapaXafteiv TTJV fiacrt. az/8/30? evBoKifjiov.af3ivov<s.iav K7roBa)v Troirjcrdfjievos. ovojjia fieya Kal a correction of Ho/j. and now confirmed by S. with C. auro9 B* eavry Be d\\d ovBev 77/009 r)Bv7ra&eia<. TT/oeV/Se^ eKTre/ATrovo-i 777509 rbv dvBpa Koivfi TOLMJ Trpwrevovras air dfji^orepwv.ireavlov by Sintenis 3 (critical adopted by Bekker.

begging him to come and assume the royal power.NUMA. but to the service of the gods. Romulus. endurance of hardships. xii. he devoted his hours of privacy and leisure. but also that violence and rapacity which are in such high repute among Barbarians. when he was nominated. not to enjoyments and money-making. 1 Cf. On this account he banished from his house all luxury and extravagance. believing that true bravery consisted in the subjugation of one's passions by reason. and the rational contemplation of their In consequence he had a great nature and power. 1. He had thus put away from himself not name of Quirites. after making their decision known to the people. took the joint He was a son of Pompon. 315 . from which the Romans. and he had subdued himself still more by discipline. on the very day when Rome was founded by Romulus. man. Accordingly. and the study of wisdom. the leading senators of both parties were sent as ambassadors to Numa. moreover. in. 3-6 but was so universally celebrated for his virtues that. the twenty-first day of April. and was the youngest of four brothers. Numa belonged to a conspicuous city of the Sabines called Cures. He was born. together with the incorporated Sabines. that is. an illustrious only the infamous passions of the soul. by some divine felicity. the Sabines accepted him with even greater readiness than those who had chosen him. 1 By natural temperament he was inclined to the practice of every virtue. and while citizen and stranger alike found in him a faultless judge and counsellor.

(p fieroiKicraaOai trpbs TOV aXX' avrov irepieTrcov Trarepa yrjpaibv TrevBepov.evo<. /ua? avra) Ovyarpbs ov ovcrrjs Tarta?.Ta dv0pa)7T(ov oy aXXa Kal ae/jivoTepas yeyevp.deiv dvSpbs baiov 316 .evos r)ia)fAevos. d><rTe KCU Tdriov TOV ev ' crv/jL^aaiXevaavTa 'Pco/xuXw. r Tr]v dp^jjv o 7rpl e/cetyo? TT}? deas eXafte \6yo$. crvvSiaiT(*)}j.eiTTwv ra? ev acrTei Biaa? dypav\6LV TO. 7T\dvy TOV fj. re Trepl "Arrea) Kal BiOvvol irepl o~W(bv Kal TO. ovv \eyeTai TpiT<p Kal SeKaTw /icra TOV T\VTr)crai. iroi^aaaBai ya/j./3pbv eKelvov. a^a KOI T?)? Tarta? e fjLTjv eTTrjpOrj vrjs rrjv ev 'Pa>fj. aXXa fyikdvOpwrrov rot? Sta(f)ep6vTa)S dya6ols rj ede\iv avvelvai. OTI pev ovv TavTa TroXXot? TWV Trdvv TraXaiwv /JLi>6o)v eoiKev. ev Sa/5tVoi9 vTrefJievev. evSaificov dvrjp 3 'HpoBoTOV Kal Trepl 'HLv&Vfiifovos 'AyO/ca^e? aXXoi re Trepl a\\a>v evBai/Aovcov &rj TLVWV Kal 6eo$>i\(i)v yevecrQai SOKOVVTWV TrapaXa/Soz/re? qyaTrrja-av. ov? oi 3>pvye<.a)o~iv iepois 66ev 62 TTOtovjjievos TTJV BiaiTav.u>v epctxrr) deicov 'Hyepia Qela TreTrvv^evos yeyovev. a>? apa No/ta? OVK dBrj/jLovLa Tivl tyv\ri<$ Kal 2 XotTre fiiov.. ov (j)L\L7r7rov ov$ <$>l\opvii>. ye rw yd/j. 'O Be No/ia? eK'X. Bvcr^paiveiv fjirjBe dTi/j. OVK aBr]\6v ecrTi. Kal yd/j. Kal TTOV \oyov e^et TOI^ Oeov.ev TOV dv&pbs ISiatTevovTOS r)<TV)(lav Trpb Sia TOV iraTepa TifMrjs Kal 80^9. TroXXa KOI jr\ava<jQai ev a\cre(ri 6ewv Kal \eip.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Bo^av 1 el^ev. IV.r) fj.

that this story the goddess Egeria loved resembles many of the very ancient tales which the Phrygians have received and cherished concerning Attis. passing his days in istering to his aged father. but he had tasted the joy of him and bestowed herself upon him.NUMA. alone. And there is some reason in supposing that Deity. forsaking the of folk. the Bithynians concerning Herodotus. and other peoples concerning other mortals who were thought to have achieved a life of blessedness in the love of the gods. more august companionship and had been honoured with a celestial marriage . in the thirteenth year after her marriage. but a lover of men. But she died. should be willing to consort with men of superlative goodness. groves of the gods. more than anything else. so the story ran. however. 3 He was not. in. However. It was not. and it was his communion with her that gave him a life of blessedness and a wisdom more than human. gave rise to the story about his goddess. Tatia. Then Numa. made him the husband of his only ways city determined to live for the most part in country and to wander there places. who is not a lover of horses or birds. Tatia. too. the Arcadians concerning Endymion. preferred the quiet life which her husband led as a private citizen to the honour and fame which she had enjoyed at Rome because of her father. 6-1 v. so that Tatius. This. and should not dislike or disdain the company of a wise and holy 317 . but remained among the Sabines min- name and fame. as we are told. is quite evident. IV. the royal colleague of Romulus at Rome. from any distress or aberration of spirit that he forsook the ways of men. so exalted daughter. sacred meadows. and solitudes. by his marriage as to go to dwell with his royal father-in-law.

irpeTrov av elrf. 6 TLivBdpov Be Kal TWV p.e\wv epao~Trjv yeveaOai direowKe Be Tiva TL/JL^V TOV Tlava fivOoXoyovcriv. w Brj wcnrep av Kal Kal ocraKiS Tvyoi Bia7r\ea)v t9 Kippav e'/c ^ Tr)v TlvOiav. Kal 'Ayo^Axr^a) Kal 'H(Tio8co Te\evTi]o~acn Bid ra9 Moucra9 TO BaijJLOVLOV.rjfjL/jLeXovcrLV oi ' Kal TOV "AB/j. olov alcrOavo^evov TOV Oeov .aT09 o>9 GOHppovos o/jLikLav. TOV %iKva)viov '^TnroXvTov. rov <>6p/3avra Kal TOV TfX. dvdpwirlvov teal &pas eVrt rt? Oe> KOI Bai/jiovi Koivcovia Kal epyov rjBrj KOI TOVTO %dpi<?.QIVWVIOV ov aXXa real <f)i\iav TOV eTTt ravry ye Trpbs av0pa)7rov tivai 6eu> \eyojjievov epwra KOL (pvo/Jievov et9 5 7rifjLe\eiav rjdovs Kal ov Kal aperi}?. a> i&rjv avraTroBiBcdcri K.r)Tov yeyovevat. ^o^o/cXct Be Kal . epco/^evovf /uivQoX.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Be teal <7ft>//.oyovvTes. aTToQecnri^eiv ToBe TO rjpwov Kal 8' a#' 'iTTTToXuroto ^>L\ov Kapa elf a\a ftaivei. /cal 4 pelv 0)9 ryvvaiKl KatTOt BoKOVO~LV OVK CUTTlQaVtoS AlyVTTTlOL OVK aBvvarov JJLCV Oeov l BlCLl- KCLL nvas evreKeiv Be OVK ecrTi cruyuyu-t^t? 7T/009 Oeov ovBe o/uXia dyvoov&i rrjv Be ort TO /juyvv/jievov .

is hard to believe. is fit and And therefore it is no mistake proper. and a so-called love which is based upon affection. there is no such thing as carnal intercourse and communion between a man and a lose sight of the fact that ina reciprocal matter. as often as he set out to sail from Sicyon to Cirrha. when the ancient poets tell their tales of the love Apollo bore Phorbas. that while a woman can be approached by a divine spirit and made pregnant. And yet the Aegyptians make a distinction here which is thought plausible. because "he had slain the servant of the Muses. However. 3-6 But that an immortal god should take carnal pleasure in a mortal body and its beauty." And . man. that Pan became enamoured of Pindar and his verses. and that both parties to it enter into a like communion. namely.NUMA. But they tercourse is : "Lo. as though the god knew of his coming and rejoiced thereat. when a plague had fallen upon them. iv. 1 The Delphian oracle pronounced a curse on the man who killed Archilochus. 1 Again. that the onty remedy was to bring back the bones of Hesiod from the land of Naupactus to the land of Orchomenus. surely. chanted this prophetic verse divinity. the Pythian priestess. this." a legend. as well as the Sicyonian Hippolytus also. the divine powers bestowed signal honour on Archilochus and Hesiod after their deaths. of whom it is said. for the sake of the Muses. and Admetus. too. and takes the form of solicitude for his character and his virtue. that a god should have affection for a man. Hyacinthus." And the same oracle told the people of Orcho" menus. that. once more doth beloved Hippolytus hither make There is voyage.

rt Be \6yei Tt? aXXa>?.iv KCU irapaive<Tei rwv f3e\TL(TTQ)v. irpoaerrjv CLTTO 7jy>o? rov 6eov B6av.? ot rrapaKa\ovvre<$ eVl T^ (BacriXeiav. TOU? Se Xo- you9 erroirjaaro ITpo/cXo? /cat QveXeaos. TOVTOIS ^ev 7rl ei/co? (nrovod^ovTas 0ovs 6/ni\. a>? Xeyerai. ovBe jap arepo? \6yos e%ei teal ov Trepl Avtcovpyov No/xa /cal TOtovTcov /cal a\\wv dvBp&v \eyovcriv. apa ovv a^Lov ecrTt. ravra (ruy%a)povvTa<. Kara Ba/c^vXiB^p. fjLLvvpi^ovcrLV.a\VK<p real Mivw KCLI ZwNoyaa KOL Avfcovpycp /SacrtXeta? el fcvftepvaxri vroXireta? rj ^LaKoa-fJLOiKTLv ei? TO o-Tt avTO /cal e(j)oira TO ^ai^oviov. auTOi? e/cei- ou? V. eVt TOVTCOV. a>? BvcrKadeKra BvordpecrTa 7r\TJ07] ^eipov^evoi /cal yueyaXa? 7ri<f)epovTes Tat? TroXtTetai? /caivoro/JLias. rrapea'^ev. aTTiarelv podffrprj KOI real Z.PLUTARCH'S LIVES rov Acr K\t]TT ibv em^evwOrfvai. TO) No/ta TJKOV recrffapa/cocrrbv avro 'Pw/x?. \vpiKols 8 SiScKr/cakia Be KCLI irai- 7rotr)ral<. Xo709 earl TroXXa fie^pi $ VP Bia(Ta)cov reK/j. %prj(T0ai ^ovras. el ciTTcp apa. " TlXarela /ceXei^o?. <yap eVo? rjBr] Biare\ovvri.d\icrra ovroi j. wv rrporepov eVt^o^o? 97^ o S^yLto? alpi'icreaOai.ev ovv 320 . 'AXXa a"%r)fiariovTO awri'ipiov ovcrav. rov erepov Ove\e<ru) Be r&v Tariov fj. /cal re\evrr}aavrL 1 rv%eiv racf)*]? aXXo? #eo?." <f>av\ov.)jpta.

Zoroaster. Minos. " Broad is the way. procured him fitting burial.NUMA. which sanction was the salvation of the very ones against whom it was contrived. there is iv. Proculus being the favourite of the people of Romulus. then occupied by the Lacedaemonian army. V. one or the other of whom the people was expected to choose as their king. had frequent audience of the Deity ? during his Is it not likely. 1. and Lycurgus. i a story. and that when he died. Numa was already completing his fortieth year when the embassy came from Rome inviting him to take the throne. if we concede these instances of divine favour. I say with Bacchylides. Numa. But to resume the story. on the road to Deceleia. who piloted kingdoms and formulated constitutions. another deity 1 Is it worth while. to disbelieve that Zaleucus. life. that since they were managing headstrong and captious multitudes. '- Fragment 29 (Jebb. See Pausanias. The speakers were Proculus and Velesus. 1 note." 2 Indeed there is no absurdity in the other account which is given of Lycurgus and Numa and their like. for their own diversion ? However. and Velesus of the people of best way. but use poets and warbling singers. were brief. Bacchylides. 423). i. if if at all. and introducing great innovations in modes of government. rather. in order to instruct and advise them in the highest and any one is otherwise minded. 21. 3 2I . with Frazer's Tatius. p. namely. they pretended to get a sanction from the god. still well attested. was blessed with the friendship of Aesculapius. that the gods are in earnest when they hold converse with such men as these. supposing Dionysus is said to have appeared to Lysander and ordered him to allow Sophocles to be buried in the tomb of his fathers. that Sophocles. 6-v. then. These speakers. then.

vrjTTLOV \eyovcnv' fj.ev 'PcopvXov auro? pav 4 o/JLorl/JLOis Trepieiroi'Tjcrev a>? dv avr&v. after Coracs. re Seti'O? OUTO? Kal crvvrpo(j)o<. Karoi wjjivov [lev ovroi 6e&v VJJLVOVCTL (frtffjiais. &)? eoiicev. Kal Kal TraiSevcri.' ' ?]v ov fJLLKpov. raiv 6^05.vr)<s.r)v dvSpos ev rjCTV^ia et? dp%r)V ^oXea)? TpoTrov TIVCL TToXe/zft) Kal crvvrivt. rjcrv^ia re 7ro\\r) Kal Siarptfirj irepl \6yovs dirpdj/jLova^. TOVTOV a\\o 3 avoia yLtera/cocryuet K K TtoV <TVV1J00)V ol? KCLV el fA1)8eV GTCpOV 7TpO(rLrj TO) ftejSaiorepw Bia<f)pei T&V a^rjXwv.crea>? TO irelcrai. Kal e\eyev ovv rov re 63 7rarpo9 avrov Trapovros Kal Map/ctou. 322 . Kal Tpocfrrfv Tiva avrov Kal (Tarrjpiav a7rL<rrov ert. epyov. aXX' ovSe t aSr)\a ra evtt) rrjs ySacrtXeta? roi? TraOrf/LLacriv.ol Se Kal 761/09 Ovrjrov eart.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 2 No/ta rrjv <rvvrv%Lav dcnra^ofjiivw yeyovevai.r)[j.fVT)s (born). teal fieracrrfjcrai /cal elprfvy <yvo)/j. d\\d Kal \oywv 7ro\\(ov /cal Se?. &>? rj "Hacra c3 fiev avOpwrrlvov ftiov a(f)a\p6v LTTTOV TT\IJV Se /A^T* a7r(TTi TL TCOV (TTl TO)V TTapOVTWV. co? Trowrjpav /j. ra Be d\\a Ka0* eavrovs yeaypyovvratv T) 1 yeyevrj/jLfvrjs Bekker has yeyev)>r)iJ. elprjvr)? epco? Kal Trpay/jidrwv drroXefJiwv Kal di>0p(t)7ra)v eVt 06MV Kal (f)i\o(j)pocrvvais ei? TO a^To <rvvri/jif) ibvrwv.^ UTT' dvOpanrwv &v OVK rpoffrrj dyvoeire yeyevrji^evT}' ra 8' erraivovfjieva rov rpo- Be TO?? VTT TTOV /3acriXeueti/ iroppa) /LteXXo^TO? dvSpos.

however. and therefore better than one which is all uncertain. no slight task. Moreover. therefore. namely. 2-4 Numa would welcome his good fortune. which. of unwarlike occupations.NUMA. judging from the experience of Romulus. " Every change in a man's life is perilous but when a man knows no lack. It. is at least fixed and secure. and I was nourished and trained by men . in a fashion. But I am of mortal birth. nothing short of madness can change his purposes and remove him from his wonted course of life. my devotion to studies inconsistent with the usual activities of men. the very traits in my which are commended. since he himself was accused of basely plotting against his colleague Tatius. even though it have no other advantage. my great love of retirement. His reply. was as follows. And yet those who bring these accusations laud Romulus as a child of the gods. to war. and has no fault to find with his present lot. But the lot of one who becomes your king cannot even be called uncertain. whom disposition you know. and involved the patricians in the charge of having basely put their king out of the way. but who otherwise live by themselves as 323 . and tell how he was preserved in an incredible way and fed in a miraculous manner when he was still an infant. was. that v. are far from mark- ing a man destined to be a king. in the presence of his father and one of his kinsmen named Marcius. but one requiring much argument and entreaty. to persuade and induce a man who had lived in peace and quiet. and my well-known strong and inveterate love of peace. to accept the government of a city which owed its existence and growth. and of men who come together only for the worship of the gods and for friendly intercourse.

ev y Kal OepaTrelai Oewv /j. oi/re "Et 8e TrXourou Se?. TroXXoL/9 i^ev 0-0)9 ol? dvrepei&ovTos 1} 7roXt9 efiireipou Seirai. ot' re Pa)/j. /3iai> Be Kal TroXe/xov fyOaipeiv TI ftacri- VI. o re Trarrjp Kal 6 Ma/3^tO9 eteewwv /jLeraarravratv l$ia TrpocrKei/jLevot. 8*' avrdpKeiav ovre S6i. /cat ovSeva \e\rjdev avt.av dp- ^779 /cat dperfjs Swaa-reias e^Xa)/c<Z9 Kpeicrcrova TTJV CLTT %wv. \veiv a\)vr]v> 09 76 dvicnrja-i Kal OVK ea KGiG&ai Kal dpyeiv /Jirj TTJV ev crol roaavrrjv (frevye /JirjSe dTroSiSpacrKe TTJV Trpd^ewv Ka\wv Kal fJLeydXcov ovcrav ^wpav.e<ya\o7rpe?ret9 el<ri Kal 7rpo9 evae/3eiav dvOpwTrwv rj/jLep<odvbpl (f)povi/ji<p cret9 pacrra Kal rd^Lara /neraKoa-fjiOv/jievMV VTTO 324 . crvvvevGOvcriv al o-Tacreis. Oepairevovro^ Oeovs. w 'Pco/jLaloi. ware Kal 76X0)9 av eirj rd^d.ea-6ai Kal Kparelv erepwv /3ov\6/uevos. aXX* vTTtipeaiav <ye 0eov TO ySao-frjyov/jievos. v[MV Be.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 5 vejJLovTwv.alot irdcrav CTTOIOVVTO /JL7J OVK 6Wo9 erepov 7r/?09 oz/ d/ji^oTCpai. Totourof9 Xo70i9 a<o<r/ofyLieVou f r^z/ ftacri- \eiav rov az/S/309./x&). ri/jidv. rov No/i-a^ e 2 ^01^ Se^eo-dai fieya Kal Oeiov Swpov. Kal aKfjid^ovTO^' TroXX?) &e /u <rvvr)6eia TrpodvfjLLd Si? evTV^Lav 76701/6 rw Sr.

and begged him not to plunge them again into faction and civil war. Do not. and the hearts of men are easily and quickly softened and inclined towards piety. His father also and Marcius.NUMA. Whereas. in a city which desires a leader of its armies O rather than a king. the people has become much accustomed to war. unto you. and to make head against these the city needs a king with a warrior's experience and strength. since there was none other on whom both parties could unite. and tried to persuade him to accept so great a gift of the gods. With such words did Numa decline the kingdom. because thou hast enough. which a wise man will regard as a field for great and noble actions. nor covetest the fame which comes from authority and power. who now to rouses up and refuses to leave dormant and inactive the great righteousness which is within thee. whether you want them or not. This people 325 . tillers v. and no one is blind to their desire for growth by conquest. " thou neither desirest wealth for thyself. and eager for it because of their successes. 5 -vi. 2 of the soil or herdsmen. I should therefore become a laughing-stock if I sought to serve the gods. Then the Romans put forth every effort meet his objections. when the envoys had withdrawn. where the gods are honoured with magnificent worship." they said. Romulus has bequeathed many wars. Romans. " Even though. therefore. Besides. because thou hast the greater fame which comes from virtue." VI. yet consider that the work of a true king is a service rendered to God. avoid nor flee from this office. and taught men to honour justice and hate violence and war. beset him privately. through the moulding influence of their ruler.

a- TOVTOLS Trpoa-ijv. arjaeld re xprjcrra Kal crirovSr} r&v Kal ^T}A..u>v dvSpos. Kal TravraTraaLV aKparcos e^ovo'i Kal 7T/30? Se Tr6\/Jiov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 rou Kparovvros.. . avrwv ry Be (3i\Tiov aXXa^ocre rrjv Sia ^et/oo? e^ovra ra? TO> ^aftivutv eQvei TT/JO? ' TrarpiSi. Trapa\a/3(!bv 1 1 iro\ir$>v MSS. ev^fjaiat re eyivovro > Kal Ovcrlai. rwv TroXircoi/. 6v<ras rol? Oeols TrpouTnjvra Be rj {3ov\rj Kal o fjyev i9 rrjv 'Paiuijv. Kal deov ftaaikelav euireBovvros avrq>.av arco- \vv rjye/jiova. fiaSi^eiv Kal 7rapa\afjL/3dveiv rrjv /3a<ri. ^ovcrav Kal Svvarrjv yevecrdat. 7rel Se et? . and is followed by Sintenis 3 . real fieovGi rats rivals. ovroi KCU rrjv Tdnov earept. and edd.O?. TT/JO? 64 iepois Kal wcrrrep ov ftacrikea rrjs aXXa ftacriKeiav Be%oaevij<. 'H? ovv eSe&OKTO. dyopav Karearrj&av. \eiav 7rl epcort davaacrra) rov <yvvaiK. a>? \eyerai. opfirjv . 326 . ap* ov^l rpeTreiv. o fiev rai? wpai r X a P a ^ av ^ wl> eiXrjxa)? yitecro/3acriXeu9 STropto? Ouerrto? eTre&coKe rot? TroXtrat? Kal Trdvre? rj 8* avrq> rwv (3acn\iKwv Trapae<f)rj AceXeucra? BelcrOai. Kal Travrl evvolas Kal <j)i\Las 4 TTO\IV d/c//. BrjUW 7Td\eaOV /cal /CO/JO? Kal yLteCTTOt \a$vpa)v <y<yov6rs yye/JLova Trpaov el eraipov CTT' evvofjiia Kal elprjvr) TroOovaiv. co? eTrvdovro TTJV Trpeafteiav. av^a'rjv rt? Be olBev el Kal 'Pco/uLvXov eCTTL.- Koivwvia Kal crvjKpdcrei. including Sintenis Bekker corrects to ir6\ewt> (cities). 1 YII.

" whose lot it was to be " interrex l at that hour. as if the city were When they receiving. 3-vn. chapter ii. now that it is glutted with triumphs and spoils. then were it not better that thou. they are altogether intemperate and mad in their desire for war. shouldst turn their eager course another way. were come down into the forum. and all voted for Numa. in order to unite and blend together the citizens. vi. but a kingdom. not a king. lead them in the paths of order and peace ? indeed. he bade the people pause. 1 Cf. and said his authority must first be ratified by Heaven. who. 327 . filled with a wondrous love of the man women welcomed him with fitting cries of joy sacrifices were offered in the temples. and that thy native city and the whole Sabine nation should have in thee a bond of goodwill and friend" These ship with a vigorous and powerful city ? appeals were strengthened. 2 loved Tatius. Numa therefore decided to yield. Then . who is a friend of justice. even though victorious. by auspicious omens and by the zealous ardour of his fellowcitizens. . And who knows but that the people. called for a vote of the citizens. begged him to return with it and assume the royal power there. and will But if. is desirous of a gentle prince. set out for Rome. we are told. But when the insignia of royalty were brought to him. Spurius Vettius. 7. when they learned of the embassy from Rome. and they pay divine honours to the memory of Romulus. VII. and. though he was a foreign prince.NUMA. and after The sacrificing to the gods. holding the reins of government in thy hand. and joy was universal. senate and people met him on his way. is sated with war.

OLTTO T^? a/c/oa?. ava\a(3<bv eadfjra Hare/Saive fiaaiXiKijv TTJV No/ia? et? TO 7T\rj0o<. TrtXa/Ae^a? 01)5 Trepl Tiva<$ 6Wa?.. [lev et? fjiearj/jL^piav rpe^a^ eyKeKa\vfJiat^ro? Se Trayoacrra? e^oTTicrOev Kal TTJ Se^ta K(j)a\rj^ e'^aTTTOyuez'O? TrepiecrtcoTrei avrov Karev^aro. TOT Be /jLek\ovTi. Trai'ra^ocre ra? 3 7repi<f)6pa)v. T&V 'EXXrjviKcov ovoTore fjid\\oi> r) vvv Tot? Aarivois dvaKeKpa- Kal yap a? efyopovv 5eio! fTTTp\l/ay with S : ol lepeis /cal \aiva$ 6 Kal 8etol 328 . Be Tevwv TOV .PLUTARCH'S LIVES iJLavreis Kal iepeis dvefSaivev et? TO Ka?rtT(I)\LOV TapTnjiov avro \6(fiov ol Tore 'Pa)/xatot evravda ra)v pdvjewv o TrpcoTrpoarjyopevov. Kal 6ea)v ra Trapa TWV ev olwvols rj avfJilBokois TTpofyaivofj&va. O-LJTJ Be aTTtcrro? ev 7T\^0ei> dyopav /carel^e KapaboKovvTwv Kal crvvaico- ^ 7rpov(f)dvr)crav 1 Kal ovrco Be Se^iol dyadol eTrerpetyav. ojrep ecrrl ra^el^' ovre yap djncrTelv Tria-revovcriv OVT ftacriX-evew diTicnovvTwv r]liv. Bevrepov Be Tot? OIHTIV iepevcn Ato? Kal "Apeci)? rpirov ov 5 vd\iov GDVOfjLacrev. co? tcrTO/ooOcrt. eKa\ovv Be Kal TOL? Trpoyeve- (rrepovs <&\dfjLivas aTro rwv TrepiKpaviwv TTI\WV Tai? /ce^6aXa?9 (fropovcrt. 1 rw ^XP Kal 4 <f)0)val Kal Be^iwcreis rjcrav Be^ofjievcov. Trjv a>? evcrefiecrTaTOv Kal 0eo(j)i\ecrTaTOv Hapa\a/3a)V Be dp^rjv irpWTOv /JLCV TO TWV ael irepl TO crwyua KeXe/oa? Trpoo-rjyopevcrev.

Cf. 1 Romulus. 2. His first measure on assuming the government was to disband the body of three hundred men that Romulus always kept about his person. while he himself. 2 Thus also the name " laena. Now before this time the Romans called their priests "flamines. whom he called the Flamen Quirinalis. there being more Greek words mingled with the Latin at that time than now. nor to reign over those who distrusted him." as we are told. His second measure was to add to the two priests of Jupiter and Mars a third priest of Romulus. and 1 called "Celeres" (that is. he ascended the Capitol. xxvi. for he would swift ones ) not consent to distrust those who trusted him." which the Romans . where he was received with glad cries of welcome as the most pious of men and most beloved of the gods. and turned his eyes in all directions to observe whatever birds or other omens might be sent from the Then gods. until at last auspicious birds appeared and approached the scene on the right. and laying the right hand on his head. who watched in eager suspense for the issue. There the chief of the augurs turned the veiled head of Numa towards the south. 2-5 taking with him the augurs and priests." or caps. Romulus." 2 Cf. an incredible silence fell upon the vast multitude in the forum. 329 . vn. which the Romans of that time called the Tarpeian Hill." from the " close-fitting piloi. 3.NUMA. xv. and which have the longer name of " pilamenai. which they wear upon their heads. Plutarch does not hesitate to derive the Latiu "flamines" from the doubtful Greek ''pilamenai. prayed aloud. Then Numa put on his royal robes and went down from the citadel to the multitude. standing behind him.

d\\ov eBpa^eTai. deleted by Bekker corrected to K. Bfj/uov OVTW /u/e/oa? Brj Kal TeTpa^v^evov craaQai Kal 3 fMeraKocr/jiija-ai ov ovBe 77/069 elprjvrjv.i/cf)s /Jia\aKcoTepav r)v Troirja'cu KOL BitcaiOTepav. eBov\ov KciutXA.oeiBe<. KOI TOV vTrrjperovvra TOV AiO9 afi^)iOa\rf TraiBa \eyea6ai: Ka/uX\oi>. ap. dpxr/s TokfJirj TLVI Kal 7rapa/36\fp T&V OpaavTCLTwv Kal fia^ifjLcordTcov K6i 2 ^(oOev ooaajjievcdv. (TKkrjpas Kal TTO\/j. BoKOvaa Bia elvai TWV KW^VVWV. - 9 SiaKaTeaTrjcrev. pwv- rot? crvve-^icn vvaOat. T\.a atpyacre Ka ycoyrjv eiri^aptv Kal $>i\dii6pw7rov rjBovrjv e <rai9.PLUTARCH'S LIVES *Io/9a? )(\aiva<s TO> f (frrjcrlv elvai.r^a)*' Ka/x/\Aoz> CLTTO 1779 BiaKovia*} Trpoo-rj- yopevov. Kal <f)L\o7r6\efjiov ecrTt. 6' ore Kal </>o/3ou9 Tivas dirayye\\a)v Trapa TOV Oeov Kal ^acr/iara Bai/jLo a\\OKOTa Kal 1 (ficovas OVK .\dra)v diroKaXel crucrracra etceivtj TOT* fjv. Taura Be 6 No/za? CTT* evvoia Kal %d TOV SIJ/AOV TroXtTeucrayLtei/o? evdvs erre^eipei /c 7ro\iv. Kal KadaTrep ra KaTaTrrjyvvfieva T& creieaOat. rat? Be TroXXat? a-Tpareiais av^rjaei. VIII. Bii/jLaywywv Kal TiOaaevcov TO 6vjj. axnrep cri$r]pov.aSfu\ov by Sintenis 330 . aT6%vw5 yap vovaav TTO\LV ef. evfieveis. 009 fcal TOV *Eip/j. /j.fjv oi>ra>9 evioi TWV iepel 1 'EAA. TCL TroAAa Kal Tromals Kal oziais. TroXe/xot? Tpo<pfj xprjaa/jievrj Kal T^? BvvdfMea)?.oj' *. fjiev 7670 rrjv arco roov Oewv ftotfdeLav.

At times. 331 . After taking such measures to secure the goodwill and favour of the people. he would subdue and humble . is the same as that which some of the Greeks give to Hermes. and religious dances. that he won the people's favour and tamed their fierce and warlike tempers. and change its harsh and warlike temper into one of greater gentleness and justice. It was for the most part by sacrifices. 5-vin. strong by its very perils. so Rome seemed to be made And therefore Numa. Lycurgus. Juba says is the same as the Greek "chlaina". 6. as iron is softened in the fire. processions. judging it to be no slight or trivial undertaking to mollify and newly fashion for peace so presumptuous and stubborn a people. and in its many expeditions and its continuous wars it found nourishment and increase of its power and just as what is planted in the earth gets a firmer seat the more it is shaken. and which mingled with their solemnity a diversion full of charm and a beneficent pleasure. VIII. who forced their way thither from all parts. called in the gods to aid and assist him. vn. also. strange apparitions of divine beings and threatening voices.NUMA. which the Romans give to the boy with both parents who attends upon the priest of Jupiter. from his office of attendant. v. by heralding to them vague terrors from the god. It was brought into being at the very outset by the excessive daring and reckless courage of the boldest and most warlike spirits. Rome certainly was at that time. and that the name Camillas. 3 give to the priestly mantle. which he himself appointed and conducted. 1 Cf. For if a " " l feverish city was ever in what Plato calls a state. Numa straightliving way attempted to soften the city.

Kal piav Movaav l$L(0s Kal TOVS 'PwyUatou?. &)? TlvQayopa wv Kal fieya <f)i\ocro(f)las. etceivq* TT}? r) Trepl TO teal Oelov dyicneLa J teal \eyerat Be TOV 5 at'T?')? w6v e'/eeu>o? HvQayopa yap teal G^I] paT icr fiov cnro KOI 65 Siavoias TrepiftaXeaOai. after Amyot. &>? rovrw rtjs TroXtr^ta? Biarpifttj. e0' al? TL/JLWV 6 <>\id(rio<. e 77 Kal T^V Sidvoiav avTwv VTTO BetaiBaifjidXicfTa \6yov ea^ev f) TraiBevais TOV dvBpos.a 6ed<$ TJV TWOS r) vv/Mprjs opetas Kal TO. TOP re tyrjvai %pvcrovv 'OXu/tTTtacri SictTropevo- iravrfyvptv l aXXa? re TepaTcoSeis fjir)- avTov KOI irpd^ei^ di>ayye\\ov(Tiv.yx iffr ^ L (relationship). "Ecrrt Be Kal TO. adopted by Coraes and Bekker a. real f etpiyrai. deTov re 8o/ci TrpaVvai. avvovGia Trpbs CLVTOV aTroppijTos. ^co^at? riaiv oy/cov 7TiarTtjcra<? teal Karayayaiv vTrepiTrrd/jLevov. jrepl TWV d^iBpu/LLaTcov VO/LLOa TcavTaTcaaiv dBe\(f)a TWV Tlvdayopov Bryan's correction. TW Be No/ia Spdfj. Ta/ctrav Trpoaayopevcras. eypatye' 1 HvOayoprjv Be yotjTa ^ aTrotcKivovT 6 ejrl B6a<. : . fcal yap r\v yu-epo?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES eiroieu . ydp KOLVOI yuera MoL'cra)^ BiaTrXetcrra TCOV fiavTevfJLaTwv et? Moucra? dvijye. olov (TiWTr^rjv i) evedv BiacfrepovTWs eBuBa^e aeftecrOai OTrep elvai BOKCL TTJV 1 TlvOayopeiov d7ro/j.vr)/jiovevOVTOS e^efjbv6iav Kal TI/AOOVTOS.

religious services and It is said also that occupations have a large place. whom he called is. the solemnity of his outward demeanour was adopted by him because he shared the feelings of Pythagoras about it. is thought to . Furthermore. For he ascribed the greater part of his oracular teachings to the Muses. his ordinances concerning images are altogether in harmony with the doctrines of Tacita. regarding which Timon the Phliasian wrote : " Down to a juggler's level he sinks with his cheating for devices. VOL. 3-7 their minds by means of superstitious fears.NUMA. M 333 . cries of his. and he taught the Romans to pay especial honours to one Muse in particular. 1 Chapter iv. the silent. golden thigh as he passed through the assembled throngs at Olympia. That philosopher. as already mentioned. i. and brought also to have disclosed his have tamed an eagle. arid her secret meetings with him. indeed. lover of In like manner Numa's fiction was the love which a certain goddess or mountain nymph bore him. tJiat . Pythagoras. And we have reports of other devices and performances of his which savoured of the marvellous. 1 and his familiar converse with the Muses. This was the chief reason why Numa's wisdom and culture were said to have been due to his intimacy with Pythagoras for in the philosophy of the one. 1-2." men. or speechless one thereby perhaps handing on and honouring the Pythagorean precept of silence. and in the civil polity of the other. Laying his nets bombast. which he stopped by certain down from his lofty flight . vin.

OUTO? re Bie/ca>\v(Tv dv0pct)7roeiBrj ^wbfjLopfyov el/cova 6eov ' 8 ovB' TJV Trap* aurot? ovre 0^9 vo/ML^eiv. aopaTOV Be ftavev elvai ovre yap e/celvos alcrdrjrbv r) TraOrjrov.eprcov eVl TW air TraiBl Trpoa^yopeuaev. OVTWS VTro/copi^o- rov /9acrt\ea)9 TTJV ev rot9 \6yois TOV dvBpbs avrol S' d/crj/coafjiev ai/jLv\iav /cal ydpiv. irdKaios dvrjp teal r^9 Hv0ayopitcf)s BiaTpijBrjS fjLeT6O"xr)Kci)S' erepov Be ort reaadpwv vla)v /3a(ri\ei 10 \lv9aybpov Be Kal rbv [jLtvov Noyita yevo/Jbevwv eva Md/j. ovre irXaarbv elSos 6eov nrporepov. " C T> " ' ev if^^ri oiegiovTcav OTI xprjcr IJLOV TTOTC l 1 with AC. l teal CLKTIGTOV real VOTJTOV vireXd/j.i. e/ceivov Kljjn\Lwv oltcov (fracriv. r&v Bvcriwv e%erai ri}^ HvOady icrTeia^' avalfiaKToi yap rjcrav at ye &i d\(f)iTOV /cal cnrov&rjs KOI ra>v evre- 9 X&)/?t9 &e TOVTWV erepois e^wOev earriv e TCKfirj plow ol rbv avSpa T&3 dvbpl <rvvoiKeiovvre<. &v ev fJiev on TlvQayopav 'Pco/maloi rfj TToXtreta Trpocreypaifrav..riova rofc 'xeipocriv rj ovre (f)d7rrea0ai> $e teal TO.dSas lepas ia-Twvres. a>9 ovre ocriov d<f)OfJLOiovv ra /3\. dya\/Jia Be ovSev efJi/Jiop^ov iroiov^&voi $iTe\ovv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Soy/jidrcov. '?>*-' Bekker : 334 .TO /cal irpwTOV. aXV ev e/carbv e/BSo/jUJfcovra rot? irpdyro^ erecn i/aoi/9 [ilv oiKoSojjLov/jtevoi /cat fca\t. followed by &KTi<rToi> Sintenis (unmixed). rj Oeov Svvarbv aXX&)9 vor)G. dvafja^OevTa rot9 TrarpiKLOis bvo^iaa'Ofjvai. &>9 IcrToprjKev 'E?rt^a/j/i09 o Kco/jLitcbs ev TLVL \6ya> ?r/)09 KvTr]vopa yeypafji/jbevto.

but were made with flour. forbade the Romans which had the form there among them in or graven likeness of and uncreated. Moreover. was enrolled as a citizen of Rome. were altogether appropriate to the Pythagorean worship . and discernible And in like manner Numa to revere an image of God of man or beast. other external proofs are urged to show that the two men were acquainted One of these is that Pythagoras with each other. And apart from these things. after the son of Pythagoras. This fact is recorded by Epicharmus the comic poet. but while for the first hundred and seventy years they were continually building temples and establishing sacred shrines. was invisible only by the mind. and Epicharmus was an ancient.NUMA. I myself have heard many people at Rome recount how. the first principle of being was beyond sense or feeling. too. vin. convinced that it was impious to liken higher things to lower. drink-offerings. Aemilius being the endearing name which the king gave him for the grace and tvinsomeness of his speech. Their sacrifices. And from him they say that the patrician family of the Aemilii took its name. and belonged to the school of Another proof is that one of the four Pythagoras. Nor was this earlier time any painted Deity. sons born to king Numa was named Mamercus. in a certain treatise which he dedicated to Antenor . and the ' least costly gifts. they made no statues in bodily form for them. for most of them involved no bloodshed. 7-10 For that philosopher maintained that Pythagoras. when an oracle once commanded the 335 . and that it was impossible to apprehend Deity except by the intellect.

0)9 TOV vop. eaT7]o~av TT}? Kal TOV avSpeiorarov eVt rrjv JJLCV dyopds Trjv el/covas ^aX/ta? Bvo. dyicoTaTwv <ydp ol AaTivot elvai ^kvioi Kal Trjv TraXaiOTarcoi/ OVTWV TrovTe^ 3 Ti]V <ye<pvpav ovo/J-d^ovaiv. TOI>? KK\ija-6ai Se row? HovTi<pifca<. 1 XeyeTai. ov crvKocfrav.Trevovo-L &VVCITOVS /ecu tcvpiov? a o TWV 6Vra9' 2 TTOTrjvs- yap SvvaTos VTTO erepoi &e (pacri TT/JO? vTre^aipeaiv yeyo- vevai Tovvopa TWV SvvaT&v. TfiaroixrQa. Be Tlvdayopov. 'AXtovv fiidBov. Be Kal TO Trd^iTrav avev crtBjjpov a correction of Reiske's. Trpocn'iKovcrav 66 ov <yap Oe/juiTov. TO ravra /j.ev d/j>(f)icr/3'r)T')jo'i? %ovra TroXXa? KOI TO Kivelv Sia teal ecrr IX.i>ov TOV <ppovifjLa)TaToi> '}L\\i]va)V lBpvcrao~0ai Trap* avrois. <ye<f)vpas.dovo~iv t a>9 ovBev aXX' 77 ou9 avBpas Trjv 7riK\?-j0evTas airo TWV yefivpav iep&v.PLUTARCH'S LIVES <yevo/u. HovriKaXovcri. oi><. wairep aXXo TL Kal TTaTpiwv iepwv. SiaTaffiv fcal /carda-rao-iv d7ro$L&6KCLl (fraCTLV CLVTOV GVOL TOVTWV TOV TTp&TOV yejO- vevai. No/z-a Be Kal <j)i/ea$ CLGly Tr)v TWV dp%iepe(Dv.o0eTov r9 SvvaTa? eiriTekelv lepovpyia^ Toi/9 iepels K\vav Be 77 TL K(jo\vfia fiel^ov.1 arid Bekker : 336 . accepted by Coraes vtffTfvr6ai (believe). ol /JLCV OTI Oeovs Oepa.evov TWV ovofJLdTWV Trepl BoKi/j. Kal TTJV eTTicrKevijv. ol Be TrXetcrrot ^akidia fcal TO <ye\d)/j. aXX' lirdpaTov TO49 lepevcnv.

H. they say. like all the other inviolable and ancestral rites. would savour of youthful contentiousness. xxxiv. nothing more nor less than bridge-builders. from the sacrifices which they Pontifices performed at the bridge over the Tiber.NUMA. but actually sacrilegious. and finding no fault with them if any serious obstacle prevented. 1 According to the elder Pliny statues stood in the comitium at the Samnite wars (343-290 B. who are powerful and supreme over all the world. these Rome from the time of down to that of Sulla 337 (138-78 B. and " "potens is the Roman word for powerful. / According to some they are called Pontifi&es because employed in the service of the gods. 12).). bridge. vin. . To Numa is also ascribed the institution of that order of high priests who are called Pontifices.C. IX. that the custody and maintenance of the . moreover. for the Romans held the demolition of the wooden bridge to be not only It is also said unlawful.) (N. 3 Romans to erect in their city monuments to the wisest and the bravest of the Greeks. 1 and one of Pvthagoras. Others that the name was meant to distinguish between say the lawgiver enpossible and impossible functions joining upon these priests the performance of such . sacred offices only as were possible. means. they set up in the forum two statues in bronze. and he himself is said to have been the first of them. attached to the priesthood. lo-ix. However. to discuss it at greater length. since the matter o of Numa's acquaintance with Pythagoras is involved in much dispute.C. one of Alcibiades. But most writers give an absurd explanation of the name . and to win belief for it. They say. sacrifices of the greatest antiquity and the most sacred character " for " pons is the Latin word for bridge.

'Eo-r^aSa? Trpocrayopevovcri. Oeparreiav re Kal TifJirjv a.ovTi$iK<pv olov e /cal 7rpo(j)^Tov. 0.7roBi. o avrai. el're TO aKaprrov Kal a<yovov TTJ TrapOevia o~vveVet rot TT)? 'EXXaSo? OTTOU rrvp eaTiv. co? Tlvdol Kal *A0rfvrjcriv. r VTTO Maptcuov TOV No/ia Qwyarpi&ov O Se /jieyicrTOS rcov H.9 f]v Be /cal TWV lepwv irapOevwv eVtcr/fOTro?. 338 . : fj. 5 Trj&iv. eVl TT}? 'Ap TOV lepov Xv^vov. Trepl Be TO. VTTO MijBwv. ov i. 4 %povoi<> 77 TL f) \6yLov avyyeyo^waOai ov Bia TOOV Be \iOlvrj 7roXXot9 vcrrepov e^eipjda0rj JJLIJV VTT A.rj a\\a Kal TOU? ISia Qvovras eTTicncoTrwv KOI Kw\va)v irapeKftaiveiv ra vevofjucrpeva.i0piBaTiKa Kal TOV /ji(j)v\Lov 'Pco/uaicov TroXefiov apa TCO /3coyu. eTTifJLeXeiav <yvvaiK6S Be Trerrav/jLevai yd/jicov e edv Be VTTO TV^T^ TIVOS 'AQrfvrjo-t.$6acriv. d\\d /cal rrjv %v\lvr)v TWV NO//.7ro\6LTreo~0ai \eyovcriv. fjilv KaOdirep \eyeTat.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Kara gv\cov. fjba\\ov Be iepocfxivTov TOL^LV et\. ei> AeX<o? Be TOV vaov KaTa7rpr)o~0VTO<. /cal 8iSdcr/cajv OTOV Tt? SeoiTO TT/DO? Oewv TijJirjv 77 irapai.co TO TvpavviSos dTroo-/3ecr0fjvai 1 n6vov with most MSS. (including S) and edd.O. No/u. etre co? KaOapav Kal a<p0aprov TTJV TOV rrvpbs ovcriav rr)V TWV TI-JV c EcrrittS&)^ oXw? Trepl d/cripaTOis /cal dfjadvTOLS TrapaTiQe^kvov crcap.a yap Brj real irapBevwv TO irvp TO aOdvarov.ao'LV. M. ^povcov a.ljJLi\ou TajjLievovTOS.6vcav.

or because he thought of it as unfruitful and barren. 3 88-86 B. Lucullus. and at Delphi when the temple was burned by the Medes. xiii.NUMA. and therefore entrusted it to chaste and undefiled persons. but also watching over private sacrifices and preventing any departure from established custom. the Pontifex Maximus. and therefore associated it with virginity. had the duty of expounding and interpreting the divine will. but of widows past the age of marriage. as at Athens during the tyranny 2 the sacred lamp is said to have been extinguished.C. that it ix. and as during the Mithridatic and the Roman civil wars the altar was demolished chance it of Aristion 1 179 B. It was either because he thought the nature of fire pure and uncorrupted. as well as teaching whatever was requisite for the worship or propitiation of the gods. and was completed by Ancus Marcius. the grandson of Nunia by his daughter. it is committed to the charge. And if by any goes out. as at Delphi and Athens.C. 3-6 built entirely without iron and fastened together with wooden pins in obedience to an oracle. 339 . 3. 6 . Sulla. for to Numa is ascribed the consecration of the Vestal virgins. The stone bridge was constructed at a much later 1 However. The chief of the Pontifices. when Aemilius was quaestor. Cf. or rather of directing sacred rites. xix. He was also overseer of the holy virgins called Vestals . not only being in charge of public ceremonies. and in general the worship and care of the perpetual fire entrusted to their charge. when he was king. Since wherever in Greece a perpetual fire is kept. said that the wooden bridge also was later than the was time of Numa. not of virgins. it is period.

OTCLV ovv ffeaiv evavriav \dftr) 7rpo9 TOV r}\LOv. coarre ra? avya? nravra^oOev dvaKOTTTO/jievas dOpoi^eaOat.i&) BiaTypeia-Qat. evioi ovv ov&ev VTTO da-fiecrTOV lepSjv Trapdevcav aXX' TO typovpelcrOai. adopted by Bekker 340 .ev ovv VTTO No/^a \6yovat Teyavuav /cal ^epr)vlav. rot? cr/ca^etot?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Tcvp ^(pavi(T0)].iavTOv. (j)ao"iv Trvp vofjii^ovcnv evioi $e elval Tivd dOeara TO?? aXXoi? lepd /cpvirrofj-eva. TIJV Be fj.ea">iv a [JLefiaOrjicacn TI^V Be Tpiir^v erepas avral BiBdo~ /cover iv.VSI S' i? ev K TT}? 7repi<f)peia<$ Kevrpov.eTa TOV ^povov TOVthe correction of Coraes. avrov TG Stafcpivei TOV depa \7TTvv6/iJi6Vov. a xaraJJL&V CLTTO TrXeupa? tVocrAreXoD? opdoya)viov Tpiyoavov Koi\aivQ^va.6iov Bvo TrpocrOevros aXXa? TW dpi6f. icaivov Be rroielv KOI veov.7r\eKecrQai irepl TO icevrpov.9. Bevrepov Be Kavov\r)'iav real Tap^y'iav vcrrepov Be ^ep. a fj TTJV fjiev TrpcoTrjv Be/caeTiav fjiavdavovcTL. l ^XP 1 T ^)V XP OPMV TOVTCDV TO 7rX?}^o?. CTVVVG. /cal rd Kovcfrorara KOL rara rwv iroaTievwv oea)? avdiri^i /card Trjv 8 dvrepei(TLV t CTCO/AO. a>pior0r) Be TGU5 lepais TrapOevois VTTO TOV /Sacr^Xew? dyveia TpiatcovTaeTis. Tlpwrov /j. /cal crv/j. /cal [JLCV ?'} 7r\t]yr]V TrvpcbBrj efcetvo <7uy>}? XaySoucr7. : 2 etTa dveiTai TTJ fiovXofjLevy /j. ov <f)a<ri. a)v ocra /cal irvOeaOai /cal (ppdaai OepiTov ev X. ev Xpr) Bpdv Bpwai. a drro TOU r)\iov <j)\6ja KaOapdv Be /juaXia-ra /cal djj. Sew CLTTO erepov evavecrdai.

who subsequently added to them Canuleia and Tarpeia . which none others may behold. Life of Cam ill us. but made fresh and new. In the beginning. 6-x. and which converge from their circumference to a single point in the centre. Some. the concavity of which is made to follow the sides of an isosceles rectangular triangle. are kept in concealment by them. And this they usually effect by means of metallic mirrors. What may lawfully be learned and told about these things. and very light and dry substances placed there quickly blaze up from its resistance. the air itself is rarefied there. Then. the sun's rays now acquiring the substance and force of fire. during the second to perform the duties they have learned. 3-6. any one who . by lighting a pure and unpolluted flame from the rays of the sun. 1 X. . then they say it must not be kindled again from other fire. I have written in my as . 1 Chapter xx. the thirty years being now passed. are of the opinion that nothing but this perpetual fire is guarded by the sacred virgins while some say that certain sacred objects. so that its rays. then. 2 fire extinguished. they fall upon them from all sides. and during the third to teach others these duties. When.NUMA. It was ordained by the king that the sacred virgins should vow themselves to chastity for thirty years during the first decade they are to learn their duties. these are placed opposite the sun. they say that Gegania and Verenia were consecrated to this office by Numa. that at a later time two others were added by Servius. are collected and concentrated at the centre. moreover. making the number which has continued to the present time. therefore. and the ix.

aTreScoKev /cat TO Sia0ecr0ai. drrap^aL re TO ^TJV dvayKaitov f3pa-)(eLai rives. TO (f)Op6LOV CLTroBvYJCTKei. &cnrep TO fir) Xt//.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TOV rj^y] Kal ydfjiov /jLra\a[jLJ3dveiv KOI r TT/JO? ere- pov rparricrOai fiiov. avrrjv Be 342 . olov ev dyyeiw. nrapd TToXeco? cxfrpvs 760)5^9 TrapaTeivovaa 5 /caXetTat Be %w/z-a Bia\eKTa> rfj KaTivwv. ovBe darrada/JLevaL^ %pr)crra Trpdy^ara (Tvvrv^elv. KO\aCTi^ & a\\a)v dpaprimdrcov 7T\tjyal Ta?9 Trap. d\\a jjLTavoia Kal Kanifaia avvovaai rov \OITTOV fiiov /j. e\aiov.a<.j3a\eii> TO. yd\a.? a/\Xa? et? eyfcaprepovcras teal 3 Tiytta? Se /jL6jd\. vTreGrpco/jLewr) ra)v 7T/909 Keirai Be ev avra) Kkivrf re KaiofJievos. oxnrep at T/otVaiSe?. ol/co9 ov evravOa avwOev Kardftacriv.67 yeyovevai rrjv airdvTr](jiv. d n:a\\ayeicrr] rr)<$ lepovpyias. o9ovr)<s ev aTeivofJLivrjS' 7} Be rrjv Trapdeviav %a)cra KaropiiTTeTai. 4 /JL6VCOV V7TO o oe V7re\9a)v KO/^L^O. paftBovxovvrai. \eyovrai Be ov TroXXat ravrrjv darrdcraaOai rrjv aBeLav. TOV /jLeyicrrov TIovrL(f>ifcos KoXd^ovros ecmv ore /cal JV/JLVTJV rrjv TrX^/i/AeA-^cracrar. Se Trpolovaai' KCLV nvl Trpo? Qdvaiov avro/jbdra)^ arvvrv^coOVK dvaipeirai. Sei Be airo^Qcrai rrjv TrapQkvov aKQvaiov /cal rv^aiav /cal OVK e^7rLT7}Se<. KaOiepw/jLevov dyiareLais. wv ecm Trarpos Kal ra\\a Trpdrreiv avev Trpocrrdrov Siayovcras. ^OJ^TO? e^elvai avTais.w BiacpOeipeiv crM/na T<xt9 Kal Xu^o9 6 /jLeyi<rrat<.

and if they accidentally meet a criminal on his way to execution. a bowl of water. and to transact and manage their other affairs without a guardian. in a dark place. but the virgin must make oath . as though they would thereby absolve themselves from the charge of destroying by hunger a life which had been consecrated to the highest services of religion. mode of x. the fasces are carried before them. a lighted lamp. and that those who did so were not happy. such as bread. that the meeting was involuntary and fortuitous. In coverings. When they appear in public. but were a prey to repentance and dejection for the rest of their lives." Under it a small chamber is conhis life is spared . after laying down her sacred office. For their minor offences the virgins are punished with stripes. like the mothers of three children. He who passes under the litter on which they are borne. Here a little ridge of earth extends for some distance along the inside of the city-wall the Latin word for it is "agger. with a curtain interposed. however. milk. and very small portions of the necessaries of life. couch with 343 . But Numa bestowed great privileges upon them. and not of design. But she that has broken her vow of chastity is buried alive near the Colline gate.NUMA. 2-6 wishes has liberty to marry and adopt a different life. such as the right to make a will during the life time of their fathers. that few have welcomed the indulgence. We are told. with steps leading this are placed a down from its above. so that until old age and death they remained steadfast in their virginity. the Pontifex Maximus sometimes scourging the culprit on her bare flesh. thereby inspiring the rest with superstitious fears. structed. and oil. is put to death.

PLUTARCH'S LIVES Ko\a%o/jievr)v et9 fyopelov evOefJievoi KOI crTeydo~avTe<> firjBe (frcovrjv Kara009 e^wOev /cal /caTaXa/Bovres l^aaiv.?'}? dvwOev j^oofjia 7ri(f)opov- wcrre laoTrebov TO> XoiTrco TOV TOTTOV. dvaipelrai. TI Se TT/OO? TOV TOTTOV KOfMlCrdfj TO $>OpeloV. f TO r/}? 'Ecrrta? lepov TO> dcr/SeaTO) Trvpl cfcpov- pdv. ov& ij OTO. a7ro/J<i/LiovfJLvo<? ov TO (T^fjia TT}? 7779 fo>9 Ecrrta9 o#cr?79. No/^a? &e \eyeTai eyKVK\iov Trepi(3a\ea6at.V TOU? SecT^ou? ee\vcrav. e^dyei fcal KaQlaTiqGiv eVt K\i/jLaKo<.at. OVTQ3 fL6V Ol 7TpOe/JiVai TT)V /cal Oevlav KoKa^ovrai. KO/AL^OVO-I Si' e^iaravrai Be Trdvres criwrrfj /cal Trapa- Trefnrova-LV atydoyyoi jnerd T^O? Selves Ka ovSe eaTiv eiepov Geafjia (ppifcrorepov. OL/crj/jLa 77)9 TroXX. d\\a TOV av^iravro^ KOO-JJLOV. 01 /J. XI. 6 Se rS)v lepecoi' eu^a? Tivas dTropprjrov? Troi^ddfJievo^ /cal et? dvareivas Oeois irpo T/}? dvdyfcrjs.V TroXt? a\\r)v dyei (TTvyvorepav ifeetvrjs. e^dfcovcrrov yevecrOai. fierd TWV d\\cov lepiwv T?}? Be rj re K\ifj. /cal /cara- TO .9 Trepufiopas ovaav. 2 /cal TOVTO 'QaTiav Ka\ov(Ti /cal jjiovdSa' TTJV 8e yrjv OVT6 aKivr]TOV OVTG iv yu-ecrw T?. d\\d KVK\W Trepl TO Trvp alwpov/jievrjv ov TWV Tl/jLlCOTaTCOV OvBe TO)V TTptoTWV TOV KOa/JLOV TavTa 344 Be teal Tl\dTWvd (fraari yevofJLevov Siavevo^a-Oai. elra avro? TO o'i/cijfjia /cdrco (frepovarjs.ecrov ol Hv0ayopL/col TO Trvp iSpvcrdai VO/JLL^OVO'L. ov fj. dyopas. Trepl T^9 7779 .

Then the high-priest. and great quantities of earth are thrown into the entrance to the chamber. and call it Vesta And they hold that the earth is and Unit. 6-xi. Furthermore. nor even one of the primary elements of the universe. had of the earth. All the people there silently make way for the litter. in a terrible depression of No other spectacle is more appalling. who break their vow of virginity. and when she has gone down. attendants unfasten the cords of the coverings. This is the conception. it is said that Numa built the temple of Vesta. XI. as do the rest of the priests. any other day bring more gloom to the city than When the litter reaches its destination. the steps are taken up. and follow it without uttering a sound. and places her on the steps leading down After this he turns away his face. 2 culprit herself is placed on a litter. and carried through the forum. we are told. over which coverings are thrown and fastened down with cords so that not even a cry can be heard from within. but of the entire universe. into the chamber. the this. where the perpetual fire was kept. in his old age. at the centre of which the Pythagoreans place the element of fire. but that it revolves in a circle about the central fire. brings forth the culprit. which Plato also. of a circular form. believing Vesta to be the earth.NUMA. after stretching his hands toward heaven and uttering certain mysterious prayers before the fatal act. nor does soul. hiding it away. namely that it is 345 . not in imitation of the shape of the earth. not being one of the most important. and making the place level with the Such is the punishment of those rest of the mound. neither motionless nor situated in the centre of surrounding space. Then the x. who is closely veiled.

&>9 Kal rovvojjLa \aftbvres diro rfjs 346 . rj 8e irporepov <yafjLr)0Lcra (Bovv eyKvjjiova KariOvev exeivov vo/JLoderijcravTO?. ol fjiev yap 68 ipr)vo(f)v\aKes i. e/cel d\\a Kal TOU? Oeovs crefiea-Oai rot? rj/jLerepwv ra Kvpicorara rwv f a/3er&)? Se rrjv irpocra<yopevofJLev'riv Ai- eTTLCTKOTTOV TWV 7Tpl TOU? 6vij(TKOVTa<. rives ovres. wv e eviavrwv ftexpi TWV r)\LKiav. Kal Trepairepa) d\\a rov etvai &6Ka/j. NoyLta r^elcfOai fiiaa/jia T&V TOIOVTWV. at yLtaXtcrra ryv evae- eiav rov dvBpbs fjb<paii>ov<7iv. firfva^ TTpecrfivrepov Trkelovas Be/ca. XII. IIoXXa9 Be Kal aXXa9 No/i-a KaraB re en TCOV Bvelv /JLvrfadrjo-o/jLai. irepl ra? irdrpia rol<? %avTO$ jjLrj&ev ^py^ovcriv dtyrjyovvrai. elVe Hepcre^ovrjv el're a>9 ot \oyicoraroL 'PoofjLaiwv viroKajji ov ra&>9 et9 ua9 Svvauv 6eov /cat TO. 9eov ovaav. Ol Be TlovrtyiKes KOI TO.6V olov TralBa {jLTjSe irevOelv vewrepov rpierovs.r) icaO* r)\t/cia^ Kal 6raj. fiaKpordrov e'<' oaov Kal OVGLV at TWV asnoQavovTWV ryvvalKes.rji'ialov. rfjs <&tria\ewv. rrjv Be fJLecrrjv teal Kvpiwrdrrjv erepw nvl Kpeirrovi TrpocnJKOvcrav.PLUTARCH'S LIVES o>9 ev erepa X&pa KaOeartovrjs. 2 auro9 Se ra TrevOr) /u.

Fetiales were guardians of peace. since they receive into their keeping the most sovereign part of us. Numa also established many other orders of priesthood. but to honour the gods below also with the customary rites. 2-xn. the mourning was not to last more months than it had lived years. up to ten and no age was to be mourned longer than that. and in my opinion took their name from their office. was to put a stop to disputes 1 by oral conference. or. which nobler body. . and that the central is reserved for some other and during which women who have lost their husbands remain in widowhood. who presides over the solemn services for the dead. . was obliged by the laws of Numa to sacrifice a cow with calf. whether she is Proserpina. The Pontifices also explain and direct the ancestral rites of burial for those who desire it. and she who took another husband before this term was out.NUMA. For instance. those of the Salii and the Fetiales. chapter xix. mourning according to ages. which more than any others The give evidence of the man's reverent piety. over a child of less than three years there was to be no mourning at all over one older than that. so to speak. Venus thereby not inaptly connecting man's birth and death with the power of one and the same godNuma himself also regulated the periods of dess. of which I shall mention two. and they were taught by Numa not to regard any such offices as a pollution. and sovereign space xi. besides. and particularly the goddess called Libitina. 1 This is also the period . 347 . 3 established in a secondary space. or Cf. as the most learned Romans maintain. XII. 1. but ten months was the period set for the longest mourning.

PLUTARCH'S LIVES KareTravov. eveavievo-aTo irpb OVK avrw TWV 1 Givwv oirXa \a{3a)i> TrpotcaXecraadaL TOV d ovTa T0)v ftapftdpcov. ovra) Karijy<ye\\ov &6 TOVTCOV T) {JLT) avrois rov TroXepov. ol Be avrol dyvwfiovovvTcov Se 0ovs.Xou? Xpoo/jLCVOi \vda)crt ra? /jirj vei/cr) f) ra jrporepov 4 Sia(f)0pds. rare GKOTTelv Trepi TOV av^epovTo^. ftia. TO. 7T/309 aXXr. ol <&iTia\i$ eireiOov eKSi&ovai TOV avSpa r 348 .ev jap ol (3dpj3apoi TToXiopKovvres' "A/x/Soucrro? 6t? vjrep crei9 eTre/ji^drj Be Trpecr/BevTr) ? 1 TO a-TparoTreSov SiaXvo-et? \a/3a>v Be /cal TCOV Tro\iopKoviJivwv. aXXa Trapa TOVTCOV e$ei TTJV dp^ijv TOV TToXeyLtof Sei^d/jievov to? Sircaiov rbv ap^ovTa. \eyerai Se Kal TO K\TIKOV eiceivo irddo^ TT) ir6\ei Oe/jLirov G TOVTWV TWV lepewv Trapavo^rjOevTcov. OVK eeoi/Tt"? iraaav e\7ri8a Kal jap elprjvriv "EXXT^e? Ka\ovo~iv QTCLV \6ya). pev ovv TT}? Kal KaTa(3a\(bv ecrKvkevcre TOV &e ol KeXTol Tre/nTrovcriv et? TOV <&a{3iov KaTiyyopovvTes &><? K(nr6vBov Kal aTrlcTTov Kal aKaTayye^Tov e^evrjvo^oTO^ TT/JO? evTav6a TTJV fJLev avTovs iroXefJiov. eTTieiKeis irepas a^etv Trpecrfleiav olo/jLevo$. ovre /SacnXel 'PajAaicov oVXa Kivelv. "ETf^oy /J. (TVV CUV OVVT (tiV OVT6 . Kal /carev^d/jievoi TT}? avT&v avrol xal KW\VOVTWV crrpaTi(t)T-rj TraryotSo? TroXXa Kal Seiva /cad' el SiKaiws ^ e-jre^iacnv.

3-7 1 and they would not suffer a hostile expedition parley to be made before every hope of getting justice had been cut off. And it is said that the dreadful disaster which the city experienced at the hands of the Gauls was in consequence of the illegal treatment of these priests. on receiving this verdict. But if they forbade it or withheld their consent. and committed the youthful folly of taking up arms for the Clusiaiis and challenging the bravest of the Barbarians to single combat. to speak. they sent a herald to Rome denouncing Fabius for violating a truce. But on receiving an unseemly answer. fari. and so declared war upon them. 1 Connecting the name with fateri. he thought his office of ambassador was at an end. Fabius Ambustus was sent from Rome to their camp to bring about a cessation of hostilities on behalf of the besieged. neither soldier nor king of Rome could lawfully take up arms. and the ruler. War had to begin with their verdict that it was just. And the Roman Fetiales often to those who were doing them a wrong and personal appeals for fair treatment but if the unfair treatment continued.NUMA. must then deliberate on the proper way to wage it. 349 . Fabius fought successfully. . Rome the Fetiales tried to persuade the senate to went made . unhorsed his adversary. and stripped him of his armour. invoked many dreadful evils upon themselves and their country in case they resorted to hostilities unjustly. and not by violence. and fighting At against them before war was formally declared. For the Greeks call it peace when two parties settle their quarrels by mutual conference. they called the gods to witness. But when the Gauls discovered who he was. breaking his oath. xn. For when the Barbarians were besieging Clusium.

avru). /cat 350 . aXXa TaOra $e Ka- /JLL\\OV /jiaXXov ciKpi/Bovrai. Trpo^da'eo)^. Toiavr^s oySoov avrov (SacnXevovros Xoi/xcoS^? voaos Trepuovaa dOvTr)v \Ta\iav ecrrpoftrjcre Kal rrjv 'Pw/Arjv.\\aa6au TOV? Te^z/tTa? paivcocn vjrep T^? o/jioioTrjTos.otorr]Ta TOV TO ywpov Ka TOI/? Trepl CLVTO OTTOV ovo~iv . eVo? /JLOVVTCOV Be TWV dvOpcDTTcov icTTOpeLTai. etrj ra> Ke7nr} eicevo napa'n\riaiwv. Kara(f)vyo)v Be eKeivos et? TOW? TTO\\OVS TW Brf/AM cnrovBd^ovTi xprjcrd^evo? SiexpovSifcrjv. Toj. o> 'H^e/ota? 2 Te Aral rJKeiv Aral TWV eVl Moucrcoi/ TrvOecrOaL. Ta TroXXa . eVt Se avTrj 8 av /JLCLG LOV Tiva \6yov \eyecr0ai VTTO rov /^acr^Xea)?. /vat auTO <$>povpeicr6ai yevofjievcov OTTO)? a\\(ov eVSe^ra fceivri) r Aral <r^r)/za fjLj0o^ Kal fiop^v airopov i. eraro rrjv /uer' o\i<yov Be /uev eVeX^oWe? Trepl ol KeXTol Trjv 'Pd)/unjv 7r\rjv TOV KaTrtTwXtov ev TO?? e^: 8ie- Tr6p6r)crav. %a\Krjv TreXrrjv e ovpavov fcara<f)epo/j. TOL>? jjiev QveTovpiov Be Ma/novpiov eva aXXou? aTrenrelv.? SaXtof? Xeyerai y (TvarijcracrBat.Ke(T0ai T^? e^ epeta?. TWV a/ep&v Brjfja- ovpycov ouT&>5 e<j)i.a 7T(reiv yeipas.evT]v et? Ta? No/^. te/De?? XIII. aayrrjpia TT}? TO /xei^ 7/o OTT\OV Setv TroXeco?.ev ovv \eyovcri Kal Ta TT}? vocrov TcapaTTJV Be 7re\Tr)v irpoOevTO^ ^prj/^a Travcrdfjieva. TOVTOL? fj. avTOv Kal AreXeucra^TO? dfjn. /j. TO Trjv Be Tnyyrjv r) KaTcipBei vBajp lepov aTroBei^ai Tat? 'EcrTtr/o-t TrapOTTO)? \a/ji(Bdvovcrai Kad^ rjfjbepav dyvi^wcri 3 Aral fiapTVprjcrai TO dvdtcTopov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES /cal KeXTot?.

and the adjacent meadows. The buckler came. and a wonderful account of it was given by the king. which traversed Italy. and must be carefully preserved by making eleven others of like fashion. 7-xin. and through the favour of the populace evaded his punishment. The priesthood of the Salii Numa is said to have been established for the following reason. 35 1 . xn. who should daily sprinkle and purify their temple with it. and that the spring which watered the spot should be declared holy water for the use of the Vestal virgins. and shape. therefore. which he learned from Egeria and the Muses. 3 deliver Fabius into the hands of the Gauls. must be consecrated to them . they say that the truth of all this was attested by the immediate cessation of the When Numa showed the buckler to the pestilence. for the salvation of the city. size. they all declined. Moreover. the Gauls came up and sacked Rome. further that the spot where it fell.NUMA.-xxii. in order that the resemblance between them might make it difficult for a thief to He said distinguish the one that fell from heaven. with the exception of the Capitol. a most excellent workman. except Veturius Mamurius. After a little. and made all the eleven so exactly 1 Chapters xvii. who was so happy in his imitation of it. distracted Rome also. but he took refuge with the multitude. But this 1 story is more fully given in my Life of Camillus. The story goes that while the people were disheartened by this. a bronze buckler fell from heaven. he said. where the Muses usually had converse with him. XIII. which came into the hands of Numa. artificers and bade them do their best to make others like it. In the eighth year of his reign a pestilence.

rj op^creox. 7ro\iv.iKoei&ovs.60paKO$ dvSpos 77 ovojua SaTuou. Kal TrvKvoTrjra ftera /col Kov(p6rr]TO<. /u. TavTa yap 6 SvvaiTO fjiov /cal S' ai/ T?}? dve/caQev (fropds irpwTOv eTru>vvyeyovevai. 779 at icepdlai Trjv } et aai KOI 6 a-vi'7ria"rp6(f)OV(TaL cr^rj/jia rfj aXX/. iro^wv epyov eVrt.KIVOVVTCLL yap Kd %ovri.a\\ov r)v airo TT)? op^jcreo)^ avrrjs.PLUTARCH'S LIVES /caracrKevdcrai. ert Se TT}? TG>I> o Kal rou9 353 . ware ///>. ey^eipiBe d\\r) 5 SLOW Se fjLiKpois rd ovrXa Kpovovre?. d\\ e\. %ajj.v0o\oyovcri. Trpcorou T^P evoTT\iov 'V* SaXiot co? aXXa p. aTreSei^e TOU? 4 lepeis. e a ra9 TreXra? dytcv\ia KO\OVO-L Sid TO KvrcXos yap OVK eariv ovSe a rjS irepi^epetav. Kal TT}? a/cecreco? TWZ/ VOVOVVTWV. ov%.' avrbv 0ue TOV No/Jiav SiayivaxTKeiv. Se e/c\ijdr](7av. bv irepKpepovTai. orav ra? iepas TreXra? dva\d[Bw(Tiv Be /cat ev ^aX/cai? eVea)cr/^ei>o 69 Kpdvr) ^aX/ea (fropovvres.Xa? dytcv\ov TO Trepl evpvirvKvoT^Ti TTyoo? Troiovcnv rj Sid TOV /ca/Ji7rd<. eri jrdcras o/Wa?. TOVTWV ovv Xa/ea? KOL dfMpi7ro\ov<. TT}? rwi' av%{JLWv Xvcrew?.

" This is what Juba says. which. Or. or. just as Castor and Pollux were called Anakes by the Athenians if. . 1 The Latin "salire." inasmuch as the original shield fell from on high. . clad in purple tunics. like it. who is bent on deriving the name from the Greek." because it healed those who were sick of the plague or from "auchmon lysis. for they move gracefully. nor yet completely oval. from brought a cessation of calamities. or from "akesis. The bucklers themselves are called "ancilia. and agility certain shifting and oft-recurring rhythm. the arms of which are bent back and united with each other at top and bottom this makes the shape "ancylon. in quick .NUMA. . But the dance is chiefly a matter of step . and them. from a man of Samothrace or Mantinea. he appointed the priesthood of the Salii. further. is "ankon. not. . in Greek. sacred bucklers through the streets of the city in the month of March. they are named from the elbow on which they are carried. and carrying small daggers with which they strike the shields." from their shape for this is not round. wearing bronze helmets on their heads. girt with broad belts of bronze. xin. as some tell the tale. but has a curving indentation. but rather from the leaping l which characterized the dance itThis dance they perform when they carry the self. then." the Greek for curved. Now the Salii were so named. execute with vigour convolutions. like that of the regular shield. 3-6 that not even Numa himself could distinguish For the watch and care of these bucklers." because it put an end to the " anaschesis/' because it drought. named Salius. But the name may come from the Greek "anekathen." to leap. who first taught the dance in armour .

a/^eXa>9. 7rpoa"r) ry6peva'av. tcaOapds ra9 a>v l^vo? TI TCU9 iepovpyiais Trape^ovTa^.7repaivoij. XIV. 779 ert vvv TOV YI . /cal ocra roiavra rot9 KOI fiavavcroLS TTOVOLS eVerat. TOTTOV eTuBeiKVvovcnv. a\\a overepefi /jfj.(n..a\L(ov a/j. ira- pevov. TOP aB6eari. Ty Trepl Tr)V evaefietav.u>v ol/eiav el%ev erepav ire pi TOV }Lvplvov \6<j)ov. aXX' OL/coQev TOVTO ooeTO ryvwfjLrj TrapecrKevaafjievovs oi/r&)9 No/ztt9 ^prjvai rovs 7ro\Lra<. o 354 . oirep \aiav fjLVij/jLrjv. olov TL /3aai\eiov Oi/crjfjia' real TO r jr\el(TTOV avrodi TOV %povov Bie-rpiftev lepovp^wv BiBdcrKwv TOU? iepeis rj TT/JO? evvoia nvl rwv B* Geiwv 7T/309 aiiTov a"^o\d^.evr)<$.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ' "Avarcas AOrjvaiot.opia/j.a rfj ia. eBei7r\rjaLov rou TT}? 'Earta? iepov Trjv Ka\ov*Pr)<yiav. ra epya KCLTarravovTes. TTJV 'J&OvrjviKrjv id\eKTov e^dryeiv I et ye Set 737309 7 Tci) Be h'la/jLovpLw \ejova~t /AicrOov e/ceii'rjs Te'xyris fivrj^v TrvppL^rj TLVCL Si* &)S>}? VTTO ol ^. tyotycov r teal real CFTevayfjLayv. ev Be rat9 TrpoTro/JLTrais irpor)<yovvTO KOL 0X0)9 T&V lepewv rat9 KripvKes 2 7ro//-7rat9 dva Trjv TTO\LV eXivveiv Ke\evovT<$ KOL (fracri. a>9 <ydp HvOayopiKovs OVK eav e/c TrapoBou eVl rovs TrpOGicvvelv teal 7rpoaev^ea0ai TOI$ Oeols. 'Evrel Be BieKocrfirjcre ra? iepwcrvvas. dfcoveiv TI TWV Oeitov fMrjre opav ev irapepya) tcav aXXa (T^oXrjv dyovras airo rcov KOI Trpocre^ovTa^ TTJV Bidvoiav &>9 irpd^ei. Be ov Overovpiov Mafjiovpiov ival <$>3.

They should also rid their streets of noise and clatter and clamour. After Numa had thus established and regulated the priestly orders. but " veterem memoriam. 355 . the site He is still pointed out. Some. performing sacred functions. bidding the people make of which For. however.NUMA. say that the song does not commemorate Veturius Mamurius. or teaching the priests. Here he passed most of his time." that is to say. heralds were sent on before through the city. also had another house on the Quirinal hill. with their minds prepared for it. and putting a stop to all labour. ancient remembrance. And the Romans still preserve some traces of this earlier feeling. he built. near the temple of Vesta. just holiday. as it is said that the Pythagoreans do not allow men to worship and pray to their gods cursorily and by the way. so Numa thought that his citizens ought neither to hear nor see any divine service while they were occupied with other matters and therefore unable to pay attention. the so-called Regia. At all public and solemn processions of the priests. We are told that Mamertius was rewarded for his wonderful art by having his name mentioned in a song which the Salii sing as they perform their wardance. or royal house. 2 we are bound to derive the name from the Greek. XIV. and all such accompaniments of menial and manual labour. that is. but would have them go from their homes directly to this office. and clear them for the sacred ceremonies. or engaged in the quiet contemplation of divine things. xin. 6-xiv. They should rather be free from all distractions and devote their thoughts to the religious ceremony as a matter of the highest importance.

apna Be TOL$ % Sidvoiav dTreKpvTTTovro TT/JO? evia TWV No/ia TrarpLwv e^et TOI^ \6yov olov TO firj (nrev^eiv Qeois e d/j. olwvio-ubv elvai Xeyovcrt. eVet ft) TWl' iepWV /3\7r6vTCi)V 7T/90? dTrecrrpaTrrai Ta? a^aToXa?. TroXXou?.rj Ka@f)(r0cu. ^ev Se Trepicrrpoc^ij rwv elvai T^? S' CLV fJLa\\Ol> O S6^6l rj diro^lfJLii<TL^ TTpOCTKVVWV. 9 3 Hv Be Kal TWV a\\(DV 7rapayy6\./jLara)i> avrov 7ro\\a rot? TlvOayopifcols eoi/cora.icra/BdXXeiv eavTov zvravOa Kal Trepia-rpefieiv eVt TOi/ deov. rj/jiwv a>? ovBevos ecrTWTO? dyaTrav Kal KaOe^eaOai TrpocrrjKov. Kal rot? 0veii>. orav cr/cu? Siarpifir}. ouTft)? &)? [Jiopiov evcre/Beias ovaav 7rpocrKVVovvTa)i> \ejeraL TOl) KOCT/jLOV 7T 6 pity Op CLS. Kal lpa Trvp pr] (TKaXeveiv. irpcoTa $vo rrjv 7^5 e^/JLepuxriv eoiKG SiSda-Keiv. el fir) vrj Ata TO49 rj TI Kal StSao^/cet irapairX-rja-iov jjieraTCOZ/ 70 TOV TOV (Biov cryLtaTO?. w? yap e/celVOL irapyvovv eVl %OIVIKO<S p.PLUTARCH'S LIVES vvv $iacra)ovT<.. KVK\OV 5 6Y du(f)OLV i. ftoaycriv ap^wv Trpos opvitriv r) 6v"*Otf a^e*" ffquaLvei Be 77 " <pa)vr] TOVTO Trpacrcre" crvveTUcrTpetyovcra /cal KaraKocr/JLOvaa TOL>? Trpodrvy^dvovra^. /. Kal ySaSt^bz/Ta? et? fii) ovpaviois Trepicrcra efcdcrrov rrjv /jLeraaTpefacrdai.7T6\wv CLT/JLIJTGOV /i^Se Oveiv arep a\^iT(av Kal TO TrpocrKwelv 7repio"Tpe$>ofJievov<$ TCI ^ev ovv 4 Kal TO KaQr\uQai TrpoaKWYiGavras. TO Be 356 . TOV fieftaioTtjTa Tat? o Oebs.

the Pythagoreans said: "Don't use a quart-measure as a seat". . and then wheels fully round to face the god of the temple." The first two rules would seem to teach that the suband the jection of the earth is a part of religion worshippers' turning round is said to be an imitation of the rotary motion of the universe but I would . but that we must accept contentedly whatever twists and turns our lives may receive from the Deity." and helps to make the bystanders attentive and orderly. but an " even number to the terrestrial . that the worshipper who enters a temples face the east and the Sun. " " " Don't When you set poke the fire with a sword out for foreign parts. indeed.NUMA. And as for the sitting down after worship. and the meaning of all these would precepts they keep hidden from the So in some of Numa's rules the meaning is vulgar. darkly hints and teaches that there is no stability in human affairs. . " hidden as. we are told that it is an augury of the rather think temple. For instance. and linking the fulfilment of his prayer with both deities . and "Sit down after worship. and therefore half round in that direction. 2-5 you worship". unless. don't turn back". . . Don't offer to the gods " " Don't make a wine from unpruned vines " " sacrifice without meal Turn round as . since has his back turns himself 357 . for instance. thus making a complete circle. like the Aegyptian wheels. When ficing. and "To the celestial gods sacrifice an odd number. Many of his other precepts also resembled those of the Pythagoreans. a magistrate is busy taking auspices or sacrithe people cry " Hoc age/' which means "Mind this. xiv. this change of posture. towards the sunrise.

v6o\.d?ccov /cal Beivorrjri T??? Trepl ra Oeia yorjTeias \eyovrai ravra rols 358 . al<j>viSiov eViSet^at TOZ^ re OLKOV e/C7rcofjLdr(Di> ir\rjpri 7ro\vre\a)V teal Ta? T/oavre^a? otywv re iravTo^aiTMV real 'Trapacr/cevij^ Sa^tXoO? Traaav Be vTTep/3ef3\r]/c6V droirlav 3 ye/jLovcras.oyovcri yap et? TOZ' 'A/Sei/Ttz/ov \6(f>ov OVTTW yuepo? OVTO. ware irapa- \6yovs vojiieiv M-ev aTTicrTOV elvai \e<yeTcu yovv /caXecra? eVt rrjv Tpdire^av OVK 6\i<yovs T&V 7ro\iTO)v. \6yov co? 17 ^eo? fj avvecmv avrov. Bvvdfjiei Be (f)app. Iva erepas rrd\iv dp'xrjv Trap eiceivwv \d/3a)(7i. GKevri re (>av\a teal Selirvov euTeXe? irdw TrpoOiaOaL /cal SIJ/JLOTIKOV dp^afJLevwv Be e/ceivov jSov^Oevros. aXX' e^ovra Trrjyds re ^a-v^iXet? eV avrco /cal varnas <7Kiepds. TT)? TToXeft)? ovBe crvvoiKov/jievov. rjjjids rou vofjioOeTQV pr) TTOLelorOai ra? TT/JO? TO delov evrev^eis ev dcr^oKia KOI Trapepyw? olov orav ovov ewjiev /cal XV. fj.arvpcov dv Tt? 17 Havwv yevei Trpoa-ei/cdcreie. *Er TO Be TTJS TI Oelov OVTWS TOiavTr]^ TraiSaywyias TT/JO? TroXf? ye<yovi ^eiporjOrj^ /cdl rov No/ia tea 8vva/jtiv. TO vrrep TT}? TOU Afo? oftiXta? IcrTopovfJievov. YIi/cov /cal <>avvov SeiTTvelv e/Ji(3a\(iL>v ijfcoi TT/OO? OL? ra fjiev aXXa 'S. SvvaTai Be KOI TOVTO rot? elprj/JLevois 6/jio\oyeiv. 0irfj ovv OVTO<. (froirdv Bvo Baiuovas.PLUTARCH'S LIVES euycu? Kol Sia/Jiovrjv TOLS dyaOois e \eyovai Be KOI rrpd^ewv BiopLcr/jiov elvau 6 dvdrrav<riv &>? rrjv rrporepa rrpd^ei Trepas eTnriOevras /caOe^eaOai. rrapd rot? @eol<$.

xiv. Picus and Faunus. having completed one act. But this. can be brought into agreement with what was said above the lawgiver is trying to accustom us not to make our petitions to the Deity when we are busied with other matters and in a hurry. We are also told. the story goes that he once invited a large number of the citizens to his table. : XV. on a sudden. though fabulously strange.NUMA. and thought nothing incredible or impossible which he wished them to believe or do. By such training and schooling in religious matters the city became so tractable. sits down in the presence of the gods. he surprised them by saying that the goddess with whom he consorted was come to visit him. and set before them mean dishes and a very simple repast. but they are said to have used powerful drugs and practised clever incantations. but when we have time and are at leisure. as it were. that they accepted his stories. and to have traversed 359 . 5~xv. too. as different acts are separated by an interval of rest. that. When the Aventine hill so runs the tale was not yet a part of the city nor even inhabited. But nothing can be so strange as what is told about his conversation with Jupiter. and stood in such awe of Numa's power. At any rate. so the worshipper. and lo. in order that he may begin another with their blessing. the room was full of costly beakers and the tables were laden with all sorts of meats and abundant furniture. two demi-gods. 3 acceptance of the worshipper's prayers and the duration of his blessings. made it their haunt. but just as they began to eat. but abounded in springs and shady dells. In other ways these divinities might be likened to Satyrs or Pans.

eiirelv. TOVTOVS 'xeipwaacrOai TOV No/*av. TOV KaOap^ov. TO Oelov dvTjpTriorOai Tat? e\rri(TLV. TavTa JJLGV ovv ra ye\oia TTJV TCOV Tore dvOpcDTcuiv BlddecTLV 7T/JO? TO 0610V." 0. \ 5-^ ^/j TOV be awi? KTpe7rovTa TO TOV ' ^ / e TOV " No/jLciv. /ecu r^v avr&v Kal (frofiepa fyvcriv. aXXa \6vTO)V KOL TOV eVl vTroOecrOat. "Qpi%lv. Kal TOV f^ev 6eov drre\Oelv i'Xew yevo/jievov.evoi TrepuevaL TVJV '\Ta\iav. 1JV O avTov Be TOV No/zav OI/TO) (fraalv eveTroirjcrev. " Kpofifjivcov .Ti TTJV KepdcravTa Kpyjvrjv a<> ^? eirivop t'8ea9 crvvr)0cos. raura \eyeiv 6 'H^/epta? BeBiSay/JLevov.E<ya> 5e 360 . aXX' KaTayayeiv TOV Ata TOV Be 0ov op^/L^6fJLevov T&> No/xa cfracriv /jLv \a/36vTos Be TOV TOV No/xa. a\\6fcora <f)dcr- oi^ea)? eVel Se eyvcocrav eaX&> /cores la^ypav Kal U re TrpoOecrTTicrai. TroXXa TCOJ/ rot? Kepavvols ruz^ S^a Kpo/uuvcov KaOap/Jiov. TOV Be TOTTOV 'IXt/aoi> aTr' eKeuvov Trpoo-ayopevOrjvai Kal TOV KaOapfJLov OVTW avvTe\io~Oai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 4 Xot? (pacrl <ro(j)i%6fi. " * Beivbv eTrepecrOai. Trpoo-ayye\ia<? avTU> TTOTC yevo/jievrjf co? eTrepKal elirelv "'. TOV Aio?. rp^a)v aXcocriv. 09 Troietrat /"-%/> 5 Kal Kal $e ov TOU? evwi fiaivLSwv. ol'z'ft) /cal /jL\t. Be TroXXa? TT)? yitei^ rpe7rea0at.770e'yLfv|ru^oi5." eTrayayelv VTTO TT}? fjLaivi(7L .

he smiled and said . But when they perceived that they were fast caught and could not These demi-gods Numa is have caught. fabulous and ridiculous as they are. "Of " onions?" asked Numa. When captured." answered " Jupiter. hair. These stories. from force of custom. " hileos. Then the god returned to heaven in a gracious mood. 3-6 same tricks as the so-called Idaean escape. filling Of men. which is still practised with onions. and sprats. "with hair?" Nay.NUMA." Thereupon Numa. : "But sacrificing. and the place was called Ilicium from this circumstance and that is the way the charm was perfected. however. had such implicit confidence in the gods. prescription. "with living "sprats?" added Numa. said Jupiter. Some. Italy playing the xv. by mixing wine and honey with the water of the spring from which they were wont Dactyli 1 of the Greeks. presenting hideous and dreadful appearances. they dropped their own forms and assumed many different shapes. say that it was not the imps themselves who imparted the charm. when a message was brought to him that enemies were coming up against the city. but that they called Jupiter down from heaven by their magic. said to against thunder and lightning. that once." 1 Fabulous gnomes associated with and Crete. took towards the gods." out the phrase. and that this deity angrily told Numa that he must charm thunder and lightning with "heads. Phrygia I am the Mount Ida oi . show us the attitude which the men of that time. as they say. asked. And Numa himself. as he had been taught by Egeria to say. they foretold to Numa many things that would come to pass." as trying once more to avert the horror of the " the Greeks say. and taught him besides the charm to drink.

dfj. No/^a 71 <fii\ocro<f)rj(TavTOS co? %pr) rov opuov Oeov elpijwrjs (j)i>\a.Ka Kal elvai.cuov 8e dvai/j. vvv fiev e/jb^rv^a. a> vvv Biare\ova-iv 6 Be Teppcov opo? av Kal Ovovcriv avry Brj^oaici Kal ISia KCLTO. rou? TWV dypwv Trepiopio-fjiovs.a rfi a)? dvdjKTjv T/}? dSiKias dfyaipwv Kal rpiirwv ejrl jecopyiav rov Sr/fjiov %oopa (rvve^fjuepov^evov. ev w Kal TT}? 7ro\fjiiK'fj<. Tr]v dTropiav. Se r5 dbiKias e^e-ov. ovSev <yap aXXo rwv eTTLrrjBev^JLdrcav OUTO)? epcora Bpi/jivv elp^ epyd^erai Kal rayyv &>? o arro 7% /3to?. TO 7ra\. 'P&>//. Kal KaO^ eKaarov eiria KOTTOVS era^e fcal 362 .t^a? Tot? TroXtVai? Kal /jua rjOoTTOiov r) 7r\ovrorroiov dyanrrjcra^ re^vriv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES XVI. a 7rdyov<$ Trpoa-riyopevcre. %a)pav 6 'Pw/^vXoL/ /JLTJ f3ov\r)- e^o/jLO\oy^aa(T0ai rw /jLerpco rov oiKelov rov dXXorpiov Se&^ov <yap elvai rov opov. euroX/Ata? TO fiev V7 nicov rov olxeiov Biafievei Kal irdpeari. av (f>v\drr'rjrai. etrj. Upwrov fjiovo? S tyacri KOL Tlicrrecos Kal Tep/cat lepov i&pvaacrdai.a/0? [JLeyicrrov. TO Be et d&ifclav Kal Tr\eove%iav dveipevov eKKe 4 Bib Kal rrjv yewpyiav 6 NoyLta9 oloi^ (f)i\rpov e//-yu. et? pepr) rrjv j(wpav BteTXev.uXo?' Kal ravrrfv iracrav o Noyaa? Bievei/Ae roi? djropois TGOV 7ro\iT(t)v. 2 Ka6apov rrjv SiKawavvrj? fjidprvv ovra fyovov SoKei Be Kal oXw? OWTO? opicrai /3acriXeu?.aKTO$ rjv 77 Ovcrla. ov ov&e 3 rrjv rro\\r)v al^fJLr) Trpo&eKTija'aTo 'Pcoyu. rrjv fiev TLicrriv op/cov diToBel^ai.

xvi. He wished to remove the destitution which drives men to wrongdoing. but anciently the sacrifice was a bloodless one. And indeed the city's territory was not extensive at first." and in each of them he set 363 . and to turn the people to agriculture. but Romulus acquired most of it later with the spear. since Numa reasoned that the god of boundaries was a guardian of peace and a witness of just dealing. if observed. and well pleased with the art as fostering character rather than wealth. administering agriculture to his citizens as a sort of peace-potion. therefore. Terminus signifies boundary. and should therefore be clear from And it is quite apparent that it was slaughter. Romulus was unwilling to acknowledge. For there is no other occupation which produces so keen and quick a relish for peace as that of a farmer's life. which they still continue to use. this king who set bounds to the territory of the city. if not observed. and dulge in rapacity and injustice is extirpated. living victims nowadays. how much he had taken away that a boundary. convicts of injustice. that they might be subdued and softened along with the soil they tilled. is always preserved. divided the city's territory into districts. He was also the first. to which he gave the name of "pagi. for measuring off from others. All this was distributed by Numa among the indigent citizens. Numa. . 1-4 XVI.NUMA. to build temples to Faith and Terminus and he taught the Romans their most solemn oath by Faith. where so much of the warrior's daring as prompts a man to fight for his own. they say. while the warrior's licence to infetters lawless He knew power . by his own. and fices to this god they make public and private sacriwhere their fields are set off by boundaries of .

av\r)ra)v.? /JLCV ^aftivovs. (TKVTOTOfJiayV.Se rpoirq) fjua oto^ e%a\ei"fyai rrjv ereponjTa dv. ^pvcro^owv.d%6Tai. yu. aXX^Xot? GvpftaivovTa 2 eyva) Karare/..r)Sevl BOKOVO'TJ^. Kal TOJ)? 3 64 . SiavorjQels OTL KOI ra (frvcrei Bva/ni/cra Kal aK\r)pa /JLO\\OV.i^ecr TGI.aAA. VWV. Twv Kara re^va? 0avfj. aXXa avy/cpova-ei^ d7rava"rovs Kal T&V fiepwv TCOV a-co/jLaToov e^ovcrrj<. TOL9 Be 'PojyLtatou?.a? TrXeto^a? TO K Be TOVTWV a? erepa? rrjv Trpoorijv exetvrjv Kal /JieydXyv afyavicrai rat? \drroaiv evBiaaTrapeiaav. TOTE Trpcorov TroXea)? di^etXe TO \eyecr0ai Kal vop. CTK ra? Be XotTra? re^va? et? ravro avvayaywv ev avrwv ex vraa-wv aTreBe^e avail] pa. Kepa/jLecov.dTa>v rov TrXr e/cr r) ^ap TroXea)? MGTrep &e el'p^rai. avvecndvai /j. KaraO pavovres VTTO /jUKporrjTos Kal Biaipovvres dvafuyvvova-iv. r\v Be rj Btavoprj Kara ra? re^i^a?.oz> /cat yLt?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ecrri S' ore teal avrbs e^opcov T/JOTTOU? KOI airo TWV epywv TO 1/9 aytteXet? tyeycov TWV TOU9 iev 6/9 Toi>9 Se paOvfJiOvs KOI KOI KCLKL^COV XVII. Se a\\ci)v Biavofirj TT}? avrov 7ro\LTVfj. ficKpeWV.ieLV T0yw. 3 Koivwvias Be Kal crvvoBovs Kal 0ewv Tijuas djroyevei. irpeTrovaa^.

carpenters. accordingly. and potters. and so try to make them sensible. 4-xvn. 3 and patrols. He distributed them. to obliterate the original and great distinction. who were indolent and careless. the one most admired was his distribution of the people into groups For the city was according to their trades or arts. On the contrary. into musicians. it had was no but rather divided although consistency. and utterly refused to become united. i. 1 supposed to consist of two tribes. it was filled with ceaseless collisions and contentions between its component parts. But sometimes he would inspect them in person. aware that hard substances which will not readily mingle may be crushed and pulverized. he would chide and reproach. which would be lost among the lesser ones. by merging it in other distinctions.NUMA. goldsmiths. by arts and trades. determined to divide the entire body of the people into a greater number of divisions. while others. Numa. and made one body out of all who belonged to them. as has been said. therefore. he banished from the city the practice of speaking and thinking of some citizens as Sabines. and of others 1 Chapter ii. or to blot out its diversities and differences. and judging of the characters of the citizens from the condition of their farms. curriers. at last. 4 f. and so. N 365 . dyers. overseers xvi. would advance some to positions of honour and trust . VOL. He also appointed social gatherings and public assemblies and rites of worship befitting each body. braziers. into two tribes. leather- workers. The remaining trades he grouped together. and then more easily mix and mingle with each otherowing to the smallness of their particles. And thus. XVII. But of all his measures.

3 teal TOVTO /lev avT<p TO lafjia 77)9 dvwfJLa\ia<s fcovcov e/ji\\ev lafJLaTwv BeijaecrOaL.ev rou? Be TrevTG KOI TpidtcovTa.72 apiw fj. No/^a? Be TO 7rapd\\ay/u. VTTO 'Pay/naioyv Mep/crj- BLVOV fca\ovfjivov. KOI CLTCLKTW^. trevTe.? yvvai/ca Bov\w avvoiicelv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Tartoy. aXX* ev <pv\aTTOVT<? /xovov. OTTCO? k^rjKOVTa Kul TpiaKO(Tiu>v rjjuepMV 6 2 ecTTcu. TOV Be rj\iaKOV TpiaKoaias e^rjKOVTO. TOL/? /j.7)vl TOV e/ji/36\i/jLov. TTJS TOU? Be Tr\eiovwv Xoyi^o/nevoL.epa)V. dvco/jLaXuas irepl Trjv Be ryivo/Jbevrjs ae\r)vr]v KOI TOV rf\iov zvvoiav OVK e^oi'Te^.V1I1. ra9 evBe/ca TCLVTCK. a)? TOV TrevTij/covTa Tecrcrapas Tpiarcoo-ias e%oi^T09 r)/j.evos.epa<?. 09 TJV era^-e. el TOV Traryoo? 67raLi>ovvTos KOI Seivov yap rjyeiTO K\6vovTO<? 6 yd/mos yivoiTO. rj/juepa^ BnrXa1 <je\r)ViCtKov <ri.a TI}<? a rj/jiepwv evBe/ca yivecr6ai \oyi6/j. -A.vXov TroXtVa?. /cal TTJV Ta^iv TCOV /jirjvwv TOV yap MdpTiov TrpwTOv ovTa TpiTov Be TOV 'lavovdptov.da)v eirrjyaye Trap eviavTov eVt TW Qefipov. axrre TTJV Biaipeaiv evap/AOGTLav KOI dvdfjufyv irdvTwv yevecrdai TT/)O? irdvra^. elicocriv r)fj. -\7"T7TTT Hyaro OVTC I ?>V\ v ?reyot VV TO^ >\ ovpavov yap (3aai\evovTO<$ d\6- <y&)? e%pa)VTO rot? fjirjal ov&e. TOU9 Be 'Pcofj. Trjv 0)9 ekevQepw f/TT yeyafi^fiei'^v oe KCLI T?. ei/coai KOI Bvotv rj/Aepwv ovTa. ' TrpwTov evBeKaros GTTL 366 . *EtTraLVLTai Be TMV iroXiriK&v avrov /cal TO "jrepl TOV VC/JLOV Bi6p0co/uLa TOV SiSovra rot? irarpdtrt. rou? TratSa? TriTrpdcrKeiv. VTre^ekojxevov TOU? yeya/jirjKOTas.

not with exactness. 36 7 . He also changed the order of the months. and yet not altogether without careful observation. reckoning some at less than twenty days. but the solar year three hundred and sixty-five. and others of Romulus. . so that his division resulted in a harmonious blending of them all together. some at thirty-five. but held to this principle only. March. and every other year inserted after the month of February the intercalary month called Mercedinus by the Romans. which had been first. This correction of the inequality which he made was destined to require other and greater corrections in the future. 3 Romans. that the year should consist of three hundred and sixty days. He applied himself. estimating the extent of the inequality at eleven days. 3 xvni. which consisted of twenty-two days. thing that a woman who had married a man whom she thought free. For during the reign of Romulus. or of some as subjects of Tatius. since the lunar year had three hundred and fifty-four days.NUMA. provided they had married with the consent and For he thought it a hard approval of their fathers. XVIII. doubled these eleven days. also. He made an exception of married sons. and January. should find herself living with a slave. and some at more they had no idea of the inequality in the annual motions of the sun and moon. Praise is also given to that measure of his whereby the law permitting fathers to sell their sons was amended. they had been irrational and irregular in their fixing of the months. But Numa. which had been the eleventh under Romulus. he made the third month. to the adjustment of the calendar. as xvn.

r} Tdi. 4 6% U'PX^ & XprjarOat Se/ca fiovov et? TOV eviavrov. Kal Tcov eVl rat* <yevea\oyiai<$ {Jirivicuos Sib . rwfjLaioi be OTI [lev oeKa //-^z^a? et? TOZ^ ^5>' apiQ^ov Tt. ev co Ovoval re 717 @eu> Kal TGU? KaXdvBais TTe/JbTTTOV KTOV Be TOV al <yvvaiKs eaTe^avw^evai avpcrivr) Be ov Bia TI^V 'AtypoBiTrjv TOV XovovTai. Tex/jitfpiov 77 TOI) TeXevTauov Trpocrrjyopia' SeKaTov jap avTov &XP 1 vvv Ka\ovatv' QTI Be TOV MdpTLOV rrpMTOV.ov irpo TOV Ma/mou Ti6e/jLevois crvvefiaivev aurot? TOV elprj/Aevov fiijva 2 aev ovo/jid^eiv. TOV re 'lavovdpiov teal TOP Qefipovdpiov. Alyv?}v Be a)? o eVfauro?. \ et? ercov / \r-r-\r XIX.ov ovTa TT}? *A.elv. dp^aioTaroi ^OKOVCTLV eivat.(j)po8iTT. ov SwSe/ca. ' v eviavTov eTaTTOV. 368 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES Be Kal Te\evTalo<$ 6 Qeftpovdpios. eg Se 'A/fa/^mz-e?. e/3So/Ji. egfjs ofjiolws TOV <&e/3povdpt.?. &V /JL6V /3ap/3dp(0v rpicri. Kal TU>V *EX/Vr.V&)^ Tecrcrapcriv.<>' TOV yap ttTr' eKeui'Ov rrefMTTTOv Ka\ovv KTOV Kal TWV aXXtoV errel TOV '\dvovdpiov Kal 6Kao~TOV. are Brj t-r\ TOU? ^r\va^ 5. aXXa>9 Be Kal \6yov el%e roz^ Ma/)Ttov "Apet Kadiepcoaevov VTTO TOV 'PwfJLvkov TrpwTov bvofJbd^ecrOai' BevTepov Be TOV *A7rpi\\iov. e7T(f)vv/u.ov Be dpid/j. etra rerpdKal vewrdrrfv %a)pav ol<pacri.de/jLevoi. w vvv BevTepa) xptovTai. rro\\ol Be elaiv oc /cal Trpoo'TedfjvaL TOUTOU? VTTO No/ui TOU? urjvas \eyovai.

ii. should be put in the first place by Romulus. though they inhabit a very recent country.NUMA. as now. since this month it they sacrificed to day the women bathe with myrtle garlands on their heads. we are told. as months as so many years. and the Acarnanians six the Aegyptian year had at first only a single month in it. the sixth Sextilis. among the Greeks. since they four. In this goddess. and that at the outset the Romans had only ten months in their year. or the tenth month. 3~xix. of the Nile (Herod. month February. he made the first xvin." cannot is named after Aphrodite. as some Barbarians have three. And that March used to be their first month. afterwards . is proved by the sequence of months after it for the fifth month after it used to be called Quintilis. That the Romans had at first only ten months in their year. and as. how" ever. thus became the second month. with the rest. . it was reasonable that March. 2 . or fifth. But there are many who say that these months of January and February were added to the calendar by Numa. Therefore. and April in the second place. and load their genealogies with a prodigious number of years. when they placed January and February before March. the Arcadians have four. 369 . but counting it seventh. is proved by the name of their last month for they still call it December. And besides. and not twelve. with its smooth p. which had been twelfth and last. and on its first 1 5 and Perhaps as formed by the deposits 9). Some. And therefore. XIX. and so on really count their . they were guilty of naming the above-mentioned month Quintilis. which is consecrate to Mars. 1 they have the credit of being a very ancient people. say that April.

TrifJiTTTOv. elcreTTOLTjcre ra?9 avTov o 8' TT poa wvv piai^ ov e/35o/A09. a)vo/j. \iov KK\f)o~0ai TOV p^rjva rr)? eapivfjs wpa? d/e/zadvoljovTd KOI dva/ca\v7rTovTa TOU? /?XaTCWZ. fjLTiavo<. apiO^ovvre^..7rT09 fjievov Tlo/jiTTijlov 'IouXto9' OLTTO airo Kaiffapos TOV o Be GKTOS [lev TOV BevTepov e7riK\r}6evTO$. cip^avTos. rwv &e \oiircov e/caarov CLTTO TT}? ra^6&)9. Matoz/ fca\. cfiSofjiov. Bofcel Be JJLOL TOV MdpTiov 6 No/xa9 6 / Be 1 tyeffis Bekker adds 5uo.ovs elvai \yovre<> Trpea-ftvrepa? KOI vewtepas' fiaicoS' ^6^779 Toy peis jap ol irpeo-^vrepoL Trap aurot?. CLTTO ol Te\evraloi Bvo VTTO Noytta TrpoaTeOevTwv rj /AW QePpovdpios olov /caOdpcrios av eirj' Ko jap 77 Xe^i9 ejjio"ra TOVTO o~rffj aii>ei. 4 elra 6 7re/i.PLUTARCH'S LIVES WO-7T6/3 ^61 TOlW/ZO. Tore /eat TTJV TWV AovTrepeopTrjv et? ra ?roX\a KaOapfJLw Trpooreoiicvlav T6\ovo~iv o Be rrpwTOS 'lavovdpios drro TOV 'lavov. 370 . waTrep fcrov. fca tTols evaji^ovai.d(rdr). evaTov. lovviutpeis Be ol vecorepoi KdKovvrai. ^6/3acnov Be TOU9 Be e'06^9 x Aoa)VOfj. (pvTcSv TOVTO //-ev jap rj j\wTTa arj/^aiveL.ov(Tiv airo Mata?' 7/o aviepwTdi' TOV Be 'lovviov OLTTO TT)? etVi Se T^i/e? ot TOVTOV? rj\iKia<$ e7rcovv/j.aov oyBoov. o 7rd\iv e/ceivov crfiayevTos ^JLOVOL fjiev ^e 078009 Ka\ovvrai.

Cf. 4-8. who say that these months get their name from an age. There are some." but that this month of high spring time is called April because it opens and discloses the buds and shoots in vegetation. who was given that title. for "majores" is their name for the elder. and December. the sixth Sextilis. preserved the names derived from their position in the list just as they were at the outset. January. they resumed their old names of September and October. Afterwards the fifth month was named Julius. in most of its features. The seventh and eighth months bore for a short time the names Germanicus and Domitianus.NUMA. Of the months which were added or transposed by Numa. for this is nearest to the meaning of the word. fication. October. the mother of Mercury. . . is so named think that March. Romulus. this being the meaning of the word " aperio. which. which the emperor Domitian gave them but when he was slain. from the second Caesar. "juniores" for the younger men. the fifth Quintilis. Each of the remaining months they named from its arithmetical position in the list. to whom it is sacred and June is so named from Juno. which is xxi. from Maia." The next month in order is called May. with its rough " ph. and in this month they make offerings to the dead and celebrate the festival of the Lupercalia. Only the last two months. 371 . 2-5 be derived from Aphrodite. And 1 month. February must have something to do with purification. and so on with September. November and December. November. older and younger . resembles a puri. from Julius Caesar. the conqueror of Pompey and the sixth month Augustus. however. xix. 1 The first I from Janus.

. "Ecrri 5e vews ev 'PcofjLy 73 bv 7ro\6j.? rjyejjiovLa*.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 67Ta)VV/JiOV QVTd TOV "A/)O)5 K T?}? aTa(TTfj(Tai.. aXXa /cal ra? fcv/c\fd avpas TWOS etceWev rj Trvev/jiaTOS vyieivov e\a(3e /ca eaeppvrj <f)VTveiv TrdvTas /cal evvop.e<ye0os Sid rot? KVK\O> K\6La-Orj yevecru fBap(3dpoL<$ dvrepeiSovcrris.evr)^ TTOfj. Sia rovro TT\dTTovcnv avrov Trepi- a/jL<f)i7rp6(rc07rov. ov yap JJLOVOV o /cal /caTKeKij\r)To TTJ Bucaio&uvg /cal TOV ySaaiXea)? BT//JLOS. XX. TroXe/zo?. yap dve&xOai pev avrov orav y crOai 5e elprjvr^^ yevo pkvr}<$ .ov 7rv\iv Ka\ovcri. ev rot? irdvv TraXcuot? erre Saifjicov yap elVe e/c ySacrtXeu? <yv6fjivos TTO\ITIKOS KOL KOIVWVLKOS TOV rr/^ 6tipLO)Sovs /cal /cal aypiov \eyerai yLteraySaXet^ erepav e% erepa? TW O.VTOV /cal /?i'ft> Siairav.ia^ /cal Te/cva Tpefaiv elpijvrjs /cal yijv /cal ev i]a-V)(jia 372 . TOV iroXe/JLOV teal ' Travra^oBcv. /ce/c\ib Srj ^okeTrov r]V /cal TIVI o~vvrjprr)/j. 2 TT\r)V Girl ye TOV ^eftacrTov Ka/crapo? KaOe\ovTO<s omcov 'AvTtovibv /cal Trporepov vrrarev^AdpKov 'ArtXtof KOI TLTOV Ma\\iov ov 7ro\vv eira evOvs dvewx&rj 7ro\fjiov aXV eVt 76 r^? No/i-a /5acrtXeta? Be /cal errj rerrap/covra 3 c^ppijro crui/e^w? epeive /ce/cXetcryue^o?* Tra^reXoi)? TO. &>? TTOLijcravTa TYJV /nop<pr]v /cal SidOecriv. /3ouXo/^e^o? ev Travrl TT}? 6 Svvd/jiea)? 'Iai/o? 6 TrpoTi/jLaaQai Tr]i> TTO\LTLK^V. dei T?.

when Marcus Atilius and Titus Manlius were consuls. XX. for the temple always stands open in time of war. two faces. During the reign of Numa. as if some cooling breeze or salubrious wind were wafted upon them from Rome. xix. But in the time of Augustus Caesar it was closed. to be at peace. For this Janus. people softened and charmed by the righteousness and mildness of their king. and it rarely happened. and it was opened.NUMA. but remained shut for the space of forty-three years together. 5~xx. but also the cities round about. was moved by Numa from place at the head of the months because he wished in every case that martial influences should yield precedence to civil and political. whether he was a demi-god or a king. in remote antiquity. so complete and universal was the cessation of war. For not only was the Roman . since the realm was always engaged in some war. to till the earth. as its increasing size brought it into collision with the barbarous nations which encompassed it round about. implying that he brought men's lives out of one sort and condition into another. and is said to have lifted human life out of its bestial and For this reason he is represented with savage state. was a patron of civil and social order. He also has a temple at Rome with double doors. which they call the gates of war. after he had overthrown Anton)' and before that. however. The latter was a difficult matter. began to experience a change of temper. it was closed a short time then war broke out again at once. but is closed when peace has come. it was not seen open for a single day. 3 its named from Mars. . and all of them were filled with longing desire to have good government. to rear their children 373 .

PLUTARCH'S LIVES 1 4 eopral Be /cal Qa\iai KOI Trap d\\rj\ov<. olov e/c 7rrj<yfj<. " eu/oax? ey^ed re \oy^coTa i(f>ed T' d/j.. 374 .ovos. /ca/cwv a>9 irav\a Oeias /cal 6fc9 f+ \vais av9pu>7roL<$ e&Tiv. ovSe crv\aTat cure jap VTTVOS OLTTO {3\6<j)dpa)v" cure <jTacr5 ovre vecoTepia-juLos Trep icrroprjTai No/xa /^acrtXevo^ro?. as V7rep/3o\a<$ eVSeti^ TT/OO? Tr}v Tore /card- alOav apa'xyav epya. vey/ce TrapdSeiy/jia /cal TeK^ripiov T?}? vcrrepov e/ceivos ov/c 0X^7049 oK^riaev afyelvai Trepl TtoXiTeLas. aa\7rlyywv KTVTTOS. T?}9 NoyLta cro(f)[a<? TWV fca\wv /cal /cal T?}? irepl e/ceivov tydKrjvr] ? 1 wcrre KOI ra<.<pr)K6a Be ov/cert.ov /jbrjv ovS* avrov etcelvov e^Opa Ti? rj (frOovos 7} Si epcora /cal crracnv \yovcriv "'Ez/ Se criSa/JoSerot LTe <o3o? elre ^ewi^ TT}? TroKiecrOai SoKovvratv etre TOV 7TaCT779 dperrjs at'So)? KaKia? CL0LKTOV eV e e/CCLVOV KaBapov Sia(j)V\drrovo-a TOV ftiov. adopted <-\ by Coraes and Bekker : Sal/j. (T6/3eo-0ai 0eov<$. " Ma/e dptos fJLev yap avro9 6 crax^pwv a>9 a Bryan's correction. e/c TavTo Siavoia (>iXocr6<p(p P< / 1 av^Treaova-av cvva/Jiiv eyre part] /cat Tr}9 KaKias TTJV apeTyv /caTaaTTjcrai. aSeco? IOVTWV KOI ava^iyvviJLevwv VTTOSo^al /cal tyiXtOfypoa-vvat rrjv '\Ta\lav /carel^ov.'" Kai.

these prevailed throughout Italy. Thus even the hyperboles of the poets fall short of " And on picturing the state of man in those days the iron-bound shield-handles lie the tawney spiders' webs ". and to worship the gods. hospitalities people who visited feasts. either conspire against his throne. and. is such a wise man 1 A free citation. " Blessed. Nay more. while honour and justice flowed into all hearts from the wisdom of Numa.NUMA. namely. which in his days kept life free from the taint of every vice. or reverence for his virtue. no hatred or jealousy was felt towards his nor did ambition lead men to plot and person. and pure. Fragment 13 (Bergk). or faction. that human ills would only then cease and disappear when. in xx. thereby establishing virtue in control and mastery over vice. Republic. 4-7 quiet." indeed. ventured to utter : . a See Jebb's Bacchylides. Festivals and and friendly converse between one another promiscuously and without fear. nor are the blast l For there eyelids robbed of delicious sleep. On the contrary. many generations later. fear of the gods. by some divine united felicity. " rust now subdues the sharp-pointed no longer is the spears and two-edged swords of brazen trumpets heard. or political revolution while Numa was king. apparently e. who seemed to have him in their especial care. of Bacchylides. the power of a king should be in one person with the insight of a philosopher. 487 375 ." is no record either of war. 411. and the calm serenity of his spirit diffused itself abroad. as from a fountain. regarding government. from memory. made him a manifest illustration and confirmation of the saying which 2 Plato. or a marvellous felicity. p. p.

Be ol O-VV^KOOL Twv-eK TOV VOVVTOS crro/zaro? IOVTWV \6ya)v. TTJV Be TIo/j. e/cov/cal <raxf)povova-i. Swdfjievos. after Wyttenbach. Hofinraiva.V/JLOVO. TTyOO? cri/yti/^eTaa^yu-aTt^b^rat fjiETa <f)l\[a Kal O/jLOVOLO. Tlivov." Ta^a jap ovBe dvdyKrjs TWOS Bel TT/OO? TOU? TTO\\OV<$ ovBe aTretavTol Se Trjv dperrjv ev evSijXw TrapaBeij/jiaTL . MSS. serene). Be Tlivov TOU? Hivapiovs.(TTOV aTrdcrrjs TTO\Lreta? TeA.Tra)vos TOU? TIofATrcovLovs. 376 . eivai yap drro aTTo /JLGV TOV TIo/j.TTO No/ia BiaBo%rjs. IITTO Be K.7ri\iav OVK K yeyovevai \eyovT6$.d\7rov 74 TOU? Ka\Trovpviovs. ev c5 TO /cd\\(. l \ajjL7rpy T> ftlw TOV ap%ovTO<s opwvTes. : OLKV^OVO. aA. &v eKacnov OLKOV 2 BiaBo^v Kal yevovs evTifiov KaTa\iTrelv. Trj 7T/309 CLVTOV? l /cal Si/catocrvvrjs /cal yLter^iOT^ro? d/J. Tlepl $e 7raio~(t)v avTOv Kal yd/icw d \oyiai jeyovaaL rot? IdToptKols.o? 6<TTt.v/jiova TOV 6V /jbafcdpiov ftuov. and edd. KaXTTOi/. raura ovv No/^a? Traz^To? /JLO\\OV (fiawercu (rvvecopa/ XXI.PLUTARCH'S LIVES B fia/cdpiot.V e^ ere/3a9 yvvai- TpiToi Be elvtv xapi&fjievwv TOI? 1 IL/J. fjiev KaTtjyopovvTes a>9 Kal TrpocrTiOevTcov OVK d\f)0rj crTe/A/uaTa O. Md/jiep/cov. (waveless. drco Be Ma^epKov TOU? Ma049 S^a TOVTO Kal 'Pfjya? yeveaOai orrep eVrl ^acriXea?. /cal ftacriXi/ccoTaTOs dirdvTwv 6 TOVTOV TOV /3iOV Kal TaVT^V TY)V SldOeCTlV TOt? vTrrjfcoois evepydaacr^at. ol /JLCV <yap OVTC a\\ov r) TOV Tarta9 \a(Seiv avTov OVTG ere/oou yevecrQai rraTepa TrXrjv /ua? OvyaO? TIo/jLTTikias \eyovcuv ol Se rrpbs TavTrj recrcra/oa? utou? dvaypd^ovcriv avTov. ol TOVTOJV yeve&i.

Others ascribe to him four sons torians are at variance. and he is most a king life who can inculcate such a life in his subjects. whom was Pompon. 7-xxi. too. 2 " in himself. 377 .NUMA. another wife whom Numa 1 Cf. and such a disposition it appears. and from Mamercus the Mamercii. and Mamercus. noblest end of all government. are those words of wisdom issuing from his lips. and they say that Pompilia was not the daughter of Tatia. and unite with him in conforming themselves to a blameless and blessed of friendship and mutual concord. one of family. and no other child than one daughter. and blessed. Some besides. attended by Such a life is the righteousness and temperance. This. each the founder of an honourable From Pompon the Pomponii are descended. as preeminent in discerning. Pinus. they will of their own accord walk in wisdom's ways. but of Lucretia. from Pinus the Pinarii. Pompilia. or Kings. xx." l there is who hear the For possibly no need of any compulsion or menace in dealing with the multitude. then. Numa was and offspring. As regards his marriages say that he had no other wife than Tatia. his- XXI. 71 1 e. Plato. But there is a third class of writers who accuse the former of paying court to these great families by forging for them lines of descent from Numa. Calpus. p. from Calpus the Calpurnii. but when they see with their own eyes a conspicuous and shining example of virtue in the life of their ruler. who for this reason had also the surname of Reges. Laws.

' t 373 . KaraXiTrwv e/SacrtXeucre. aXXa Kara /AiKpbv VTTO 777/30)9 voaov /jia\aKrjs dTropapaivo/jLevos.ep. TO Xe^o9 dpdfjievoi.\eiav Kal yap o-v/jL/Aerw/crjcrev i? 'Pto/Arjv avra> KO9.i^iJL Kal TraiSwv ov% 009 fiacriXew? fyrjpaiov rrapovres. Troir)(7av Ztr]\a)Tov Se O'L avrou Kal rat rd(f)0) re crvfjiiJLa^oL Kal $>l\oi SJJ/JLOI. 6 8' aXXo9 0/1^X09 dvap.iav o a0/ao9 e/ceuvov KLOV rov Noyuai/ Trapop/jLijcravTOs eVl rrjv (Bacri. 0)9 \ejerat. TOV fiiov avve\- eVl Ta9 Ta0a9 a/ia SrjfjLocriais 7U(j)Opal<i Kal arecfrdvois. &>9 icrroprj/ce ov TTO\VV XXII. AovKprjrias* irdvovv 6fjLo\oyov(Ti Trjv TLo/j. 6 Noyu-a? ov ra^eta? OLS' altyviSiov 76^0^6^779 aura) /cat T779 TeXeuT7]9.a)v eTro/jievoi. Mdptciov "AjKov eyevwrj'OcrrtXioz..7Ti\. r)V 77877 T69 8' l TT}? (rvy/c^rov fj^recr^e ' TifJLWfjLevos. irvpl jj. /-ter' ol/jLco2 7779 /cal K\av0fj.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 3 ftaai\evwv eyrjfjLe. ical per a T~\. aXX' 09 Ttm TCOZ/ (friXrdrcov e/caCTT09 eV dKjmf) fiiov rroOovfJievov Odrcrwv. a>9 Xeyerai.evrrja'ev. Kal a-v/ATrapovres ol rwv Qewv iepels Kal rrapa. OL re TrarpiKiot.ev ovv OVK eSoaav rov veKpov avrov KcoXvcravros. TyXXov 4 TOVTOV. &vo $e TTOirja-d/uLevoL \i9iva<$ aopovs VTTO TO Xoi/ Wj]Kav rrjv /j. /cal <rev. TrevraeTrj ereX.VT7]V e/9 dywva /earaara? KOI avrou Ma/j/cio? yuera o Be uio? o? %cov TTJV TlojLL7TL\iav KdTefJLeivev ev 'Pco/^?.ev erepav e^ovcrav TO crw/^a.

2 married after he became king. Now this Marcius was a son of the Marcius who induced Numa to accept the throne. the priests of the gods served as its escort. Marcius. not a speedy nor a sudden death. However. chapter vL 379 . followed with groans and lamentations. but as though each one of them was burying some dearest relation taken away in the flower of life. One of these held his body. when he died. and being But his son defeated. After Numa's death. 1 That Marcius accompanied Numa to Rome. said to have been only five years old when Numa died. but they made two stone coffins and buried them under the Janiculum. and there was honoured with membership in the Senate. They did not burn his body. and the rest of the people. at the rites with public offerings and crowns the senators carried his bier. His obsequies were as much to be envied as his life. 3-xxii. he competed for the throne with Hostilius. he forbade it. and the other the sacred books which he had written out with his own hand. the husband of Pompilia. and begat Ancus Marcius. as it is said. starved himself to death. all are agreed that Pompilia was married to Marcius. but wasting away gradually from old age and a mild disorder. XXII. including women and children. remained at Rome. The peoples which were in alliance and old friendship with Rome assembled .NUMA. xxi. as the Greek 1 Of. as He was something over eighty years Piso writes. who succeeded Tullus This Ancus Marcius is Hostilius in the kingdom. not as though they were attending the funeral of an aged king. because.

ra crvv- KOL Trai&evo-iv avrcov aypaKCLL TT}? 76 (f>ov e/jLTTOielv rot? a^iot?. avrols.evois crvvdyeiv eVl rivl wcrre Ta^? ofioiorrjcriv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES wcnrep ol rcjv 'E^X^vcov vofjioOerai TOU? efcBiBd!.vae o-vvrcupfjvai /jierd rov ov fca\a)s ev atyv^ois 7pap pa a i 3 T&V dTropprjTcov. lepeis en %(ov TO. fJLT] Bo/CCLV aVTW @/JLlTOV elvat \eya)v 1 /Lt?./j.opvtf\io<. /cal MayO/co? Be /jiyd\Q)v eTnTTecrbvTwv real e^ewcre e7ri6r]/j. e^eiv Tror^ rot? ei? TO auTo yopa No/jiav <pi\OTt. ev Be rfj Trepippayevros tcai ra)v erepa rwv ypa/j. HvdayopiKovs a? rcvy/jiaTa.dro)i> evpeOevrwv dvayvfavai fjLev avrd \eyerai HeTtXto? dTpaT^ywv Tore.ev Ofj.as Be Tot"? /cal tcvp/Seis.riffai. with C : Ko^laai Coraes.dra)v Ta? cropovs TO aTTOTreGovTwv rj jjiev erepa /cevrj 'navidiraaiv a>(j)6r) Kal fjiepos ovBev ovBe \ei-^ravov e^ovcra TOV o~<w/^aTO?.8e ocriov J ./3pa)v ' rjaav IIoTrXfo? K. o>9 rcdvrwv eiv re KOI yvco/jiTjv K6\.ev elvat &a)$Ka Be aXXa? 'EXTa? Be et? Trjv rerpafcoa-ioyv TTOV Biayevo/jLevoov cropov crvvredeuercov VTraroi /J./jLOVfj. TT/OO? Be 1 TT)V (TVyK\7]TOV KO/JLLaCLi. eKTrvara TroXXoZ? ra yeand Bekker. fJivrifMrfV w B ^cyta/Aw <f>acri /mrjBe <ypa^>rjv /carariOecrdai. Sintenis 6pp. Trepl T^? a7ro/?ou? fcal dppiJTovs \eyojjLevas ev yew/^erpia Trpay/jLareias TT/OO? Tiva TCOV dva^icov etyacrav eV terry /jiaiveLV TO 4 Trapavofjiiav /cal KOiv> Katcy rrjv KOI aaefteiav ^Tre^ep^o/jLevov. Ol ' Se Trepl /3i/3\ov<i iepofyawrifcdsy (f)L\oa6(})ovs Kvrlav laropova-i BwSefca p. 380 .

those who are eager to prove. still xxn. and the torrent of water tore away the earth and dislodged the coffins. writes that it was twelve pontifical books. When their lids had fallen off. but implant the memory and practice of them in living disciples worthy to receive them. These Petilius. And when their treatment of the abstruse and mysterious processes of geometry had been divulged to a certain unworthy person. declaring that. one coffin was seen to be entirely empty. lawgivers their tablets. 2-5 But since. when Publius Cornelius and Marcus Baebius were consuls. we are told. is said to have read. it was not lawful or proper that the . on the basis of so many resemblances between them. and then brought to the senate. who was then praetor. but in the other the writings were found. contents of the books. And about four hundred years afterwards. heavy rains fell. that Numa was acquainted with Pythagoras. he commanded that they should be buried with his body. they said the gods threatened to punish such lawlessness and impiety with some signal and wide-spread Therefore we may well be indulgent with calamity. while he was he had taught the priests the written living. in his opinion. This is the reason. however. why the Pythagoreans also do not entrust their precepts to writing. and had inculcated in their hearts the scope and meaning of them all. which were placed in the coffin. convinced that such mysteries ought not to be entrusted to the care of lifeless documents. without any trace whatever of the body. Antias.NUMA. and twelve others of Greek philosophy.

ev ecr^aro? eKTrecroov rr)? fJieT v tywyfl KaTeyr)pa(T. Ilacrt {JLv ovv eVerat rot? BiKaiots real 6 dyaQols dvBpdai e7rati>o9. a>9 \ejerai. el Kal epyov.? /3t/3Xou? Karaicarivai. 'OcrrtXio? Be 05 yaera No^tav efiaaiXevae.' ol fj. TWV Be Tecradpwv ovBels 7 Kara (frixrw ereXevTrjcrev. aXX. eVi^Xeua'cra? /cat KaOvra? co? dpyoTroibv Kal <yvvaiKO)Br). owS' awro? eve^eive TOL? TOVTOIS.PLUTARCH'S LIVES yevecrOai' Bib /cat Ko/jLtcrdeiaas et? TO KO/JLITIOV TO. yap <yevo\aijnrporepav eTroLrjaav. OVK aTTOKvrjTeov avvayayeiv ra? Bia<j>opds. TrXeitrra e/ceivov Ka\wv. real TO. eKKei/jLevcov d/jifyolv. 382 . avTov 6 fj. ev Be Trpcorois Kal fidkicrra rrjv rrrepl TO Oelov evkdfieiav. xaraVTTO AYKOYPrOY KAI NOMA I.av al TWV vcrrepov /3acrtXea)^ 75 irkvie. dXX' UTTO vocrov iro\VTpo7rov rrjv v eveBcaKev ouSeV rt T^ Kara evaefieia TrpocnJKOVcrav. /jLei^cov 6 KCLTOTTIV KCU yuera rrjv evlwv & rov 0ovov TTO\VV %povov OVK Kal TrpoaTroOvrjCTKovTOS' ov jjJr)V eiceivov 76 rrjv 86j. en Be fia\\ov eveiroLrjare rot? aXXot? TO TOIOVTOV TrdOos. 'AXX' eVet TOZ^ No/xa /cat AvKovpyov \v6afjiev fiiov.ev rpet? 7Ti/3ov\ev@evTS ecr^dyrja-av. TTpb? TroXeerpetye TOU? TroXtra?.

COMPARISON OF LYCURGUS AND NUMA I. case the misfortunes of the kings who followed him made his fame shine all the brighter. as we are told. were even more affected with superstition. that they are praised more after they have left the world than before. were therefore carried to the comitium and burned. 383 . even though the task be difficult. and above all his devotion to religion. since envy does not long survive them. For of the was dethroned and and of the other four. the last grew old in exile. and gave himself over to a superstition which was far removed from the piety of Numa. did not abide by his presumptuous folly. and who mocked and derided most of his virtues. and both lie clearly before us. turned the minds of the citizens to war. of all just and good men. Three of them were conspired against and slain and Tullus Hostilius. to assemble and put together their points of difference.LYCURGUS AND NUMA. however. but was converted by a grievous and complicated disease. It is true. not one died a natural death. declaring that it made men idle and effeminate. i. five who came after him. indeed. when he died by a stroke of lightning. we must attempt. Now that we have recounted the lives of Numa and Lycurgus. too. His subjects. i The books writings should be published abroad. who reigned next after Numa. and some even see it die before them but in Numa's . He himself. .

TO TTO\ITIKOV.PLUTARCH'S LIVES al p^ev yap KOIVOTTJTGS ZTTifyaivovTai rat? irpd^ecrtv. fjiev Bi evvoLds KOL TI/J. 7} fjiev ^aAeTTOT?.^ arravTa o Be KivBwevtov /cal /3a\\6jjievo<} ^0715 eire/cpdTTorof? 384 . d\\d Belirva edcravTas ev TO?? OTrXot? teal rats' 4 TTa\aLO~TpaLs Bia7roveio~0ai /cal daKeiv. 6 Be T^? 'Pwya^? TO o~(poBpov d avvTovov. Kakbv TT)? ovv TO KT^cracrOaL BiKatoo~vvr) Be TO TrpOTi[jLrja'ai TTJV 77 Bi/caioa'vv'riv yap dpeTrj TOV fjLev OI^TW? wcrre ySacrtXeta? OVTCO (f) a%iw0f]vai. o teal jjiev TolvWt eTrel KaOaTrep eK\e\v/jLvr)v /ecu Tpv(f)coo~av eire Tr]V ^TrdpTTjv. r^? ySairiXeta?. 77 evffe/3eta. (3a<Ji\eia$ TOV Be fiejav eTroirjcrev ware /cara- povfjo-ai. d\Xd ov Kol dpyupov afyeivai KOI (TTpw^va^ Klv TroXfreXet? teal TpaTre^as. /cal %i$v] TOU? TroXtra? KdTaOeaOai eTreiOev. o Be fcal TOV pev erepoi xvpiov CIVTWV KOI %ivov OVTCL.. ovBe Travcrafievov? /cal 7ro\e/jiQ}i> eopTa^eiv /cal 6veiv. o9ev 6 Trei&wv eirpa^ev. 6 Be avTov /cdXbv IBiooTijv e/c /SacrtA-ea)? eTroirjae. 3 AevTepov \vpa<j. 7rapd\r]^i<. olov 77 aaxfrpoavvri rwv dvBp&v. TO TTCLlSeVTLKOV. TO fJLlClV a TWV Oewv d/jL^oTepovs \a/3eiv r?}? TWV B IBiO.? TOV e'pyov TW ov yap Ocopa/ca^ e/cBvvai Av/covpyu) 7rp6<To~Tiv. K(lTpOV KCL\rj)V TTp&TO /lev T) 2 'jrapdo'ocris. AvKovpjco Be i] 6 ^ev <yap ovrc aiTO)v e\a/3ev.

: i. One was made by others their sovereign. also their both each performed noble deeds peculiar to himself. but to give up feasting and drinking and practise laboriously as soldiers and athletes. too. but it was also a noble thing to set righteousness above a kingdom. so Lycurgus tightened the strings at Sparta. through the good-will and honour in which his people held him but the other had to risk his life and suffer wounds. and Numa loosened the strings at Rome. and their But deriving their laws from a divine source. Numa accepted. which he found relaxed with . For it was virtue which rendered the one so famous as to be judged worthy of a kingdom. a kingdom. though a private person and a stranger the other made himself a private person. to win a kingdom by righteousness . where the tones were sharp and high but the task was more difficult in the case of Lycurgus. . but Lycurgus resigned. just as musicians tune their lyres. Wherefore the one accomplished all his ends by persuasion. 385 . of course. which made the other so great as to scorn a kingdom. 1-4 their For their points of likeness are obvious from careers their wise moderation.LYCURGUS AND NUMA. their piety. but to cast away gold and silver. . One got it without asking for it. not to take off their breast-plates and lay aside their swords. though he was a king. . To begin with. it is granted that. In the second place. It was a noble thing. prevailed. then. and abandon costly couches and tables not to cease from wars and hold festivals and sacrifices. the other had it and gave it up. and virtue. For his efforts were to persuade the citizens. and scarcely then luxury. talent for governing and educating.

evioi Be TOUTO vTro/jLvrj/jua rrj<. rj TOV No/na TT/DO? elprjvrjv teal Biteaioorvvi-jv fjieOapfJiOfcal KarairpavvavTO<. Trdvrcov Be crvyyevcov teal I(TOTI[JLWV vo/LLi^ojuevwv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES /jbevTOi KOI <f)i\di>0pa>7ro<. d<j>aipovvT<. Ta9 /cal rrrepl ovv VTTp/3o\d<. f/ II. TroXtrevfjidrcov 6/jioiav ovcrav. o Be rrjv Bi/caiocrvvijv Ata ^^a TTJV vTTOfeei/uevTjv etearepov <pvcriv rj rjyaTrrjtea)?' el jjirj vrj TWV ov^ crvvijdeiav. d\)C eVl TW f^rj dBi/eeiv. el Be TOU9 EtXa)Ta? dvay/edcrei. 76 7ro\/uLiteovs. Tf? rj/JLas teal et'? TO rrjv 5 Av/covpyov OeaOai iro\LTeiav. vofJLoOerrjv fyrjvoiJLev. e d/cparwv teal Trepl teal BiaTTvpwv rjQcov TOU? TroXtra?. OXa>9 ^e <paivovrat 7rpo9 rrjv avrdp/eeiav a^orepoi fcal croy^poavvrjv ofjioiw^ ayovres Ta 7r\rj0r). Kpovifcrjs eteeivris IcrovofJLias \oyovaiv. a>9 fi'rjSevbs aTrocrw^ecr^at /jivOoBov\ov /jLrjBe Becnrorov. ovre yap No/ia9 Bid Bei\iav teaTeX-vae TO 7ro\6/jieiv. ovre Av/covpyos et9 dBiteiav tearecr/cevaae a\X' virep TOV prj dBiKelcrdai.. 09 76 roi'9 . eVt 7rapa\a/LL/3dvovros. teal yap TOUTO NoyLta Trarpiwv ev elvai \eyoucnv. Sov\ov<> eyevcre ev rot? KpovLot? ecmacrdai /^era dva/jte/jLty/nevovs e0laa$.oTaTOv epyov TrapavofjLMTaTOV. 2 dvo/noias eBei irapaaKzvris. d^oTepoi evBeias dvaTT\r)povvTe<s T9 TOU9 TWV vrrap'XovTWv %pfj(r0ai 386 . teal a>/jiO\oyr)jjL6VOv<. TWV Be d\\wv dperwv 6 fiev rrjv dvBpeiav fia\\ov. a)fj. aa/epw TLVI TOV NoyLtay e\\rjviteaiTepov <ye<yovevai.

however. that Numa put a stop to the waging of war. fancy that this custom was a reminder of the equality which characterized the famous Saturnian age. indeed. as we are told. And if we must ascribe to the administration of Lycurgus the treatment of the Helots. 2 Numa's muse. but all were regarded company of as kinsmen and II. who thereby admitted to the enjoyment of the yearly fruits of the earth those who had helped to produce them. and softened their violent and fiery tempers. but to prevent the commission of injustice . 387 . Some. . i. the other on righteousness unless. and he converted his people to peace and righteousness. 1 For this too was one of the institutions of Numa. the one set his affections more on bravery. 4-11. both alike manifestly strove to lead their peoples to independence and sobriety but as regards the other virtues. . was gentle and humane. neither was it to promote the commission of injustice that Lycurgus made his people warlike. but that they might not suffer injustice. however. when there was neither slave nor master. Accordingly. In general. both were forced to make great innovations. by making it the custom for them to feast in the their masters during the Saturnalia. a most savage and lawless practice. in removing the excesses and supplying the deficiencies of their citizens. since he gave acknowledged slaves a taste of the dignity of freedom. equals. we shall own that Numa was far more Hellenic as a lawgiver.LYCURGUS AND NUMA. the different natures or usages on which the government of each was based required For it was not out of cowardice different provisions. 1 A mid-winter harvest festival in honour of Saturnus.








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depairevTiKrj TOV TrXrjQovs, K ^pvao%6cov Kal av\^T(t)v KOI (TKVTOTOIJLWV (TVfi/^iyrj Tiva Kal Tra/jLTToiKiXov aTTofyaivovTos Brj/noif, ava-TTjpa Be rj Avfcovpyeios KOL dpicrroKpariKr), ra? [JLV

(Bavava'ovs aTro/cadaipovaa re^a? et? ol/cerwv KCLL fjL6TOLK(ov 'xelpas auTou? Be TOI)? TroXtra? et? TIJV daTTiSa teal TO &6pv (rvvdyovaa, 7ro\e/nov ^eipo-

Te%^a? KOI depaTrovras "Apeco? 6Vra?, aXXo Be ovBev elBoras ouBe yiieXeTa^Ta? rj TreLOeaOai rot? 4 ap^ovcn KOI Kparelv TWV 7ro\6fjii(i)V. OvBe <yap Xprj/jLaTi^eaOai, rot? e\ev0epoi<$ ef/v, 'iva e\ev6epoi

Traj/reXw? /cal

KaOdira^ waiv, aXX'







T&'iKaiffW, wcrTrep

TO Belirvov

/cal o-^rov





d\\a ra?
5 TOiavTrjv

aTpaTiwTiKas eVaucre TrXeove^ta?, TOV Be a\\ov OUK e/c(t)\vcr xprj/MiTKr/Aov, ovBe Trjv



7r\ovT(t) Trpolevai





/cal Trevias



inroppeovcrrj^ ev0v<? ev dpxfj,



firjBe fA

yd\ r)$ dviaoTijTOS

aXX* ert





eva-Trjvat, TT/OO? TTJV



Tr\eove%iav, wcnrep Av/covpyos, avr* aurr}? ySXaySa?, ov fiiKpas


aXX^ TWV TrXeiaTwv Kal

ocra (rvvr)ve%drj, (nrep/jia Kal dp%r)V irapao Be r/)9 7^9 dvaBacr/Jibs OVTG TOV 6 <r%oiJcra9.












yap eBpav






classification of the


Numa's was

arrangement and under their respective strongly popular and

inclined to favour the masses, resulting in

miscuous and variegated commonalty of goldsmiths, musicians, and leather-workers but that of Lycurgus was rigid and aristocratic, relegating the mechanical arts into the hands of slaves and aliens, but confining the citizens themselves to the use of the shield and the spear, so that they were artificers of war and servants of Ares, but knew and cared for nothing else than to obey their commanders and master their For freemen were not even permitted to enemies. transact business, that they might be entirely and forever free, but the whole apparatus of business was turned over to slaves and Helots, just like the preNuma, on the paration and serving of their meals. contrary, made no such distinctions, but, while he
put a stop to military rapacity, he prohibited no Nor did he reduce the other gainful occupation. great inequalities resulting therefrom, but left the acquisition of wealth wholly unrestricted, and paid no attention to the great increase of poverty and its gradual influx into the city. And yet it was his duty at the very outset, while as yet there was no general or great disparity of means, but people still lived on much the same plane, to make a stand against rapacity, as Lycurgus did, and take measures for these were of precaution against its mischiefs not trifling, but furnished the seed and source of the But as most and greatest evils of after times. regards the redistribution of the land, Lycurgus, in my opinion, is not to be censured for making it, nor Numa for not making it. In the one case, the re;


/cal KprjTflBa Trjs



Tro\iTeia<s rj laoTrjs avrrj TrapBe 7rpo(T(j)dTov Trjs K\,ripov^La^ ovffrjs

ovBev iJTreiyev a\\ov


dvaBacrfiov ovBe

icwelv Trjv TrpooTrjv vky^aiv, o>9 et/eo9

ecm, Kara

III. TT}? &e irepl TOVS <yd/j,ovs KOI ra<? KOlVWViaS TO dfyl\OTVTTOV Op00)<$ KOi





dvBpdaiv ov aXX* o


dvrjp ifcavtos e%(ov TraiSorpotyias, v<p* erepov















aviw Kal TOV



2 TT}?

% dp%f)<; Bifcaiaw, /j,6TeBiBov TroXXol KOivwvias et? Tetcvwaiv.






wv av



{idhicrra TraiBa? eveiBeis Kal dyaQovs rt? ovv rj Sidicpicris rwv eOta-fAwv; r)


la^vpa Kal aKparos djrdOeia TT/JO? Kal ra rapaTrovra Kal KaraKaiovra Keiva Be wcTTrep TOU? 7roXXou9, drvcpia T9, 7rapctKd\,v/jLfUL rrjv eyKal TO Bva-KapTeprjTov et;o/J,oe(j)e\KOjjLevr]


"ET Be fiaXXov r) Trepl ra? 7rap0evov<; <j)v\aKrj Kare(TTa\raL TCO No//.a 7T/oo9 TO Orfkv Kal KOO-/JLIOV Be TOV AvKovpyov TravTairaGLV d f) Kal a6ri\vs ovcra T0i9 TroirjTals \6jov






suiting equality was the foundation and base of his polity ; but in the other, since the allotment of lands was recent, there was no urgent reason for introducing another division, or for disturbing the first assign-

ment, which probably was


in force. in marriage

With regard to community parentage, though both, by a sound


policy, inculcated

husbands a freedom from selfish jealousy, still, methods were not entirely alike. The Roman husband, if he had a sufficient number of children to

of getting children by her. And many husbands, as we have said, 1 would actually invite into their homes men whom they thought most likely to procure them handsome and noble children. What, then, is the

and another, who lacked children, could persuade him to the step, relinquished his wife to him, having the power of surrendering her entirely, or only for a season but the Spartan, while his wife remained in his house, and the marriage retained its original rights and obligations, might allow any one who gained his consent to share his wife for the purpose

between the two customs ? We may say, perhaps, that the Spartan implies a complete indifference to the wife, and to the jealous emotions which confound and consume the hearts of most men ; while the Roman, as if with shame-faced modesty, makes a veil of the new betrothal, and concedes that community of wives is really insupportable. Still further, Numa's watchful care of young

maidens was more conducive to feminine decorum but the treatment of them by Lycurgus, being entirely unconfined and unfeminine, has given occasion to the call them "





Lycurgus, xv.





\oiBopovcriv, o>9


veoLcriv e^epri pova iv

A? &VV


Kai vreTrXoj? d


TW jap OVTI rov TtapOeviKov ^LTWVO^ al Trrepvyes 77 OVK rjcrav (rvveppajjifjievai KarwOev, aXX' GQWTO Kai dvvave^v^vovv o\ov ev TM TOV jjLiypov. Kai aa<pea'TaTa TO yivo/jueoov e'l

veoprov, a?

Kai rav

eV aaroXo?

5 Sib

aurou? TrpooTOv

Kai Opacrvrepai, \eyovrai yevecrOai Kai TT/JO? dvSpa)$ei<; TOU? av^pas, are Brj

rcov /lev OLKCOV ap%ovo-ai

Kara Kpdros,

ev Se




r&v neyi&Tcov.







7T/309 TOU9 av&pas, r)v el^ov djrb OepaTrevofievaL Bta TIJV dpjray^v, alSw

Be TTO\\^V

vriv d(j)6L\6



7Tea-T7j(76v aurcu9 Kai 7ro\v7rpaj/jLoa'vKai vifyeiv eBiBa^e Kai criwrrav eWicrev, a7re%o/te^a9 TO TrdjuLTrav, \6ya) Be


TWV dvayKaiwv dvBpos avev XeyeTat <yovv TTOTG <yvvaiKo<? eliroixTTjs

BiKrjv IBiav



Oeov, TTVV-

adapted from

(leaving their homes).


kare-lhigked (so Ibycus),




and revile them Thus Euripides says J





leave their homes to mingle with the youths Their thighs are naked, flying free their robes."


For in fact the flaps of the tunic worn by their maidens were not sewn together below the waist, but would fly back and lay bare the whole thigh as

they walked.
clearly in these

Sophocles pictures the thing






that young maid, whose tunic, Lays bare her gleaming thigh Between its folds, Hermione."



so their women, it is said, were too bold, putting on men's airs with their husbands even, to begin with, since they ruled their houses absolutely, and besides, on public occasions, taking part in debate and the freest speech on the most important But Numa, while carefully preserving to subjects. the matrons that dignified and honourable relation to


husbands which was bestowed on them by 3 Romulus, when he tried by kindly usage to efface the memory of the violence done them, nevertheless enjoined great modesty upon them, forbade them all busy intermeddling, taught them sobriety, and accustomed them to be silent wine they were to refrain from entirely, and were not to speak, even on the most necessary topics, unless their husbands were with them. At any rate, it is said that when a woman once pleaded her own cause in the forum, the senate sent to inquire of an oracle what the event might



Andromache, 587 f. (Kirchhoff), slightly adapted. * Of. Komulus, xix. 6. Fragment 788 (Nauck).





TroXet cr^fieiov


TO yeye-



aXX?;? einreiOeias Kal TrpaonjTos







yap Trap

rifuv oi icrropiKol ^pd^ovcrt,






cravras aSeX^ot?

Trarpo? avTo-)(eipa<$


OVTW 'PwiaTot



fiera Tr)v 'Pcofirjs KTICTLV erecrt

Sia/cocriois ovSevbs


Be yvvr) ^.Lvapiov



aXata Tovvopa Sir)V%0rj TT/OO? Ye<yaviav Tapxvviov ^ovirepflov
OVTCD KO\.)S Kal Kocrfjiiws rerayVTTO rov




yd/JiCi)i> rjv

IV. Tfj Be aXX?; TWV irapOevwv 0,70)777 teal ra l ra9 e/cSocreis ofJLokoyel, rov [lev Av/covpyov











fiia^o/Aevwv, Kal



%XV ^pos TO ra(>

avafyepeiv Kal ra<; o)SiyafJLOVfjLevwv


ovBev d\\o


TKvu>crw$ epyov, T&v

Kal vewrepas eK^i^ovTwv ourw yap av Kal TO o^co/za Kal TO ^09 Kadapov Kal aBiKTov 2 TO) yafjiovvn ylvecrOai. Brj\ov ovv OTI TO



portend for the

in. 6-iv. 2

And for their usual gentlecity. ness and readiness to obey, there is strong evidence in the specific mention made of those who were less For just as our Greek historians record amenable. the names of those who first slew kinsfolk, or made war on their brothers, or were parricides, or matricides, so the Romans make record of the fact that Spurius Carvilius was the first to divorce his wife, two hundred and thirty years after the founding of Rome, there being no precedent for it ; also that the wife of Pinarius, Thalaea by name, was the first woman to
quarrel with her own mother-in-law, Gegania, In such fitting and reign of Tarquinius Superbus. proper manner were marriages regulated by their
in the

lawgiver. IV. Further, the practice of the two peoples in the matter of giving their young maids in marriage conforms to their education of them in general. Lycurgus made them brides only when they were in order that intercourse fully ripe and eager for it, with a husband, coming at a time when nature craved it, might produce a kindly love, instead of the timorous hate that follows unnatural compulsion ; also that their bodies might be vigorous enough to endure the strain of conception and child-birth, con-

vinced as he was that marriage had no other end than the production of children. The Romans, on the other hand, gave their maidens in marriage when they were twelve years old, or even younger. In this way more than any other, it was thought, both their bodies and their dispositions would be pure and undefiled when their husbands took control of them. It is clear, therefore, that one practice regarded nature more, with children in view the other re;





eTTicrracriais re rrai&wv

Kal crvvayenrepl re

Kal TraiSaytoyiais KOI KOivcovLai,?, /cal yv/jivda-ia KOI rrai&ias avrcov


ov&ev TL rov

j3e\Tiova rov No/zai> o d7ro$LKvvcriv, eVl rat9 rwv rrarepwv

3 7a?,

iT6 Tt?

p<yrr)v yjs


Troiev rov

vlov elre vavTrrpybv rj %a\Ka SiSdcrKeiv axTTrep ov Trpo? ev TeXo? o^etXo^ra?


dyecrOai Kal GvveTricrrpefyeaOai, rot?



eTTi/Sara? erepov eg erepas ijrcovra at Trpoaipecrecos dv rot? KLV&VVOIS JJLOVOV








3e TO /ca#'

avrbv aKOTrelv eKaarov.



TroXXot? OUAC aj-tov e^icakelv vo/AoOeraLs \\L7rov(7i,v r) 5t* ayvoiav rj St' aaQiv&iav dv&pl



/3a(7i\eiai> Trapa\a[Bovri





8^/xov vewcrrl uvrireivovros, Trepl

Trpwrov rjv crirov^daaL irpoa-fjKov rj TrauScov rpo(f>r)v Kal vewv acTK^dLV, OTTO)? /JLT) &id(f)opoi
Tapa^coSet? <yevoivro T0t9 KOLVOV dperrjs 'fyvos evflvs
5 Kal rv7Tovfj,evoi



ev ri


dp%rjs Tr\arr6/j,evoi

av^aivoL.v aXX^'Xot?;





/cat crwrrjpiav vofjiwv ax^eX^cre





fjv 6

rwv opKcov
to vp6r--pov.

^>o/3o9, et


Bekker corrects

garded more the formation of



character, with married

in view.

surely, by his careful attention to boys, by their collection into companies, their discipline and


constant association, and by his painstaking arrangements for their meals and bodily exercise and sports, Lycurgus proves that Numa was no more than an For Numa left the bringing ordinary lawgiver. up of youths to the wishes or necessities of their A father might, if he wished, make his fathers. son a tiller of the soil, or a shipwright, or might teach him to be a smith or a flute-player, as if it were not important that all of them should be trained with one and the same end in view from the
outset, and have their dispositions formed alike ; but rather as if they were like passengers on a ship, each coming with a different object and purpose, and each therefore uniting with the rest for the common good only in times of peril, through fear of private loss,

but otherwise consulting only his own interests. Now, it is not worth while to censure the common run of legislators, who fail through ignorance or weakness. But when a wise man had consented to be king over a people newly constituted and pliant to his every wish, what should have been his first care, unless it was the rearing of boys and the training of youths so that there might be no confusing differences in their characters, but that they might be moulded and fashioned from the very outset so as to walk harmoniously together in the same path of virtue ? This, indeed, was what helped Lycurgus to secure, among other things, the

and permanence of

his laws.

The Spartans

took oaths to maintain these laws,

true, but




T>79 TraiBeias


T7/9 dycoyTjs

olov dveBevcre




J ri\ov

TOL/9 VOflOV^,


Tpocbrj r i*

TTIS 7roXiT6ta9, c5o~T6




fjLeyicrTa Bia/meivai,

%povov Ta KvpiaiTaTa Kal T^9 vo/Aodecnas, cocnrep jSatyfjs

aKpaTov Kal

ia-'xypws Ka6a"fyap,evr)s.

No/ia Be orrep rjv TeXo9 T?}9 7roXiT6ta9, eV elpyjvrj Kal <fyi\ia TTJV KOL /juera Tr)V reXevrrjv e/ceivov TOV o-vvej;e\i7r6'
pOV OLKOV, OV KK\l(T /JiVOV CIVTOS (TWel^ei*, oWa)? eV avra> TiOacrevwv KaOeip'yfjievov TOV
e d^OTepwv dvaTrerdaavre^ at'/zaro? teal ovSe KCU veKpwv TT]v 'IraXta^ eVe7rX?;cra^ 6\i<yov xpovov TI KoXXiffrrj KOI SifcaiordTij tcardt

crracrt? epeivev,
it rr\f



Kal TO (TvvSeTiKov ev avrfj,

Tra&eiav, OVK e^ovcra. 11
it ovv,






TO peXn.ov


D f^



Trpor)\6e Tot? TroXe/u-t^ot?;




TO /3e\Tt,ov ev TT\OVT(O Kal Tpv<pfj Kal q fjia\\ov r) awTrjpia Kal rrpaoTrjTi, Kal TT) /merd ov fJLrjV d\\d r]s avTapKeia TiOepevovs.




Trjv errl

TTOV S6^6t ftoijOcLV, TO No/^a KaTacrTacriv e%a\\drrpdy/Jiaa-t,

%avTas eTr&ovvai TO??








AvKOvpjov BiaTa^iv, IK /xejicrTcov TaireLVOTdrovs ryevecrOai Kal rrjv TWV 'E\X?;/i/a)i> rjye/jioviav drro1


Bekker adopts Reiske's correction






would have availed little had he not, by means of his training and education of the boys, infused his laws, as it were, into their characters, and made the emulous love of his government an integral part of their rearing. The result was that for more than five hundred years the sovereign and fundamental features of his legislation remained in force, like a strong and penetrating dye. But that which was the end and aim of Numa's government, namely, the continuance of peace and friendship between Rome and other nations, straightway vanished from the earth with him. After his death the double doors of the temple 1 which he had kept continuously closed, as if he really had war caged and confined there, were thrown wide open, and Italy was filled with the blood of the slain. Thus not even for a little time did the beautiful edifice of justice which he had reared remain standing, because it lacked the cement of education. " What, then!' some one will say, "was not Rome advanced and bettered by her wars ? " That is a question which will need a long answer, if I am to satisfy men who hold that betterment consists in wealth, luxury and empire, rather than in safety, gentleness, and that independence which is attended by righteousness. However, it will be thought, 1
suppose, to favour the superior claims of Lycurgus, whereas the Romans increased in power as they did after abandoning the institutions of Numa's time, the Lacedaemonians, on the other hand, just as soon as they forsook the precepts of Lycurgus, sank from the highest to the lowest place, lost their supremacy over the Greeks, and were in danger of






PLUTARCH'S LIVES j3a\6vTa<. Koi Kparfjaai. KOL TrdvTa 7T610OL /j. rfz/09.6Tal3a\iv. TO %vq> T /AeraTre/ATrTw yevecrQat. KivSvvevaai Trepl avacrrdcreux. lievroi TO) erceivo NoyLta /zeya KOI Oelov co? aKrjO&s V7rdp%i. 400 .. fJii^Te 07T\a)v Seydevra roi^ Sfj/jLov 7776 Avtcovpyos eVt crotpia rou? aXXa Kal SiKaiocrvvr} avvap^oaavra. OVTTO) (Tv/ji7r7rvVKVia$. Co? .

and yet was summoned to the throne.LYCURGUS AND NUMA. and mastered a city which was not yet in sympathy with his views and that he accomplished this without appeal to amis or any violence (unlike Lycurgus. 401 . 8 utter destruction. that he was a stranger. this remains a great feature in Numa's career. and one really divine. Nevertheless. commons). where he changed the whole nature of the state by force of persuasion alone. iv. who led the nobles in arms against the . but by hearts of all his wisdom and justice won the the citizens and brought them into harmony.



ci)? eviol (fracriv. ort Be rrpos rov<i Ara. et9 Biafiopav avra>v ev rj rfj rro\Lrela o-K\r)pov Karaardvrcov ovSev OLS' ijvey/cev e%0pa. a>9 eoi/cev. (Sophocles. ov waXcos fypovel.vtf/jir]v Kal %dpiv. teal <>i\ia TO Trpwrov r]v avrols 7ro\\rj Sia rr)v crvyyeveiav. aXXa rrapefJLeivev eKelva ra biicata rat9 ^fv^al^. Tradiiniae. At&fu-o? o aAAarifcbs ev rfj rrepl ratv <>i\OK\eovs TWOS reOeiice \eiv. oltcLas Be Trpcorr}^ 2 Kara 76^0?' r)v yap KoS/uS?.? o Hoim/co? icrropel TT}? HetcrLarpdrov fjLrjrpbs dvetyiav yeveaOai. 7ro\\rj Be Sia ryv 79 [lev ev(f)viav /cal copav. /cal Swd/jiei fjiecrov T&V iro\LTO)v. TYJV 3e %6\o)vos 'Hpa/cXe/S?. ev fj TOP rrarpos "Eiixpopiwvos drfo^aiveL rrapa rrjv oaoi yap avrbv aTravres o/taco? <yeyovevai \eyovcriv.a%e t T^v^o/jLeva Atof rrvpos en %a)aav (f)\6ya.Xou9 OVK rjv e^vpb^ 6 ^6\wv ovB* "Rpayri Oap" 1 /3aXeo9 dvravaarrjvai." 1 v Epwrt /Jiev v\jv ttffTis avrai'lcrrarai iriJKTi)S ovus is xe'ipas. KOI rrape<fyv\. rcvicrT]^ orrws e? ^etyoa. fjirjTepa I rov vorrepov. 3 TJJV epwritcrjv p. epcoTitccos rov oOev Tleia-iarparov dcnra^ojjievov rov SoXwz^o?.) 404 . 441 f.9. aypiov rrdOos. w? (foctai.? dvetcaOev.2OAON I. dvSpbs ovcria ^kv.

. contrary to the opinion of all others who have written about Solon. but their former amenities lingered in their spirits. Solon's mother. Solon was And this may be the reason passionately in love. why. 405 . And the two men were at first great friends. according to Heracleides Ponticus. with whom. Bacchae. in later years. as some say. and made not so bold with Love as "to confront him like a boxer. hand to hand.SOLON I. was a cousin of the mother of Peisistratus. "smouldering with a lingering flame of Zeus-sent fire. their enmity did not bring with it any harsh or savage feelings. in his reply to Asclepiades on Solon's tables of law. For they all unite in saying that he was a son of Execestides. largely because of their kinship. and preserved there. DIDYMUS the grammarian. a man of moderate wealth and influence in the city." may be inferred from his 1 Euripides. and largely because of the youthful beauty of Peisistratus. mentions a remark of one Philocles. when they were at variance about matters of state. 8. but a member of its foremost family. being descended from Codrus." i the grateful memory of their love. And that Solon was not proof against beauty in a youth. in which it is stated that Solon's father was Euphorion.

. KCLI eypa^e Btayopevovra Sov\ov /u?) %rjpa\OLfj.av6pwrrla<$ xdpiTas.iovs a7r>]\avve. 09 " yrjpdaKeiv alel 76 /cat TrpecrfivTepGS MV e\je TToXXa $l$a(TKOfJiVOs" 1 Tt~\OVTOV & OVK e a\\a KCL'I rGiv ootco? Tr\ovTelv co re 2 cipyvpos <TTI KOI xpuabs Kal ' 77)9 7rupo(j)6pov TreSia ft) r)/j.PLUTARCH'S LIVES etc T6 vofiov (freiv rwv TroLtj/jidraiv avrov \a(3elv can.iovoi t T. l(r6v TOl p. els rrjv TWV Ka\&v /nepiBa fcal 4 Trpay/jia.evos Trap eTepcov e% oiKia^ 76701/00? jae i/eo? wy ert TT/JO? -lv evioi Tro\VTreipias eveKa e/jLiroplav. OVK av aTroprjcras errapKeiv.al ^6\wv Tr]v ovaiav TOV Trar/oos" e'XaTTa>crai/T05 et? $>i\. \ajjiTrdSa SiaOeovTes. eirgv ].T.0X070 vp. TT\OVTOVfflV TTO/XVS tffTlVy Fragment 24 (Bergk). &TCt) 18 (Bergk.A. verses 1-6. 'O 8' ovv . KOI TO a^/a\fjLa rov "E/ocoro? ev 'A/eaS^ei'a icaOiepOHTai. teal rpoirov TO Tiva TOU? a^tou? irpoKoKovfievos &v TOU? avaj. K. 8' wprj yiveTCLi d Fragment &pyupl$S Poet. O7TOV TO TTVp CIVCLTTTOVGLV 01 TrjV lpai> ae^wv eTUTrjo'ev/jidTCDv Ti0/j. 406 . /JLCL\\OV ical <yap TJV 0^. Gr. \eyerai Be KOI HeicricrTparo? epaar^ Xapyu-ou yeveadai.vo<. Z<f S' alel 4 TroAAa SiSacr/c^vos. al&ov/j. II.evw<s epaaT^. GVV ii. Lyr. KOI yuoi/a TavTa T6 KOI TT\Vpr) KOI TCOGIV a T rjbeyvvaiKos.r)&e TraiSepao-relv. 47).

while still a young man. then. II. Charmus. when these And only years commensurate therewith are his. admittedly a lover of wisdom. aud therefore. and he was not an admirer of wealth. him comfort of child food. after his father had impaired his estate in sundry benevolent charities. and blooming wife. to i. Horses and mules while to the other only enough gold.SOLON. thus putting the matter in the category of honourable and dignified practices. and Enjoyment of too come. but actually says that two men are alike wealthy of whom one " much silver hath. And yet some say that he travelled to get experience and For he was learning rather than to make money. Solon. 2 also wrote a law forbidding a slave gymnastics or have a boy lover. might have found friends enough who were But he was ashamed to take willing to aid him. poems. embarked in commerce. . belongs give shoes. since even when he was well on in years he would say that he " grew old ever learning many things". where the runners in the sacred torch race said that Peisistratus also light their torches. as Hermippus tells us. since he belonged to a family which had always helped others. from others. 3-11. and in a way inciting the worthy to that which he forbade the unworthy." 407 . and that he dedicated the statue of Love in the Academy. And To and wide domains of wheat-bearing soil. And it is He practise had a boy lover. and clothes.

/cal HXaTcovi. dyadol Be ire- aurot? ov 408 . TT}? p^oet'a? TWV dvajKaiwv Kara^povelv. (f)a)Tpov ev rot? TroirjiJiaa'i Sia\e<yecrQat irepl TCOV TOV e/jLTTopi/cbv oiovTai fiiov TrpoaTeTplfyOai* TroXXou? yap e%ovTa KIV&VVOVS /cal /jL6jd\ov<. dvTaTraiTelv nraKiv eviraOetas Tivas real rfiovwv.wv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 6" Ijjieipco fiev e%eiv. /ca/coi. ouSe Siatyopav etyepev. t &a\r}v Se fyacriv efJLTTOpla ^p^aacrOai teal TOV {jLaOrj/narLKov. ev Se Tot? Tore epyov ovSev rjv oWtSo?.XW^. " V '> * '5 ' mrp-\ loo ovv evbairavov TW ZoKwvi Kai vypov /cal TO 5J* 1 \f\ .\TWV TWV 7Tpl TOV l/cavwv /cad* 'HcrtoSof. 2 a-TToXaucrei?. Bf)\6v CCTTLV K TOVTtoV l jap 7r\ovTV(7i. TT)? ttTToS^/Ata? e(f)6Siov e\aiov TIVOS ev AlyvTrrw Sidteal \ rrr'jroKpd Trjv r decnv fyevecrOai. fiepio'i OTI r) & rrj {JLoXkov avTov ev TTJ T&V TrevrjTwv TCOV 7T\ovcricov erarre. dBi/cws Be rre- t(i)\v6i Be fjiijTe OVK e6e\w nrdvTws vcrTepov rfXOe ovBev TOV djaflov KCL\ TTO^ITIKOV avBpa TTJV TWV TrepiTTWv yu-^re /crvjatv GV arrrov^rj riteal OeaOai. fyovacri /jLeyd\. e^Liropia Be KOL $6av ol/ceiovfjievr) TO.7reipov<$ TTOIOV6VLOL KOI 7TO\6COV OlKKJIOl <ye(7a 7TOX. j3ap/3api/ca KOI Trpo^evovcra Xta? (Sacri\iwv /cal Trpay/jLarcov /j. co? /cal Mao-craXta? ITpcort? U7TO K.

311. philosopher. as Protis. ii. Some merchants were actually founders of great cities. or despise unduly the use of what is necessary and convenient. Thales is said to have engaged in trade. and good men poor ." nor did a trade bring with it social inferiority. is clear 3 from these verses : " For often evil men are rich. to use the words of Hesiod. it. he speaks of pleasure with more freedom than becomes a . as well as Hippocrates the mathematician and Plato defrayed the expenses of his sojourn in Egypt by the sale of oil. And the-re is either set his heart too no reason why a good statesman should much on the acquisition of superfluous wealth. 2 " work was no disgrace. verses 3 Works and Days. 2 * However. But we 1 will not exchange with them 8 7 f. and a large experience in affairs. and the calling of a merchant was actually held i-n honour. and if. friendships with foreign kings. and sought his reward therefor in sundry But that he classed luxuries and enjoyments. Fragment 15 (Bergk). since it gave him familiarity with foreign parts. of living was III. In those earlier times. he thought to be due to his encountered many and great dangers. Accordingly. in another place he says " Wealth I desire to have but wrongfully to get I do not wish. Fragment 13 (Bergk). in his poems.SOLON. even if slow. himself among the poor rather than the rich. Justice. if Solon's way expensive and profuse. is sure. this is mercantile life. 3-111. who was beloved by the Gauls along the Rhone." : . was of Marseilles. 409 .

d^eLV vvrepov 4 evereive <$>i\oab($)ov<$ Kal TWV TroXXa av<yKaTTT\eKe TO?? a"TOpas evereev KOI re TWV TreTrpayfj. Kal e'7rt7rX?.evcov e^ovra KOI Trporpoevia')(ov Kal vov0e(ria<. avOwirtov a'XXore aXXo? eet. 7rXeZc7TO ev 8e rot? (vcriKois ayrXoi)? ecrrt Xtaz^ /cal (Bpovrr) S' e/e Xa/i?r/3a? <yii>erai rjv % dve/Jiwv Se OdXacrcra rapdcrcrerai' . &e Ti? Trdvrwv TJ ecrrl Kal oXa>5 eoiKev aXew fjuovov crofyia Tore rot? TrepatrepcD TT}? p^oeta? e^iKeo~0at TTJ Oewpia' 410 . /car' 3 T$ Se TToirjaei r}?.as vofjLovs eTTe^elprjcrev eVreti'a? et? evro? Kal Sta/jLvrjfjiovevovcri rrjv /jiev dp^rjv oi^ Upwra 6e<T[Jiol<$ ev%<ji)/jio~0a Ait KpovlSr) TolaSe TVX*1 V djaOrjv Kal /eO&o? 07ra<r- 01 Se TOT) rjOiKov /LLaXicrra TO TroXtrt TWJ' cro<f)a)i>.PLUTARCH'S LIVES T?}? apeT?}? TOV 7T\OVTOV ' 7Tt TO (AV e/ alei. a/^a? yu.ey t? ovbev a%iov 80 aXXa Trapdywv Se irai^ddv eoi/ce TrpocrxprfaaaOai eavrbv ev T&> cr^oX. Kal yv(i)/j.0rjvaiov<i.e9 77/30? CVLOI Se (fracriv OTL Kal TOU? 'A.

" 2 in would seem that Thales was of the time who carried his speculations beyond the realm of the practical . the general. And thunder follows on the lightning's flash. That he may give these laws of ours success and fame. 411 . 31 (Bergk). it And the only wise 1 man 2 Fragment Fragment 9. Our alway. 2-5 virtue for their wealth. but if it be Unvexed. he is quated." And he seems to have composed his poetry at first with no serious end in view. since one abides While riches change their owners every day. and fragment 12 (Bergk). and rebukes for the Athenians. Some admonitions. he cultivated chiefly the domain of the wise men of the is political ethics. say. and interwove many political teachings in his poems. that he attempted to reduce his laws to heroic verse before he published them. and they give us this introduction to them : " First let us offer prayers to Zeus. in.SOLON. and in physics. too. like most of time . not simply to record and transmit them." l In philosophy. he put diversion in his hours of leisure. and sometimes exhortations. but because they contained justifications of his acts. verses 1-2. By winds the sea is lashed to storm. it is of all things most amenable. but as amusement and Then later. the royal son of Cronus. philosophic maxims into verse. as clear very simple and from the following verses : anti- " From clouds come sweeping snow and hail.

TIepidv&pov crv\\oy6v Tiva KOLVOV avrcov real O-V/JLTTOCTLOV .OTL/JLOV yevo/jLevrj. eri Be fj. Kal dvOv 2 eviieveias (J)L\. ov \eyov(riv 7T\OV(Tav v uevrj? B Tpotas avroOi KaOelvai yevo- TWOS dva^vrjaOelcrav TraXcuoO.ou Trpo- 3 rarco dvei\ev d/ji(poTpois r) T[v9ia TO> aotya)TOV TpiTToSa a. Kal Trp&Tov fjiev eKeivw Trepl ov TWV Ko)&)z/ evl Saypov/jievcov aTravTa? OJAOV M^X^crtou? eVoXe/z^craz/.KVK\r)(Ti<. d<f)i- 'ATToAAaw Ka6iep(*)0f]. rot? %evoi<s TrpwTov dvriXoylas Trpbs Trepl fjiei'wv . eiTa TWV TYJV Siatyopav a%/ot 7roXeyu.PLUTARCH'S LIVES aXXot? drrb Tr/s 7ro\iTiKrj^ aperrjs Tovvo/jia TT)? IV. iTa TTepilciiv Kal dva7re/jL7r6fjivo<? OUT&)? eVl KCTO. TOV Trpia/jievwv (j)dvrj TOV {3o\ov OVTTW IK Tp'urovs e\Ko^evo<. e Btai^ra &o(j)d)Tpov dTrofyalvovTOS avTov KLVOV rKeV CLTT KLVOV avi? ULTfZGTcfr 7T/309 a\\ov Co? ffo(f)(t)Tpov. TOV TpLvroSos.a\\ov et? d^lw/JLa KOL aurou? KaTearrjaev r. Kal TrdXiv ev KopivOw.TTO$ovvai. Kal reXo? et? TO) 'la/jLrjviq) rjfias a\rjv TO SevTepov CK MiXr. TOV Kal Sia irdvTWV dva.roi.. fyavepov ovra. TevevOai Se 6/JLOv /ier' d\\r)\wv ev re \eyovTai. 412 .

whereupon the Pythian priestess of Apollo told both parties in an oracle that the tripod must be given to the wisest man. the Coans willingly bestowing upon him alone that for which they had waged war But Thales against all the Milesians together. tripod was sent to Bias. and some strangers from Miletus bought the catch as yet unseen. Pittacus of Mitylene. But what contributed still more to their honour and fame was the circuit which the tripod made among them. 1 Men The names usually given are : 413 . when she called to mind a certain ancient oracle. So in the first place it was sent to Thales at Miletus. were dragging in a net. Some Coans. See chapter xii. Delphi. They are to have met together at and again in Corinth. Finally. as the story goes. declared that Bias w as a wiser man than he. where Periander arranged something like a joint conference for them. Cleobulus of Lindus. and Thales of Miletus. 5-iv. Chilon of Sparta. and their mutual declination of it. First the strangers had a dispute with the fishermen about the tripod. IV. as wiser than he.SOLON. r in the list of the Seven Wise Bias of Priene. 4. and then their cities took up the quarrel and went at last to war. Periander of Corinth. it was dispatched to another. It proved to contain a golden tripod which Helen. is said to have thrown in there. its passing round through all their hands. it was carried from Miletus to Thebes and dedicated to Ismenian Apollo. until at last it came to Thales for the second time. Solon of Athens. rest l in. with generous expressions of good will. 3 got the name all of wisdom from their excellence said as statesmen. in his turn. and a banquet. on her voyage from Troy. So it went the rounds and was sent away by each in turn. and the From Bias.

- 414 . Tr\r]v OTI TO Swpov civil TOV TpiTTo&os OL fJLev <f)id\r)v VTTO Kpoitfov TrenfyOelcrav. 'ISta 8* 'A^a^a/5cr6ft)9 T6 TIVCL aXew crvvovaiav >ypd(j)ovcri KOL \o<yov<$ ava- TOLOVTOV^. KOI \eyeiv 009 evo<> wv atyiKTai $i\. "avTos wv OLKOL 2 (TV 7roirj(raL (f)i\iav Kal %fviav jrpos ?}/<ia9. Biatfjepeiv.evov ypdjjbfjiaa'iv (f)eeiv ra9 dBiKLas Kal "QvKovv" I y (frdvai I' f /*. aTa<ye\dv T?)9 TT pay yaareta9 TOV SoXcoolo/j. ijB'rj ra Brj/jLocna TCpdiTowra Kal o~vvTOV ovv Avd^apcfiv 81 TOU9 vofJLOVS. ' Tr\eove%ia<.aTTOvo~i. T&V TTO\ITWV.r)Bev TWV dpa^vlwv dcrOeveis Kal X67TTOU9 TO)V O\t(TKOfJLeV(OV KaOe^LV. et? AeX(^)ou? a7ro<TTa\fjvai. ol Be TTOTijpiov HaOv/cXeovs aTro\nr6vTOS eivai V." OVTO) Brj TOV dvBpos Tov^oiXwva davadcravTa TTIV a<yvivoiav /v \ Be^acrdat ^>L\o^>povw^.9 ovBcTepy Xvat.06vra KOTTTCLV. a &>9 /j. Kai %povov TIVO. BevTepov et? otmw TTO\LV et9 Bta^Ta Trepie\6elv. VTCO Be TCOV TOV Be 3 BvvaTwv Kal 7r\ov(TLCov BtappaytjaeaOai. airoKpivafJievou Be TOV OLKOL TOV A j> draper iv. TrpcoTov /xev et? ' TOV TpiTroBa Treaty Qrjvai.. KaTao~%eiv Trap* avTO). ^Avd^apaiv /uev ei? 'AQtfvas fyacrlv eVl T^y ^0X0)^09 oiKiav e\. OTL avveiTcelv Kal TavTa (fraviv 7Ty009 aXX' eKeiva TOU9 jJ^ev dvdpcoTroi (j)V~\.iav TroLijcro/jLevos fcal %eviav Trpos avrov.v. 0. ravra /uez> ir\eiovwv T68pv\rjTai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 4 eo</oacrT09 Be ffrrjcn.

On Solon's replying that it was better to make one's friendships at home. of which the following accounts are 1 Anacharsis came to Athens. thus passed from hand to hand was not the tripod now seen at Delphi. on learning what Solon was about. " Well then. says that the tripod was first place to Bias at Priene. These. received him graciously and kept him with him some time. sent in the iv. which were just like spiders' webs they would hold the weak and delicate who might be caught in their meshes." man's ready wit. 415 ." said " Anacharsis. 4 -v. knocked at given. and so passed through the hands of all the wise men until it came round again to Bias. To this Solon is said to have answered that men keep their agreements with each other when neither party profits by . and vi. but a bowl sent there by Croesus . and between Solon and Thales. at the instance of Bias.SOLON. but would be torn in pieces by the rich and powerful. however. are the more common But some say that the gift versions of the tale. then. admiring the thy friend and guest. accordingly. v. and finally was sent to Delphi. do thou. This was when he was already engaged in public affairs and compiling his laws. Solon's door. and said that he was a stranger who had come to make ties of friendship and hospitality with him. laughed at him for thinking that he could check the injustice and rapacity of the citizens by written laws. make me So Solon. In particular we are told of private intercourse between Solon and Anacharsis. and others that it was a beaker left there by Bathycles. who art at home. 3 Theophrastus. and in the second place to Thales at Miletus. 1 In chapters. V. Anacharsis.

o\wva OavfjLa^eiv on yd/j. a>9 e<pacrav.evov avTov V7ro/3d\\LV Tovi'O/Jia TO) ^evw. Kal SiKaioavvris" OVTQ) Brj Ka6* eKa aTTOKpicnv TW 0o/3&) TTpocrayofjievov TOV Kal reXo9 tfBij avvT6Tapajfj.ov teal Trapdrrav rj/jLeXij/ce.ov " 3 Kal TrpwTevovTos dpeTrj TWV ov Trapr^v Be.d^eTo. 8' 6i? Trap Kpivovcn Be VI. r)V yap u/09. 129 ovcrTV)(r]s eKeivos. " Tiva TOV %6\(i)i>a. el }jur) vrj Ata veavicrKov TWOS r)V /c<popa 2 Kal TrpovTrefJiTrev rj 7ro\9. dpria)^ r)Kiv Be/caralov e 'KOrjvwv. aXX' aTroBrj/ueiv <bacrai> " " >v/o.PLUTARCH'S LIVES reXe? eo"u rrapaftaiveiv TCOV 0e/jiva>v real auro9 OVTWS dpfjLo&Tai rot? 7roXi/ra9 wcrre TOU jrapavofjieiv /3e\riov einSel^ai TO BiKaioirpayeiv. ITyoo? ^. (frrjaavTOS Be TOV dvOpcoTTov. " Qvo'ev /jievov a %pr) \e<yeiv TOV avOpcoTrov. Tovvo/J. -vV r^SavTov rjorj TTO\VV ^povov. ' eTepov.a" TOV avOpwTrov. Be wvo/JLa^ov avTov.epas avSpa TrapacrKevdcrai ^evov. Giwir^aaiy SidXiTTovra 8' Mt\7^rov e\06vra rbi> Kal TraiSoTrouas TO rbv a\rjv Tore fjiev o\[yas r)/j. TrvOop-evov Be TOV Xwi/o? el 8tf 7i Kaivov ev rat? A. on a\fjv \e<yovGi fiev ol ol a/za^et?." " "H/eoucra.6i]vai<$. Trvv6avb[JLevov /JLTJ ^0X0)^09 o T0V7)KGos f/09 covofj." fydvai. TOV fj^v opfjbrio~ai Traieiv T^V Kal raXXa Troietv Kal \eyeiv a TTO\ITWV' / f \5" 416 . dv$pb<? evB6t. aXXa TavTa ^ev 17 009 'Avd^apcris ei /car' IXiriBa rou 6 crotyoi v/jid^eiv s. "aXX' ov fjLVTjfioveixo' 7r\r)V OTI 7roXu9 Xoyo9 r)V avTOV o-Q(f)ia<.

VI. When Solon asked what news there was at Athens. a few days afterwards he contrived to have a stranger say that he was just arrived after a ten days' journey from Athens." Thus every answer heightened Solon's fears. the man.SOLON." the man said. the w ise men pleaded causes. answered funeral of a young man. who was followed to the grave by the whole city. but the fools decided them. whereupon Solon began to beat his head and to do and say everything else that betokens a transport of 417 . On his visit to Thales at Miletus. Solon's son that was dead. " but I cannot . that he was amazed to find that among the Greeks. But the results justified the conjecture of Anacharsis rather than the hopes of Solon. It was Anacharsis. after attending a session of the assembly. but children. too. Solon is said to have expressed astonishment that his host was wholly indifferent to marriage and the getting of At the time Thales made no answer. recall it only there was great talk of his wisdom and justice. 3 the breaking of them. "pray. as I was told. 3-vi." "O the miserable man!" r : . who was under instructions " None other than the what to say. and he was adapting his laws to the citizens in such a manner as to make it clear to all that the practice of justice was more advantageous than the transgression of the laws. v. he told his name to the stranger and asked him if it was The man said it was . said "I Solon. . of an honoured citizen who excelled all others in virtue he was not at the funeral of his son they told me that he had been travelling abroad for a long time. For he was the son. in great distress of soul. who said. and at last. what was his name?' heard the name.

^6\a)v t Kol TTaiBoTTOuas dc^LcrT^cnv. 09 KaTepeirrei TOV eppw/jieveo'TaTov. "Tavrd TOI" (frdvai. Kal SiavoelcrdaL KOL /juvij/noveueiv. yap dpertjv. wcrr' t5ot9 av dvOpcorrovs crTtppoTepa KOL yevecrews Trai&oov SiaXeyo/Aevovs. ov So^av. OVTCO real evoveTai TI TOVTO) /cal Trpocrfyve-rai TMV e'/cros" olitelov ov&ev CO-TIV. a Kal ere ryd/jiov fj. ov SeSiux} cro^iav dyaTrrjcreie Trapayevo/jievrjv. TOV e " o> Kal y\dcravTa. e%ovcrr)$ yap rt T7/9 ^^%^9 dyaTrrj- TLKOV ev eavTy real rrecpvKvia^^cnrep alerOdvecrOai. a\i)v eTri\a/36/j. KOL <pl\6)v KTYJCTLV ecfrvye /cal oliceiwv d\\d /cal iraiSa deTov ecr^e ai)ro9 TOV r?79 aSeX0^9. el pr) 2 KOI 7raTjO/So9.82 7ra\\aKMi> voaovcri Kal OvrfcrKOvot. teal KaOdrrep oi/cov rj yvqcricov epii/AOV ^LaSo^cov. 779 /crrj/jia /Jiet^ov ovSev ov& VTTO vocrwv KCU <pap/ud/ca>v o avrw T fiiav.acri TeLvojjiivov^ iroOw Kal <f)Q)vd<? dyevveis a Trepl yd/jiov 418 . ^9 cj>acn.PLUTARCH'S LIVES rrepiTraQ overt. rcapafj.evov avTov d\\a Odppei TCOV \6ycov eveKa TOVTCOV ov jdp elcriv a\?." ravra ovv EyO/x777ro? LcrTopelv <$>rjcri TldraiKov. r/ VII. TO (f)i\. elra roi'9 avTOV<$ errl iraicilv OiKOTpiftwv i] Ope^i.^et9. "Aro7TO9 Be KOU yap dv teal rt9 ov TrXovrov.6crTOpyov d\\6Kal voOoi 7Tai^9 ) OcpdrrovTe^ elaoLKLKal KaTa\a/36vT<? a/za TCO fyikelv TO ical 3 SeStevai Trepi avTwv eveTroi^o-av. TTJ tfivcret.

at any rate. Such. O Solon. the most valuable and pleasing possession in the world. and remembers. this craving for affection is entered and occupied by alien and illegitimate children. or relations. Indeed. On the contrary." ing to Hermippus. It clothes itself in this capacity. and attaches itself to those who are not akin to it. who art the most stoutBut be not dismayed at this hearted of men. understands. with a smile. even virtue. and just as if it were a house or an estate that lacks lawful heirs. he had a son by his own adoption. " This it is. inspire anxiety and fear in So that you will find men of a their behalf. these same men are racked with sorrow and lament abjectly. along with love for them. However. too. for fear he may be deprived of them. Cybisthus. or retainers. 419 . when children of their servants. or wisdom. 3-vn.SOLON. . vi. or honour. unless he also avoided having friends. for it is not true. Some. For the soul has in itself a capacity for affection. somewhat rugged nature who argue against marriage and the begetting of children. or country. And Thales himself. 3 But Thales took him by the hand and said. which keeps me it from marriage and the getting of children overwhelms even thee. as we are told. VII. is often banished by sickness and drugs. who. his sister's son. and loves just as naturally as it perceives. accordstory. it is irrational and ignoble to renounce the acquisition of what we want for fear of for on this principle a man cannot be gratilosing it fied by the possession of wealth. or offspring of their concubines fall sick and die. who used to boast that he had Aesop's soul. . is the story of Pataecus. was nevertheless not wholly free from apprehension. though unmarried. and then. grief.

Kal Xoyo? 6t9 Ti\v TTQ\IV eK TT)? olKias e^eiv avrov. IJLOV 'Evrel Be fJLaicpov Tiva /ecu $va")(pr) 7r6\e- ol ev dareLTrepl r/}? ^aKa/jLLviwv vr)<jov pevai. <ye <ydp. were ^eyeiv CLTTO ei? TTJV crroyL6aT09. TroXeyLtoO^re? /ji^re rypdtyai. OVK evvoia. avroi/s $e firj Oappovvras ap^aaOai Sia TOV vofiov. ea-KJJ^aro [j. TLVCL [MJT elTrelv Kal VO/J. VIII.ovTO$ wSi^a? del KOI Kal aywvas. 1 and Cobet. acrOeveia a/3io)TO)? UTTO XuTr??? $ieTe6i](Tav.evo<. d\\a ry Xoyia/JLy TT/QO? Trdvra. after Bryan : 42O . [lev. XuTra? airepavTovs eTrdyerai KCU rKy]Tois ot? 01)8' aTToXaucrf? VTTO \6yov TT/JO? eyyiverai rov iroOovirapovTOS. rou p. e^e/cafJLOv.. Bel l Be JAIJTC nevia TT/OO? Tre^pd^dat d7ro{3o\r)V a-reprjo'iv jJLri'f f^rjre d(fri\ia TT/JO? aTraiSia Tryoo? TeKvwv Odvarov. el drep^crovTai.ev eKaracTLV rcov \o2 <yia-fj. Kal ravra &)? ev TW TrapovTi.wv.QV Me^/aeOevro rijv avOiS co? ^p?) 77 7ro\iv avTiTTOieicrOai TI}^ aXa/ui>o?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Se KOI KVVWV davdry Kal ITTTTCOV aXV erepoi TraZSa? a<ya6ovs a7ro/3a\6vT6<. o^Xou Se TTO\\OV avvSpaiTftypdxOai Bekker (be delivered from}. auro??. Qavdra) ^rifjLioixrOai. e\<yeia Se KOI fjie\Tijcra<. Kal TWV vecov opwv vroXXoi'? Seo/jLevovs dpxfjs 7rl rov iroke/Jiov.XX.. ovbev Seivov ov& eTro'njcrav ala-^pov. e^eTT'tjS'rjcrev djopav a$vu> TTiXuSiov 7repi0efj. /3a/39 fyepwv rrjv dSo^iav 6 %6\(ov. ir\eloi'a T&V IKCLV&V. d\\a KOI TW \OLTTW j3i(d Kara \6>yov SiereXecrav.

and have conformed the rest of their lives to the dictates of reason. sallied out into the 421 . VIII. stances. they made a law that no one in future. he pretended to be out of his head. and a report was given out to the city by his He then family that he showed signs of madness. in secretly rehearsing composed some elegiac verses. we must be fortified not by poverty against deprivation of worldly goods. Once when the Athenians were tired out with a war which they were waging against the Megarians for the island of Salamis. But others have borne the loss of noble sons without terrible sorrow or unworthy conduct. writing or orally. disgrace of this. nor by childlessness against death of children. not kindness. tremors. is more than enough on this head. and them so that he could say them by after rote. he market-place of a sudden. that brings men into endless pains and terrors when they are not trained by reason to endure the assaults of fortune. For it is weakness. on pain of death. but are filled with continual pangs. Such men do not even enjoy what they long for when they get it. but did not dare to take those steps themselves on account of the law. should move. 3-vin. 2 at the death even of dogs and horses. and when he saw that many of the young men wanted steps taken to bring on the war. and struggles by the fear of future loss. have been plunged into shameful and intolerable grief. However. nor by friendlessness against loss of friends. vn. After a large crowd had with a cap upon his head. under present circumagainst all adversities. that the city take up its Solon could not endure the contention for Salamis.SOLON. but by reason This.

av. TOV Ta /j.er' avTov TrXeiv T^V Ta%i(7Tr)v. oe. K6\voi>Ta TOI)? /3ov\ovTat. 7n TOV TOV KTTjpVKO^ \L6oV 779 ecrnv d rj\6ov dfi i/ V wBf} 7recov <p&rjv CLVT 3 rovro rore dTi^wv ^a\a/MS CTriyeypaTTTai /ecu Troirj/JLa etcarov eart. errefJi'^rev el av&pa TCIGTOV et? ^a\ajMva . ey/c\vo/j.T/9t TTJV Trdrpiov Qvaiav TOV vo/jiov e7rtT6\ov(ra<$.ar. eVt KaAmSa yu. OVTO) TOVTCOV 422 . OTL TleiaLCTTpdrov. avTo/noJ^ov elvai. vewTepwv TOVS Kal fjiLTait Kal ya^SeTra) yevei&VTas evSvrot9 vTroBrf/jiaa-i Kal %opeveiv TrpocreTa^e ?r/909 T-fj #aXacrcr?. Se acr^eWo? avrov Kal rwv iXwv TOV 8e TO TOV rot? 7roXtrat9 TCiaQr]vcu. Kal KaTa\aj3wv avroOi Trdcras ra? >yvvaLKa$ TTJ A?.. %apievTQ)<> irdvv ir&iroiri^vov..PLUTARCH'S LIVES /JLOVTOS dl'a/SaS r)V e\eyei. av aTroftwo-LV 6 ol TroXe/z/oi Sr] Kal yevrjTai TO TT\oloV VTTO^iplOV. a>? Se TreicrOevTes ol /oei? avBpas e^erre fji^rav ei> TM Tc\oiw Kal 6 ^o\(ov TO Tr\olov eX-avvofJievov djrb TT}? v^aov. TWV 'AOyvaioov ra? Trpu>- 5 ra? \aftelv <yvvalKa<$.evov Kal TCU \e<yovTi.ev ovv Sr)^a)Br) TWV \6yo/&evcov TOICLVT eVt KwXta^a /i-era TOV TrXeucra? eaTiv. \vcravTes 4 avdis rjTTTOVTO TOV 7ro\e/jLOV.

to sport and dance on the sea shore until the enemy had disembarked and the vessel was in This being done as he directed. and sandals which the women had worn. and carrying concealed daggers. viu. more verses are preserved (Fragments They contain reproaches of the Athenians abandoning Salamis. arraying themselves in the garments. his friends began to praise him. if they wished to capture the principal women of Athens. The popular account of sailed to Having his campaign is as follows. he ordered the women to withdraw. for for it. 423 . who pretended to be a deserter." This 1 " poem is entitled Salamis. 1 Only six Bergk)." and contains a When Solon had hundred very graceful verses. The Megarians were persuaded by him. and directed those of the younger men who were still beardless. to obey citizens They therefore repealed the law and renewed the war. and sent off some men in his ship. performing He therefore the customary sacrifice to Demeter. and Peisistratus in particular urged and incited the his words. But when Solon saw the vessel sailing back from the island. With a song in ordered verse instead of a harangue. he found all the women of the city there. he got upon the herald's stone and recited the poem which begins : " Behold in me a herald come from lovely Salamis. the their power. and bade the Megarians. and an exhortation to go and fight 1-3. putting Solon in command of it. sent a trusty man to Salamis. sung it. to sail to Colias with him as fast as they could. Cape Colias with Peisistratus.SOLON. head-bands. 2-6 collected there.

TT/JO? a/jLct 2 aTroySXeTroL'cra^. rfj en/ret real fievoi 771. tcvpiovs v TOVK. 1 cocrre 7T/309 aXXf^XoL^. 3). where such details were given as are found in Polyaenus. "AXXoi Se (fracriv ou TOVTOV rov rpoirov <yvecT0ai Tr)V Kard\r]"^i. Strateyemata. 20.aia(Tyjticri rrjv elvai TOV ava)(OevTa 8e crv^yal^ a\iacriv TpicLKovrbpov crv/x7rapa7r\ovcrr)^ v craadai rfj ^a\afuvi Kara X'1^tf v TWO.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ol M. IX. e? ^eXiov $vi>ovra et? roi' e ow^a 6VT6JLL6LV Vr\(TOV 2 rot? tfpwatv. 424 .?. fe>9 efi^i/Sdcrai Se av evSexflTai yuaXtcrra KpvTrrovras Sintenis and Bekker assume here a lacuna in the text. vavv S' a7TO(7T6tXai /carao'Ke'^o/iJ. a Evfioiav Sintenis suggests NAraiav (cf. Aral rr/z^ vrjaov aavras evOvs e%eiv TOU? 'A^^^atou?.ev^v rwv TroXe3 fjiltov ^? 6771'? e\6oi>(jris Kparrjaai rov S tcaOelp^ai rou? Me7a/)i9. iroXiv.<yape2<. avrovs /jiev et? ra oVXa Oopvfiovjmevovs J3a8ieiv. i. irvOojjLevovs Be TOU? eV Meyapei? etc rivos ^>?//i^? ovBev jSeftauov. a e aXXa rcavra<$ a7roXe<j$at. aTreucra^ra VVKTOS Cf^djLa TLfplfoj/ACi) KOi elra Trapa TMV \\. et.v. xii. aXXa Trpwrov lev avr rov ev AeX^ot? Ovcriais tfpwas ZVOL IS o't 'AcTWTTm? a/ji(f)tK $>Oi[Jievoi Sep/covrai.e7rr}$a)v co? eVt ryvvaiKas.6^vaiwv e vrjcrov.

keeping themselves as much Thereupon Solon sacrifices sailed to 425 . and ordered them to sail against the city. a decree having been made that these should be supreme in the government of the island if they took it." made by night to the island and the heroes Periphemus and Then he took five hundred Athenian Cychreus. at a point of But the Megarians land looking towards Euboea. in the city of Salamis. but that Solon first received this oracle from the god at Delphi : " The lived. who put her crew in confinement. volunteers. he anchored off the island of Salamis. their vessel. whom . and the Athenians at once set sail and took possession of the island. and setting sail with a number of fishing boats convoyed by a thirty-oared ship.SOLON. IX. say that the island was not taken in this way. the Asopian plain now hides in bosom There they lie buried with their faces toward the setting sun. at the same time dispatching a ship to spy out the enemy. however. vin. vying with one another in speed. The result was that not a man of them escaped. its tutelary heroes of the land with sacred rites where once they Propitiate. as they supposed. armed themselves hurriedly and set out for the place. 6-ix. Others. but all were slain. hearing only an uncertain report of what had happened. This ship came near and was captured by Solon. beached and leapt out to attack women. 3 Megarians were lured on by what they saw. Then he manned her with the best of his Athenians.

//.o\wvd (pa<nv aTroBei^ai Tot9 Bi- on ' < I> iXat09 fcal Eivpvcrdfcrjs. Al'avros irape- vtou.s. AOi'ivrjcn v iroKiTeia^ fjLeraXaftovres after this lacuna in the text. TTCLVTaS VTTOCrTTOvSoVS d(f)f)KV. aywv iV *A6^vaiwv ' 2 avrol 8* K6j)vaioi ravra fj. vav<$ r) yap 'Am/cr) /cal TO Trpwrov. ovv 7ro\\ol rr)v ai \eyova-i 'O^ vewv Kard\oyov yap avrov eVo9 eVl T^9 BLKIJ? dvayvwvai. rot? Meyapeva-f o-vvecrTcacrrjs (frOdaai TOi/9 aTro TT}? 4 "Eoi/ce Se ra> \6<y(p rovrw KOL rt? TO.<p /cal KTCL<$ /cal BiKa<TTd<.?. X. Trj at ocrot iG<$>9dpri<jav UaXT).ev ol'ovrai tyXvaplav rov Be ^. word Sintenis and Bekker assume a 426 . elra /cpavyfj el? o?)? e^et TT/JO? a\a\ay JJLW dvrjp eVovrXo? e^aXXo/xez^o? 7rpocr(f)pofjLevo(. eviKfjae yap ev TOU9 Me7a/9ea9. l /c 77)9 atcpov TO ^Kipd^iov irXrjaiov Be rov 'RvvdXiov TO //)o^ iaiiv i&pvcrafjbevov SoX&)^o9.. r Ou IA^V d\\a TWV Meyapecw /cal ITTIJAGVOVTCOI' jro\\d /ca/ca Bpwvres ol fiev ev T<W 7ro\/j.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ' eavrovs' a/Jia Be rou? a'XXou? AOrjvaiovs ava\aKOL (Tvatyepecrdai erf.' etc ' et9 ^a\afuvo<$ ayev BvoxaiBerca vr\a^ t ICTTCIVTO (f)d\ayye$.

Notwithstanding all this. and while the fight was still raging. 427 . At the same time. think idle tale. the sons of Ajax. the Megarians persisted in their opposition. with the rest of his Athenians. an Attic ship would approach the island in silence at first. this an and say that Solon proved to the judges that Philaeus and Eurysaces. Now there seems to be a confirmation of this story in certain ceremonies afterwards established. the crew of the ship succeeded in capturing the city. For he conquered the Megarians. a Iliad. made over their island 1 Ares. so that finally they made the Lacedaemonians arbiters and judges of the strife." 2 The Athenians themselves. and all who were not slain in the battle were released on parole. Namely. he engaged the Megarians on land. and both sides inflicted and suffered many injuries in the war. 2 concealed as was feasible. he read the passage at the trial thus . : " And Ajax from Salamis brought twelve ships. became citizens of Athens. most writers say that the fame of Homer favoured the contention of Solon for after himself inserting a verse into the Catalogue of Ships. ix. then its crew would make an onset with shouts and cries. X.SOLON. stationed them near the Athenian hosts. Hard by that place is the l temple of Enyalius which was erected by Solon. ii. however. Accordingly. and one man in full armour would leap out with a shout of triumph and run to the promontory of Sciradium to inform those who were attacking by land. bringing. 3-x. 557 f.

6 Be ev Me\iTy real ^rf/Jbov eTTcovvfjLOv <&i\aiov TWV <&i\alBwv e^ovcriv. fJLiav e/caffTov KQiyvaitov %iv 0i]/cr)v. Be Me- TT/JO? ea> cnpefyov'res. TOU? ve/cpovs KCLL Od-movcri. en Be /aaXXoz> e%\6<-/ai TOU9 veicpwv &)? . *A. TT/OO? rov TroXe/ioz^ aXXoi re paprvpovcri TlvOiovi/cwv /cal a 428 . Meyapeonv Be KOL Tpei? KOI recrcrapas ev 4 [Jiia KeicrOai. ev ol? o 'laoviav rrjv rrjv ^a\afuva Trpocrrjyopevo'e.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Boo~av rrjv vr)o~ov avrols. XI. Trepl ov% ov Tpoirov cKelvou OaTrrovcn aXX* ov avToL.0ri6 valoi Be 7T/905 Meyapevs Meyapeis 77/309 e&Trepav ra croo^ara TWV ve/cpcov TiOevai' KOI ecrTTepav.ippaov<: vfipi^ovras TO aXXa Trpocra/jLvveiv vTrep o-Oevres yap vlf exeivov (rav 01 *Afj.(f)iKTvove$. TW /u. real Karw/crjcrav 6 fiei ev TSpavpwvi TT)? 'Am/cr.?. ravrrjv Bitcrjv eBiKaaav ^Trapriarwv Trevre a Xa?. &)? ev ry TWV rov Oeov AeX^ot?. eOavfitiffdrj Be TOVTCOV evBoj. 3 60ev rjv TleKTicrTparos.o$ KOI Bie- (Bor)6ri fjLa\\ov ev rot? "R\\r)(Tiv eljrwv VTrep TOV lepov TOV ev AeX^ot?.evTOi %6\a)vi /cal TIVOLS /3oii0t]crai \eyova-t %pr)cr/jiovs. co? %pr} (BorjOelv /cal et? firj Trepiopav K. 'Hpea? Be \eyei ^ GTL rovrou. Me7ayoea? j3ov\6/jivov lo-^vpicraadat. r)v "klBr) /jLV ovv teal CLTTO o ^6\a)v Koi /jieyas.

and not suffer the people of Cirrha to outrage the oracle. they say that Solon was further supported by sundry Pythian oracles. XI. Hereas the Megarian facing the west. whereas the Megarians (like the early inhabitants of Salamis) place three or four bodies in one tomb. VOL. Amompharetus. among others. 1 The twelve peoples who had as common sanctuaries the temple of Apollo at Delphi and the temple of Demeter at Anthela. them. They say.SOLON. wishing to refute the claims of the Megarians still further. too. to x. But he was even more admired and celebrated among the Greeks for what he said in behalf of the temple at Delphi. Hypsechidas. made the point that the dead on the island of Salamis were not buried after the Megarian. and says that the Megarians also turn the faces of their dead to the west. and Cleomenes. but the Athenians However. However. For the Megarians bury their dead facing the east. and took up their residence in Attica. a township to which after Philaeus. in which the god spoke of Salamis as Ionian. And what is still more important than this. but after the Athenian fashion. as Aristotle. near Thermopylae. that the Greeks must come to its relief. he says that the Athenians use one tomb for each body. Peisistratus belonged. but aid the Delphians in maintaining the honour of the god. in his list of the victors at the Pythian games. testifies. that named Solon. For it was by his persuasion that the Amphictyons l undertook the war. These events. one and the other at M elite and they have . then. namely Philaidae. presently made Solon famous and powerful. This case was decided by five Spartans. denies this. namely. Critolaidas. i at Brauron. P 429 . Anaxilas. i. 2-xi.

&)9 84 TOVTOV \eyeiv jap 6 piJTCop TOUT' eiprj/cev.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Trjv yva}/jLr]v 7Ti dvaTideis.LO'Ta aK/^rjv \a^jBij j3ov<Tr)<.ievovs 43 .a T0t9 dpio~TOi$ TWV 'KOrivalwv. teal del ev Be BieTeXovv rrpos Toi>9 drro TOV TO) TOTE %pov(p Tr}9 (TTaaew^ fjidX. els fiecrov Bo^av e%(i)V 6 ^6\cov Trapjj\dev a/j. ev re ou XII. OL crffrdyrjcrav' /JLOVOI S' d etc ol Ta9 yvvai- 2 :a9 CLVTMV iKeTevcravTes. KOI TOV Btj/jiov Bia&TavTos. TOVTOV Be K rrepi- evayeis epiaovvTO' KOI T&V }Lv\wvela)V ol yevofievoi ird\LV rjcrav Icr^vpoi. fcal Beofjievo? BL real BiBdcrKcov eTreicre TOU9 eVa^ci? \eyoj. ov pevToi o~TpaTO^ TTO\efjiOV. To Se ^709 ov TOU9 Oeov eV TTO\\OV TOV 6 iK6TevovTas Trjv TOI KOI irepl 6ea<s av\6 KOI ol l/cedLav /ca 79 Oeov /cctTe\v<jav.

on the plea that the goddess refused them the rights of Those who were outside of sacred presuppliants. ever since Megacles the archon had persuaded Cylon and his fellow-conspirators.O. About G36B. Therefore the archons were called polluted men and were held in execration. interposed between them. . 71 109. who had taken sanctuary in the temple of Athena. and those who took refuge at the altars were slaughtered there only those were spared who made supplication to the wives of the archons. 1 and in the records of Delphi it is stated that Alcmaeon. Solon. appointed general for this war. not. cincts were stoned to death. i. 431 . v. upon which Megacles and his felloAV-archons rushed to seize them. therefore. Now the Cylonian pollution had for a long time agitated the city. along with the noblest of the Athenians. Herod. for Aeschines the orator makes no such statement. 126. to come down and stand their trial. At this particular time the quarrel was at its height and the people divided between the two factions.SOLON. but when they reached the shrine of the Erinyes on their way down. and not Solon. and by his entreaties and injunctions persuaded the men who were held to be polluted to submit to a trial. the thread broke of its own accord. The survivors of the followers of Cylon also recovered strength. XII. . being now in high repute. He was however. as Evanthes the Samian says (according to Hermippus). 2 where he ascribes the measure to Solon. and to 1 8 In his speech Against Ctesiphon. Time. 2 They fastened a braided thread to the image of the goddess and kept hold of it. commanded the Athenians. Of. XL 2-xn. and were forever at variance with the descendants of Megacles.

piQrp)ai rpiaKocriwv Be rov apia-rivorjv 3 SiKa^ovrcov. MU/JCOI/O? ol povvros ' edXcoaav OXueco? Karrjyoavbpes. /cal 5 SoTrotT/crez/ avro) jap evarara eTToiiycre Trpaorepovs. Overlap ra? lepovpyia^ /cal rivas evOvs Trepl i>a/ua? ra /cijorj.a)v Sia rwv iep&v rjyopevov. &io /cal /cal KouOra TralSa vvp.PLUTARCH'S LIVES vrcoa-%elv /cal K. rjicev e/c Ovra) Srj fjierdTrejATrros avrols o $at(7Tto?. rov /cal rt? elvai Trepl ra 6eia evOovaLacrriK^v Kal re- \ecrriKrjv Gofylav. /cal (fcofioi rives e/e Kal re fjidvreis (pdcr/jLara Karel^e rrjv 7ro\iv. Kal nerecrrrja-av ol ve/cpovs CLVQ- TWV 8' aTToOavbvTcov TOL/? vTrep TOU? o/aou?. rat? re Ntcrata^ oi 'AOtjvaloi /cal lE av0i$. oi a<yrj teal i /uacr /lov? Seo/ie^of? /ca0ap/j. ov e/SSo/AOV ev rot? GVLOL eSo/cei (T0(f)bs rwv ov Se rrjv iroa'ieievwv 0eo(pi\r]<. iXacr/xot? TKJI Kal Kad- Kal ISpvaeai Karopyiduas /cal Ka6o<Jia>- 433 . fjLGvos <f)[\a) e\6u>v ^e Kal T&5 /cal TroXXa TrpoavjTeipjdaaro TT}? vo/jioOecrias. PIKOV c5 Kal TO (TKXtjpbv dfyeXwv Kal rb ftapftaffwefyowro Trporepov at 7r\elcrrai <yvrb be /jLeyiarov.^)^ veov avrov ol rore ovopa Trpocnyyopevov.

assisted him in many ways. Const. 5. and were driven out of Salamis once more. Under these circumstances they summoned to their aid from Crete Epimenides of Phaestus. Aristotle. and the seers declared that their sacrifices indicated pollutions and defilements which demanded expiation. who took their name from the demi-gods to whose care Rhea was said 2 to have committed the infant Zeus. and paved the way for his legislation. of Athens. attaching certain sacrifices immediately to their funeral ceremonies. The Curetes were Cretan priests of Idaean Zeus. 2 On coming to Athens he made Solon his friend.SOLON. During these disturbances the Megarians also attacked the Athenians. he hallowed and conse1 See note on iii. For he made the Athenians decorous and careful in their religious services. and the family of Megacles was found Those who were alive were banished. by guilty. The city was also visited with superstitious fears and strange appearances. i. and by sacred foundations. and cf. by sundry rites of propitiation and purification. and called him a new Cures. said that he was the son of a nymph named Balte. and milder in their rites of mourning. xn. Myron of Phlya conducted the prosecution. who lost Nisaea. 433 . who is reckoned as the seventh Wise Man by some of those who refuse Periander a place in the list. 1 He was reputed to be a man beloved of the gods. and the bodies of the dead were dug up and cast forth beyond the borders of the country. 2-5 abide by the decision of three hundred jurors selected from the nobility. Most important of all. and endowed with a mystical and heaven-sent wisdom in Therefore the men of his time religious matters. and by taking away the harsh and barbaric practices in which their women had usually indulged up to that time.

eaov TIVO.9 . TTJV Tra\aiav avOis GTLLGIV vTrep 7roXiTeta9 el^ev. enre'iv rrpos TOU9 rrapovTas 009 TV<^\OV TOV /^eXXo^To? avOpwjros' K(f)a<yeiv yap av AOyvaiovs Tot9 avTWv oSovGiv. Trjv 7r6\iv dvidcrei el TrpoySeaav ocra O/AOIOV Se TL /cal a\f)v el/cdaat. Trpoenrwv a>9 dyopd TTOTE TOVTO MiXrjaifdv ecrrat TO ^wpiov.iy/jLevov alpov/Jievoi 7roXtTeta9 Tporrov. ocra9 ?? Y<P 85 ToaavTa peprj T7/9 7roXea>9 ^z/ yap TO yu. o\i<yap'YLK(t)TaTov I /v i ' Tot 8' ol Tldpa\oi p. yap avTOV ev TLVL TOTTCO Tr}9 M^Xr/crta9 (f)av\(o /cal Trapopco/^evfo TO %wpiov TeXevT^cravTa Oelvai. 'E7Tiyu. TT}? \ /) / KuXwz/etou Treiravrf >/ fjievT)? Tapa^rj^ /cat.ovotav XeyeTcu 8e Movvv%[av IScbv /cal /cara/jiaOajv TTO\VV 6 eaTt.aia^ wcnrep TravTaTracnv eTricr(f)a\ws r\ 770X^9 Aral JAOVWS av ebo/cei tcaTaGTi]i>ai ical 434 . /cal ^ptj/jiaTa 6V SOVTWV TroXXa ovSev real ?. TWV evaywv. \eyovo~t. WGTrep eipijTai. Ot / 'AOrjvaloi. e/JL7roBa)v rjaav /cal 2 lK(t)\VOV TOL9 6Te3Of9 KaTlcrai.ei^ TCOV Aia/cpucov yevos Stj/JLO/cpaTifcct)Se TO TWV HeSiewv' TOLTaTov.' /ceXevcrat. S' XIII. et9 crTao~Laov. /cal fJL/j. T0i9 Trovo'Lov^ avwfj.ewS^9 /new ovv fJid\i<TTa Oav/JLacrdeis. TOT6 7T/3O9 a/Soucr7. /cal TL/JLCL^ /Jieyd\a<$ TO)V r?}9 0a\Xoi> drrb iepas eXata? ati \a/3cov drr^Xdev. fcal /jiaXXov rrpos o/j. /jLeuecrTCDTcov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES <ra9 TIJV TCO\LV vTrrjKOOv evTreiur) TIJV TOV Bi/cauov /caTecrTTjcre. %povov.

the disparity between the rich and the poor had culminated. but also Athens itself. It is justice and more easily inclined 1 and consaid that when he had seen Munychia sidered it for some time. 3 which preferred an intermediate and mixed form of government.. xiii. . and prevented At that time. as it were. 4. was opposed to the other two. he remarked to the by- standers that man was indeed blind to the future for if the Athenians only knew what mischiefs the . XIII. relapsed into their old disputes about the form of government. Epimenides was vastly admired by the Athenians. 5-xin. would devour place would bring upon their city.SOLON. gave directions for his burial in an obscure and neglected quarter of the city's territory. 3 Cf. a Chapter xii. too. now that the Cylonian disturbance was over and the polluted persons ban. 2 ished. garrisoned by conquerors of Athens. democracy the Plain-men an extreme oligarchy the Shore-men formed a third party. and brought to be observant of to unanimity. as described. 3. But the Athenians. Const. strategically commanding not only that peninsula. either from gaining the ascendancy. A Well then. It was often . of Athens. with which he returned home. xii. . the city being divided into as many parties as there were diversities in its The Hill-men favoured an extreme territory. and the city was in an altogether perilous condition it seemed as if the only 1 The acropolis of the Peiraeus. they similar insight into their own teeth. it with They say that he futurity is ascribed to Thales. Aristotle. 2 it crated the city. 435 . predicting that it would one day be the market-place of Miletus. who offered him much money and large but he asked for nothing more than a honours branch of the sacred olive-tree.

aAA eXo/ze^ou? eva avSpa TTiarov d(>e\ea'0ai rou9 vjrepKal rrjv yrjv dva^dcraaOai Kal 0X0)9 *.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Travcrao-0ai raparro/J.? owra. ol S' eVl TTJV %evr}v 3 7ro\\ol ^e Kal TratSa? t'Stoi. rot9 /^ev drrbpois rrjv 2 aXX' avrbs 6 SoXa>z> OKVWV /ecu <f)r}o~t.? rjvayfcd^ovro rot? .evrj areas [lev rj yap 6 Brj/jLOS i]V vrro^pews rwv rr\ovjap eyeaypyovv efceivoi? Kra rwv yie/crrj/nopioi Trpoaayopevopevoi ejrl Kal Orfres. SeSoiKcos rwv jaev rrjv (friXoxpyfjuariav.rj irepiopav. TO rrpwrov a aQai T^9 7roXfcT6ta9. rwv $6 rrjv VTreprjcfraviav. a>9 Se ap'xwv /merd <&i\6/A/3porov O/JLOV Kal Kal vo/jLoOerqs. dya>yi/jiOi r) xpea \ajJb^dvovT^ l rot9 crco/jiao'iv &aveitova'iv rjGav.ovs fj. ol fiev avrov 8ov\vovre<. eSeovro rot? KOIVOIS 7rpocr\Qelv Kal KaraTravcrai ra? Sia<popd<$.eva)V TrpoOv^w^ avrov 43 6 . Trjv TroXireiav. KaiToi <$>avias 6 Aecr/5to? avrov laropec rov ^oXwva. Sea/j. 'E^raO^a Brj TWV A0rjvaio)V 9 ol <j)povi/jL(*)- raroi avvopwvTes rov %6\(0va HQVOV yuaXtcrra TWV ero? Koivwvovvra TT. XIV. Ka fMjre rot? iKias yLtre rat? TU>V dvdyKais eve^ofJievov. (ouSel? SLCL rrjv yap ro/xo? e/ccoXue) Kal rrji> iro\iv ol Be TT\Lff ^aXeTror^Ta rwv SaveKrrwv. GTOI Kal pa>f^a\6(t)raroL crvvio-TavTO Kal irapeKaV / >-\^/-\ >-N-\'f-\ \ovv a\\r)\. ^prjadfievov drrdrrj 77/009 d/uuporepovs eVl a^wr^pLa rijs 7roXew9.

2 its disorders and stop turmoils was All the common people were to establish a tyranny. that he was neither associated with the rich in their injustice. or else they pledged their persons for debts and could be by their creditors. And yet Phanias the Lesbian writes that Solon of his own accord played a trick upon both parties in order to save the city.X1V. and make an entire change in the form of government. For they either tilled their lands for them. 594 437 . were forced to sell their own children (for there was no law against it). too. and others being sold into foreign countries. paying them a sixth of the increase (whence they were called Hectemorioi and Thetes). a the B. nor involved in the necessities of the poor. some becoming slaves at home. But Solon himself says that he entered choose a trusty condemned and the other mediator 1 and fearing one party's greed 1 However. the wisest of the Athenians cast their eyes upon Solon. because of the cruelty of the money-lenders. he was party's arrogance. They therefore besought him to come forward publicly and put an end to the prevailing dissensions. and to the rich. and secretly promised to the poor the distribution of land which they desired. At this point. set free the debtors. 2-. and made public life reluctantly.SOLON.C. validation of their securities. but to seized man as their leader. 3. Many. XIV. Aristotle. They saw that he was the one man least implicated in the errors of the time . or go into exile. 2 chosen archon to succeed Philombrotus. y. ' and legislator for the crisis. in debt to the rich. Const. divide the land anew. way to settle its xni. But the most and sturdiest of them began to band together and exhort one another not to submit to their wrongs. of Athens. rich Cf.

KO. \eyeTai Be teal (focovrj Ti? aurov TWV rrpoTepov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES evTropov TWV 7r\ovcrlci)v. TWV $e e%iv 7rpocr$OK(t)VTc0v /Aerpcd teal oOev ol eV eKaTepwv TrpocrerceivTo yevo/jievcov 7rpoi(TTd/j.voi TW ^6\a)vi TvpavviSa evToX/xorepov KOI avcLTreiOovTes TTO\\OL Be KCU TToXeo)? eyKparfj <yevo^evov. evict. &>? Be xpijcrrbv TWV. Sia fjLecrov Tro\iTwv.\OV /*ev Given rrjv TT/JO? TVpavviBa Be ^ ev OVK e^eiv Be a~no^a<Jivt 438 QWKOV . TovTtov ovBev e^e/cpovae TOV %6\wva TT}? avTov 7rpoaLpe(Teo)<f.aTiKois apecrK6ii> KOL rot? a/crrj/jiocri. KOI yeyevrjfjievrjv rrpoTepov JJLCV ^Lvftoevai TvvvcovBav. TTJV VTTO \6jov teal jiie'raftoXrjv 4 opwvres epywSij KOI %a\67rr)v ovaav. vvv Be MiTv\rivaiois HiTTa/cbv yptj/jLevois TTJV /JLOvap^iav. eirrovTos 009 TO laov TroXe/nov ov rroiei. OVK etyevyov eva TOV SIKCLIOTCITOV KOL <j)poi'ifAti)TaTOV emaTijcrai Tot? Trpdyfiacriv. Be (fraai KOI /jLavTeiav yeveadat TCO %6\wvi Tlvdoi Toiav9 Hero /JLCCTIJV i /caTa vr\a Kv/Sepvrjrijpiov epyov evOvvcov jTO\\oi TOI *K6r]vaiwv eTri/covpoi. Be ol GvvrjQeis e/cdfci^ov el Bia \a/36vTO<$ wcnrep OVK dpeTrj TOV yevofievrjv. evOvs av fiacriXeiav Tvpavvov. 3 TO i'<rov pew a^ia KOI apery. &>? \eyeTai. d\\a TT/JO? fiev TOU? ^>tXou? elrrev. Tot? KTr)fj.

and so had the Mitylenaeans. Furthermore. above all. And in his poems he writes And to Phocus: 439 . . the pilot's task is thine Perform it many in Athens are thine allies. that a tyranny was a lovely place. too. but there was no way down from it. 2-5 accepting him readily because be was well-to-do. tlie poor because be was honest. Euboea (they argued) had formerly found this true of Tynnondas. who belonged to neither party. were not reluctant to have one man. the justest and wisest of all. None of these things shook Solon from his resolution. and xiv. to the effect that equality bred no war. now that they had chosen Pittacus to be their tyrant. pleased both the men of substance and those who had none the former expecting to have equality based on worth and excellence. To his friends he said. seeing that it would be a laborious and difficult matter to effect a change by means of argument and law. put at the head of the state. as if the virtues of him who seized it would not at once make it a lawful sovereignty.SOLON. Therefore both parties were . It is also said that a certain utterance of his which was current before his election. as we are told. and tried to persuade him to seize the city all the more confidently now that he had it completely in his power. and their chief men persistently recommended a tyranny to Solon. in high hopes." . Many citizens. his familiar friends chid him for being averse to absolute power because of the name of tyranny. the latter on measure and count. some say that Solon got an oracle at Pytho which ran as follows : " Take thy seat amidships.

PLUTARCH'S LIVES Et Be . (Solon) would have been willing . himself). a Be (f)vy6i>ro<> avrov TI-JV Tvpav- OVK <pv 2<6\cdv /3a@v(j)pct)V ov$e fiovXrfeis avrjp' (70\a yap 06ov SiSoz/TO? avros OVK e&e^aro.r]v fii 86 rvpavviSos $e teal ov Ka6't\rdMV midvas KOI ovo'ev alSev/JLai" 7r\eov yap wBe vircrjcreiv oOev evSvjXov ort 6 \TJV teal irpo TT)? v B6av el^ev. rou? TroXXoi^ Kal cf)av\ov<i XV. avr6s 440 . with the better MSS. : fffleAey.vwv (he e Bergk. 7779 ((f)*ia-iv) e<j)i(T(ifj. Qvfjiov d/maprfj Kal <f>pevcov airo- yap Kal Tvpavvevcras 'AOrjvwv JJLOVVOV rj/jLepav i^'iav. Tavra avrov irepl ov /JLTJV aTrwadfjievo^ \eyovras. ovSe /ta/Va/ea)? ouS' vTreiKwv TO?? TreTroiTjKe ovSe Trpbs rjbovrjv rwv e\op. 7repi(3a\(iov S' aypav dyaaOels OVK eTrecnraaev y SLKTVOV. rov ye TTJV rvpavviSa Trpaorarov e^prjcraTo rpoTrov Trpdy/jiaaiv. daKos l vGTGpov SeSdpQai KaTTiTerpl^Oai yevos.

SOLON. However. he has written as follows . From this it is clear that even before his legislation he was in high repute. nor in the enactment of his laws did he show a feeble spirit. 441 . to have a pouch flayed from me. and boundless wealth. and he says." my XV. though he rejected the tyranny. Thus he represents the multitude and men of low degree as speaking of him. I and because he was bereft of had certainly been And Then willing. his net was full of fish. 2 Fragment 33 (Bergk)." My native land. nor make concessions to the powerful. he would not pull it in. polluting and disgracing my failfame. and 2 lineage blotted out. I'm not ashamed in this way rather shall my name be set above That of all other men. for the power.. of his own he refused. i And if. And as for the ridicule which many heaped upon him for refusing the tyranny. nor consult the pleasure 1 Fragment 32 (Bergk). 5~xv. " xiv. unto tyranny and violence implacable set hand." l Did not . amazed. " Solon was a shallow thinker and a void . " I spared my land. to be tyrant over Athens no more than a single day. man of counsel When the will When gods would give him blessings. sense. he did not administer affairs in the mildest possible manner. All for lack of spirit.

cro(f)icr/j.a &e TO Sea-jUQJTrjpiov rjv.62 craaQai Tfyoo? TO apL&TOV a Se real Xeycov ij 7rido/j. TOVTO <ydp [JLV 4 7roirjcraro irpw-rov TroXtVetyza. TOU? Se (f>6povs arvvrd^eL^. OVK dTro/coTrf) d\\d TOKCOV /j.evois KOL Trpocrdycov dvdyKrjv v %prjcraa'0ai. w? re teal i vcnepov vofjiovs epayrrjdels " r TOU? dpl<novs lv aV. r ? Ti^f]v. OVK eTrrj larpeiav ou$e KaivoTo^iav. chapter t $(-t\v re 442 .a rrjv eiad^OeLav ovop. of Athens. Kal rapd^as TTJV TTO\IV a yevrjrai TOV Karao-ryjcraL Trd\iv teal crvvap/j. 4. where we have Kpdrn v6^ov I Fragment 36. 7r/3o? 8e TO 7rl Tot>> CTtojAacri fjLTj^Gva $avei^LV.d(TavTos. <po/ TravraTracrt.a TOVTW rwv TG /jLerpwv errav^cnv Kal TOV vopi. ypdifras TO.Tpi6T7]Ti Kovfyi&O evTas dyairrjcrai TOU? nkvr)'ra<$. 1 e/carbv yap eiroirjcre ^pa^fjiwv TIJV fragment now xii. TOL/9 3 ovv OL veu>Tepoi TOU? 'A^>.yatou? \ejovcrL ra? ra)v TT pay/JLUT wi> Kal <f)i\. " <J)TJ. \otTTov j^peS)v dvelcr9ai. /cal a-eLcrd-)(6eiav ovopdvai TO (f)i\av0pa)7TVjjLa TOVTO /cal rrjv d/j. rd? fjiev tropvas erat/oa?.avdpd)7rois 7riKa\v7rTovTas dareicos VTTOKopi^eadat. verse 14 (Bergk) ." " eypatyev. (frvka/cds Se ra? <ppovpds OLKT)/j. vTrdp^ovia T&V . ravr* 7rparrev. verse 16 of the longer found in Aristotle's Count. co? eoi/ce.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TOU? vopovs' aXX' fj fjiev apia"rov r)V. KCILTOI '' ey patyav &v earlv Kv&poTitov.

"The best they would Now later writers observe that the ancient Athenians used to cover up the ugliness of things with auspicious and kindly terms. to establish "Combining both as he says himself." But Solon was the first. Nay. fearing lest." the " garrison of a city its guard. Const. after utterly confusing and confounding the city. affirm that the poor were relieved not by a cancelling of debts.' if Therefore when he was afterhe had enacted the best laws for the Athenians. weak best. and to the augmentation of measures and the pur1 For chasing power of money which accompanied it." taxes " contributions. when he called his cancelling o of debts a " disburdenment. he replied. and introduced no innovation. but by a reduction of the interest upon them. force and justice together." and the prison a " chamber. and showed their satisfaction by giving the name of " disburdenment" to this act of humanity." wards asked receive. 1-4 of his electors. and that in future no one should lend money on the person of a borrower. 1. harlots "companions." For the first of his public measures was an enactment that existing debts should be remitted. he applied no remedy. of Athens. these he did. he should be too it again and recompose it for the But those things wherein he hoped to find them open to persuasion or submissive to compulsion.SOLON. to use this device. giving them Thus they called polite and endearing names. 1 See Aristotle. however. where a condition was as good it could well be. Some writers. with Sandys' note. as xv. x. 443 . and Androtion is one of them. it would seem.

on >yrjv Kovwva real K. 7T\LaroL Trdwrwv ofjiov (fracri T&V <iv[ji(3o\ai(dv dpl@/jLW fieV dvaipeaiv yeveeOaL TIJV creicrd^deiav. ol 8e fjLTjBev &e /BXaTrreadat TOW? KO/ju^o/jLevovs. /cal Tpiwv ovcrav. w^ekelaOat.cos dp%ijv.vvi>6Tai yap ev TOVTOIS on TT}? re 7rpov7roKi/jLevt-)s 77? TrpocrOev Be teal BouXevovaa. fjLev TOL? IKTIVOVTCLS /jLeydka. nev dvtffya<yev djro . vvv e\ev6epa' TT/JO? TWV djcoji^ayv TOI)? dpyvpiov yeyovoTwv TTO\I<. /cal TOVTOLS fJLa\\ov ra Troiij/jLara. xpewv ol Be 7r/3oXa/3o^re? Be TTOICLV dTTo/coTrds eyvco/cev.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TrpoTepov OHTT eftSojjLrj/covra ICTOV. 6' Updy/jia avrw crv^Treaeiv aTTO TT}? 7rpdt.evr)<>. TTUVTCOV co? <ydp dvievai rd xpea KOI \6yovs a /cal TrpeTTOvaav /jLaicrra TO?? irepl eKoivocxraro /ca TWV <pi\a)v o<$ incrTevwv ervyxave. co? av TroXXa^T} 7r\avw /i-eVou?* deircea TOU9 S* ev9d& avTov BovXiiv \v0epov$ 6 $770-1 TToifjcrai. 'ITTTTOVIKOV. %e/u. \eyeTai. 87 evQvs /cal (f)@daavTe<i eBaveLcravTO av^vov dpyvpwv 444 . 5 Bwd/jLl &' eXcLTTOV UTTOBiB6vTo>v. etceivT)?.\eiwav /cal ^ev ov /xeXXet KIVZIV.

but money of a lesser value. verses 11-14 in 36. with adaptation from verses 6 f. Earth was in bondage. This undertaking is said to have involved him in For when the most vexatious experience of his life. They immediately took advantage of this confidence and anticipated 1 Fragment first 36." 1 And for debt. now she is free. " uttering no longer Attic speech. 4-6 he made the mina to consist of a hundred drachmas. of the citizens whose persons had been seized some he brought back from foreign lands. and was trying to find fitting arguments and a suitable occasion for the step. so that by paying the same amount of money. but had determined to cancel debts. Conon.SOLON xv. those who had debts to discharge were greatly benefited. the 2 person Fragment f. verses 9-12 (Bergk) . the mortgaged lands " He took away the record-stones that everywhere . Cleinias. and Hipponicus. he told some of his most trusted and intimate friends. and those who accepted But most writers such payments were no losers. 445 . " disburdenment " was a removal of agree that the all debt. (Bergk). that he was not going to meddle with the land. in Aristotle's citation. So long and far their wretched wanderings And some who here at home in shameful servitude " Were held 2 . namely. Aristotle. he says he set free. he had set out to abolish debts. verses 4 . which before had contained only seventy-three. and with such the poems of Solon are more For in these he proudly boasts that from in accord. were planted Before.

a\\a d\\a rovro e/eXa roi? irevre roaavra >yap evpeQrj Bavei^cov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 7 %a>/?a?. Trapd TUV rrXovaicov KOI yiieyaXa? elra TOV SOJ/JLCITOS e^eve^OevTo^ KapTTovfievoi. oyLtaXou? T0i9 fiiois KOI Tcrou? wz^ /care- aXX* eicelvos IJLGV e^^e/caro? GTTJ /cal \VKu>s AaK$ai/j. avva&itcovvTa. ol? d^lwjjLCL /j. Se et? i'ara oli'iav rot? Savei- OVK dTToBtBovTe^. /cal ravra Kara TOV vo^ov. OTI 7779 dvao~acr[jLov OVK G eXTTLcracrLV aurot?. evioi \eyovcriv. TO.'r)v /cal &La(3o\r)V y wcrirep ov KarecrTTja-av. KOI teal 6Ti rot/? Tre^T/ra?.iov et? e/CKOTrr/vai. TO TOV /jieyaX. aXX* eX-vrrrjae Trkovcriovs ave\u>v ra crv/jL/36\aia.eya TroXXa ^)tXou? TroXtreta? rj 7^0) el^e. wv teal IIoAu^A-o? o 'PoS^o? d(f)f)K <j)L\ov$ XVI. GCLCTLV TO. /caXw? /cat Trepl TT}? /Sta fjia\\ov TreuOol /cal TOV 6(p@a\/.ovos. e iiTrap^ovar)^ Buvd/j. waTrep 6 Av/covpyos.ea)<i ov&ev 446 .8e rrXovcriov elvai ToXlTMV ^6\WV f) ^6 TOVTOU OVK 6(j)iKTO TToXireta Bij/jsOTiKos cov Kal TT)? /LieVo9. TO fieyicrTOv t awrr^piav fjLV 6/jLovoiav. fjLrjSeva rrevTjTa ya?. ouSe TravTaTracnv. "H/3cr 8* ouSere^oi?.

He also employed force rather than persuasion. in descent from Heracles. xv. and the poor still more. This brought Solon into great condemnation and odium. insomuch that he actually lost his eye thereby. but were a party to the im1 However. on the contrary. as Lycurgus did. rich . 6-xvi. but refused to pay the moneys due their creditors. Some say that the sum was fifteen talents.SOLON. Cf. as they had expected. many friends. and power to support his reforms in the commonwealth. 2 and most effectually guaranteed the safety and unanimity of the city by making all its citizens neither poor nor rich. 8 Cf. and he was the first to remit this debt in accordance with his law. Solon. however the were vexed because he took away their securities for debt. nor make all men equal and alike in their way of But Lycurgus was eleventh living. Aristotle. they enjoyed the use of their properties. vi. this charge was at once dissipated by his well-known sacrifice of five talents. because he did not re-distribute the land. xL 1 447 . and among them is Polyzelus the Rhodian. Lycuryua. He therefore had great authority. But his friends were ever after called " or debtposition. since he was a man of the people and of modest station yet he in no wise . chreocopidae. as if he had not been imposed upon with the rest. XVI. and had been king in Lacedaemon for many years." cutters. He pleased neither party. 2 Solon's decree by borrowing large sums from the wealthy and buying up great estates. of Athens. when the decree was published. Const. For it was found that he had lent so much. could not secure this feature in his commonwealth. Then.

>' II edvcrdv re GTr)pia. Bid ryv 7r\r>v /cat TO jieeos TWV o\iyov Belv aTracnv wpio-ro TOi9 d in Aristotle rydp 1 So the verses are now more correctly found (Const./jiol<. Trpoaro'oKijo-aa'iv. xii. /3ofXa9. vvv e ov fcairot. (pycrlv el Ti? aXXo? ecr^e T OVK av 3 fcarea^e STJ/JLOV. of Athens. auro? el'prjice a>9 JJL6V TOT' etypdcravro. Sandys). 5. UpWTOV fJLV OVV TOU9 Apd/COVTOS VOfAOVS rwv cfrovifccov aTravras.PLUTARCH'S LIVES w TOU9 7roXiTa9. Trdvra S' Koivfj. ex fjiovov rov /3ov\cr0ai KOI OTL 8' ovv irpocreK paver e erepa . ov rd yueV. Ka9ecrru)rwv o TI dveiXe XVII. ft>9. rd ov%i. /cal rov %6\cova rr><. ala-06/Jievoi real T9 i&ias avrcov ^ifJi^ret^ dfyevres aeiad^Oeiav TTJV Ovaiav bvo/Jida'avTes. ouS' Tapu /jievroL rov crv/ji(f>epovTO<. tcdi \vovra <$v- \drrovra rwv VTrap^ovrcDV BoKoirj. 6(f)Qa\. /cal Kal ri/^r/i^a rovrcov efcdarov Aral KOI dpiOfJiOV Kcupov opicrai. Trdvres ware Bijiov. opcoa-t. 448 . 7ro\ireia<f Siopdcorvv Kal VOLLOderrjv aTreSei^av.

nor made an end Until he had confounded all. 1. fix the property qualification for each of these. i acted short of his real power. or Disburdenment.SOLON. 2-xvir. of Athena. transgressions. All look askance at me. of a fragment of nine verses cited by Aristotle (Const. he says. op. 2 because they were too severe and their penalties too For one penalty was assigned to almost all heavy. 449 ." 1 And yet had any other man. which they called Seisactheia. and councils. xvi. 2 Cf. who expected different results. 3).' Soon. cit. and skimmed the cream. He was to assemblies. courts-of-law. XVII. as if I were their foe. he repealed the laws of Draco. they perceived the advantages of his measure. but now. now verses 4 f. but into his hands. laying no restrictions whatever upon him. They also appointed Solon to reform the constitution and make new laws. In the first place. however. relying as he did only on the wishes of the citizens and their confidence in him. incensed. vii. and offered a public sacrifice. magistracies. " He had not held the people down. all except those concerning homicide. acquired the same power. ceased from their private fault-finding. xii. Nevertheless he gave offence to the greater part of them. Aristotle. namely death. their numbers. as he himself says of them in the lines : "Then they had extravagant thoughts of me. so that even those 1 Fragment 34 (Bergk) . then. abrogating and putting everything maintaining existing institutions at his pleasure. and their times of meeting.

Se %6~\. teal aXXa TW avi> $i/cd%iv IJLOVOV yu-ei^ /jLerel^ov TT}? TroXtre/a?. o/^oto)? /cat etceivwv et? TO 450 . ot? fjierpov TJV avva/JL^OTepaiV SiaKoa-icov. ov VO/JLOVS 6 (fiacriv.a)v ra? o axnrep rjaav. apyias /cXeA/razrni? rj real rovs \dyava oyiiot'a)? K0\d. Bio vcrTepov aev rovs ft>9 eljrcbv ort aT/xaTo?. o /ear' ap^a? ' ovSev. TrfV 8' a\\r)v filial iroKiTeiav. S* ol rourou? iTnrdSa reXou^ra? eVarov rpirov Ttyurf/xaTO? wvo- ^daOiia'av.PLUTARCH'S LIVES WCTTC KOI TOU? .? Si iepoavKois Si S' e /cal 2 dv&po<j)6voi<$. vcrrepov Se TO. eXa/3e ra rtyUTf/iara rco /cat rot? TOL? yLtei^ eV %ripol<s OJJLOV KOI TrevraKocria. 7 6Va rat? Trept /cpiveiv. kpatcwv eypatyev. ot? ap%eiv cScoKev dp%r)V. iroiovvra^ TTyocorou? era^e /cal ii/JLvovs 7rpocnj<y6pev(T' Sevrepovs Be 88 TOU? 'LTTTTOU rpe<f)6iv teal Svvajbievovs rj fjuerpa iroielv 2 TptaKoaia' \ovv ^evyirai. 3ia rt atro9 rot? epcoTco/xe^o? era% OVK Odvarov. 'yap TrXetcrra rwi' Sia(f)6pa)V /cat TOU? St/cacrra?.e<r0ai rot? A^yttaS?. Aevrepov avracra?. ^9 ov /jLereL^ev. euvropot? /3ov\6/jLevo<>. ol Se \onrol iravres fca\ovvTo OfjTes. direKpivaTO TO. XVIII.

Aristotle. asked why he made death the penalty for most offences. XVIII. In the second place. even in cases which Solon assigned to the magistrates assembly and as jurors. 1 Cf. they say. and called them Pentakosiomedimnoi . were All the rest were called Thetes called Zeugitai. the second class was composed of those who were able to keep a horse. 2 convicted of idleness were put to death. he placed in the first class. whose yearly increase amounted to two hundred measures (wet and dry together). of which they had hitherto been deprived. and those who stole salad or fruit received the same punishment as those who committed sacrilege or murder. And Draco himself. and for the greater ones no heavier penalty could be found. since most disputes For finally came into the hands of these jurors. 3f. xvn. i-xvui. replied that in his opinion the lesser ones deserved it.SOLON. vii. and they were called Hippada Telountes. wishing to leave all the magistracies in the hands of the well-to-do. Const. they were not allowed to hold any office. 1 Those who enjoyed a yearly increase of Jive hundred measures (wet and dry). but took part in the administration only as . of Athens. Therefore Demades. Solon made an appraisement of the property of the citizens. members of the This last privilege seemed at first of 110 moment. but to give the common people a share in the rest of the government. made a hit when he said that Draco's laws were written not with ink. but afterwards proved to be of the very highest importance. as they were. the members of the third class. since they paid a Knight's tax . or had a yearly increase of three hundred measures. being but blood. in later times. 451 .

opO&s edi&vros TOV ez^o? J^epr] TOU? TToXtVa? cocnrep /cal v6/jL(p 1 <rco/iaro9 crvvai- (rv/jL<j)c0vovvTa \6yov av fJifpr)) fiprj o-cc/uaros (or trayiaTos : Coraes and Bekker. /cal TO?? d/jL<f>i/3a\ci)V /cparepov crd/cos aSt/ca)?. jdp TT^ e%r)V /BiacrOevros r) ftXa/Sevros ypdcfjeaOai Svva/mev(p /cal /3ouXoyUZ'&> TOV vo/^ 1 Kovvra /cal Siooiceiv. Travri \aj3eiv BLK^V vjrep /col Ka/ca)s TreTrovOoTos eSw/ce. d/j.(f)OTe- poicrr VLKOLV 8* OVK etae* ovSerepovs 5 v Er {levroi TWV 7ro\\o)V rov erepov /cal fjLo\\ov olopevos Seiv eTrap/ceiv rfj dcrOeveia. avve/cal irav ayeiv d/ji(f>to-/3r)Tr]iLia rpojrov TWO. Swa^evovs jap VTTO wv 8i(f)epovTo.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Si/cacrTrjpiov ec^ecret? eScorce rot? /3ov\o/jievoi<.. iTriGrujLaiveTcn. 3 \eyerai Se /cal rou? VO/JLOVS d av^r\aai rrjv evoz/Tas St/caaTrjpicov la")(vv' /Arj ra)V vofjiwv jSaivev ael >ia\v6rivai Trepl SeicrOai SiKacrTwv 7rpo9 e/ceivovs. S' TWV auro? 4 vbfJLwv /cvpiovs 6Wa?. after Xylander e 452 . aura) rrjv a^lwcriv [lev ovrw eSco/ca jap TOCTOV Kpdros OGGOV ol $ OVT d<p6\a)v our' e efyov ^vvapiv /cal ^pr^aa-iv (>pacrdfAr)v * rjcrav dyrjroi.

SOLON. xvin. cf. of Athens. it was the privilege of any one who had the ability and the inclination. to feel and And we are sympathize with one another's wrongs. And he himself claims the credit for this in the following words : " For to the as common people I gave so much power is sufficient. Neither robbing them of dignity. for decision. the result was that they always wanted jurors to decide it. told of a saying of his which is consonant with this 1 Fragment 5 (Bergk) also ix. If. and were marvellously rich. Aristotle. get satisfaction from the laws. stood with a mighty shield in front of both classes. thinking it his duty to make still further provision for the weakness of the multitude. and every dispute was laid before them. 453 . Const. those who had power." l Moreover. as members of one body. to indict the wrong-doer and prosecute him. it is said that his laws were obscurely and ambiguously worded on purpose to enhance the power of the popular For since parties to a controversy could not courts. 1 . And suffered neither of them to prevail unjustly. he gave every citizen the privilege of entering suit in behalf of one who had suffered wrong. nor giving them And too much . . Besides. xii. for these Even I I contrived that they suffered no harm. and suffered violence or injury. If a man was assaulted. so that they were in a manner masters of the laws. 2-5 he allowed also an appeal to a popular court when any one desired it. The law-giver in this way rightly accustomed the citizens.

/col TrpofBovXeveiv era^e rov els fAifiev edv d7rpo/3ov\VTOV Trjv 8' 2 elcr^epecrdai. Ol /jiev ovv 7r\eicrroi ir)V eiprjrai.d/j. Kai (j)v\afca 7rl avw TWV (Bov\r]V VO^JLWV 7TicrKO7rov e/cddicrev. d\kd rwv " '' ovojJLacri. olo- Bvffl /SouXat? wcrvre/) dytcvpais opfiov- aav rjrrov ev craXw rrjv TTO\IV evea-dai KOI fjid\\ov Bfj/Jiov drpefJiovvra TOV Trape^eiv. Bevrepav 01)5 TrpocrKarevei/jie ovcrcbv. Trplv %6\a)va dp^ai. e 'Apeiov irdyov ocroi 454 . e/carov diro (j>v\rjs eKdcTTT}^. ov% fjrrov Be dBiKOV/jievoi 7rpo/3d\\ovTai KOI Ko\d^ovcrt TOL/? d Bid XIX. /3ov\r)V 2ucTT?7cra/-iei>09 ere rr)v ev 779 TWV /car* eviavrov dp-^ovrwv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES e/3o)T77$ei? ^dp. ap^OLi KOI aUTO? fjLTei%V.rj " ev r. " dBiKOV/jievtov 'Efceivr)" elirev. IJTIS olfceiTai TWV TroXewv. w? eoifcev. yeypa/jL/jievov. ol p. eTL S' Brjfjiov olSovvTa /col OpacrvvofJievov rfj rwv TO dfiecret. wcTTrep %6\(ova crva-T^craadaL KOL /jLaprvpeiv avrois Bo/cel ^d\iara TO rov Apdrcovra \eyeiv /jirj& ovo/jid&iv 3 irep\ Tot? e^erais del BiaXeyecrdai 6 Be TpicrKaiSeKaros d^wv <f)OviKwv.. TOV SoXcOl'O? TOV OjBoOV e%l TWV VO/JLWV OUTW9 ras.evo<>. e^ 'Apeuov irdyov j3ov\ijv.ovs e/c 7T\r)v ocroi. 77 KTI^WV rj ocroi r\aav elvat. Terrdpcov 7ri\t. ^ovXrjV. 7riTi/j.

and would keep its populace in greater quiet. except such as were viii.SOLON. These were to deliberate on public matters before the people did. thinking that the city with its two councils. 3 Being asked. xvni. council a general overseer in the state. most writers say that the council of the I have stated. 455 . supported by the fact that Draco nowhere makes any mention whatsoever of Areiopagites. riding as it were at double anchor. 5~xix. but always Areiopagus. Const. of Athens. Cf. "in which those who are not wronged. and therefore established another council besides. and guardian of the laws. law. no less than those who are wronged. Aristotle. would be less tossed by the surges. After he had established the council of the Areiopagus. exert themselves to punish the wrongdoers. lie observed that the common people were uneasy and bold in consequence of their release from debt. eighth of his laws recorded in these very words " As many of the disfranchised as were made such before the archonship of Solon. was established by And their view seems to be strongly Solon. consisting of four hundred 1 men. shall be restored to : their rights 1 and franchises. namely. and were not to allow any matter to come before the popular assembly without such Then he made the upper previous deliberation. consisting of those who had been archons year by year (and he himself was a member of this body. as ' Now in cases of addresses himself to the " ephetai Yet Solon's thirteenth table contains the homicide." XIX. live in. since he had been archon). one hundred chosen from each of the four tribes. what city was best to "That city/' he replied. 4.

l Kara rov VO/JLOV avrbs /j.09 fieveiv cLTifjiovs. /Sou- Xerat e^GLV 8'.. 009 eoirce. % 'ApGlOV TTajOV /3ov\fj TO Kpiveiv. CLTOTTO^ Be Kal yeXoios 6 rfj 7TiK\r}pw o~i&ovs. al? rcpivovcri. d(T(f)a\ei /j.i]Se T^ TCL oltcela /cal rw /JLTJ crvva\yeiv orvvvoo~eiv rfj TrarpiSt Ka\\(t)7ri%6/jivov. vvv ol 'ApeoTraylrai. teal Trpvrdveis. rwv KparovvTwv. VTTO /3acri\ewv eVt fyovw r) crcpayaioriv rj eVl rj CK 4 rvpavviSi. Twv tSi09 /j. rwv a\Xcov a\\Gov avrov VO/JLWV ravra fiev ovv KOI auro9 S* XX. /jiaXXov r) aKiv$vvw$ TO. rj rrd\iv e^evyov ore 6 Oca/Jibs e<pdvr) oSe.' avroOev Tot9 2 Btfcaiorepa TrpdrTOVd GvyKivSweveiv Kal (3or)0eiv.rj jr\'rjcrid^eivt VTTO rwv eyyicrra rov 456 . av o /3e\TLa> /cal Kal Kvpios 17 <y<yovti><.a rov 89 (f>erai eK\eityw.ev KOL 7rapd$oo$ 6 K\va)v ari/jiov elvai TQV ev ardaei fjutj^erepa^ /JiepiSos yevofjievov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES efaroov rwv rrpvraveiov KaTa$iKacr0evT<. firj aTraOws V fjbrj^ dvaicr0?JTW<. wcrre TOU? rj\coKOTa<. el vrj Ata yeyove Tt9 dad<pei." ravra ft>9 Trpo T^? SoXwi/o? ap^lS Kal VO/JLO% 'Apeiov Trdjov rjcrav rrjv /3ov\r)v Trpo el ovaav Tive<$ yap ol 'Apeim irdja) 6$0)K T7J firj r) Kara8iKa(r0ei>Te<. ore 6 #6071. aXX. Oe/JLeVOV 7T/3O9 TO KOIVQV.

and the meaning is that those who had been convicted on charges within the cognizance of those who were Areiopagites and ephetai and prytanes when the law was published. in case the man under whose power and authority she is placed by law is himself unable to consort with her. 2 or by the ephetai. too. instead of waiting in That law. safety to see which cause prevails. and were in exile when this law was published. or of seeking to establish a tyranny. share its perils and give it his aid. of Athens. or prytaneium by the kings. 3~xx. viii. my reader must decide for himself. For how could men have been condemned in the Areiopagus before the time of Solon. which permits an heiress. arranging his private affairs securely and glorying in the fact that he has no share in the distempers and distresses of his country. to be married by one of his next of kin. Aristotle. in the xix. or some omission. This question. on charges of murder or homicide. 5. but should rather espouse promptly the better and more righteous cause. probably. Among his other laws there is a very peculiar and surprising one which ordains that he shall be disfranchised who." This condemned by the Areiopagus. indeed. seems absurd and ridiculous. while those convicted on all other charges should recover their rights and franchises. 1 Of. XX. 457 . Const. 1 He insensible wishes. that a man should not be or indifferent to the common weal. should remain disfranchised. in time of faction. surely proves to the contrary that the council of the Areiopagus was in existence before the archonship and legislation of Solon. however. if Solon was the first to give the council of the Areiopagus its jurisdiction? Perhaps. takes neither side.SOLON. there is some obscurity in the document.

TOV yd/jiov rj yiter <^L\07r\ovTia^ KOI vftpews SLKTJV SiSovres.io~fjLaTO<$ a^ia CTepov Be fjLij&ev eTTL^epecrdai Trjv yapovfievrjv. TTJV (frvaiv. yap 3 &) /3ov\Tai rr)V IjriKKripov crvvovaav ev Trpoicrovrai. ou <yap eftov\6TO fjacrOo^opov ov& wviov elvai TOV eVl TeKVcocrei Kal %dpiTi Kal TOV dvSpbs Kal ryvvaiKos 6 [lev yap Ato^ucri09. Kal rat? Siatyopais ewcra TravTaTracriv djroaT pa$r\vai. GKCLCTTOV T eTnickriw TOV Kal jap el /JLTJ <yevotvTO TrcuSe?. (fracri TT^O? S' eveKa Xa Lt/3ai>oj'Ta9 eTriKXijpovs teal y TO) VO/JLW KaTa{3iaofj. e<prj TOL? \e\VKevai Tvpavvcov. KOI TO Tpls TTCLVTWS \aj36i>Ta. d^iovcrrjs TT}? /z?7Tyc>o? avTOv Bodrjvau TLVL TWV TroXiT&v TT/JO? ydjubov. TI]V aTa^Lav TavTrjv ov BoTeov. TO?)? fjiev TT}? TToXea)? vopovs Be TT}? ^>ucrea)9 OVK elvai BvvaTos fiid^eaQai <yd- 5 /JLOVS vv/jityaywywv Trap* rfkiKiav ev Be rat? 7ro\ecri. ovBe 458 . Kal rroXXa TCOV crv\\jo/jLevcov eAracrrore dtyaipoucra. OTTO)? oiKelov rj /ecu jjieTe'Xpv TOV <yevovs et? TOVTO Se crvvTe\6i real TO TO KaTdTpayovaav. Kal TOVTO 8 opdws TOU? yu-^ Suva^evovs avvelvai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES dTrvecrdai.evov<. a\\a os avTT] 7Ty3o? o"ot)(j)pova <yvvaLKa. a\\a TWV TOV av$po<$ w /3ov\Tai &ia\eycr(}ai pov. Twi/ 5' a\\(t)V yd/jLcov a^etXe ra? OVK Tpia KOL CTKCVIJ /jiiKpov vop. S' e^ei Kal TO fjirj Trdcriv.

he could not outrage the laws of nature by giving in marriage where age forbade. household stuff of small value. too. For when they see that the heiress can consort with whom she pleases. and be punished for their avarice and It is a wise provision. they will either desist from such a marriage. but that man and wife should dwell . or make it to their shame. however. Conformable to this. together for the delights of love and the getting of Dionysius. and prevents their being altogether estranged by their differences. and nothing else.SOLON. when his mother asked him to give her in marriage to one of his citizens. . that the insolence. which develop in all such cases. xx. said that. children. is the requirement that the bride eat a quince and be shut up in a chamber with the bridegroom and that the husband of an heiress shall For even approach her thrice a month without fail. that her offspring may be of his family and lineage. marry heiresses. although he had broken the laws of the city by being its tyrant. though they have no children. For he did not wish that marriage should be a matter of profit or price. nor tolerate unions which age forbids 459 . In all other marriages he prohibited dowries the bride was to bring with her three changes of raiment. do violence to nature. And so our cities should not allow this irregularity. say that this was a wise provision against those who are unable to perform the duties of a husband. but only from the kinsmen of her husband. 2-5 Some. and yet. this is a mark of esteem and affection which a man should pay to a chaste wife it removes many of the annoyances . still. also. indeed. and so tinder cover of law. heiress may not choose her consort at large. for the sake of their property.

el 460 . KOI XXI. Tavra irapOivov ovv irepl rovrwv.evrjv. 'ETraiveiTai Se rov SoXwi^o? teal 6 KCO~\. w fiovXeTat. KOI yap ocriov TOU9 yu-e^ecTTWTa? lepovs VO^I^LV. yo/jievw ^airj av e'^u/teXr)? aXXa yepovTi veav ap^wv r) TO TTpOS TOV ev ryovv eV &>9 ScojuaTiq) OLTTO 7rXoucrta9 wcnrep ol ei. el fiovXerai e 90 Be ov/c TO.6aiov opyri<s IBicorrj. TIS eViT/3e^a9. dtyaipelv TT}? e'xjdpa^ TO diSiov. rov vofjiov. KCLV Trporepov o yap ei 3' 7re/)l Bia07)KO)v e^z^. aTraiSevTov teal d/coXaaTov TO Be Travra^ov %aXe7Tov. TL<$ real fJL^ev epyov ya/jLij\iov e^oucra? fjuyBe TeXo9.PLUTARCH'S LIVES teal d^apirovs em7r\OKa<. aXX' ev TW yevei TW TOV %prfjuaTa teal TOV ol/cov . dyoovwv rf Tpels aXXa? diroTiveiv et? TO yap fir)Sa/jLOV Kpareiv era^e.avevpa)v TrepSi/ces.VCOV TOV revriKoTa xafcws dyopeveiv. eviois Be dBvvaTov Bel Be TT/JO? TO BvvaOZ^ ypd<pecr0ai. avvovcrias fjieTOiKicrei TT/JO? /JLCV dvSpbs Seo/j. \e<yeiv K(*)\vcre TTyoo? %wvra Se iepols KOI Bi/caa'TiipLOis KOI KOI Oewplas ovaiy? >vo 3' TW TO Sr}fj. KOI cm-e^ea-Qai TWV ov% vTrap^ovTcov.

then. He was highly esteemed also for his law conBefore his time. and good policy to rob hatred of its also forbade speaking ill of the perpetuity. 2 Nauck. And a law must regard the possibilities in the case. and not many to no purpose. Thus much. by permitting a to the person injured. if its maker wishes to punish a few to some purpose. the transgressor must pay three drachmas and two more into the public For never to master one's anger is a mark of intemperance and lack of training but always to do so is difficult. Tray. 2 invite. poor " wretch. to an old man who is marrying a young wife. 789 a. on this head. Frag. and for some. See two entire verses in Morals. Plutarch cites p.SOLON. In a play of this name. of uncertain authorship. and love does not xx. treasury. thou art in marrying ! fine state for if he discovers a young man in the house of a and elderly woman. Nay. He living in temples. like a cockpartridge. any worthy magistrate or lawgiver might say what is said to Philoctetes l : "Indeed. and defeat its object. Q 461 . made. . justice to spare the absent. impossible. Praise is given also to that law of Solon which And rich For it is piety forbids speaking ill of the dead.' 1 . waxing fat. Whereas he. courts-of-law. in her service. to regard the deceased as sacred. but the entire estate of the deceased must remain in his family. VOL I. p. 5-xxi. no will could be cerning wills. he will remove him and give him to some marriageable maid that wants a husband. public offices. Graec. XXI. which do not fulfil the function of marriage. and at festivals . 841.

fjurjv xp/j/Aara /crtf/icna rwv tyovrcov eTTOLTjcrev. Xoytcf/jibv dv0pu>Trov Bwa/jLeixov. a\\ov lv Tac^at? Be fBovv OVK eiaaev.o-e Se /cal Ta?? e^oBoi^ TWV yvvaiK&v VO/JLOV Kal Tot? TO irevQecri Kal Tat? eoprals aiaKTov Kal dKo\.aa"rov jut. &>? ov^ fjrrov GKcrTrjcrai. 1 aXX* f) el yu^ VOGWV eveicev r) ^apfiaKwv 77 Seo-fjiwv z /j.evos. ovS 1 ovBe crvvTiOtvat. Bovvai ra avrov.?.& KavTjra Trij^vaiov rropevecrdai irXrjv dfj. dveBvjv 76 7rd\iv ot8' aTrXw? ra? 86crei? e(j)rJKV. avd^Krj Karaa"^60el^ rj yvvat/cl 7ri66v TTCIVV Kal Trpoa-rj/covTw? TO TreicrOfjvai fjyov/jLevos Trapa TO jBekriarov ovftev TOU e/9 TCLVTO TTJV aTrdrrjv rfj Kal TW TTOVW rrjv rjbovrjv 0efJLvo<>..PLUTARCH'S LIVES elev avr&. TT\eov eV TCL TrXetcrTa Kal Tot? rjfieTepois Be Tot? VOJJLOL^ aTrrjyopev- irpoa-KeiTai Bekker adopts Schaefer's correction Cobet : to 462 . //. 'A/tu^a? Be KorfTo^kvwv Kal veiv 7T67Toirujiei>a Kal TO KcoKveiv 5 erepwv d<$>eT\ev. ^ 6ySoXoO /uet^o^a. Kal 3 ov TO. 4 *E7recrT7.r) direip- Ifykvai Tpiwv rf 7T\eov TTOTOV TrXetoz^o? e^ovaav Kekevcras. evayL&iv l^aTiwv Tpi&v. erifjujcre <j>i\iav re crwyyeveias fjia\\ov Kal ^dpiv di>dyK7j<.dr) KO/ju^ofAevriv \v\yov jrpoTO 6prj(paivovros.

one and the same were alike able to He women. nor a pannier more than a cubit high. grave was not permitted. to a law which did away with disorder and licence. nor the visiting of other tombs than those of their own Most family. or drugs. they were not to carry more than an obol's worth of food or drink. that being persuaded into wrong was no better than being forced into it. except at the time of interment. believing that both pervert a man's reason. and the use of set lamentations. and the bewailing of any one at the funeral ceremonies of The sacrifice of an ox at the another. also subjected the public appearances of the their mourning and their festivals. of these practices are also forbidden by our laws. very rightly and properly. but ours contain the additional proviso that such 463 . possessions his own property. nor the burial with the dead of more than three changes of raiment. or imprisonment. but only those which were not made under the influence of sickness. and favour above necessity. and they were not to travel about by night unless they rode in a waggon with a lamp to light their way. He thought. they were not to wear more than three garments. he did not permit all manner of gifts without restriction or restraint. Laceration of the flesh by mourners. When they went out. or when a man was the victim of compulsion or yielded to the persuasions of his wife. in category. and made a man's On the other hand. 2-5 children to give his property to whom he wished. he forbade. and he placed deceit and compulsion. gratification and affliction. ranked friendship above kinship. man who had no xxi.SOLON.


ra roiavra Troiovvras



dvdvBpois KOI yvvaiKcoBecrt, rot?


teal dfjLaprrjjuaa-iv eve^ofievovs.

XXII. 'Qpoov

Be TO fiev CLGTV irLfJiTrXd/jLevov dvI

del crvppeovTcov 7ravra^60ev eV a8e/a? et? rrjv 'ATTIKIJV, TO, 8e TrXetcrra rr}? ^wpa^ dyevvf) KOI (j)av\a, rou? Be j^pwfievov^ rfj OaXdrrrj prj^ev

elwQoTas elcrdyeiv rot? fMjSev G^OVGIV dvriSovvai, Aral VOJJLOV 7T/30? ra? Te^a? erpe-^re rovs TroXtra?, eypaifrev vly rpecjteiv TOV Trarepa /AT) SiSa!;d/jLvov
2 re^vrfv eTrvajfces



p.ev <ydp




KOI TO jLeiaTov, el^wriKOV


o (Be\TiOV rjv

o"xo\deiv, d\\d

del KOI TTOVOVV raTretvovaOai, TrepLKe^v/JLevov

Kal ftavavcrcov dTra\\d%avra rovs TroXtVa? avveev Tot? oVXoi?, /j,iav re^vriv ravrrjv Kal dcrKOvvras' %6\a)V $e TO??
VO/JLOV^ fjia\\ov


Trpdj/jLara TO??



^copa^ r^v

opwv Tot?

$iapKov(rav, dpyov Be







Trdyov ftovXrjv era^ev eTUGKOTrelv oOev rd eTTiTijBeia, Kal rov<; dpyovs Ko\d

2 Following Nauck (Trag. Grace. Frag. ,

p. 680)




xxi. 5~xxii. 3

offenders shall be punished by the board of censors

women, because they indulge in unmanly and effeminate extravagances of sorrow when they mourn. XXII. Observing that the city was getting full of people who were constantly streaming into Attica from all quarters for greater security of living, and that most of the country was unfruitful and worthless, and that seafaring men are not wont to import goods for those who have nothing to give them in exchange, he turned the attention of the citizens to the arts of manufacture, and enacted a law that no son who had not been taught a trade should be comIt was well enough for pelled to support his father. Lycurgus, whose city was free from swarms of strangers, and whose country was, in the words of

" For many large,




many more than

all, that country was flooded with a multitude of Helots, whom it was better not to leave in idleness, but to keep down by continual it was well enough for him to hardships and toil, set his citizens free from laborious and mechanical

and because, above

occupations and confine their thoughts to arms, giving them this one trade to learn and practice. But Solon, adapting his laws to the situation, rather than the situation to his laws, and observing that the land could give but a mere subsistence to those who tilled it, and was incapable of supporting an

unoccupied and leisured multitude, gave dignity to the trades, and ordered the council of the Areiopagus to examine into every man's means of liveli-

hood, and chastise those

who had no



crtyoSporepov, TO /x^Se TO?? eraipas <yevofjievoi<$ 7rdva<yKS elvai rou? o Ilozm/co?. rpecfreiv, &>? 'H/m/eXeiS^? IffropTjicev



irapopwv TO KaXov ov TCKVWV ewca eaTiv, aXV 77^0^7}? dyojjicvos ^waited, TOV vre^et, :at Trapp^aiav avry TT/OO? rou? OVK aTroXeXonrev, oi? atro TO <yevecr6ai

XXIII. irepl TWV

OX&)5 Se JT\L(7Tr)v e^eiv aTorrlav ol





apTrdffT) T^9


e\ev0epav <yvval/ca KOI {3ide/caTov Spa^fjua^ eVa^e* KCLV TrpoeLtcocri, Tr\riv


oaat, Tre^acryLteyw?



2 efi(f>av><; (poiTwcri TT/^O? 0v<ya,Tpas TrcoXet^ OUT'

Ta? eraipas. TOL? &iS6vTa<>.

avTai jap








auTO TTpajfia TTOTC

TriKpws KCU airapaiVKoKw<; KOI 7T CLL^OVT CL ,


Tv%ovcrav opi^ovra, akoyov TOT6 TOV ev Tf) TroXet /jiyd\as circlet, Ta? dpyvpifcd? TO BvcrTTopiarTOv. et? fJiev 76 Ta dvcriwv \o<yi^eTai TrpbftaTOv KOL



CCTTL' 7T\r)V el


/j,$L/jLi>ov' TO)

o "laO/jLia viKY '

CKCLTOV Si&ocrdai, TU> S' \VKOV Be TO> KOfjiicravTi


XvKioea Se /ua^, wv

faicriv 6

/Soo? elvai, TO Be TrpoftaTOV Tipr]v.

a? yap



xxn. 4-xxnr. 3

But that provision of his was yet more severe, which, as Heracleides Ponticus informs us, relieved the sons
out of wedlock from the necessity of For he that avoids supporting their fathers at all. the honourable state of marriage, clearly takes a woman to himself not for the sake of children, but of pleasure and he has his reward, in that he robs himself of all right to upbraid his sons for neglecting him, since he has made their very existence a reproach to them. XXIII. But in general, Solon's laws concerning women seem very absurd. For instance, he permitted an adulterer caught in the act to be killed but if a man committed rape upon a free woman, he was merely to be fined a hundred drachmas and if

who were born



he gained his end by persuasion, twenty drachmas, unless it were with one of those who sell themselves For openly, meaning of course the courtesans.
these go openly to those
Still further,




their price.

no man is allowed to sell a daughter or a sister, unless he find that she is no longer a virgin. But to punish the same offence now severely and inexorably, and now mildly and pleasantly, making
unless the penalty a slight fine, is unreasonable money was scarce in the city at that time, and the difficulty of procuring it made these monetary punishments heavy. In the valuations of sacrificial offerings, at any rate, a sheep and a bushel of grain are reckoned the victor in the Isthmian games was at a drachma to be paid a hundred drachmas, and the Olympic the man who brought in a wolf, victor five hundred was given five drachmas, and for a wolf's whelp, one the former sum, according to Demetrius the Phalerian, was the price of an ox, the latter that of




ev TO*

TWV d^ovwv

opi^ei rifia? ra)v

etctcptrtov iepelwv, CLKOS [lev elvai 7ro\\aTT\acrias,

aAA,o>? Be Kaxeivai vrpo?

ra? vvv evreXels elcnv.





\VKOIS, j3e\Ti,ova









ol ftioi



dvro TWZ^ yevwv, et?

a SiypeOijcrav

TO Trp&TOv, ayvo/jLaadai, TO /ii^ yu-^^yuo^ TO 8' epyarifcov 'EpYaSei?' ue?z> Se

\onrwv FeXeo^Ta?


TOU? yewpyovs, AlyiirpopaTeicus Sia-

Be TOU? eVl vocals /ecu



e TTyOo?

v&wp ovre

7TOTa/.ioi? ecrriv


Biap/crfs, clXX'

fiev ecrri


eypa^ev, OTTOV

(fipeap ei/TO? ITTTTIKOV, ^prjaOat,

rovrw' TO









drre^et, ^relv Be/ca /3d6o$

vBwp iBiov eav

Be opv^avres







vBpuav 81? eKacrrrj^



yap wero






6 O)pl(T6 Be KOi <f)VT6lWV fJLT pa yLtaX*

p MS, TOl)?






jrevre 7ro8a?



xxin. 3-6

For although the prices which Solon fixes a sheep. in his sixteenth table are for choice victims, and
naturally many times as great as those for ordinary ones, still, even these are low in comparison with Now the Athenians were from of present prices. old great enemies of wolves, since their country was And there are better for pasturage than for tillage. those who say that their four tribes were originally named, not from the sons of Ion, but from the thus classes into which occupations were divided the warriors were called Hoplitai, the craftsmen Ergadeis and of the remaining two, the farmers were called Geleontes, the shepherds and herdsmen




Since the country was not supplied with water by ever-flowing rivers, or lakes, or copious springs, but most of the inhabitants used wells which had been dug, he made a law that where there was a public well within a "hippikon," a distance of four furlongs, that should be used, but where the distance was greater than this, people must try to get water of their own if, however, after digging to a depth of ten fathoms on their own land, they could not get water, then they might take it from a neighbour's for he well, filling a five gallon jar twice a day thought it his duty to aid the needy, not to provision the idle. He also showed great experience in the no one limits which he set to the planting of trees could set out a tree in a field within five feet of his



strained etymology to explain the ancient tribal Hopletes, Argadeis, Geleontes, and Aigikoreis, which are derived, in Herodotus v. 66, from the names of the four sons of Ion. The first has nothing to do with "hopla," arms; nor the second with "ergon," work nor the third with "ge," earth ; nor the fourth with "aix," goat.








TOV 761x01/09 Kekevaas, TOU? Be o~v/crjv ekaiav evvea. <yap eJ-iKvetrai rroppcorepoy ravra rat? pifais, Kal ov Ttao~i yeirvia rot? aXXa KOI TpO(j)r)V rrapaipelTat, dcriva)?,
KCU /3\d7TTOvcrav eVtoi? airopporjv acpLTjcri,. j3o6 KOI 6pOV<f TafypOVS TOV (BovXofJieVOV K6\V(TV

Ta\\orpLov KOI yueXicrcrcoz/ dfJLrjvrj Ka0KTTaTWV v<f> erepov irpoTepov i

/col [JLOVOV

Be ryivofjievwv SidOecriv TT/OO?





Kara T&V e^ayovrwv dpas TOV ap^ovra
Trpoaera^ev, et? TO ^yuocrto^.






OVK av oiiv earlv 6 TOVTOV 7rpie%c0i> TOV VO^JLOV. cnriOdvovs TOU? Traz/reXw? \e<yovTa$ rjyrjaairo















Kvva SaKovra rcapaJJLGV


Ke\vei K\oia>

TpiTcrj^ei SeSe/jLevov TO

GvO vfJLrj jjia %dpiev 77/009 darfidXeiav. 2 Hape%6i 8' aTCopiav teal 6 TCOV



yovo~iv deifywyia Trjv








TOVTO direXavvovTa 92 KaTdKa\ovfjievov A.d^va^6 TOVTOVS



/5e/5ata) TOJ fieOe^eiv


7roXtTeta9, teal a/xa



xxin. 6 -xxiv. 2

neighbour's field, or, in case it was a fig-tree or an For these reach out farther olive-tree, within nine. with their roots, and injure some trees by their
proximity, taking away their nourishment, and emitting an exhalation which is sometimes noxious. He that would dig a pit or a trench, must dig it at the distance of its own depth from his neighbour's and he that would set out hives of bees, must put them three hundred feet away from those which

another had already installed. XXIV. Of the products of the soil, he allowed oil only to be sold abroad, but forbade the exportation of others and if any did so export, the archon was to pronounce curses upon them, or else himself pay a hundred drachmas into the public treasury. His first table is the one which contains this law. One cannot, therefore, wholly disbelieve those who say that the exportation of figs also was anciently forbidden, and that the one who showed up, or pointed out such exporters, was called a "sycophant," or He also enacted a law concerning fig-shower. injuries received from beasts, according to which a dog that had bitten anybody must be delivered up with a wooden collar three cubits long fastened to it;


happy device this for promoting safety. But the law concerning naturalized citizens



doubtful character.


permitted only those to be

who were permanently exiled from country, or who removed to Athens with their entire families to ply a trade. This he did, as we are told, not so much to drive away other foreigners, as to invite these particular ones to Athens with the full assurance of becoming citizens he also thought that reliance could be placed both



TTicrrou? vojjLi^ovra Toi>9

eavrct)V Bia Trjv
3 Sid Trjv 7re/H

dvdjK^v, TOU? i&iov Be rov jVMfirjv.











avrbs OVK ea

7ro\\dKis, eav Be







7T\60j'^Lav, TO

vjrepo^iav TWV KOIVWV.


'[(r^vv Se Tot? VO/JLOIS Tracriv et?


Trep Le^ovcn





teal 7rpoarjyopev07]crav,













TOL^ rcvpfiecriv.

2 evLoi






Ova Lai

Trepie^ovrai, tcvpfBeis, aova<? Be TOJ)? aXXoi/? u>vo/jid(T0ai. KOLVOV nev ovv wfjivvev op/cov 77 /3ou\rj TOL9 ^oXwi'o? vojuovs e/jLTreBoocreiv, tStov 8* 6/cacrTO9

OeajJiodeTwv ev

el TI Trapa/Saur)

dyopa Trpbs TW \i6w, Kararwv Oecr/jLwv, dvBpidvra
avaOi]creiv ev





v A6A</)o?s are

not in the text of Aristotle.



xxiv. 2-xxv. 2

on those who had been forced to abandon their own
country, and on those who had left it with a fixed purCharacteristic of Solon also was his regulation pose. of the practice of eating at the public table in the " l The townhall, for which his word was parasitein." same person was not allowed to eat there often, but if one whose duty it was to eat there refused, he was Solon thought the conduct of the first punished. grasping ; that of the second, contemptuous of the

laws were to have force for a hundred years, and they were written on " axones," or wooden tablets, which revolved with the oblong frames containing them. Slight remnants of these were still preserved in the Prytaneium when I was at Athens, and they were called, according to

public interests. XXV. All his


Cratinus, also, the comic poet,
I make mine oath, are used to parch our barley-

somewhere says " By Solon, and by Draco too






But some say that only those tablets which relate to " kursacred rites and sacrifices are properly called are called "axones." However and the rest beis," that may be, the council took a joint oath to ratify the laws of Solon, and each of the " thesmothetai," or guardians of the statutes, swore separately at the herald's stone in the market-place, vowing that if
he transgressed the statutes in any way, he would dedicate at Delphi a golden statue of commensurate


Hence, with scornful meaning, the word parasite. Cf. Const, of Athens, vii. 1, with Sandys' notes. Kock, Com. Ait. Frag. i. p. 94.


8e TOV

TTJV avwfjLokLav, teal rrjv





TTa^ro)? OUT' avio")(pVTi, av/ji^epo^vrjv,





avTTJs rj^epa^



Trapepxo/jievrjv TOV T)\LOI>, avrrjv /J,ev e Tavrrjv evrjv /ecu veav KaXeicr&ai, TO y&v irpo crvvobov /jLopiov avTr/s TO* iravo^ivw fjirjvi, TO 5e



ry ap^o^ikvw

Trpoa-rjfceiv rjyov/jievos,


opOws a/covads



rrjv 6


(frdivovTOS ^771/09,


S* l








ov TrpocrriOeis,

aXX' afyaipwv KCU

ava\vwv, cbcnrep ra





vopwv ela-eve^OevTwv


^6\o)vi /ca@' eKaaryjV






TO?? ryeypafjL/j.evois 6 TI Tv^piev

afyaipeiv, TrXet-

r)o~av ol TrvvOavofjievoi




dva/c pivovres Ka<TTOV 6^66 KOi


TT/oo? rfv

Kelrai Sidvoiav eireKo'io'da-Keiv teal

5 vl^eiv,

opwv OTL ravra Kal TO Trpdrreiv aroTrov Kal TO yu,^ TrpdrTeiv errlfyOovov, oXw? Se Tat?

ySouXo/^et'O? Kal



xxv. 3-5

Observing the irregularity of the month, and that the motion of the moon does not always coincide with the rising and setting of the sun, but that often she overtakes and passes the sun on the same day, he ordered that day to be called the Old and New, assigning the portion of it which preceded the conjunction to the expiring month, and the remaining portion to the month that was just He was thus the first, as it would seem, beginning. to understand Homer's verse, 1 which speaks of a day

" This



waning, and the next


setting in,"

and the day following this he called the first of the month. After the twentieth he did not count the days by adding them to twenty, but by subtracting them from thirty, on a descending scale, like the 2 waning of the moon. No sooner were the laws of Solon put into operation than some would come to him every day with praise or censure of them, or with advice to insert something into the documents, or take something out. Very numerous, too, were those who came to him with inquiries and questions about them, urging him to teach and make clear to them the meaning and He saw that to do purpose of each several item. this was out of the question, and that not to do it would bring odium upon him, and wishing to be wholly rid of these perplexities and to escape from Odyssey, xiv. 162 = xix. 307, of the day when Odysseus

would return to Ithaca. 2 Thus the twenty-first was called the tenth, the twentysecond the ninth, and so on, "of the waning month." The twenty-ninth was the second of the waning month, the thirtieth the Old and New


PLUTARCH'S LIVES TO Bvcrdpeo-Tov KOL <f> iXaiT LOV TWV TTO\ITWV (e/xy- pacn.T\avTiKov ciKovcras \6yov. fyjXwcrai Be TOU9 aXXoL9 /9acriXea9' Bio Kal T&> SoXwrt Ti/j. yap ev /jLeyd\oi$ Traaiv dBetv ^aXeTroV. Kal <rvi/$iK6<rfi'r)(r 77/709 re . 476 . e^eTrXeucre.rjv 1 TO?S y<fy*ois avrovs after MSS. crvvefuOGOfpticre' Trap &v /cal TOV *A. Se/caerij irapa TMV P^Orjvaiwv cnro^'rj^iav alrr/Grdfjievos. rjiO()a)VTO<.^?. would be familiar to them). 009 eTre-^eipTjcre Sia TcoirjfJuiTOS e^evey/ceiv e/9 <j)r)(Tiv. fjiTa@VTa V7ro/cifj. cited by Stephanus Bekker has ToJs v^ous auTo?s. wcrre TTO\\OV<. VTTO eTreLTa 7r\vcra<. TOV .evov KO\OV TTJV 7r6\iv rjbiova Kal fjvei^ovd 93 Kal Trapwv eVe/ieX?. rjKTT <yap v TW %pbvw rovry KOI rot? VO^JLOI^ avrovs XXVI. overt rwv 2 TOU9 f/ EXX?^a9. fiacrikewv.V. a)? ai'ro? eiprjKe). the conjecture of Stephanus (the laws . et9 KvTrpov rfjaTrijdtj BiaifiepovTfjds e/cet VTTO Q>i\OKi>7rpov TIVOS TWV 09 el^ev eV ov ^eydXyv 7ro\iv. TOV /J. Kal 7T/co9 acr^aXetar. Tr/Jocrj^ua TTJS 7r\dvr)<$ TTJV vavK\r)piav ' ' 7roirjird/jLVO<.ptOV ^e TTOTa/JLOV ^<W/9tO9 O^f/3069 <f>av\oi<> Kal Sfcr^epecrt ovv avTov 6 SoXcov TreBiov 3 KeifjLevrjv.oyy^LV TOV 9 epewv. TOV avvKaTa&Kevdcrai. NetXov Tlpcorov /mew ovv et? ALJVTTTOV afyi auro? 7rl Be Tiva KOI rot? irepl "tyevaxfiiv TOV 7ro\LTrji' Kal ^. as TW t&iXoKVTrpq) <rvve\0etv.

but otherwise incommodious and sorry. first XXVI. 3 the captiousness and censoriousness of the citizens "in great affairs/' as he says himself. 1." floods. Aristotle. one of the kings of the island. 4 he learned priests. 3 . Const. "it is difficult to please all "). 5~xxvi. 1 f. * Timaeus. and set sail. and lying near the river Clarius. as Plato says.SOLON. and helped to arrange it in the best possible manner both for convenience of living and for safety. He also spent some time in studies with Psenophis of Heliopolis and Sonchis of Sais. 2 near the Canobic and lived. 1 '-' Fragment 7 (Bergk). Cf. and was greatly beloved of This Philocyprus. 22 Fragment 28 (Bergk). who were very From these. prince had a small city. after obtaining from the Athenians leave of absence for In this time he hoped they would be ten years. Cf. heard the story of the lost Atlantis. he made his ownership of a vessel an excuse for foreign travel. and he was the envy of the other He therefore paid Solon the honour of kings. then. in a position which was strong. 3 " Where Nile forth his pours shore. and make it more spacious and pleasant. xi. Solon therefore persuaded him to remove the city to the fair plain which lay below He also it. p. 1 accustomed to his laws. (for xxv. and tried to introduce it in a poetical form to the Greeks. 5 Next he sailed to Cyprus. The result was that many colonists flocked to Philocyprus. 477 . remained and took charge of the new city's consolidation. xxxii. the son of Theseus. a. s 6 of Athens. founded by Demophon. he went to Egypt. as he himself says. In the place. chapters xxxi.

ov [JLOL SOKW ovSev fjivpioi %poviKols &iop0ovv76S TKJL %/?i \yo/j. rradelv TI ^epuaiw KCLTIOVTI Trpcorov 67rl 6d\aTTav. efceivos re 7yo oyoco^ aXkov e aXXof 7TOTa/j. et? aurot? 6fAoi\oyov/jivoi> Svi'avrai Karaarija-ai ra? TOV 8' ou^ SoXwm (paaiv et? 2a^Se/9 2 avTi\oyla^. 7ToXfTXw9.evtjv irpo- repov aTr* eice'ivov fjLe^jLvr]Tai 2)oXou9 Trpocrrjyopevcre. Trpeirovra TU> ^0X0)^09 ?^ei Aral TT}? eiceivov KOL crofpias Trpcnjcrecrflai 01)9 afyov.e^.evoi<. KOI .PLUTARCH'S LIVES TTO\IV 4 KO\OV p. KCLL. KOI auTO9 Se /oeucra? TOV crvvoiKio-pov' ev Tafc yap e\eyetais TOV > irpoaayo- TTO\VV /) avaao'wv evuao / > > / avrap e'/xe %vv vrjl dofj KXeivijs airo vi]crov TrejiTTOi U) S' KuTrpi eVt rcoSe yapiv KOI ecrd\bv KOL vocnov iraTift e? XXVII. $er]0evTi.y ^^ \6yov evBo^ov OVTCO KOI ro- /jbdprvpas e^ovra.bv coero TTJV 6d\a<JGav elvai. tcdi TU> ^o Trapa TT\i]<Jiov dvSpi TYJV r av\rjv SiaTropevo/jLevco KOI 7roXXou9 TWV 478 (Sa(Tl\lK<i)V KKO(7^irj^VOV<. BOKOVCTIV T^ evioi Se TTyoo? Kpoio-ov evrevfyv avrov rot? ^povois a>9 7T67rAacryu. r TW K/ootcrw irapayevofjievov. GrjjJLepov /cavocriv. o fjiei^ov ecrri.

30-33. had much the same experience as an inland man who For just as goes down for the first time to the sea. . 3-xxvn. as we leave this storied isle. and says l .SOLON. Be brought upon our way violet crown. and thy family after thee But may I and my swift ship. on visiting Sardis at the invitation of Croesus. a Cf. as he passed through the court and beheld many of the king's retainers in 1 Fragment 19 (Bergk). what is more to the point. which thousands are to this day revising. they say that 2 Solon. I do not propose to reject it out of deference to any chronological canons. without being able to bring their contradictions into any general agreement. he addresses Philocyprus. some think to prove by chronology that it is fictitious. In his elegies. in safety by Cypris of the this settlement of thine may she bestow favour and glory . namely. and called it Soli name had been Aipeia. But when a story is so famous and so well-attested. so Solon. As for his interview with Croesus." Upon XXVII. for Dwelling in this city thyself. when it comports so well with the character of Solon. i. 479 . Solon himself also makes mention of this consolidation. So then. and. such a man thinks each successive river that he sees to be the sea. And upon me an auspicious return to my fatherland. : " Now mayest thou long time be lord and master the Solii here. 2 naming the new city after him. its xxvi. Herodotus. so called. and is so worthy of his magnanimity and wisdom.

yJr}V aXXa ird\iv Se ^pcorTjaev avrov el Te\\ov a\\ov eyvwfcev rrd\iv rov dvOpcorrcov evSai/jiovea-re^0X0)^09 elrrovros elSevat. dvol^ai TWV a\\rjv ajovras eVtSet^at evca 7ro\vre\etav. ev 'x. ? rrepirrov 3 7rel S' corv eo/eei.PLUTARCH'S LIVES <Tof3ovvra<.pvaov Trepl KOCT/JLOV CKTT penes e^eiv rj eSoKet. Kaaro$ 7. i] peony crev avrov 6 Kpoicros el riva efceXevaev CLVTW TOVS re 4 olBev di'dpcoTTcov avrov /jLafcapiwrepov. 480 . T7/9 77^09 T7)V O^LV 0)V 6 a\\a KOI 77X09 rjv KpOlCTOS rot9 ev d7TipoKa\.r) Trepifcei/uevov. rrpos avrov rcdv ocrov ev \i6ois.ov avrov rro\ion xpijcrros dvrjp o TeXXo9 teal rcalSas evSo KI/JLOVS KardXirrcov Kal ovBevos evSed rwv dvajKaucov. ft>9 3' ovv av6i$ i^Or] 76701/0)9 aTrdvTWV OeaTrjs.ev ebofcet. Kpotcro? elvai.e\06vro<} on olSe TeX\. drrotyrjva- /jievov Se rov 2o\a)^09 rrjv. pe^pi. KaracrKevrjv KOI yap atT09 ev eavrw TOV rpoTrov tcaravorja-iv 7rapao"%iv. teal &iet. elvai rw Kpoto'co /cat aypoiKos. KCL\ 009 6 %6\a)v avrtKpvs Karacrras ovr eiraOev 6i7T OV&eV OVT eSoKrjaev.ia$ KOL fjiiKpoTrpeTreia KOI rrjv 0ija-avpov<. ev o^X&> rrpoTTOfjirrwv KOI Sopv<j)6pojv. 6(f)dei. ev /9a</>at9 ecrQtjros. 7T/509 apyvpiov rro\v jj.r)Be ^pvaiov rfj<? evbaiIBicorov ftiov riKov Kal fjiak\ov 5 t] Kal Odvarov dvOpwrcov rocravrrjv djaTrwij ^vva/jav Kal ov pov. ijSrj /j. re\vri]o-ev el /jirj apicrreva-as virep rfjs rrarpi&os.

neither showed any astonishment at what he saw. 2-5 and moving proudly amid a throng armed guards. to be a strange and uncouth fellow. in remarkable. next to Tellus. Croesus asked him if he had ever known a happier man than he. However. since he did not make an abundance of gold and silver his measure of happiness. and that the man was Tellus. Notwithstanding. when Solon had seen everything and had been conducted back again. he asked him again whether. men surpass- 481 . But when Solon. but admired the life and death of an ordinary private man more than all this display of power and sovereignty. naming Cleobis and Bite. nor made any such comments upon it as Croesus had expected. or order that he might present a most august and gorgeous spectacle. costly apparel of couriers and xxvn.SOLON. Tellus. had left reputable sons behind him. dyed raiment. thought each in turn he was brought to the king himout with everything in the way of precious stones. and had closed a life which knew no serious want with a glorious display of valour in Croesus at once judged Solon behalf of his country. and wrought to be Croesus. in this presence. who was decked gold that men deem enviable. had proved himself an honest man. a fellow-citizen of his own . until self. for the man himself sufficed to give Solon an understanding of his character. Of this there was no need. Again Solon said he did. or extravagant. Solon said he had. he knew any other man more fortunate than he. the king ordered his treasure chambers to be thrown open for the guest. but actually made it clear to all discerning eyes that he despised such vulgarity and pettiness. he went on to say. and that he should be led about to behold the rest of his sumptuous equipments.

iTwv /ecu '\ai pov a av . dVTOV OVT6 " a) l<f/ dpiOfJiov irapo^vveiv. Tl/^CU? O/3W(7a TTaVftiov. TT/OO? cro</)ta? Ej\\tj(Ttv^ elir^v. rbv Kpolcrov. ov (Baai\iKr}<$ ovBe Xa/ATrpas. Oeos eSw/ce. " opyrjv K/3oZ<J09. Be XXVIII. elra dvcravres Kal movies OVK trav. co? eoiKe. VTTO Tj fJL6TpLOT7]TO^ rjfUV /ji6T(TTlV. o't rrjv uijTepa TO> rwv 94 pa$vv6vTwv vTro&vvTes avrol eKOfJiKTav TT/OO? TO TT}? VTTO %v<y(p TT}? "H/m? iepov evBai- Twv TToX. /cal re raXXa /teryota)? e^eiv o TLVOS dQapcrovs. OVT6 KO\CtKeVlV /3()V\6/JL6VO<. /3aai\6v AvBwv. roSaTrat? xpwfjievov del Trapova-iv rov OVK ea rot? dyaOois fj. eTv . Kal &rj/AOTiKr)S.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ovTco? avBpas. 6 Be TW yStw [JLaKapicr yu-o?. eliratv aKvpos" raur' o ov vov0Tijcra<. %WVTOS eri Kal a ecrrtv Kal Kal a-T6()avo<.eya fypovelv. 'O 482 Be \oyoTTOibs Aicrcovro?. en d\\a 77877 reOvriKOTes dva\yrj 6 fi0' rj^epav dveaTijteal aXvTrov eVl 6 60^77 TocravTTj Odvarov w^Orjaav. " ei7rv 7T/30? evSai/jiOvwv tcai 6 dvOpwTrwv .. ovoe 6 av pd'teiv 7 eTreiai co yap et? S* e/eac7T&> TTOIKL\OV e% d$rf\ov TO reXo? 6 Saiucav Wero TIJV TOVTOV ev^aifioi'a Kiv&vvevovTO<$ V vo^i^ofjiev.

and never rose again. not one which is kingly and splendid. observing that human life is ever subject to all sorts of vicissitudes. Now it so happened that Aesop. they laid themselves to rest. Solon departed. as the Deity has him further. who was at all ? unwilling to flatter him and did not wish to exasperate " O king of Lydia. is like proclaiming an athlete victorious and crowning him while he is still contending for the prize the verdict is insecure and without When he had said this. he said. every one is varied and uncertain. 5-xxvm. XXVIII. such as it is. " What said Croesus. shoulders and Hera." leaving Croesus vexed. time was angered. but were found to have died a painless and tranquil death with so great honour and fresh this among happy men : Then Solon. authority. where woman and sacrifice love and in dutiful mother for once. who by upon them. in which she was riding was delayed they took the yoke upon their own brought their mother to the temple of her countrymen called her a happy her heart was rejoiced then. "dost thou not count us " ! " and fit for common people. i others car affection towards their when the by the oxen. said given us Greeks all other blessings in moderation. feasting. but none the wiser for it. after in brotherly . or to admire a man's felicity while there is still time for it to For the future which is advancing upon change. the . . but when the Deity bestows prosperity on a man up to the end. This wisdom. while he is still living and running the risks of life. . in all likelihood. however. forbids us to be puffed up by the good things we have. 483 .SOLON. ing all xxvii. that man we consider happy to pronounce any one happy. so our moderation gives us a kind of wisdom which is timid.

Tore yu. " " 77 co? * rjSicrTa f< o/uXe>. d/covGai TI . rj^OecrOt] TCO ical ^6\wvi //^Se/ua? CLVTOV.^ Opacrvvofievov reXo? dfteftaiois vftpi^eiv. ravr Tore ra z/Oy Te/cyaatyoo/ze^o?. 7)1. 01^ eV ru^at? 1 dirbpois . /cat o OTI o " Twi' K/ooto-o? ovBev f/ a croco^ el? Tra^o' Hyot> EXX?. KOI SeSeyue^o? dve/3il3dcr0r) xal teal Kvpov fjv Trapovros. TrporpeTTwv teal * 1) * "rot? Ma TV/T > A At GLTTCV. and S 484 . 1 aT S>.." ' ' o >/ aAA -\ -v / co? tjKicrra co? apiara. Kvpw av^L/SaXc ) U7T(O\e(T KCU atTO? e/ieXXe KaraTrLfATrpaa'dai. cro(j}a)Tpo<f '* wv rov Kpoicrov : Ka\ ^ Tx a Coraes. e/ceXeve TO GKOTTeiv teal yu.cr dvr)p. bv /lereTre/t'v^ayu. (>u>vf) Oew/JLtvwv ocroy e e'(/)' Swarbs rfj ^de^^ rpk. OCTTi? dvOpMTTWV T) 0WV OUTO? 6 SoXcoi/. /8ovXoyu. /AOi ouSe fiaOeiv wv aXX* 0earr)S yevoiro KOI atyu-o^ta? eWtz^?." eVet Se TOUT' avj]vi^(0r] TTyoo? '." Oavfj-dcras ovv o Kuyoo? TOU5 pr]CTOfM6VOV<. d7ro/3a\eiv dpa KCLKQV r\ \a(Belv dyadov.PLUTARCH'S LIVES <yap et? 2a/)Sei? yueTaVe/ATTTO? ryeyovM? VTTO Kpoicrov /col Ti/jLM/jLevo*. "*H SoXa>^. Xo-yo? 7a/ Trapova-rj^' al /leraySoXal Se teal So^a rdjaObv et? TrdBrj Seivd /cat cru/^o eicelvos 6 dvrjp etc reXefTwcrt. o KpoZcro? OI/TW roO So KaTetypovTjcrev' cirel be KOi TTJV 7TO\IV fjid^T). Cobet.ei/ o5y .e^o? &)? Sr.

Croesus held Solon in a contempt like this . when he left me. ask him what man or god this Solon was on whom alone he called in his extremity. was in Sardis. and receiving much honour at his He was distressed that Solon met with no hands. 485 . but afterwards he encountered Cyrus. mine. and not let insecure conjectures embolden me to be proud and insolent. bear testimony to the happiness I then enjoyed. with all the reach and power of which "O l his voice was capable. or as pleasing as is possible." When this was reported to Cyrus. without any concealment. kindly treatment. was taken alive and condemned to be burnt and then. was defeated in battle. our converse with kings should be either : " as rare. not with any desire to hear or learn the things of which I stood in need. and. since he was a wiser man than Croesus. And Croesus. i. 86." No. as he lay bound upon the pyre in the sight of all the Persians and of Cyrus himself. Cyrus. this. : ! in terrible sufferings and irreparable calamities which are real. 1-4 writer of fables. the good I derived from it was matter of repor and men's opinion.SOLON. but in order that he might behold. and 1 Cf. And that man. conjecturing this future from what he then saw. having been summoned thither by Croesus. said: "This man was one of the sages of Greece. Herodotus. and said to him by way of advice "O Solon. the loss of which I now see to be a greater For when it was evil than its possession was a good. " but either as rare or as beneficial as " ! is possible. indeed said Solon." At this time. XXVHI. he called out thrice " astonished sent men at to Solon then. bade me look to the end of my life. but its departure from me issues . then. and I sent for him. lost his city.

TWV i 95 dvBpdaiv fjia\. XXIX.ev ei^e >p.6\wv \byw TOV crcocra?. ev o^Xo? Kal /j. d\\a 7T\eov eeiv ev TTJ jneTaj3o\fj Kal /cpaTijcreiv TravTairacn TW 2 fjievwv.ov/iAvos eTTLa-Tevero euXa/3^? dyajrwv.aX\ov TWV e^ovTwv. Trevrjcri.L(TTa SOKOVVTOS avTu>. ovTO) Be TWV Trpay/jLaTcov C^OVTCOV 6 1 V'A/3' et? ra? Auijvas. /cal TTyOo? ftoriBrjTiKos rot? yLterpfO?.d\i(rTa rot? TT\OV&(TTe rj&r) d%06/Aevos' TI~JV xprjcrdai.os VTTO d\\* evTvy%dvwv IBia rot? TrpoeaTaxn.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TOV \6yov TOV SoXwz/o? lcr%vpbv ev TW TrapaBecyfjiaTi /3\e7ra)V. fjiev GTI rot? 7To\iv. Kal TavTa p. o 'AX/Cyuato)^o?.^\T aeiv o/ioto)? ov/c . Se 'Trpdy/jiaTa veatTepa Trpocr- BoKav Kal TroOelv avra^ra? eTepav KaTdaTacriv. a Be (frvaei fjirj ra? e%0 pas eTriei/crjs /cal Trpocrijv avTw. o QTJTIKOS HeicriaTpaTOS Be TWV &iaKpiwv. Trapa nao~iv i ev Be KOLVW \eyeiv /cal TrpdereV rjv Su^aro? ovBe 7rp60v/j. /cal /cocr/xio? dvijp /cal /zaXicrra Brj TO caov /cal Bva^epaivcov el TI$ TO. Ol TOV Be ev a&Tei Tca\iv eGTaaiav wvo^' /ca TrpoeicrTifcei TWV Av/covpyos. aas TWV ftaaiXecov. OUK LCTOV e\Tri^ovTa<s. </)tXe? rjv eireipciTO Bia\veiv /cal avvapTOV HeKTKTT paTov Trpocre^eLv /cal yap aifivXov TI Kal Trpoa/cal el%ev ev TU> Bia\eyecr0ai. TWV Be TIapd\a)v MeyaK\ri<. TrapovTa 486 . aioco /j. &>? /jLi/j. ov povov dtyrj/ce TOV Kpol&ov. aXXa /cal TI/JLWV e'(/>' ocrov etyi evl BiT\e(Te' fjiev /cal B6av TOV Be airo- ecr^ev 6 ^.

487 . xxvin. The Plain-men were headed by Lycurgus the Shore-men by Megacles the son of Alcmaeon. and the Hill-men 1 by Peisistratus. 4-xxix. Even those virtues which nature had denied him were imitated by him so successfully that he won more confidence than those who actually possessed them. He did. Among the last was the multitude of As Thetes. and would take it ill if any one disturbed the existing . who were the bitter enemies of the rich. He was revered and honoured by all. 1 Cf.SOLON. 3 saw the word of Solon confirmed in the example before him. yet all were already expecting a revolution and desirous of a different form of government. and to get the entire mastery of its opponents. not in hopes of an equality. But the people of Athens were again divided into factions while Solon was away. and Peisistratus seemed to pay him more heed than the others. a consequence. He was thought to be a cautious and order-loving man. Aristotle. but each party thinking to be bettered by the change. And thus Solon had the reputation of saving one king and instructing another by means of a single saying. of Athens. though the city still observed the new laws. but actually held him in honour as long as he lived. confer privately with the chiefs of the opposing factions. 4. but owing to his years he no longer had the strength or the ardour to speak and act in public as before. XXIX. he not only released Croesus. and was reasonable and moderate in his enmities. endeavouring to reconcile and harmonize them. Such was the state of affairs when Solon returned to Athens. Const. one that prized equality above all things. however. xiii. For Peisistratus had an insinuating and agreeable quality in his address. he was ready to help the poor.

'Evrel Be IIetcrtaT/oaT09 rj/cev et9 /cal Kararpuxras auTO9 eavrbv 6 dyopdv errl ^evyovs /cofj. <p(t)pacrev Be SovVa)z^ rrjv jap ra^v TO rrpwros eTreipdro avrou ov /cat u^rjv e7ri/3ov\r)v ey/carelBev ejjLLcn^crev. ededaaro TOV @ecr7riv avrbv vTTOKpivo^evov.ei>os. Kiveiv. wcrvre/j e^o? rjv rot? 5 /zera r^y ^ea^ Trpocrayopeva-as avrbv evavTiov OVK al(Tj(yverai ^euSo/if^o?.?. KOI Bia rrjv KCUvorrjTa rou? ayovros rov Trpdy/j-aTos.v ev XXX. ravovrco /cal errcuvovvres rrjv rifj. OVTTO) ' evayooviov 6 ^6\o)v. .a)vre<. en Kai Trai&ia KOI vq Ata Troroi? /cat 7rapa7TfjL7ra)v kavrov. real TT^O? avrbv e\ey6 /ecu 7T/OO5 6T6/30V? &>9 6t T? ej~.PLUTARCH'S LIVES fcivoirj /cal vewrepwv opeyoiro' 6 rovrois Trdra rovs TroTiXov?.1rov %>r)fJiov rrapai^vve 009 Bid rr)V rro\ireiav vrrb rwv e^Opwv e7ri/3ej3ov\evjj.\Ol TO (f)i\O7T pWTOV ClVTOV KOI . ^o/Jievo^. vpijcro/j. (frrjo-ai'Tos &e rov Qea'Trto'os yu. Seivov elvcu TO fjuera TratSm? ~\6<yeiv ra roiavra /cal e el TO3~oi>TU)V irpdcra-eiv. a\V nrpaiiveLv /ecu vovOeTeiv. cr^o&pa rfj fia/crrjpLa TIJV yf)V 6 ^6\wv " " rrard^a^' Ta^v fievroi rrjv rrcubidv" ecfrrj. Trjv GTrcOvjjCiciP idcrcuTO T?}? rvpav- OVK <TTIV a\Xo? v<pvecrT6po<.

the spectacle. 489 . treat him as an enemy." : XXX. therefore. Const. and asked him if he was not ashamed to tell such lies in the presence of so many people. Aristotle. yes. 3-x. after 1 inflicting a came into the market-place and tried to exasperate the populace 1 plotted against his Cf. with the charge that his enemies had life on account of his political i. Solon quickly detected his real character. of Athens. Now when wound upon riding himself. in a chariot. he accosted Thespis. xiv. but tried to soften Thespis was now beginning to develop tragedy. order and attempted a change. and his eager passion for the tyranny be cured.xx. the first to perceive his secret designs. as the custom of the ancient poets was. and who in his old age more than ever before indulged himself in leisurely amusement. xxix. Peisistratus. whereupon Solon smote the ground sharply with his " staff and said Soon. we shall find it in our solemn contracts. or a better citizen. if we give play of this sort so much praise and honour. went to see Thespis act in his own After play. and the attempt attracted most people because of its novelty. 1. no other man would be more naturally disposed to virtue. and in wine and song. 59 . he completely deceived most people. naturally fond of hearing and learning anything new. however. But indeed. He actually said to him and to others that if the desire for preeminence could but be banished from his soul. On these points. although it was not yet made a matter of Solon.SOLON. who was competitive contest. Thespis answered that there was no harm in talking and acting that way in play. Herodotus. and was He did not. i and mould him by his instructions. however.

/^e^pt 4 Trjv dtcpo- Tevojuevov Be TOVTOV /cal rr?9 7roXeo)9 490 . " &> o 2oXa>z/ real Trapacrra?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Kal 7roXXoi>9 TrpocreXOwv 771)9 /caXa>9. jSaivei. aXX' ocrou9 eySouXero Tpecfrovra /cal TL TWV (TvvdyovTa <pavp$><. crvfJiTracnv 6' t'/tty ^avvo^ eve&Ti 1^009. e 7pa-v|ra^T09 07ra)9 TO) Kopvvr)<f)6poi //-O.TO9. 701)9 e TT\OV- criovs aTrooi&dcrKOVTas eiTrcibv /cal a7ro5eiXta}^ra9. a?rcr f}\6ev OTI TWV /lev <TTL avSpeioTepos' cro0a)rep09 yLtei^ rai^ /u. dvSpeioTepos Be TWV <TVVLGVTWV /nei>.^ crvvievTwv TO TrpcLTToiJievov. Ov vrat 'IiTTro/cpaTovs. cvavTiovcrOai Be TT) TvpavviSi (froftov/nevwv. Trepiecopa. vTro/cpivrj " TOV 'QjjirjpiKov 'OBvcro-ea' ravra yap eicevos rovs 7rapa/(pov6/jLvo<? 049 eavrov" TO fjLev /c rovrov 7r\f)6o<$ 3]v eroLjjiov vTrep^aj^elv TOV ITetreal o~vvr)\9ev et9 efexX/rjaiav 6 . TO Be ^jj(f)HT/jLa tcvpoocras 6 OTJ/JLOS ovSe Trepl TOV Tr\y']0ovs KOpVVrffyoptoV ^LfJiiKpO\OyelTO 7T/309 TOV TleicricrTpaTOV. TleLcrio-TpaTO) (frv\aKTj dvTei7Tv 6 6/jLOta ^6\wv avaGTas ol<} /cal TOV <ra)7TO\\a TOVTOIS o/jare V/JLWV 8' 6^9 yLtet' e/tacrT09 dXco7reAro9 fyveat." elTrev. 3 ODWV Se TOU9 TIM YleKTiaTpaTto Kal QopvfiovvTas.

491 . 5. xiv. and a general assembly of the people was held. were nevertheless afraid to oppose the 3 So the people passed the decree. Yet every one of you walks with the steps of a fox. while the rich were fearfully slinking away from any conflict with him. 2 Fragment 11 (Bergk). " O son of Hippocrates. saying that he was wiser than the one party.SOLON. and the city was in an . though they understood it. and said many things which were like what he has written in his poems : " Ye have regard indeed to the speech and words of a wily man. Const. : but thou doest it to mislead thy fellow-citizens. but suffered him to keep and lead about in public as many as he wished. and 6. held Peisistratus to no strict account of the number of his club-bearers. and braver than the other wiser than those who did not understand what was being done. xxx. and then tyranny. Here Ariston made a motion that Peisistratus be allowed a body-guard of fifty club-bearers. 1-4 angry and many of them greeted the charge with Solon drew near and accosted him. cries. and braver than those who. 1 Odyssey. When this had been done. And in you all dwells an empty mind. Aristotle." 2 But when he saw that the poor were tumultuously bent on gratifying Peisistratus. 244-264. verses 7. of Athens. thou art playing saying the Homeric Odysseus badly. iv. changed the order 3 Cf. Bekker and Cobet restore Plutarch has it. for when he dis1 figured himself it was to deceive his enemies. but Solon formally opposed it. opinions. he left the assembly. until at last he seized the acropolis. . 2." After this the multitude was ready to fight for Peisistratus.

a\\a Troirf/uara jpdT0t9 t Be rreirovOare /JLIJ \vypa Bi* v/jLerepijv Ka/corrjra. Xaftwv ra orc\a Kal rrpo TWV Ovp&v Oeuevos et9 " " 009 Bvvarbv rov crrevwirov. /cal Bia ravra /ca/crjv ea-^ere Bov\o<rvvrjv. 96 a(f)6Bpa jepwv teal TOU9 ftorfOovvras OVK i%V. 'E/i-ol yue^. evtfvs <>v>y fjiercl d\\a)V 'AXtf/zaJCtmScoy. e 7rpof)\0ev et9 yu." elirev. avrov 'ETrl rovroL? Be 7ro\\wv vovOerovvrwv rov rvpdvvov. o ' f^ev Me<yaK\f)<." KOI TO \oi7rbv r)a-v%iav r)<ye.PLUTARCH'S LIVES . o Be ^oXcuji ^77 yu. (froftov ean /cal Xa/JLirporepov ijSrj Kal di'\elv avveaTwcrav ovBevos aTrri\. fieftotjdrjrai rfj TrarpiBi. n Oeols rovrwv /JLTJVIV eTra^epere. a>9 dirodavov/jievov VTTO 492 . TT/JO? TOU? TroXtra?. /cal rot9 ^0/^0^9.ez. Kal rwv (friXcov favyew ov Trpoa-el^ev.rj ra Be irapo^vvwv eiTrev. a>9 Trpcoyv K0)\vcrcu rrjv fjiev /ecu 5 7rapa/ca\<*)v Trpoeadai rrjv eXeuOepiav ore r)v /cal TO /Awrj/Aovevo/nevov fiapearepov avrols ev- TO vvv 6e jmei^ov /cvlav.ei/ dyopav /ecu $i\%6ri ert.6ev /cal irefyv- Be e/9 irpoae^ovTo^ avrw TTJV Bia TOV /cal OIKICLV TTJV eavrov. ra tca/ci^wv rrjv a/3ov\iav av- TWV Kal fidXaffiav. jj. XXXI. avrol jap rovrovs qv^ijo-are pvfiara Bovres. 6 771.

in which he heaped reproaches on the Athenians : " suffer grievously through cowardice all your own. destroy it when it had been already planted and was grown. xxx. Const. that earlier it had been easier for them to hinder the tyranny. saying help my 2 From that time on he lived country and its laws. too. No one had the courage to side with him. took his arms.SOLON. In view R 493 . partly blaming their folly and weakness. therefore are ye now in base subjection. and had none to support him. vor. T. 3 He had been pollution upon the family (chapter xii. Then it was. he paid no heed to them." : in quiet retirement. many warned him that the tyrant would put him to death. verses 1-4. and partly encouraging them still and exhorting them not to abandon their liberty. went nevertheless into the market-place and reasoned with the citizens. while it was in preparation but now it was a greater and more glorious task to uproot and . and placed them in the street in front of " I have done all I can to his door. although he was now a very old man. and asked him on Grandson of the Megacles who brought the taint of 1 XXXI. Cherish no wrath against the gods for this. But Solon. For ye yourselves increased the usurper's power by If now ye And giving him a guard. Cf. 4-xxxi. Megacles straightway fled. 1-3). 2 It was for others now to do the same. xiv. but kept urged him on writing poems. and so he retired to his own house. however. and when his friends to fly. allowed to return from banishment. i l uproar. 2. that he uttered the famous saying. * of Athens. Aristotle. Fragment 11 (Bergk)." of this. with the rest of the Alcmaeonidae.

ov \ /ATJV ^ aAA >-\ o rwv Trpaj/Jircov Oepdirevo'e rbv ovrcos elvai /cal ^o\wva.. ware fcal KOI Trd\\a T&V Trpacrao/AevGov TrXetcrrou? /JLfjLVO)V 7T/3ft)T09 e jap e^vXarre TOU? 09 v6ju. 009 VTTO 494 . t >>* eiirev. rov O-UTO? /Cat TOU? 7rpocrK\r)06ls et9 2 dvaytcda)V Apeiov i 76 /eat (j)6vov Trd<yov. > ' w /-.r\avTLKov \6jov ov Sirf/covae rcov Trepl ^dlv \o ryid)v Trpocnj/covra ov TO &i dcr^oXiav. aTT^rrycre ov% VTrrj atTO9 erepovs ejpa^rev. yilpa.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TLVI TTLcrrevwv > OVTWS cnrovoelTai.ov<. /cal rov T7)9 dpyias iroKiv vofiov a> ov re %6\wv edrjKev. d\\a /cal xcopav evepyorepav rrjv 3 'O ' Se p roy k. &v eari /cat 6 TOU9 7nia)06VTas ev r vwv. rovro Se J]<TIV Hpa/c\6t&?s /cal irporepov eVl ep<j'nnru) Trrjp&devTi rov aTToX-oyrja-o/jLevo^) 6 Be /carrf'yopos VO/JLOVS iaropij/ce. JjSi] rvpavvwv. TI^V KOI real fjL6TaTTe/jL7r6juivo<.

when Peisistratus had become master of the situation." However. " My old age. 1 particularly concerned the Athenians. in consequence of which the country became more productive and the city more tranquil. to xxxi. observing them first himself. which he answered. one of which provides that those who are maimed in war shall be maintained at the But Heracleides says that even public charge. but his accuser did He also made other not put in an appearance. as Plato says. but rather because of For his old age. but by Peisistratus. chapter xxvi. 1-3 what he relied that he was so lost to all sense. he paid such court to Solon by honouring him. Moreover. as he had heard from the learned men of Sai's. laws. when he was already tyrant. showing him kindness. Now Solon. of Solon's. and presented himself there to make his defence in due form. 1. 495 . and the attribution of it to him is probably a play of Plato's fancy. before the Areiopagus on a charge of murder. and that Peisistratus was following his example. he was summoned his friends to do so. that Solon actually became hiscounsellorand approved For he retained most of Solon's of many of his acts. which. abandoned it. was not made by Solon. laws himself. who had been so maimed. Theophrastus writes that the law against idleness.SOLON. and inviting him to his palace. not for lack of leisure. fearing the magnitude of the task. after beginning his great work on the story or fable of the lost Atlantis. and compelling For instance. 1 There is no trace of any such work Cf. before that Solon had caused a decree to be passed to this effect in the case of Thersippus.

'H/oa/cXe/S?.a "Epya Be T^vTrpoyevovs vvv vvcrov ea)^. Trpodvpa ' real 7repi/3oXov? KOI * r > ota f \. e'Sa^o? o avru) Se TTW? Kara awyyeveiav fjue e^epyda-acrOai KOI SiaKocr/jirjcrai rrjv 'Ar\ai>7 tfcrjv viroOeaiv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ireptovcriav avTov ^rfwovcriv al TOICLVTCU S' alel /cat.6vov epyov are" A.e? ecr^rj/cev. 'O? epTj/jLov. o-v^e Se dp^djjievos 7rpoKare\ua6 TOV epyov TOV . 7roX\. * ra >yTO Ol/Tft)9 7 HXaTWrO? (TO()La TOV 'A. 8e ^az^ta? eirl Kw/Atof 97 CLTTO- Tvpavvev Se 5)oXa>i>a rjaiv o <&avia<.T\avriKov ev vroXXot? KO\. ocrw fia\\ov eiKppaivei TOCTOVTW /m.'? a>9 o 'E/)eo-09> avyvQv ^povov. io'Topel. 496 .oyos auXa? TTJ dp%f) >5 >'-\-\ '^v '/I ^^ ofoe/9 aAAo? ecr^ev ouoe fivuos ovo ^ >t } 2 Trot^cri?.ov rot? fiiov. e\aTTOva Svoiv ZTWV.OW p. 3 'E776/5twcre S' o^i^ o SoXwz/ dp^apevov co? yitez^ TOV o rov Tvpavveiv. /JLOL <>i\a real a TiQrjcr' av^pdcriv ev XXXII. && %(t)pas Ka\rj<.

which impart delights to men. such verses as these " But I grow old ever learning many things " .C. as if it were the soil of a fair estate unoccupied. 2. l and again. work. and the Muses. 3 that he had abundant leisure. less than two years. chapter ii. his maternal uncle. 2 Cf. p. 561-60 B." XXXII. the greater is our distress in view of what he left undone. tale. made himself . 3 began the work by laying out great porches. 155 a). 1 3 497 . with Solon (Charmides. too. Fragment 26 (Bergk). and courtyards. For it was in the archonship of Corneas 6 that Peisistratus began his tyranny. as Heracleides Ponticus states. 4 6 Plato's Critias is a splendid fragment. enclosures. a long time but as Phanias of Eresos says. 2 Of Dionysus. ambitious to elaborate and adorn the subject of the lost Atlantis. or poesy ever had before. Plato. then. and Phanias says that Solon died in the archonship of Hegestratus. such as no story. For as the Olympieium in the city of Athens.SOLON. 4 Well. testify : xxxi. his life But he was before his late in beginning. and ended Therefore the greater our delight in what he actually wTote. " But now the works of the Cyprus-born goddess are dear to my soul. Plato mentions the relationship of Critias. so the tale of the lost Atlantis in the wisdom of Plato is the only one among many beautiful works to remain unfinished. 3-xxxn. Solon lived on after Peisistratus had tyrant. but appropriately his by virtue of some kinship with Solon.

dvayeypcnnai 8* VTTO re a\\o)v av&p&v dfyoXoywv teal 'ApicrTO- rov d>i\0(r6(f)ov.ev Sia Trjv aroiTLav ajriOavos TravraTTao-i teal /Jiv6<i)&r]s. -- 498 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES 4 daveiv rov fiera Kei)/uaz> cip^avros.a/jLiviWv vr\crov evil fj. o-Tropa rrjv r) Se Sia- KCLTdKavOevros avrov rrjs recfrpas irepl ^aX.

the successor of Corneas. and yet it is given by noteworthy authors. 499 .SOLON. xxxii. 4 The story that his body was burned and island of Salnmis his ashes scattered on the is strauge enough to be altogether and fabulous. and even by Aristotle the incredible philosopher.



ia)v eva yevea-Oai STJ/AOV Tretcra? */ap po^icna TOV9 ftacriXels 2 ravro earl. w? Pa>/z>.9 en TT}? e-m^avr)^ 8ia \o<yov TT\ovroi>. el <yevoiro ^/JiOKparLa.nOITAIKOAAS /co\av 7rapa/3d\\ojj. evQvs.Ova\\epios Ka\elro. a0' ou Be rot? fjv e\ev6eplw<$ teal (f)i\av0pa)7ra)$ errapfcwv. o> rov rovro nev varepov Ti/j. 3 ^ovTrep/Bov ovre \aftovra dp%r)V /faXw9.ve^o? f TOVTO) <pacri rjv Kara /cal Qi>a\\pios.fj 6 'Pco/jiauwv Bfj/jios e^evpev errl rovvofjia. aXX* dvoaiwf /cal rrapavo^w^.ev. ovre ^pa^fJLevov avrfj ySacrtXt/cco?. /cal avrrjv eVl rq> 'ETrel Be Tap/cvvtov rrjv Aev/cios Bpovros aTrroyae^o? rwv Trpajfidrcov 502 . ILIU&V o 5>}yLto? /cal fiapvvojjievos. K /cal 7ro\6fj. wv TO) fjiev opOws teal pera rrappr)(jias del %yocoyLte^o? vrrep rcov Bi/caLwv. (rvveXOelv Srj SmAAa^a? rrpocrrjicwv o fjiev e.Ova\\epiov boKWV aTroyovos elvai TWV TraKaiwv dvSpbs CLLTLW- rdrov ^evop.evov et? 'Pco/jLaiovs KOI 6 I><af3ivov<. irpo rov Se Tl6TT\io<. rrpw- revcrwv. dp%rji> drro(Trdcreu>s e'Xa/3e TO Aov/cp^ria<^ rrdOos /3iaa0rjvai Biepyaa-afjievr)?. aXX' vfSpi^ovra /cal rvpavvovvra.

Lucius Brutus. resented his oppressions. but after the manner of an insolent and haughty tyrant. It was therefore clear that. was conspicuous for his eloquence and wealth. Before that he SUCH was Solon. revolt in the fate of Lucretia. came to 53 . while with the other he gave liberal and kindly aid to the poor and needy. The people therefore hated him.PUBLICOLA I. should Rome become a democracy. . engaging in the revolution. who made away with herself after violence had been done to her. to whom the Roman people gave this surname later as a mark of honour. he would at once be one of its foremost men. and found occasion for . but by the violation of divine and human laws nor did he exercise it in kingly fashion. and with him we compare was called Publius Valerius. and settled their differences. as we are told. always employing the one with integrity and boldness in the service of justice. and was reputed to be a decendant of that ancient Valerius who was most instrumental in making the Romans and the Sabines one people instead of enemies for it was he more than anyone else that persuaded their kings to come Such being together. Now Tarquinius Superbus had not acquired his power honourably. Valerius. Publicola. his lineage. while Rome was still a kingdom.

%eipOTOvijcriv rj^ev ^XP dvTL o P* v errtSofos rjv TOV y8acrtXea)9 009 Qva\\pio<i. rrjv dp%rjv KCU Svo 7rpo/3aX\ojjievov KOI KaXovvros. KOtva 7ravTe\w<. 'Ayava/CTWv o OvaXkepios. \6yov TOIS 7roXXot9 fir) Trapacr^eiv /cal ^)0/3ou/te^oi9 Si opyrjv TrpoaOefJievo^ teal Trjv TOt9 fiaaiXevcriv dvaTpe^rrj 2 Tfo\iv ra rrpdy/^aTa errel 98 eV(7^)aXoo9 e^ovo-av. rr/9 el TTLO TeveTai rr rrdvTa rrpaTTeiv eveKa / 5>V'C"' QTI firjbev ibia /carcov VTTO TCOV Tvpavvcov re of?9 rrecrTr /cal \r\ KOL TO TrpaTTetv TO. eXjri^wv fiera TOV 5 TCV. UpovTOv alpeOrjaecrdai KOI crvvwrraTevGeiv ilpt'*) jap a/coi>Ti T& B/JOUTW dvT\ TOV OvaXXeplov Tap/cvvios KoXXart^09. aXX* ol BvvaTol 3eS/or9 TOU9 /3aai\eis ert TTJV 7ro\\a Treip&VTas e^wOev /cal fia\da-(rovTas TTO\IV. o KovKprjTias dvr)p. Be /cal 54 .picr0eiaav vTrofjieivai.PLUTARCH'S LIVES T7/9 /^era/ifoXr}? /cal ejrl rrpwTOV rfkOe rbv Ova\\epiov TrpoOv/jLOTaTco avve%e/3a\e o 1 xpyo-d/Jievos avrw 4 TOU9 /3acrtXe?9. /3oV\OVTO TOV CVTOVtoTCLTOV CL e^eiv (TTpaTrjybv II. fcal . TW Bpourw r^9 eXevOepLa? ^va^epaivofjiivov Be TOV rfjs [MovapovofJiaros. ovBev apery Ova\\piov Sia<J)epa>v. a>9 ou^ ovv v^rjcrofievov. teal SOKOVVTO? av aXviroTepov TOV ap^eiv TTpoarfKov rjyefiovi v /j.

and subvert the established order of the city. in his wrath. citizens were afraid of the kings. and would be consul with him. the husband of Lucretia. the very name of monarchy was odious to the people. i. 3-11. he should attach himself to the royal exiles. He was a man of no greater excellence than Valerius. and they therefore desired to have as their commander the most pronounced enemy of the royal family. who thought that it would be less vexatious to submit to an authority which was divided. 2. withdrew from the senate. For against the wishes of Brutus. ii. who were still putting many efforts outside.was elected as his colleague. and trying to appease resentment inside the city. was disappointed. as long as the people was likely to elect one man as their commander in place of the king. who hoped that he would be chosen next to Brutus. believing that he would make no concessions to them. but the influential. because he had led the way to freedom. 2 instead of Valerius. Livy. i. II. Livy. accordingly. 2 Valerius first of all. Then Valerius. i. and with his most zealous assistance drove out the kings. merely because he had received no private injury at the hands of the tyrants. which was in a dangerous pass. and abandoned This caused anxious entirely his public activities. Tarquinius Collatinus. vexed that his desire to do his utmost for his country should be doubted. But when Brutus. Valerius acquiesced.PUBLICOLA. . They feared lest. thinking it more fitting that Brutus should have the But office. 58 f. gave up his practice as an advocate. and therefore proposed and demanded that two men should be elected to the highest office. 11. forth 1 Cf. 4. . 1 Then. 3 Cf. 60. Valerius. remark among the multitude.

ov. /cal ra? ovcnas avrw Ka Siaftiooo-ovTai. r?}9 6v0vs 3 Be Kal ra TJKOV epya avro rov opicov 6/3e/3a[. 7ro\e/.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TIVCLS vTrotylav e%a)v 6 Bpovro? ejSov\Gro Sia ffffrayiwv op/cwcrai. TO ?rX>}^o? olofjievwv $eiv TMV vrrdrwv /jLerpiaiv iroayayeiv OVK l ei'a&ev 6 OuaXXe/3t09. ar/oeTrro? opyr/v o &v dvifp Kal BpoOro? H^e&pa/jiev et? dyopdv. aTtaiTzlv Se TO. ol? eTraycoya rov Srjfiov /cal Xo^ou? /xaXicrra TOU? TroXXoi/? COOVTO Xeyojjievois /cal TO $>povr)fjia Touroi/9 ei? Trapa fBaa-i\ew<s d Belddai SOKOVVTOS.LOV Kal ol? Beivov Tvpav- 7T/3COT09 iooTrjS i>)]p ejTev ev J/IM Tore 506 . Kara/3a<.d\icrTa TOV wv (rvvayopevovTOS. Kal Trpwro? o/zocra? Kara /cpdros ftov\f) /cal virep Odpcros e\ev9epia<s. Kal rroXe/AovvTa iravaaorBai TOV 'YapKvviov XeyovTes. III. tiXX' evecrrr} Trevijcri SieK(i)\v(Tv dvOpu>TTOi<$ Kal fiapvvotty9^a? \\OV Kal TT T?}? ponder e i<. 7Tyoecr/3et? jap $ Taprcvviov ypd/jL/jLara e . (pevyovTes. 67ritc\a)Be TroXXw^ Kal /j. TOV (Tvvdp%ovTa. TVpaVViSo? TOV 7TO\/jLOV vewrepioriJLwv eyyeveaOai. Mera $ ravra Trpea-ftei? rJKov erepoi TT}? re /3acriXeta? dfyicrracrOai. rrjv /3ov\rjv real irpoetirei' fid\a (frai&pos et? dyopav 6 T)/jiepav. rj&ovtfv re rfj afia TO?? ap-^ovcn Trapea^ev.

the first to speak among them 1 Cf. 5. a man of harsh and unyielding temper ran forth into the forum and denounced his colleague as a traitor. their moneys and wherewith to maintain themselves in exile. These envoys the consuls thought should be brought before the assembled people. ii. 2 who had his suspicions of certain others also. After this. This pleased the senate and the consuls with courage. were inclined to grant this favour. Many and his kinsmen. 3. And when an assembly of the citizens was held. and specious words by which they thought the multitude were most likely to be corrupted. who considered war a greater burden than tyranny. and set a day for the ceremony. And his actions inspired For envoys came from speedily confirmed his oath. Livy. desired the senators to take a sacrificial oath. occasions and excuses for revolution. He was unalterably opposed to giving poor men. but would fight with all his might in defence of freedom. III. his friends. but Brutus. other envoys came announcing that Tarquin abdicated his throne and ceased to wage war upon the city. because he would bestow the means for waging war and maintaining tyranny on men to whom it were a terrible mistake to vote even a bare subsistence in exile. Valerius went down with a glad countenance into the forum. ii. and was the first to take oath that he would make no submission or concession to the Tarquins. Tarquin bringing letters calculated to seduce the people.PUBLICOLA. and to ask only moderate terms. 507 . 2-ni. but demanded for himself. but Valerius would not suffer it. 1 effects. coming as they did from a king who seemed to have humbled himself. and Collatinus in particular joined in advocating it.

/ \ be f~\ UuireAAiot? ev. fjLrfrepwv .IVOVKIOS.^ a/jia Karaa/cevrj 7rpecr{3et<i TTyooSocrta?. /cal f) eXd^icrro^ Tretpa rov 8' aTraiTrfcn. aXXa crvvK^a\elv \6yos JJLCV rot? Tvpdvvois. /cal TW re T0t9 'Pa>/zaiO9 ytter' .oir) Trpo? TOi<9 CLVTOV?.vov TOV f ibia 5 ^. OIKOVS 6uo r&v KCL\WV rov 'A/cv\\LO)v rpeis eyovra d$\<j)i8ol O.PLUTARCH'S LIVES FaJ'o9 M.yu. Trapaivwv [ACT* opav OTTO)? ra avT&v ovra Y) 7ro\e^. ^9 cTroXefiovv. * " -\ ~l f erepa de\<j>}jv yap 4 o B/3oOro9 el^e /cal TratSa? e avTr/s TT\eiovas* Bvo <rvvri6ei<$ ol TOL^ eV j]\iKiq crL77626t? 6Wa? OuireXX^ot TrpoaiyydyovTO ev rf) a/m real /cal (rvve- Treicrav Trpo&ocria et? yeveaOai /cal Kara^i- 76^09 fieya TO rwv Tap/cvviwi teal fta&iXifcas eXvrtSa? d7ra\\ayrji>ai rfjs TOV Trarpo? dfte\Tepias /cal %a\e7roTr)TO$' ^aXeTro/lev TO aTrapaiT^TOV avTOv Trpos TOU9 %avTas eaurou? 8' dj3e\T6pia 508 . fjLrj TTpoeaOai Tr)v /cal elprfvrjv evefca %/)?. Be apa Taprcvviq) pTj/AaTCOv. fJLCL\\OV KLVCOV 7T/J09 ov juirjv aXX* eBo^e rot? 'Pco/zatoi? T^V e\ev6epiav vTrep e%pvdtv. ra aiTO^L^oaOai. ejrparrov ol virofievovTes eVl fiev ry 7rpo(j)dcrL.aT&)^. ra ra ov SietyOeipav /cal vojjLi^o/jLevwi'. $ov- Xeura? Svo rbv Ovire\\i(Dv. OVTOI Trdvres * CLTTO Ko\\ari.

and besides. of course. and she had borne him several sons. was of very slight consequence to Tarquin. ii. 3. and rid themselves of the stupidity and cruelty of their father. and as for his stupidity. which had two.PUBLICOLA. 2-4 was Caius Minucius. they would not sacrifice peace for the sake of wealth. Livy. as it appears. the Vitellii won over and persuaded to join the plot for betraying the city. but the demand for it was at once a test of the people's disposition and a means of instigating treachery among them. since they had the liberty for which they were at war. feigned and 1 Cf. in. Two of these. Now the wealth. who had come to manhood. And it was with this that the envoys busied themselves. a private man. rather than with the tyrants against them. 59 . and that of the Vitellii. and reserving part. However. and sending part of it away. For they gave the name of cruelty to that father's inexorable treatment of criminals. 4. that of the Aquillii. the Vitellii were related in another manner to Brutus. and were their near kindred and close companions. making the property merely a pretext for remaining in the city. and saying that they were selling part of it. to ally themselves with the great family and the royal expectations of the Tarquins. who exhorted Brutus and advised the Romans to see to it that the treasures fought with them against the tyrants. which had three senators. but cast this also out 1 along with the tyrants. At last they succeeded in corrupting two of the noble families of Rome. For Brutus had married a sister of theirs. he had for a long time. by the mother's side. the Romans decided that. All these. were nephews of Collatinus the consul.

7T/30? Trarepa l&povrov vlwv ^dyiGra Kariyyopeiv TJ TT/OO? Oelov d$e\(f)tSwv rov Ko\\ar1vov.dy7jcrav. opxov iracri ofjioa-ai KOI Seivov. xprjcracrOai OVK el^ev.Ka ware Kal rwv Kei/Aevrjv irpo #earr)? ryeveadai Kal rwv (SovXevfjLd'rwv eV?. aXX' evSov aTrovBtj^ avrols yLtera \dpva. yiteXXoi'TO?. fl? >' ovv ra fjbeipdiaa teal rot? 'A/cuXXtoi? et? XOYOU? i]\0ev. KOI ravra $7j\ovo-a<. Qviv&iKios \dQpa. TT/OO? rovs rvpdv- acr<pa\. ov /car* 67rf/3ouXr/t' 99 TrpoaiaO^cflv riva rov erv)(6 KOL Trpoaiovcnv l? vTT^arrj.oo9 rovs vird-rovs dvaipelv.eia<? . wa-irep rjv. iSi(t)rr)V Be 'Pco^aiwv ovSeva vo- . ov$* vcrrepov f (j)v<yv avrrjS rrjv eTrwvvjJLiav. Kal rore rfj 3 Q? Be o e\6a>v ravra rrpd^avres d7rrf\J\. ev ol/teTijs w ravra KCLI OVO/JLO. av9 pwjrov cr<pa- 7nar7reio'avTa$ aljia KOI rwv Spdcreiv eVt TOVTOIS (Tvvrj\. rwv 'A/cuXXicov f evoi <yeyov6r<?. i rot? Trpoa-Trecrovcriv /JLGV aXX' rjiropelro.PLUTARCH'S LIVES eveKa iro\vv %p6vov. 7/3a"v|rai/re? eTrtcrroXa? TT/JO? rov Tap/cvVLOV eScoKav rot? TrpecrySecrf Kal jap atfcovv avro61. crvveTreicrOr) IV. o>? eoifce. Seivov rjyov/jievos. olov el/cos. V7repr)jj.o<? e\a9ev ev&ov 2 TI ovv avrovs KaTCLKpv-^ras eavrov./<.0ov. rjv els rrjv 'A/cv\\La)v oi/ciav 6' o 0^09.

assumed in. 5. present at the conspiracy. a slave named Vindicius had concealed himself therein. according to Livy. pouring in libation the blood of a man. accordingly. and were then their . IV. clung to him. and yet believing that no Roman in a private station could be entrusted with such im1 At the house of the Vitellii. Without slain knowing it. and then Vindicius stole secretly away from He knew not what use to make of what the house. Their business transacted. not with design. room in which the ceremony was to be held was. ii. For this purpose 1 Now the they met at the house of the Aquillii. so that he saw what they did. and touching his entrails. it was decided that all the conspirators should swear a great and dreadful oath. as was natural. or with any inkling of what was to happen there he merely chanced to be there. but was at a loss. and hid himself behind a chest that lay there. who were living there as guests of the Aquillii. to insure his safety from the cruel designs of the tyrants. or the nephews of Collatinus before their uncle. the youths had been persuaded and held conference with the Aquillii. as it really was. on the most abominable charges. therefore. and when they had written letters to Tarquin to this effect. had befallen him. 4. and when they came in with anxious haste. which had been given him for it. he was afraid to be seen by them. to arraign the sons of Brutus before their father. and heard what they Their decision was to kill the conresolved upon. 4-iv. suls. When. they gave them to his envoys.PUBLICOLA. considering it a dreadful thing. dark and somewhat desolate. 3 this. and afterwards the surname of Brutus. the conspirators departed. .

KOI Be TO) TT/)O? olfcLav ael irapei^v avewyp. ypafjLfjLaTwv eTepwv ev roi? (TKeveat. f >/ > v > \ / r\ /^w 119 GUI/ avepr) irpo^ avrov o (JVIVOLKIOS KOI /carelire irdvra. OIL TTCLCTIV evTrpocroSo? rrjv f)v rot9 Seo/xez^ot?. /cat \6yov ov8e^o9 ouSe vpeiav aTreppiTnei TWV rcnreivayv.ev dBe\(f)bv eVeXeucre TTJV (Baa ikifcrjv eiravXiv Tcepia"XpVTa TCL ypd/jL/jLCiTa \aftelv. ' e Ol O N > / rjfJLVVOVTO. KTT\ay6i$ KOL SeiVa? o OvaX\6pio<? ovtceTi TT potfrcaTO TOV av9 PWTCOV.KV\\LOl -^ Bp6fJL(p pO(T6(})epOVTO.ev^v. e\avvocrvveiBoTi TOV TrpdyjuaTOs. <? /-> > aura) fiovov KOI TTJs yvvaifcos.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 4 fua)V e^eyyvov aTroppiJTCov TijXiKOVTUtv. TOV Ova\\epiov. Mdp/eov re TOV d8e\(f)ov Ttap- Vt . Kal TOU? OtVeTtt? 7Tapa(f)V\dTT6LV aura? 8e 7re\aTwv re TTO\\WV KOL (pi\wv del avTov OVTWV Kal Oepaireias av^vrj^. . d\\a ^aTa/cXetcra? et? TO OL/crjfjLa <f>v\aKa Tqv eavTOv yvvaiKa rat? 6 v pats cra?. Ttt? \> TTL(7TO\a<i. /uiaXtara rot? KOU (friXavdpcoTrois l eVa^^et? TOV avbpos. TavTa 7T S' avrov *A. Kai Ta \\f/ IfjLUTia 7T6pi/3a\6vTe<> rr/v avT&v rot? T/xz^Aoj? S' VTTO ySta? wOovfjievoi Kal toOovvTts Bid TWV TOV dyopdv eveftaXov. e(Bd$i^e &jev\\ia)V OVK ev&ov ovrcov Trjv oliciav TCOV &io /uLrjSevbs av TrpOff&orojcravTOS tocrd/jLevos Bid OI^TO? 6vpwv TOI/T09 eTfiTvy^dvei. rot? ypa^fjiaa'L Ket/jievois OTTOV ol Kare\vov OI Trpeafieis. av BvVCLTOV ?7. 1 7rav\iv apa MdpKOv (f>i\avOpd!>Trois Bekker supplies rp6irois ) after Person. irav S' av /jid\\ov rj umTo? wv rjdv^iav dyeiv. TOV p. Ta ai)ra TTJV fiacriXiKrjv eyivero.

always kept open house. told clients and friends who were always about him. Accordingly. threw their togas about their opponents' necks. portant secrets. T-V. to the surprise of everybody. but shut him up in a room and Then he set his own wife to guard the door. and take the servants He himself. seize the letters. ordered his brother to surround the royal residence. and driven on by his knowledge of the affair. in the presence of his brother Marcus only. Valerius was struck with consternation and fear. and after much struggling on both sides. when Vindicius came to him and him the whole story. and would not now let the man go. at last succeeded in pushing them through the streets into the forum.PUBLTCOLA. 513 . and of his wife. The same success was had at the royal residence. he forced the door. according ii. and sought to take away the letters. he made his way somehow to Valerius. V. went to the house of the Aquillii. 6. and with a large company of retainers. seized as many 1 Vindicius laid the matter before the consuls. Valerius and his party resisted the attack. iv. with the numerous into custody. Meantime the Aquillii came up in hot haste. Therefore. to Livy. however. who were not at home. 4. was to hold his peace. and never refused to hear or help one of the lowly. if possible. attracted especially by the affable and 1 For he was easily ackindly ways of the man. joined battle at But the door. cessible to all the needy. where Marcus laid hands on other letters which were to be conveyed away in the baggage. and came upon the letters lying in the quarters where the envoys were lodging. 2 The last thing that he could do.

crv\\a/36vTS TOU9 veaviGKOvs rrepiepprjyvvov TO. tcai TWV /3acri\iKwv ocrou? 8vol vjra- 6\KOVTO$ et? Trjv dyopdv. . cnreKpivavro T/H? epwrr]0'tVre?. ' ' n 2 d7ro\oyeLcr0e TT/JO? ovbev co? Karrjyopiav. 'E-Tret 8e TOV Oopvftov KareTravaav TOI Kal TOV Qua\\piov KeXevcravTOS etc 6 QvivSiKios 7rporj%07j.V 0/377)9 Trpoaopav ov8e KaprepovvTwv. d\\d Seivov evopav K0\a^o/ie^oi9 T0i9 Traifflv a^pi ov KaTaTelvawres avTOi/9 eVi rovBa<f)OS 7re\e/Ci Ta9 Ace<^aXa9 aTreovrco Se TOU9 aXXou9 eVt T<W (Twdp^ovTi 100 OIKTCp > OUT' 4 7raivelv rj fiovXo/jievois epyov elpyacr/^evos d^lws ovre tyeyeiv . yU?.. r)V /JLCV Karjfyeia /cal efJLCfJLyrjVTO. " "T/jLerepov vTrrjperas CLTTOGT petyas \ > f <t /I TO \OITTOV epyov. <f)iKTov. OUTCO? 7Tyoo9 TO 1)9 TO Trpocrayirov. air 6. VI. teal yevo/jievrjs dveyv(t)crdr] TO. co Lipepie.8 eiav 1/^09 6t9 Ttddovs iJiiyeOos et9 az/aX- 5*4 . ' ' A ^rp/ *T>D' OVK eirrev. dirrjyov OTTICTW. eKelvov Be T9 otyeis dirayayeiv dXXa^oa'e fjLrjTe TL Tf>^fai T?}9 TTe/Ot TO TTpOCTCOTTOV ^al fiapvrrjTOS.PLUTARCH'S LIVES . ydp dperf)S f) TTJV tyv%ijv. Ka o /cal KoAAarti'O? aurot9 /cal e'XTrtSo? 7riiKov< Qva\\epios >/ cnwTr&v. ypdpfjiaTa KCU 7T/309 ov&ev aav dvreiTreiv ol avSpes. /5a/3Soi9 3 e^aivov fjLtvwv ra T&V pev a\\wv ov &vva- \eyerai. ft) lire. 7)077. A^ye. Se *l ovofjiacnl T&V vlwv eicdrepov TrpoaeiTTtov. Ta? ^et/?a9 crcojjLara. OL be evuvs etTre. aye. >/ P- T^ -X > v >/ r. \ > V i/jbdria.

: why do ye" young men. They were also somewhat encouraged to hope by the tears of Collatinus and But Brutus. tore off their togas. but it is said that the father neither turned his gaze away.PUBLICOLA." These straightway seized the Tiberius. calling each of the silence of Valerius. come : not defend yourselves against But when they made no this denunciation ? answer. 4 of the king's people as he could. When the consuls had quieted the tumult. but watched the dreadful punishment of his sons until the lictors threw them on the ground and cut off their heads with the axe. " his sons by name. 2-vi. 1 one either to praise or blame sufficiently. and haled them to the forum. and scourged their bodies with their rods. 5. Then he rose and went away. VI. Valerius ordered Vindicius to be brought from his house.. wishing to do Brutus a kindness. after committing the other culprits to the judgement of He had done a deed which it is his colleague. Brutus looked on " eminente animo patrio inter publicae poeuae ministerium. bound their hands behind their backs. compare Livy. The rest could not endure to look upon the sight. the letters were read aloud. said Come. " It is he turned to the lictors and said yours now to do the rest. Most of the people held their peace for very sorrow. For either the loftiness of his virtue made his spirit incapable of suffering. 5-9. the denunciation was made. Titus. or else the magnitude of his difficult for 1 With this account. but a few spoke of exile as a penalty. ii. v. and the accused had no courage to reply. nor allowed any pity to soften the stern wrath that sat upon his countenance. though he put his question to them thrice." 515 .

6. aXX' rj OrjpicoBes. VII. TrpoBoras Kal dyavatcrovvros Be rov vrrdrov real rov QvtvBifciov. drrdyecrOat. ol .PLUTARCH'S LIVES yrjcriav. ovre rov BTJ/JLOV eta Trpoe/Jievov TOU? rrpoBoras drre\6elv.v\ov >yve(T0ai T>)9 TroXeco? rrjv iSpvaiv.elro rov Upovrov. ol /JLCV ce\. rw o~vvdp^ovn avros rraiBo(f)ovLa<.? rat? yvvat^l rou? 3 rrarpiBos. ovBerepov Oelov rj Be /jutcpbv ovB dvO pwmvov rfj 1 '. BiKaiov Be Bo^rj rov dvBpos rrjv Kp[o-iv errecBai fjLa\\ov rj rrjv f Pa>dperrjv daOeveia rov tcpivovTOS aTTicneia'dai. TTO\VV Be rrjv eVt TO?? BiaTreTrpay/jLevow KCU ol 'A/cv\\ioi. vTrrjperai Biw(rdp. reXo? Be rot? aayfjiacriv em^a\u>v ra? ^etyoa? erreKa\. ocrov BpovTOv KT'KJLV rr)? TroXtreia? /ecu Kardcnacriv. '11? S' ovv a7rf)\0ev e^ dyopas Tore.evoi rov o^\ov fjirrovro rov /cal di>0pd)7rov rovs dffraipovjjievovs ervTrrov. Kai /3ov\o/jievov Trapa TO?? tcarijyopois (Tvy^aypelv KCLI Be ravra Vt l rourot? TTJV eKK\rjcriav.oyrj(Tao-0ai. TT/OO? teal KOL %pbvov rj^iovv \a/36vre<.evovro<. dirorov QVLV^LKLOV avrols diroBo/JLTJ Orfvai 2 elvai. Kal rov el Ko\\arlvov ol'erat Beiv e'/3oa Beivd tTOielv. Bov\ov ovra. dvdyfcrjv 7rpoo~rpi'(lrdfjL6vo<$ Kara^api^ecrOai TroXe/x/ou? TT. fialoi yap ov roGovrov epyov OLOVTCU ( P(i)fj.Ova\\e- ovre rov av^pwTrov olo? T* rjv d(f>elvai TCO avrov o%\w Karzue/Aiy/Aevov. ~\.

nor would he suffer the people to release the traitors and withdraw. his colleague the necessity of killing his own and then thinking it necessary for himself to bestow upon their wives the lives of his country's The consul was indignant at betrayers and foes. VII. horror. However. whereupon the lictors pushed their way through the crowd. crying aloud that Collatinus was acting shamefully in laying upon sons. this. they demanded time in which to make their defence. and ought not to be Collatinus was in the hands of their accusers. and was about to but dissolve the assembly with this understanding Valerius was neither able to surrender the slave. 4-tu. willing to grant this request. a long while consternation.PUBLICOLA. and beat those who tried to rescue him. rather than that his virtue should be disFor the credited through weakness in the judge. Then Valerius and his 517 . So at last he seized the persons of the Aquillii and summoned Brutus to the scene. and silence prevailed among all who remained. 3 In neither suffering made it insensible to pain. seized the man. But soon the weakness and hesitation of Collatinus gave the Aquillii fresh courage . and ordered that Vindicius should be taken away. since he was their slave. but either god-like or brutish. and the surrender of Vindicius to them. for . After Brutus had left the forum at this time. vi. case was his act a trivial one. or natural to a man. who had mingled with the throng about him. Romans think that the work of Romulus in building the city was not so great as that of Brutus in founding and establishing its form of government. as they thought of what had been done. it is right that our verdict should accord with the reputation of the man.

d<f)ocriova>? Se /cat raura /j.craTO ev fj Pco/X77 yevecrOat. T049 'Pco/jiaiois eScoKav. OVTW TroXeco? VTre%ri\6ev. ovivBiKTa OVIV&LKIOV.7ro\a/3oDV TT}? 5 OvjJiias Trpo- ^dpiv f 779 olojAevos TI Sew d7ro\avcrai TOV OvivSiKLov Keivov ^rrjcpov S' etyr)<f)i.PLUTARCH'S LIVES Se (f)i\oi TOV Qua\\epiov Trpoea-rrjaav d tceKevwv Trapelvai TOV r\Kev ovv avOis vTroarpe^ra^' Kal yevofjLevrjs CLVTW KOL 6 Stytto? e/36a elirev rjv on Trepl SiKacrTrjs.evoi TOV Tap/cvviov. rot? /xey viols auro? Se ra)v aX\ayv rot? e\v0epoi<. \<yera) Se 6 f3ov\6/jLvos KOL TreiOera) TOV . ap^v Srj etcobv ird\Lv \afju- dp%at'peer LWV yevo^evwv viraTOS aTreSet^?. ro?9 dTreXevdepOLS o^jre Kal ^era TTO\VV rj e^ovcriav Be 7ravT\}]$ ^^ov &i Stj/jLaywycov eSwKev "ATT- dTreXevdepaxris eKeivov. a%pt vvv fyaai.ov. rj S' avToi) KOL Tw Seurepa) TWV ovopdrcov. TrpwTOV ciTre\ev6epov TroXLTtjv Kal <f>epiv a\\oi<. /nev %pij/n. a^lav a. /3ov\oiTO (ppaTpia TrpocrvefJ-rjOevTa. often tyrjfyov SiSwcrf &rj/j. ev Kal Sia crvyyveiav TWV (3a(Ti\ewv. TT/JW? 6 Qva\\epio<$. &>? eoitcev.aTa TWV fiacri- SiapTrdaai. ov/ceri /JLCVTOI a\\a 'O Se KoXXart^o? l ^ yuei^. \eyeTat W9 TOV VIII. /cat Trjs frce Tr)V 7rpocrKpovcra<. TTJV 8e . 'E \eajv TOVTOV TO.

10. he himself sufficed as judge. censor ii. 8 8 Appius Claudius Caecus. Collatinus. triumphantly declared consul. After this. and Valerius was free. was altogether obnoxious. 3-10. and entitled him to vote with any curia in which he chose to be enrolled. the property of the royal family was given to the Romans to plunder. by this time there was no need of oratory. he saw that he quin. a popularity. as it would seem. i friends stood forth in the man's defence. and the second of his names also was hateful to the people. in 312 B. thought that Vindicius ought to share. Livy. thus receiving a In this reward he worthy reward for his zeal. but a vote was taken which unanimously condemned the men. who loathed the sound of TarBut after these recent events. as they say." 3 perfect manumission is to this day called VIII. and their house 1 Cf. a citizen of Rome. while the He turned people shouted for Brutus to come. and when silence had been made for him. 1 A new election was consequently held. 5'9 . persuade the people. Cf. first of all freedmen. and therefore resigned his office and withdrew secretly from the city. was already under some suspicion on account of his relationship to the royal family. and they were beheaded. vii. 3-vm. who were and any one who wished might speak and try to However. Livy. and came. said that for his sons. therefore. but he would leave the fate of the other traitors to the votes of the citizens.C. back. ii.PUBLICOLA. 2 who thus courted And from this Vindicius. 5. 2. " vindicta. Other freedmen received the right of suffrage in much later times from Appius. and therefore had a decree passed which made him.

OTTOV etyopovv ra? CLVTWS KOI ra ra Trpwra avveve^Oevra teal TrepnrecrbvTa rot? trrepeot? vTreo-rr}.dra)i> TO OVK WOVTO KafiiepaxTiv. OT TapKvviov KaOtepwOr) TO TreBiov. . fjBicrTOV KOI TOVTO TO) 0eco KaOiepuxrav. o~rdcre(t)S VTTO 6e /ueyeOovs 4 erepov avTo peyeOos eKrdro /cal p pAvrjv ra TrXetcrra TWV VTTO TOV TOVTO vvv ^r/cro? ecrTiv tepd KaTa<pepo/j. KOTCL TTJV TroXiv.eva)v.ea'ij Svoiv yetyvpwv. rwv eTTKpepo/nevcov Sie^oSov OVK KOI e\d/ji/3avv 3 /jievTjv T) avfji'irri^L^ la^yv KOI pi^wcriv avavo. d\\d xpovois vcrTepov aXXo ^copiov ojiopovv eKeivy Tapxvvias 520 . w6ov$e Tro\\wv eV d\\ij\ois /ecu dOpowv fjievwv vTnjyayev 6 poO? ov TTO\VV TQTTOV. 2 a/LtaXXa? et? Seiv dXoav ov& ^pjjcrOai 5m rrjp d\\a cru^fyja/toi/Te? TCV irorafJLov. KoXeiTai Be (fxovfj TTJ KaTivwv M.10] tXvv re <ydp VTTO Tov pev/jLCiTOS. dpyov iravrdiracn TO ywp'iov dvievres TW dew /cal d/caprrov. "EtVlOl Be TOVTO (TVfJLTfecrelv ICTTOpOVO'LV OV'X. a>? S' SevSpa KoTTTOvres evefta\\ov. eTv^e Be TeOepivfjievov dpTiy KOI Keijjievwv ert TU>V Spay/j.v rov 8* KKrrjro TapKvvios. a'L re 7r\7jyal <rd\ov OVK cTroi ravro KOI crvi>e7r\aTTOi>.PLUTARCH'S LIVES oiKiav 'A/oetou KaTe&Ka^av Tre&iov /ecu rrjv 7rav\t. %ei 5e vaovs dewv Kal TrepiTrarou?. d\X.

and an extent sufficient to receive most of what was brought down by the river. but impinged upon them and blended inextricably with them. the current were not rude. 5" . the addition of which increased the size and And besides. ii. They therefore with one accord carried the sheaves In like manner to the river and cast them in. but in later times. 1-4 to the ground. . mud. 1-4. But the part of the field of Mars. Now it chanced that it had just been reaped. It is now a sure pushed to and Owing its size sacred island over against the city. which had belonged to Tarquin. was dedicated to that god. and the grain they cast in the trees which had been cut. and palace were razed pleasantest vni. however. the place wholly untilled and barren for the god of war. and position the mass acquired fresh size." Some. the impacts of cohesion of the mass. The quantities of stuff thus heaped together were not borne along by the current very far. containing temples of the gods and covered walks. 1 and is called in the Latin tongue " Inter duos pontes. but the advanced portions stopped and accumulated at the shallows which they encountered. but still lay upon the ground since the field had been consecrated. IJvy.PUBLICOLA. and the aggregation was made increasingly firm and fast by the action of the For this brought along great quantities of stream. The portions that followed these could not get through them. S. they thought it not right to thresh it or use it in any way. when Tarquinia devoted another 1 field adjacent Of. say that this did not happen when the field of Tarquin was consecrated. but with a gentle presalso and left moulded everything together.

OVK elBoas yu. Bekker. (il 7. eiraipofjievovs Be Tofr TWV 7ro\efJii(jL>v our&)9 aKpiTos rjv Kal Amyot. /j.epio$. d\\a TOVS GTpaTicoTas opuv T0t9 p<ev avToov veKpols dBvpovvTas.a\\ov rj ai>Twv Kal (rvvajreOavov d\\r}\oi<s. 2) : after Livy's siUu Arsia 522 .a^9 Trepas. et? /cal ^et/>a9 "Appcov ByOoDro9 o 'Pw/Aaicov viraTos &>9 cVfc Tap/cvviov 7ra?9 ov icaia 2 0/37779. TO Be Aicroveiov dpxpfjLevtov Be CLVTWV 6 Trpocrayopevovcriv. Coraes. 6 Be TTJS d Be p. ov Trpoa-eBe^aTO. Kal TrapeTa^av ev ^wpiois . TapicvvLOv 5e l TIJV /c TrpoSoaias fi6yd\r} Svvd/Jiei KaTrjyov. dvTJ. ovTO) Be Beivov yevo/Jievov TOV Trpod6 icra OUK ea"%ev d\\d Kal 3 BpdcravTes VTTO dycav Kal TcaOovTes ol o~TpaTol *Hv ovv TO T7^9 ev dirbpois 6 Qva\\.vdo\oyovcn. ia TWV 'EicrTidBw. iBos.PLUTARCH'S LIVES .ev IX. (bv TO 1 fjiev "Apcriov aXcro?. o fjiev Tvpavvov Kal <f)V<yri<. ev ecr^e Be dvrl TOVTOV at? Kal TO TO 6 e^elvai /cal /JLOVIJS yvvatKcov.ij<yov Be TO 1/9 ol VTTCLTOL. raura c fj. 77 Be Tap/cvvia rjv TrapOevos TI/JLCLS rjv iepeia.

But Tarquin. and received great honours for this act. after inflicting and suffering equal losses. to this. the Tuscans departed in 523 . 6. IX. ii. that of all women her testiThe people also mony alone should be received. 2 According to Livy terror after the battle. as the tale runs. according to Livy. 1 who set out to restore him with a The consuls led the Romans out to great force. 4-ix. the one to attack a tyrant and foe of his country. 4f. among which was this. the other to avenge himself on the author of his exile. 2 Valerius was therefore in perplexity. the armies. and fell by one another's hands. one of which was called the Arsian grove. ended no less disastrously . This is how the thing happened. were separated by a tempest. not knowing what the issue of the battle was. VIM. Aruns the son of Tarquin and Brutus the Roman consul encountered each other. and arrayed their forces in certain sacred precincts. the other the Aesuvian meadow. They urged their horses to the combat. despairing of attempts to regain his throne by treachery. It was not by chance. When the engagement began. 1). (ii. meet them. but seeing his soldiers as much disheartened by their own losses as they were encouraged by those of their enemies. 7. they were reckless of themselves. was eagerly welcomed by the Tuscans. voted her permission to marry. but she did not avail herself of it.PUBLICOLA.. but both were driven on by hatred and wrath. but since they engaged with fury rather than calculation. 3 Now Tarquinia was a holy virgin. So undistinguishable and equal was the slaughter on 1 By the people of Veii and Tarquinii. The battle which had such a dreadful beginning. one of the Vestals.

aTreBe^avTO Be TOV Qva\teal ra? et? TOV crvvdp%ovTa Ti^as. \eyovat. ^rjkov TOVS op&vras' ov yap av TOCTOVTOV ovBe (f)i\OTi/j. rrjv VIKT^V teal TWV eVeX^oucrr.? Be I/U/CTO? oiav el/cbs ovrco j^jLafjiei'oi^. TauTrjv Trjv fjid'xrjv \eyovcri yevecrOai TTOO Ka\avBa>v yiapTiwv.ev vetcpol BiapiO/jLrjQevTes evpeOrjaav Tptafcocriot /jLVpiois TWV 7ro\e/JLia)V.PLUTARCH'S LIVES 7rapd\\r)\o<. TO. ec \eyovo~i. TTpdy/jia o~fjivr)V teal /jLeya\07rpe7rrj Trapeovtc e7ri<p0ovov ovB' dvidcracav. ol/eela yttaXXov eltea^o- rjTTav TroXe/xtcoi'. Be /j. ev r)av)(iq r&v K tw? 77 CTTparoTreBayv. eOpidiiftevae 8' djr OuaXXe/3409 etVeXacra? TedpiTTTrcp TT/OWTO? v 6 KOI TO cr^ev evioi 6-^nv. <rvvTapa- e^eTrecrov etc TOV <TTpaT07re$ov teal Sie5 (nrdprjcrav ol TrXetcrroi* TOU? Be tcaTaKeifyOevTas oXiyu) r jrevTaKicr'%i\i(i3V e'Aacrcroi/? eTreX^o^re? ol el- \ov 7rl ol 'Pw/jLaloi. r)i> fypd^ovuav 'Tvpprjvcov 8' UTT' apa Oelov TL TO fyOey^dfjievov' ev0vs re yap a\a\d%ai Tvpprjvol '\OevTes TrapecrTij peya teal avTOv roi? p. ov [irjv aXX* eyyvdev TTJV opa/neva r. ol Be /cat ireplfyoftoL yevo^evot. 09 OI/TW? 102 VTTO Pct>juma>z> rjyaTtrjOr) teal ToaauTrjv ea^e %dpiv \epiov c 524 .ev 6appa\iov. ol Be 'Pco/jiaiwv Trap eva TOCTOUTOI.iav et? eTij 7 TroXXa Bia/jivovo~av. TO a(T09. avrov evl TrXetou? eV rfj 'PatfjiaLwv. at? teal OaTCTo^&vov etcoa-^irjo'e' teal eKKOfJLi^ofJievov \6yov eV avTy Bief)\0ev TTiTd<f)iov. VTTO TT\r)Oovs o fyovos. teal p^tXtot? real 1 raXXa ol Birfpiracrav. etcaTepois efiefiaiov 4 fjueva TO.

abandoned their camp in confusion. they say that the grove was shaken. as some say otherwise it would not have been continued with The such ardour and emulation for countless years. 7. I. It is said that this battle was fought on the last Valerius celebrated a triumph for day of February. But when such a night came on as must needs follow such a battle. while the Tuscans were panic-stricken. however. that remained. being the first consul to drive into the city on a And the proceeding afforded a four-horse chariot. and plundered the camp. and a loud voice issued from it declaring that the Tuscans had lost one man more in the battle than the Romans. when 1 .PUBLICOLA. As for those and were for the most part dispersed. those of the enemy were found to be eleven thousand and three hundred. for at once the Romans were inspired by it to loud shouts of courage. 3-7 both sides. than it could be of victory by conjecturing those of the enemy. ix. the Romans fell upon them. was more convinced of defeat by the near sight of its own dead. VOL. Silvanus. c 525 . took them And when the prisoners. 2). not odious and offensive to the spectators. people were also pleased with the honours which Valerius bestowed upon his colleague at the funeral He even delivered a funeral oration in ceremonies. his honour. as Livy tells the tale (ii. a little less than five thousand in number. and both camps were quiet. which was so admired by the Romans and won such favour that from that time on. and those of the Romans as many less one. Each army. it. The utterance was manifestly from some 1 god. spectacle which was imposing and magnificent. dead on both sides were numbered.

PLUTARCH'S LIVES Tracri rot? dyaBois KOI fieydXois v eg efceivov retewrijo-acriv VTTO TWV apiffTtav e r \eyeTai Be Kal TWV Ei\\r)viK(ov e eKeivos yevecr0at. *AXXa S^' eicelva fjia\\ov rj^Oovro TW Ova\\epiw Kal Trpocre/cpovov. epyw B p. bv TraTepa rf]$ eKevOeplas evo/ju^ev o Sfj/JLOS.ov Tracrai? Kal TreXe/cecrt Kartovra ot/cta? TOcravTrjs TO fiejeOo^ ocrrjv ov KaOelKe rrjv Kal yap ovrw? o Ova\\epios rov ySacriXew?. cocrre KaTaftaivovros avrov TO /jieTewpov elvai Kal fBacriXtKov TT}? irpoOCTOV OVV Iv dp%f) Kal 3 TTOyLtTTT? TOV OJKOV. co? 'Ava^i/jLevrjs 6 X.a(Ti dvTi 526 . ecrTi r?}? OvTOcrl Bevrepov avrov aTravra (rvveveyKa/Aevos fjirj^ev Trpwrov avry " OVK TSpovTOv K\r)povo/J.o^ VTrareia? avTW 2 i/tSo?. Trpecr/SvTepos. 7Tpocrr)KOvcrT)$. et? d\\a Kal 7rpocreL\ero Kal S'. VTTO pdfiBois JJLOVOV 6/j. e' ' d\\a \6jw rr}? TapKvviov rvpav^povrov eyKw/nid- wfcei rpayiKcorepov virep Trjv KO\OV jjievrjv Ove\iav oiKiav eTTiKpe/ua/jievrjv rfj dyopa Kal KaOopwaav eg v^lrov^ cLTravra. on B/JOUTO? /Jiev. aXXa Ta^v TroXXou? fj. OVK e<j>L\oveiKT)o~ev. BvaTrpocroBov Be TreXacrat Kal egcodev. ^ fjieydXois d<ya6ov TJV e^eiv wra irapprjcriav Ko\aKias Trpocrie/bLeva Kal \6yovs d\r)0eis. ovB' r^yavaKTrjo-ev. TWV fyi\wv Bie^iovTwv. OVK IJLOVOS ap^eiv." " e^aaav. Kairoi TL Bel /JLCV &LV. dKOvaas yap OTL rot? vroXXoi? d/jLapTaeBeigev. veiv eBoKet. eiye rovro owvos (mv.LfJielcr6ai TapKvviov.

PUBLICOLA. was thought by the multitude to be transgressing. descending to the forum alone. and while it 1 An eminence of the Palatine hilL 527 . But that which the rather displeased and offended the people in Valerius was this. 7-x. but quickly got together a large force of workmen. concentrating all power upon himself. commanded a view of all that passed there. so that when he came down from it the spectacle was a lofty one. For when he heard from his friends. and the pomp of his procession worthy of a king. to which he has no right. that he whom have been earlier than any among the Greeks. while in deeds he imitates Tarquin. Valerius was living in a very splendid 1 house on the so-called Velia. is not a successor to the consulate of Brutus. Valerius showed what a good thing it is for men in power and high station to have ears which are open to frankness and truth instead of flattery." they said. as a royal house which he demolished ? matter of fact. and was surrounded by steeps and hard to get at. ix. Accordingly. he was not obstinate nor exasperated. from a house no less stately than the " For. " in Valerius. but once and again " But this chose a colleague to rule with him. escorted by all the rods and axes together. who spared him no detail. encomiums were pronounced upon them by the most distinguished citizens. Brutus. but to the tyranny of Tarquin. X. would not consent to rule alone. Yet why should he extol Brutus in words. 3 their great and good men died. And this funeral oration of his is said to they regarded as the father of their liberties. It hung high over the forum. unless Anaximenes the orator is right in saying that the custom originated with Solon.

PLUTARCH'S LIVES e^f/ras eri VVKTOS Trjv 4 oi/cr??? Kare/3a\ Trdcrav. TTOLCOV TO 7Tp6a"%r)/JLa Sl^OKpaTia<f. e'&e^oyro 7/? ot TOV Qva\\epiov a^pi ov TOTTOV W KOL /caTecrxevaaev ol/eiav eBcofcev 6 e/ceivrj? Tepav. TOV 1 Trap ere'yoot? OLKOVVTOS. teal teal 6avT?}? /jieyaXcHppoa'vvriv.e0^ ea<o? wcrre rj/jiepav TOV? 'Pw/uuof? opwvras KOL [lev rov T7)V dvSpos a^airav a^OearOcn. a\\a /cat Tr]V apyfyv dvTi TTOLelv (jbo/Sepa? ^eiporjOrj KCU 7rpoo-(f)i\rj TO?? TToXXot?. dcfraipeiv e&o/cei roi) vTroSvoftevov yae^' ^cW?}? aurw . wcnrep dvecrTiov.r) fjiovov GCLVTQV..evrj<. oiKiav KOI KarlcrKa^frev et? /J. Se KOI 7ro0ii> TO /LLejeQos TO av6p(Trov. avTO) Se irpocrTiOeis TO8e TO 1)9 GOVTOV /aeyeOos $vvd/Aw$ QGOV e'l'oucrta?. aura? e re ra? pd/SSovs et? 6KK~\. TTOIWV Taireivov. KOL TOVTO 6 L v ^ v &iG'> v ^<X'TTOv cr w ol dovres. \e\vju. Sia <$6bvov ov St/cat Be ap^ovros./Afo TTj<? TW /^al KdTeK\ive. TOW? T6 7T6\KIS tt7T^Xf<Te TWV pdfiBwv. clXXa TOI^ tyOovov Ty ^TpioTijTi TavTrj KaOaipwv Kal KO\OVCOV. OTTOV vvv iepov IGTIV OVLKCIS TTO 5 BouXoyLte^o? be fj. a>? CCOVTO. e\dv9ave TroXXou? oy% eavTov.7]criav &?.

PUBLICOLA. where now stands the temple of Vica Pota. had succeeded. 7. of compassed its for their ruler. instead of formidable. 529 . emphasizing the majesty of the democracy. was to x. he day. This custom the consuls observe to this And before the multitude were aware of it. was now For Valerius was sharing the homes of others. not by humbling himself. inclined and lowered the rods themselves to the people. 3-6 still night tore the house down. brought the materials to the foot of the hill. and came flocking They were moved to love and admiration by the man's magnanimity. They were also distressed who. now that envy had unjustly destruction. in adding to his real influence over them just as much as he had seemed to take away from his authority. therefore. Wishing now to make not only himself but also the government. and mourned for its stately beauty. 12). and the people submitted to him with pleasure and bore his 1 Victress Possessor. as if it had been human. but were distressed for the house. but in order to allay the people's jealousy. According to Livy. Romans saw what had happened. whose temple was at the foot of the Velia (Livy. 1 so-called. together. Valerius was building the house on the Velia. received into the houses of his friends until the people gave him a site and built him a house. he removed the axes from the lictors' rods. more modest dimensions than the one he had lived in before. like a homeless man. and razed it all In the morning. ii. submissive and agreeable to the multitude. and when he came into the assembly. but by checking and removing their envious feelings through such moderation on his part. the the ground. and built the house there. a name of the goddess of victory. as they thought.

u> TO. OVK elScbs TOV d\Xa &e$Lca$ CLVTITT pa^iv VTCO yvoas.PLUTARCH'S LIVES /ecu <ppovro<.oTIKO? elvai. rjv 6 S^yU-o? OVK e^wxev. &>v naXiGTa fjikv Bfj/JtOV TOU9 TTOXXOU? O TOV <j)evyovTL SiKrjv CLTTO lcr)(vpov<.TWV KCLTO.ev VTTO Tap2 KVVIOV irpoTepov. eiroL rjae TtoV VTTaTWV TO) . d(j)el\e KOil eiroirjarev TrpoOvfJiOTepov aTTTeoOai TWV epyacriwv diravTa^. ware KCU HOTT\I$6 Tovvo/Jia Kokav dvijyopevo'ev avrov cnj/maivei Sr)jj. VTT' eypa-^ev. 4 tyjjJLiav yap ftowv TTCVTC Kal Svelv TrpoftaTWV d^iav.TCiKcCK.yu. TOU? yypa<j)VTa$ e%i]tcovTa vofjiovs avTov \eyovcriv GKCLTOV KOI yttera be TavTa Tea-crapas yeve&Oai.?. e^piaaTO Trj fiovap^a r) ra Kd\\tcrTa teal jLeKTTa TCOV yap dv67r\ijpa)a' Trjv ^ov\rjv o\iyavBpovcrav eTedvtftcecrav yap ol fj. ev Trj f^d^rj. Be r} Trpo/BaTov /j. ySoo? OVTTW VOJjLLCTfjiaTt XpCOjJLeVCW TTOO) TOT6 aTreiOelas era^e f)v Se ef 530 .dTa)v.^i<jQai SiBovf SevTepos 6 103 TOU? dpfflv dva\af36vra<?. T\TJ TWV TTO\I. o? /3oijdr)(T rot? Trevrjcriv. q> KOL rifieis xprjcro/JieOa TOP KOI /jLerievai \017TOV fiiOV TOV d XI.ofcr)Sf)' TOVTO fjba\\ov tV^ucre T&V dp6vojj. teal TT/OO? TWV TTO\\WV /JLO\\OV fj &vi>aTO)V yeypd<j)0ai. 6 Se ypacfrels TWV direiOovvTwv rot? uTrarot? ov^ TJTTOV eSo^e S?. 3 d7TO@vrj<JKtv K\evo)V' T/OITO? Be yuera TOUTOI. e/covcricos. "TTrareiav ftev <yap eBw/ce 7rapay<ye\\eiv rot? ySouXo/xe^ot?* KCU T?}? Trpo 8e TOV avvdpyovtos . ol Se S' TLVOS vay%o<.ev oBo\ol oe/ca.

XI. and others had recently fallen in the battle with the Tuscans.PUBLICOLA. ii. 8. And the one which was enacted against disobedience to the consuls was . x. not knowing who he would be. second made it a capital offence to assume a magistracy which the A people had not bestowed. 4 They therefore called him Publicola. and to be in the interest of the many rather than of the For the fine which it imposed on powerful. measures. and that of an ox. they say. After this he enacted several laws. to a hundred and sixty-four. he filled up the senate. yoke a willingly. he used his sole authority for the enactment of his best and most important In the first place. a hundred. and it is the name which I shall use for him in the remainder of this Life. came to the relief of the poor it lifted the taxes from the citizens. 1. but fearing an opposition due to some jealousy or ignorance. For he permitted any who wished to enter the lists and sue for the consulship. one of which . for the Romans at 1 Cf. Those who were enrolled in this body by him amounted. But before the installation of his colleague. disobedience was only the worth of five oxen and two sheep. A third. Now the value of a sheep was ten obols. thought to be no less popular in its character. especially strengthened the position of the commons by allowing a defendant to appeal to the people from the judgement of the consuls. so that all engaged more zealously in manufactures and commerce. 1 name which signifies people-cherisher. Livy. following these. which was much reduced in numbers for some had long before been put to death by Tarquin. 6-xi. S3' . This name prevailed over the older names which he had borne.

r) rrpcoTOi : 1 eV rep /J. Trapda-^otro eVet jap ov Swarbv eirixeipovvTa TifkiKovTOi.ievov rvpavvelv KTCL- ry ya/) p-erplw rrjv eypa^re yap VO/JLOV avev /cpicrecos eiroirjcrev. o~iaTe\ov(Ti.erpL<f with CoraeS eV 532 . ev piav vTrepereivev. Tafias Be TO) Brjfjiw Bvo TO)V vewv eBco/cev drrovaov. Tre%dpaTTOv iraidlv TrpofSarov eTiOevTO Se KOI avrwv St'iXXou? OVOfJLCLTa KOI }$OV/30V\KOVS KOI KaTT/OaplOf? KCLTTpCLS fJLGV KOi $ Ttt? aljCLS. /J. vvv %pc0/j.^ \a6elv aTrawras. tVet jap eSei ^pr^dTa TT/OO? TOV TdfjiievTiKov vofiov. rot? f) 7ra7uuoTa7O9 fiovv CTVV. Krelvai SiSovra TOV (Bov\6[.' /cal dTreBei-^d^a-av ol /J.evoi. Oi/rct) Se 7re/3t ravra 1 teal /jLerpios.aTa. OUT' airro? atyaaQai T/}? OLKOVo/uias OVTE TOU? <fci\ovs eaaai j3ov\6fjivos ov0* oXo)? 6i9 olxov IStMTOv TrapekOelv Srifjiocna %p->]fj. Kpicriv. 2 *}LTcr)ve9ri 8e KOI SLO. 3 w Bel^at. el vawra & TOV (frovov KaOapov rou? a^iKt]fJLaTO^ eXe7^ou9.PLUTARCH'S LIVES d\\a TrpofiaTeiais Sib KOI Ta9 ovo-ias real KTrjvorpcxpiais &XP i vvv " 7 KOL TCOV vofJLLcrfjLaTwv rj Trefcovkia Ka\ov(Ti. TTOpKOV? XII. rrpo\a/3eiv e'5co/ce TW ^vvafievw TOV dSlKOVVTOS.iov elcre- veytcelv drrb TO)V OVCTIOJV TOL/? 7roXtTa9. TOV Tro\ef.r) OVK dSvvarov Be TO KpeiTTOva \a06vra TOV rjv Kf>iQr\vai <yev6/Lievov. Tafiielov fJLev drreSei^e TOV TOV Kpovov pexpi. avaipel TO d&lKCLTO.



4-xn. 3

that time did not use much coined money, but their wealth consisted in flocks and herds. Therefore to " this day they call their substance peculium," from " cattle and their oldest coins are




with the figure of an ox, a sheep, or a hog. And they actually gave their own sons such surnames as the last Suillius, Bubulcus, Caprarius, and Porcius two from "capra" and "porcus," their words for goat




XII. But although in these particulars he showed himself a popular and moderate lawgiver, in the case of an immoderate offence he made the penalty For he enacted a law by which any one severe. who sought to make himself tyrant might be slain without trial, and the slayer should be free from blood-guiltiness if he produced proofs of the crime. For although it is impossible for one who attempts so great a task to escape all notice, it is not impossible for him to do so long enough to make himself too

powerful to be brought to trial, which trial his very crime precludes. He therefore gave any one who was able to do so the privilege of anticipating the
culprit's trial. also received praise for his


When it was necessary for the treasury. citizens to contribute from their substance means for carrying on the war, he was unwilling to assume the

law concerning the

it himself, or to allow his friends to indeed, to have the public moneys brought He therefore made the into any private house. temple of Saturn a treasury, as it is to this day, and gave the people the privilege of appointing two

administration of


so, or,

young men

as quaestors, or treasurers.






two from forms



sus," swine,

and " bos,"














eavTW crvvdpcS TT}?

TOV AovKp^Tias Trarepa Aov/cprjTiov,




ra^eco? TTape&cotce TOU? /caXov/jievovs <frda'K'r)<$' KOL TOVTO Sl/JLlV6V 69 ^fta? TO 7T p6CT (BeiOV CLlf KLVOV eVel 8' oX//yat? rots" yepairepois <frv~\aTT6/jievov.



6 AovKpiJTio<s,7rdXiv



avvfjp^e TO*

ripeO^ Ma/?/co? 'Qpdnos, Tlo7r\,iK6\a TOV V7ro\i7r6/Jievov
'Pay patois SevTepov TroXejuiov

Xpovov TOV eviavTov. XIII. Tap/cvviov Se







yap en Kal TOV vewv TOV

Kopv(f)rjv Ticriv

ocrov OVTTCO

0vvTT6\.ecrjji6vov, 6iT6 pavTeias <yevo jjLevrjs etr* avapjj,a





2 ap%7}?.

TWV Se Tvpprjvwv TeOpimrov e/A/3a\6i>TQ)v t?

TO ovK e7ra6ev

TrpocnJKei Trda")(eiv Trrfkov ev rrvpi, TrvKvovo~6ai

Kal crvvi^dveiv, eKTrjKO/^evrjs TT}? vypoTrjTOS, e^ecTTrj Kal wSrjcre Kal fJieyeOos ecr^ev a/jia Kal crK\r)p6T7]TL TOGOVTOV wcrre fio\i<; e






TMV T0i%a)v

co? ovv TrepiaipeOevTcov. Oelov elvai (Tij/jLe'tov evTV%ia<;






TO TldpiTTTrov, eyvwcrav ol




3-xin. 3

be thus appointed were Publius Veturius and Marcus Minucius, and large sums of money were collected. For one hundred and thirty thousand names were on the assessment lists, orphans and widows being-

excused from the contribution. 1 This matter regulated, he caused Lucretius, the father of Lucretia, to be appointed his colleague in the consulship. 2 To him he yielded the precedence, as the elder man, and committed to him the socalled " fasces,' a privilege of seniority which has continued from that day to this. But Lucretius died a few days afterwards, and in a new election Marcus Horatius was chosen consul, and shared the office with Publicola for the remainder of the year. XIII. While Tarquin was stirring up in Tuscany another war against the Romans, a thing of great When Tarquin portent is said to have happened. was still king, and had all but completed the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, either in consequence of an

oracle, or else

of his

own good


he com-

missioned certain Tuscan craftsmen of Veii to place upon its roof a chariot of terra cotta. Soon after this he was driven from his throne. The Tuscans, however, modelled the chariot and put it in a furnace for firing, but the clay did not contract and shrink in the fire, as it usually does, when its moisture Instead of this, it expanded and evaporates. swelled and took on such size, strength, and hardness, that it could with difficulty be removed, even after the roof of the furnace had been taken off and its sides torn away. To the seers, accordingly, this seemed a divine portent of prosperity and power for those who should possess the chariot, and the

Cf. Camttlua,




Cf. Livy,


8, 1-4.



rrpoea'dai rot? 'Pco/wuot? aTrairovai,

KOL d-neKpivavTO TOVTO Tapfcvvioi^, ov TOIS TapK/3a\ovcri Trpocnj/ceiv. o\iyais 6' vcnepov 104

teal ra ^e elwOvlav cnrovBrjV Trapeze, TO Be viKr\(jav riOpiTnrov 6 /JL6i> fjvioxps e^ijXavve TOV



dywves aurot?.

a\\a 0lav KOL








7rpo<pdcrea)<; t






ov Be

epyov avrov 'jrapri'yopovvTOs, aXX* rjpTracno, Bovra rfj KCU (frepo/Aevov, ci^pt, ov TW KaTTtrwXtft)




^a^Te? %6/3a\ov avrov evTav9a Trapd T^V r)v vvv 'PaTOV/jtevav KaX.ovo'i. <yevo/j,evov
Be TOVTOV daufidcrapre^ ol Qvrj'ioi /ecu
eTrerpe-^rav aTro^ovvai TO ap^a TO?? XIV. Toz^ Be vewv TOV }LaTUTu>\iov Aio? ev-







Be Tap/cvvios

TOV ev^afjievow Be OVK efyOaaev, d\\a ^iKpov ctTre\ei7rero TOV TeXo? ex,eiv OTC TapKvvios e^e co? ovv direLpyacrTO TeXew? KCU TOV







Tlo rr\i/c6\a

2 TT/JO?

Trjv Kadieptoaiv. BVVCITMV, KCU rj'xpovTO

e$>9bvovv Be rro\\ol TWV Tat? fJLev a\Xat? TI/JLCUS


a? vo/jLoOeTcov



KOVTWV ecr^e* TavTrjV 5' ovcrav d\\OTpiav OV WOVTO Belv avTU> Trpoa^evicrdai, Kal TOV



xin. 3-xiv. 2

When people of Veii determined not to give it up. the Romans asked for it, they were told that it belonged to the Tarquins, not to those who had But a few days afterwards expelled the Tarquins. there were chariot races at Veii. Here the usual exciting spectacles were witnessed, but when the charioteer, with his garland on his head, was quietly driving his victorious chariot out of the race-course, his horses took a sudden fright, upon no apparent occasion, but either by some divine ordering or by merest chance, and dashed off at the top of their speed towards Rome, charioteer and all. It was of no use for him to rein them in or try to calm them with his voice he was whirled helplessly along until they reached the Capitol and threw him out The there, at the gate now called Ratumena. Veientines were amazed and terrified at this occurrence, and permitted the workmen to deliver their


XIV. The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus had been vowed by Tarquin, the son of Demaratus, when he was at war with the Sabines, but it was actually built by Tarquinius Superbus, the son, or grandson, of him who vowed it. He did not, however, get so
it, but was driven out before it was quite completed. Accordingly, now that it was completely finished and had received all the ornaments that belonged to it, Publicola was ambitious to consecrate it. But this excited the jealousy ot many of the nobility. They could better brook his other honours, to which, as legislator and military commander, he had a rightful claim. But this one they thought he ought not to have, since it was more appropriate for others, and therefore they

far as to consecrate



Kal Trapca^vvov dvTiTroielcrdai, ovv TW yevo/mevrj?

o~Tparia<? dvayKaias, tyr)(f)i(Td/j,6voi TOV KaOiepovv dvijyov et? TO KaTTiTcoXfoi^, a>? OVK GVLOI Se 3 av e/ceivov Trepiyevo/^evoL TrapovTO?.

kripw TWV vTrdrcov \a^elv eiceivov GTpareLav aKOvra, TOVTOV 8e eVt rrjv
e^eart- 8e irepl rovrcov ft>? ecr^ev el/cdrot? irpa-^delcTL Trepl rrjv KaOiepwcnv. elSofc


"EeTrre/jifipicas, o

a-vvrvy^dvei irepl

TIJV Trav-

ae\rjvov /jLaXicrTa TOV MeTayeirvicovos, arcavTwv ei? TO Ka7r^TO)Xto^, 4 (j^kvwv


d-fydiJievos, &cnrep e0o<? e vevo^KJ^kva^ eirl r 6 8' SeX^)0? TOU TIoTT\iKO\a Map/cos IK T? Ovpas vtpecrrcbs Kal irapa^vTrapa ,, \ ' ff -/-\ 11 VTTCLTe, \aTTG)V TOV KCLtpOV, 1^0? L7rV,

'QpaTios Kal TWV
















5 (rou Te6vr]Kv ev





ov Sev

aKovaavia^' o 6' SidTapaxQeLS, aX\' 77 TOGOVTOV fjbbvov "'PityaTe TOIVVV OTTOL ySouXecrfie T

veKpbv, eyco

yap ov





/oati'e T^I/ \oi7rrjv


OVK d\rj0e^, aXX' o TOV 'QpaTiov e^evaaTO.

Be TO TrpocrrjyMap/to? &>? a?ro-

Qav^aaiQ^ ovv

6 dvrjp TVJS evcTTaOelas, etVe Trjv dTraTrjv ev /caipu> avveio'ev eiVe TricrTevOels 6 \6yos OVK







TOV BevTepov vaov





incited Horatius to claim the At a time, consecrating the temple. then, when Publicola was necessarily absent on military service, they got a vote passed that Horatius should perform the consecration, and conducted him up to the Capitol, feeling that they could not have gained their point had Publicola been in the city. Some, however, say that Publicola


was designated by lot, against his inclination, for the expedition, and Horatius for the consecration. 1




possible to infer

how the matter


between them from what happened at the consecration. It was the Ides of September, a day which
the full moon of the Attic the people were all assembled on the Capitol, silence had been proclaimed, and Horatius, after performing the other ceremonies and laying hold upon the door of the temple, as the custom is, was pronouncing the usual words of conBut just then Marcus, the brother of secration. Publicola, who had long been standing by the door and was watching his opportunity, said " O Consul, thy son lies dead of sickness in the camp." This But Horatius, not at all distressed all who heard it " Cast forth the dead then disturbed, merely said whither ye please, for I take no mourning upon me," and finished his consecration. Now the announcement was not true, but Marcus thought by his falsehood to deter Horatius from his duty. Wonderful, therefore, was the firm poise of the man, whether he at once saw through the deceit, or believed the 1 story without letting it overcome him. XV. A similar fortune seems to have attended the
nearly coincides with

month Metageitnion






Cf. Livy,





TOV /JLCV Tv%r) yeveaOai TT}? KaBiepaMrecas. ew? e'lprjrai, TapKWiov Karacrfcevd-

yap rrpwTOV,




KaOiepwcravTO?, ev rot? aTTCoXecre* TOV Be BeVe7re<ypd<pr}

Tepov avecTTrjae






KarouXo? SuXXa TrpociTroQavovros. TOVTOV Be iraKiv ev rat? Kara QviTeXXiov crrdcrecn, /cat Bia(j)0apevTO<; TOV rpiTOV rfj Trpo? raXXa



dpxrj? a%pi reXou? dvayayuv, eTrelBe KOI ^Oeipo/Jievov /ier* O\LJOV OVK 7reiSev,




vav irarev OGOV

TOV epyov, TOVTOV Be TT}? a/j,a yap TM Te\evdvaipeo-w<; TrpoaTroOavelv.




Qvecnrecriavov eveTrp^aOri TO K.a7riT(t)\iov. Be rerapro? OVTOS VTTO Ao/j,eTiavov KOL 105







TOW? 6ep,e~kiovs avaK&crai Xtrpa? dpyvpiov TeTpa/cicTfjLvpias' TOVTOV Be TOV /ca0' rjfias TOV fjieyio~TOV ev 'Pco/my TCOV IBiwTi/ccov TT\OVTOV K\oyio~0evTa TO T^? ^pvcruxjew^ [Arj reXecrat av dvd\wfJLa, 7r\ov rj ^icry^Ckiwv Kal fJLVplwv ra\dvTwv yevo/nevov. ol Be Kioves etc TOV IIez;Te\7Jaiv
?rpo? TO

\L6ov, /caXXtcrra TW ird^ei e^o^re?- e'lBo/Aev yap CLVTOVS 'A^ev Be 'Pwu^r) TrX^yevTes av9i<$ Kal dva^vov TOCTOUTOV ea"%ov y\a^>vpia^ ocrov



TOV Ka\ov, Bid/cevoi

supplied by Bekker, after G. Hermann TOV naXov (the symmetry of their beauty).





The first, as I dedication ot the second temple. have said, was built by Tarquin, but consecrated by Horatius this was destroyed by fire during the civil wars. 1 The second temple was built by Sulla, but Catulus was commissioned to consecrate it, 2 after the death of Sulla. This temple, too was destroyed, 3 during the troublous times of Vitellius, and Vespasian began and completely finished the third, with the good fortune that attended him in all his underHe lived to see it completed, and did not takings. and in live to see it destroyed, as it was soon after dying before his work was destroyed he was just so much more fortunate than Sulla, who died before his was consecrated. For upon the death of Vespasian the Capitol was burned. 4 The fourth temple, which is now standing on the same site as the others, was both completed and It is said that Tarquin consecrated by Domitian. expended upon its foundations forty thousand pounds of silver. But the greatest wealth now attributed to any private citizen of Rome would not pay the cost of the gilding alone of the present temple,


which was more than twelve thousand talents. 5 Its 6 pillars are of Pentelic marble, and their thickness was once most happily proportioned to their length But when they were for we saw them at Athens. recut and scraped at Rome, they did not gain as much in polish as they lost in symmetry and beauty,


83 B.C.


69 B.C.





For purposes of comparison a talent may be reckoned as worth 250, or $1200. 6 Pentele was an Attic deme on the N.E. edge of the Athenian plain, near which excellent marble was quarried from the mountain. This was called Brilessus in earlier
times, then Pentelicus.



5 /cal



Ka7rtTO)Xtou Trjv Tro\VTe\eiav,

6 fievTOi Oavjjidcras TOV el fiiav elBev ev

AofieTiavov CTTOCLV





7rd\\a/ciB(Dv BiaiTav, olov eari TO \eyo7T/905

flVOV ^TT^apfjLOV





e^ei9 vbcrov



Ao/jLeriavbv eljreiv

" Ovfc

eu<jeyS^9 ov$e ^iXori/xo? TV








fievos <yivecr6ai" XVI. 'O Be


\L9iva ovv Trepl TOVTWV.

Tap/cvvios yuera Trjv TOV vlov aTrcoXecre fjid^rjv ev fj KCL\ cravTa ByOouTW, KaTa(f)vycbv et? TO K.\ova-iov t/cereucre Adpav Hopaivav, avBpa KOI Suva/jiiv




SOKOVVTCL ^prjcTTOV elvai /cat $>L\OTIIJLOV o 8' vireKOI irpwTOV JJLCV eTre^^ev et? ftorjOrjcreiv.

TOV Tap/cvviov ^e^ecrOai c




KaTa y<y6i\a<; aurot?

KOL %povov ev
/Ji/3a\LV, d(f)LKTO



ov e/meXXev





TLo7TO\\7J^ SwdjAeWS. aTrwv VTTCLTOS TO BevTepov,

avv avTw Ttro? AovKprJTW e7rave\0a)v Be
'Pw/Arjv KOI (SovKofJievos






TOV Tlopcrtvav, eKTt^e TTO\IV /cal TrXrjcriov 6Wo? avTOv.



xv. 5-xvi. 2

and they now look too slender and thin. However, if anyone who is amazed at the costliness of the Capitol had seen a single colonnade in the palace


of Domitian, or a basilica, or a bath, or the apartfor his concubines, then, as Epicharmus says
to the spendthrift,
'Tis not beneficent

thou art


thou art diseased


thy mania


to give,"

so he would have been moved to say to Domitian " 'Tis not pious, nor nobly ambitious that thou art ; thou art diseased ; thy mania is to build ; like the

famous Midas, thou desirest that every thing become So much, then, on gold and stone at thy touch."
this head.

XVI. But to return to Tarquin, after the great which he lost his son in a duel with Brutus, he fled for refuge to Clusium, and became a suppliant of Lars Porsena, the most powerful king in Italy, who was thought also to be a man of worth and noble ambitions. He promised Tarquin his aid and assistance. So in the first place he sent to Rome and
battle in

ordered them to receive Tarquin as their king. Then when the Romans refused, he declared war upon them, proclaimed the time and place of his attack, and marched thither with a great force. 1 Publicola was chosen consul for the second time, in his absence, and Titus Lucretius as his colleague. Returning, therefore, to Rome, and wishing, in the first place, to surpass Porsena in the loftiness of his spirit, he built the city of Sigliuria, although his adversary was already near at hand. After he had fortified it at great expense, he sent to it a colony of seven hundred

Cf. Livy,




tcovs drreareiXev, o>9 3 rroXe/JLOv.

paStw? fyepwv KOI aSew? rbv








e^ewad^crav ol <jf>uXa/<;e9 VTTO rov Hopcriva, Kal (frevyovres b\[yov cravro Toi>9 7ro\e/jiiovs et? T^V TTO\ o TCOV 7TV\wv e/cfiorjO ijcras 6 Tlo7r\ifc6\as, KOI Trapa TOP Trorafjiov 6et ov rot? Trocuoi?,


TO 8' avTO teal Aov/cp^riov rov crvvdpavrqy TraOovros dOv/jiia TO?? 'Pwyuatoi? ^al <pvyf) vrpo? T?)^ iroXiv eaw^ov eav<JL>6 ov fjievwv $e TCOV 7ro\fjtiwv Bia rr}9 ^v\i,





Kara xpdros

avrto Svo


Se KoArX^o? 'Qpdrios


em<$)avea"Tdru>v dvSpwv, 'Eip/xivios teal AdpKios, avriarrjcrav Trepl rrjv %v\ivi~iv ye(j)v5


o S' 'lpdrt,os rov K.OK\IOV errwyvfjiLov ecr^ev pav. ev ?roXe/.tro rwv ofji^drwv Odrepov eKKorcels' 009

evioi \eyovcri, 8ta cri/jLor^ra r/}? ptvbs eVSeSi;-





elvai rb &Lopi^ov rd crvyKe^vcrOaL, Ku/cX&)7ra



6 \ei<j6at.



a%pi ov Sie/co^av

ol crvv avru>

Karoiriv rrjv yetpvpav.

ovrco Se yu,era ra)V OTT\WV



Ty rrepav o^Orj obpan '^vpprj rbv yXovrbv. 6 Be Tlo7r\iKo\as aperrjv 6avfj.daa<i avriKa fJLev eicnjyijcraro 'Pa>- 106

standing at the head of the bridge. and held out against them until he was desperately wounded and carried The same fate overtook bodily out of the battle. and with him two of the most illustrious men of the city. so that dismay fell upon the Romans. and they fled for safety towards the But as the enemy were forcing their way onto city. first. proposed that every Roman should at once 1 The exploit of (ii. in spite of a wound in the buttocks from a Tuscan spear. all accoutred as he was. however. out of admiration for his valour. where the pursuing enemy But Publicola almost followed them into the city. was flat and sunken. a sharp assault was made upon its wall by Porsena. and its garrison was driven out. kept the enemy back until his companions had cut the bridge in two behind him. Herminius and Lartius. This Codes. Lucretius. indicating that he had no concern or fear However. he plunged into the river and swam across to the other side. promptly sallied out to their aid in front of the gate. 2-7 men. so that there was nothing to separate his eyes. surname of Codes because he had lost one of his Some. the wooden bridge. also. his colleague. is much more dramatically narrated by Livy 545 . joined battle by the river side with the enemy. Horatiua 10). say that his nose eyes in the wars. They fled to Rome. about the war. Then. Publicola.PUBLICOLA. but by a slip of the tongue the name of Codes became generally prevalent instead. and that for this reason the multitude wished to call him Cyclops. Horatius Codes. 1 however. Rome was in danger of being taken by storm. who pressed on in great numbers. and his eye-brows ran together. defended the wooden Horatius had been given his bridge against them. xvi.

oarjv e/caaro^ ev rjfjiepa Bovvat cruveia-eve'yKovras. /col Tvppyvobv ere/90? povvres. %<t)pa<. [lev VTTO 7ro\\o)v Be y r real Bia(j)6pa)<. To Be Trepl M. 2 real TI/JLLV. fjidXicrra 3 cra/xez'o? rwv TO oi/ W^C/T. 1 L ov hiatus 011x9? bracketed in Sintenis 2 because of the following. Trvp rrjv Be^idv eiarrj/cei Tfyoo? TOI/ Hopaivav /cal dreirru) r TTJocrcoTrco. crvry/cade^oj^evcov e/celvov elvai <jrraaTre/creivev. dve/cpivero' Kai rivos e<r%aplBo<. > /cal \ o~a<a)? / /) epecrvat.OVKIOV eiprjrat. TT/OO? Be rovrois el/cova xaXKrjv ecrrrjcrav avru> 1 ev TO> iepa> /iaro? rov ^(paiarov. errl rovray Be %i(f)0<.ev avrov OVK * '/I oeotco?. oe \ rrept. avrov TO rpirov vTrctTeucov Tlopcriva arpejjL&v /cal (pv^drrcov TTJV TTO\LV coero Seiv rot? Be 'Yvpprjvois eVe^X^e KOL o-vfiftaerpe^aro teal irev raKL<j%i\lov<$ CLVTWV un>el\e.f)S Trapiyyo'^TriKei/jievov Be Tlopcriva rfj ?roXei KOI 7/TTTero T(0)v 'PcofjLdLcov. avrov j^o^' /j. rrjv ^evofjievrjv e/c rov rpavTW dvSpl ^wXoT^ra p^era Tifj. apiaro^' e7rij3ov~\. f)V Xe/creov Be y ^a\KJTa Tria-Tevercu avrjp et? Tracrav dperrjv dyaOos.. rjv avros Trepiapocreiev ev rj/jiepa. XVII. 546 . erreura dvrj\icr/ce.PLUTARCH'S LIVES airavras. irepie\6a>v Be TO (SrifJLa rov (BacrifcaOe^o/jievov.eva)v Be TOV Hopaivav dveXeiv irapeiafaOev et? TO ffrpaToTreBov TvppfjviBa tyopwv ecrOrfra /cal (frwvf) XP<*>ofioia. ev Be rot? 7ro\ejjiiKoi<.

The story of Mucius has been often and variously told. far less coherent and dramatic than Livy's 12). Upon this he was seized. and was being when a sort of pan containing live coals was brought to Porsena. wearing a Tuscan habit. 3 contribute for him as much provision as each conin a day. 12. 1 2 Of. Designing to kill Porsena. he drew his sword and slew that one of the group whom he thought most likely to be the Publicola. but I must give it as it seems most credible to me. and that afterwards he should be given as much land as he could plough round in a Besides this. to console him with honour for the lameness consequent upon his wound. While Porsena was closely investing the 1 city. routed it.PUBL1COLA. sacrifice. own account invaded their who was now consul for the terri- king. him in the temple of Vulcan. thought that Porsena must be met by a quiet and watchful resistance within the city . not knowing him certainly. he stole into his camp. its third time. 1. engaged it. 7-xvn. and slew five thousand of them. Livy. XVII. and fearing to inquire about him. sumed xvi. ii. and another Tuscan army on tory. who was about to offer questioned. until the king was overcome with Mucius held flames and. stood looking at Porsena with a bold and steadfast countenance. 547 . but most excellent in war. a famine afflicted the Romans. is Plutarch's version (ii. they set up a bronze statue of day. his right hand over the while the flesh was burning. and After walking around using a speech to correspond. the tribunal where the king was sitting with others. 2 He was a man endowed with every virtue. but he sallied out upon the other Tuscan army.

ot ev TCO crTpaTorreSay crov Tr\avwvTai /ccupov Be K\i]pto \a%a)v teal jrpo<yu> OVK a^Qo^ai KOI 5 'PajyLtatoi? <f)i\ov Trj Tv^y. fjiOi Bo/Cel.v.a\\ov Tro\ep.iov ci)9 f O fJLevTOi IToTrXiAroXa? CLVTOS. TTJV avTrjv e//. 548 .PLUTARCH'S LIVES avrov TOV TOV e</)?. XVIII. Katcra/jo? d$e\(f)r)V Kal 'Q-^Lyovov (frrjcrlv. <yeve(T0ai. (j)6{3(p TWV TptCLKOaiwv.iov elvai TrpeTrovTOs" TavO* 6 d/covcras eVtcrrcucre /cal TT^OO? ra? <T^V. irpos dvdyfcrjv (< ryap 'Pco/jiaiwv. A:al %dpiTi OUK av er)<y6pev<T6. <po/3ov TOV Tiopcriva KTJKWS rjTTaaOai a TT}? ayoer?)?.aT09' &e rrjv v(f)vv/u. ov% OVTW rjyov/jLevos OVTCL TOV Hopcrivav fiapvv Trj TToXet. Sia/j. ojrep 4 Aaiov." efjwj. <pL\. TL 6 TOVTOV TOV av$pa MOVKIOV 6/^ov KOI ^Kaio\av Ka\ovvTwv 'A6r)voo'fi)po<.yU. ocrov dyacrdels KOI 0av/jidcras TO /cal Trjv dpeTrjv TWV 'Pw/Jiaiwv. Aral Sm TOUTO tyacriv avrw earl vevi- ^/cai6\av 5e TOZ^ 7TiK\rjai.apTO)v rj fj.ov eSe^aro.ov yeveadat /cal OVK efyevyev eV avTOv Sitcy Kpi0i)vai ?rpo9 Tap/cvviov. aXX' eddppei. 7ro\fJ. OV TOaOVTO. Kal TrpovKa\elTO a^Lov TroXXoO av/A/jLaxov. ev TW TTyoo? 'O/CTaovtav Trjv cDVojmdcrdat. /cal TO o /3/.

as out of wondering admiration for the lofty spirit and 1 bravery of the Romans. "with the same resolution as mine. are now prowling about in I was thy camp and watching their opportunity. so noble is the man whom I failed to kill. and I am not distressed at what has happened. 1-5). xvn. Porsena believed it to be true. All other writers agree in giving this Mucius the surname of Scaevola. the sister of Augustus Caesar. and felt more inclined to come to terms. Mucius stretched out his left hand and took it (on which account. but often boldly challenged 1 According to Livy (ii. 3-xvin. thinking that Porsena would be more valuable as a friend and ally of the city than he was dangerous as its enemy. they say. then. XVIII. and so worthy to be a friend rather than an enemy of the Romans. that although he had conquered the fear which Porsena inspired. reaching it down to him from the tribunal. that he made propositions of peace to the Romans. 549 . in his book addressed to Octavia. Publicola himself." On hearing this. the son of Sandon. he was vanquished by the nobility which he displayed. "Three hundred Romans. 13. says that his surname was Pos- tumus. but Athenodorus. and would reveal out of gratitude what he would not have disclosed under compulsion. did not shrink from making the king an arbitrator in his 1 dispute with Tarquin. i admiration and released him. which means Left-handed^).PUBLICOLA. Porsena was so terrified by the disclosures of Mucius. he received the surname of Then he said Scaevola. and handed him back his sword. I suppose. chosen by lot to make the first attempt upon thee. not so much." said he. moreover. through fear of the three hundred.

Bva-^epdvas KOI fcarayvovs . Tlo7r\ifc6\av OVK edav/^acrev ovB rjydev 1 aXX' rjvidOij. /careXv- apa craro TOV 7r6\6fJiov e^crrayu-e^of? /cal 779 TvppiyviBos %a)pa<. fj/cov. teal TO TO\fjLrj/jia TWV 550 . 6 Be TOV TraiBos "KppovTOs Beo^evov teal cnrovbd^ovTOS virep rwv ^Pw/jiaLwv. OVTC 107 TLva (pvXaKijV eoopwv OVTC Tfapiowras aXXco? rj BiaTrXeovTas. fjiiav avTwv. ovBeva Troielcrdai Be Hopvivav. 6pp. TTIGTZI (ftavelTai.ijv ea%ov dirov^aaOai TT/JO? eviot Be (f>acrt 2 pevjua TTO\V /cal Bivas ftaOeias. rot"? Aro/Ai^o^eVoi? Be o/Jirjpov^ TOU? eBcorcav e evTrarpiBwv Trept- Be/ca /cal /cal irapdevovs rocraura?. iTTTrq) BLee\dcrai TOV iropov. OTI Tlopcrbva fedtcitov irrjaev.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TroXXa/a? Bi/caicos o><? e^eXey^ct)!/ KGLKIGTOV dvBpwv /cat dfyaipeOevTa Trjv dp%ijv. &v Ho7r\t. el iJKLo~Ta cru/z-yLia^o? /iera/^aXXerat. /cal TOI^ <yK\evo/Avr)v rat? aXXai? veovaais eVel Be crwOelcrai TT/OO? Trapadappvvovcrav. al irapOevoi TCOV 'Poyjuaicov KaTrfkdov eTrl \ovTpbv ev0a TOV Brj /jirjvoeiBijs ri? o^Or] irepi/cal 8' /3aXXou<ra TOV iroTap. TIpaTTO/Jievcov Be TOVTCOV TOV re Tlopcriva iracrav ijBr) Trji> 7ro\e^Lfcr]V dvei/coTOS TrapaaKevrjv Bid irLaTLv. ovofia K\oi\iav. XIX./c6\a BvjaTrjp Ova\\epia. diro/cpiva/jLevov Be TOV Tap/cvviov rpa^vrepov.ov rjav^iav ryaXrjvrjv fjidkiara a)? KV/uaTO$ irapet^ev.

i-xix. His son Aruns also pleaded earnestly with him in behalf of the Romans. he bestowed no admiration or affection upon them. And some say that one of them. and because the daring exploit of the maidens would be called a base fraud on the part of 55 1 . notwithstanding the depth and whirl of the strong current. but was distressed because he would be thought less true to his word than Porsena. was one. sent back their prisoners of war. on condition that they gave up the territory of Tuscany which they had taken. they were seized with a desire to swim away. were come in safety to Publicola. exhorting and encouraging the rest as they swam. a daughter of Publicola. Tarquin to do the basest of so. seeing that he was swerving from his alliance with him. of whom Valeria. XIX. and as many maidens. As they saw no guard near. Consequently. these Roman maidens went down to the river to bathe. nor any one else passing by or crossing the stream. xvin. In confirmation of these conditions.PUBLICOLA. he put an end to his war against them. and received back their deserters. at a place where the curving bank formed a bay and kept the water especially still and free from waves. But when they out. named Cloelia. crossed the stream on horseback. least of all Porsena. 2 men and dom. saying that he would make ne man his judge. Porsena was displeased and perceived the weakness of his cause. the Romans gave as hostages ten young men from their noblest families. And when confident of proving that he was justly deprived of his kingTarquin gave him a rough answer. After these stipulations had been carried and when Porsena had already remitted all his warlike preparations through his confidence in the treaty.

) ov TLves ov r% KXotXta?.ievoLS et? IlaXaTfo^ dvSpids aur?}? (f)LTTTro<. OL dvdfcetraL & TIJV dvSpcoBes avrrjs TOV Tvpprjvov. aura? irakiv aTrecrretXe TTyOo? TOV ravra S' ol rrepl TOV Tap/cvviov 77750KOL KaOiaavres eveBpav rot? ajovcri o^toS afJLWOfJievwv. lepdv 6Bbv 7ropvo{. ra> TT/JOCTCOTTW. aXXa Ti^r]crai TO 5 7rorafj. jmapTVpiov o \eyovres LTTTTU) Sie^eXdaat TOV 6' ou (fracriv. TO ovofia TT}? KXotXta? 7rpocre/3\'^rv avrqv tXea) . teal rpels rtz/e? avi'LK7rea-6vT6<$ ecrco^ov avrrfv. aicr66jjievoi. rwv rot? OVK aKlv&vv&s KOI ava/uLe/Jujfievwv 6 "Appwv Hopaiva u/o? o^ew? irpocre- <f)vyr)<$ >yevofjievri<s rwv Se ra? irapOevov^ KOfjaaB'eicra? o Tlopcrivas rrjv Karap^a/jievijv TT}? 7rpd%ea><$ /cal irapaavoucra? 5e K\evaafjievr]v Tat? aXXou? e^/ret. aXXa. QuaXXepias 'O e elvaL \eyovcriv.L fcaKovpjrj/iLa 'Pco/Aaiwv ryeyovevai.ei>(av 6pjbir)cracra ajrecfrvye. Sib av\\a{3(*dv 3 Tlopcrivav. fieacov 77 ra? TratSa?. Be Qva\\epia &ia fjLa%o/jt.6v. /cat /ceXeucra? ITTTTOV al TWV {Bacn\LKwv TOVTO Troiovvrat. ev TW irepav eireOevro TrXeto^e? 6Vr?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES alt iav ej. 552 .

as you go to the Palatine. gave 1 According to Livy. 6-11). erected at the top of the memory of which the Romans Via Sacra an equestrian statue. and with the help of three attendants who broke through the crowd with her. set an ambush for the convoy of the maidens. 13. though some say it represents not Cloelia. but Valeria. attacked defended Romans. and ordering one of the royal horses to be brought. crossed Those who say V the river on horseback. " virgo insidens equo. And when he heard Cloelia named as the one. and say that the Tuscan merely honoured in this way the maiden's But an equestrian statue of her stands by courage. the maidens were by the example of Mucius to their display of courage. The rest of the maidens were mingled with the combatants and in peril of But Aruns. and Valeria. and Cloelia alone. all fittingly caparisoned. of the affair. who gives a very different version of in When incited the Cloelia episode (ii. the Via Sacra. produce this fact in evidence. the daughter of Publicola. and sent them back again to Porsena. back.PUBLICOLA. 1 Porsena. he asked that Cloelia. he made her a present of it. nevertheless. thus reconciled with the Romans. learning their lives. 2-5 He seized them. and rescued the superior numbers as they passed along. But Tarquin and his men got timely intelligence of this. xix. put their enemies to flight. the Romans. he looked upon her with a gracious and beaming countenance. and attacked them in The party themselves. Others dispute the inference. Porsena saw the maidens thus brought for the one who had begun the enterprise and encouraged the rest in it. the son of Porsena. therefore. made good her escape. came with all speed to their assistance." 553 . darted through the combatants and fled.

aTrXoO? (cal dp- XaiKos et? rfj XX. aXXo Be /jnjBev. yu-o^? r^5 del Tr]V av\eiov. rpia"%i\iovs eVl KOI <yepa$ e&xev 7rl rot? 0pid/jL/3oi<$ oiKiav dva\a)/jLacriv ev TLakaTiw.r] /cara- 554 . irapeBwKe rot? :at P&)//. el<$ efceivrjs avTw 'yevecrOai BIJ/JLOO-LOI. ra Trpwra KijpvTTOvo-i ra Tlopo-Lva ru> ^pr)fjLa dvSpl rrjs %dpiTO<. aXX' e'/cXetrreiv rov %dpafca airov re TroXXoO KCU %prjfJLdra)v 6 TravroSaTrwv.atoi?. dBe\(f)os IToTrXt/^oXa.. avrov Trapa TO (3ov\evrr)piGv. TOU? Tvpprjvovs ava\a(Beiv /ceXeucra?. aiBiov ev rfj fjLvtf/j. co? Brj Kara rb rov Brj/jLoaiov 3 Ta? S' 'EXXT/w/ca? rcporepov ovrcos e^eiv drcdcras on KOTrrovcri KCU tyoty overt. /ca^' rj/uas eri f jro)\ovvre<. TIpaTTo/jievcov Be rcov KOI Trapovaia TLo7r\i/co\a Bvcrl o Map/co? evt/erjarev. oVXo. OTTW? aicTO^cn^ e%w yevoiro rot? 7rapepxojAevoL<i fj Trpoecrr&ai ical jj. KOI TloarovTou/3e/9TO?.^ TWV 8' a\\c0v Tore TO K\eiaiov dvoiyoeTrolrjo-av ol/cia<.7] BiaeiaTrjrcet. Be teal ^CL\KOV^ avbpias <f)V\dTTOVTS. Mera TTJV epyacria. ra? avrwv Ovpas ol Trpolevai /leXXoi/re?. &v ev rfj Bevrepa dTrojBakcov v dvei\e.PLUTARCH'S LIVES jv re eavrov 7ro\\r)V /jLeya\0(f)pO(Tvvr)v erreBei^aro ry TroXej. Be ravra ^aftivwv e/jL/3a\6vTa)v ^copav i/Traro? /juev dTreBei^dt] Ma/3/co? Qva\\epio<. Ovpwv eidco TT)? oiKia<. real TO.

555 . Therefore it is that down to very day. which he turned over to the Romans. and thus the man's kindness is honoured with perpetual remembrance. They say that all Greek doors used to open outwards in this way. ii. he also obtained the honour of a house built for him at the public charge on the Palatine. Livy. 2 Besides his triumphs. to take with them their arms only. and not be Publicola. a brother of was made consul. when there is a sale of public property. Inasmuch as the most important steps were taken with the advice and assistance of Publicola. XX. Livy. 2 Cf. of simple and archaic workthis manship. ii. 4 Cf. leaving it full of abundant provisions and all sorts of valuables. slew thirteen thousand of the enemy. without losing a single Roman. 5-xx. in order that persons passing by or standing in front of them may hear. a bronze statue of him used to stand near the senate-house. Roman territory. soldiers. and nothing else. and the conclusion is drawn from their comedies. In particular. Marcus was victorious in two great battles. where those who are about to go out of a house beat noisily on the inside of their own doors. and in the second of them. to open outwards. in order that by this concession he might be constantly partaking of public honour. the city xix. 3 many proofs his of his magnanimity. Porsena's goods are cried first. 1-4. 14. 16. And whereas the doors of other houses at that time opened inwards into the vestibule. and of his alone. and with him Postumius Tubertus. they made the outer door of his house. he ordered Tuscan when they evacuated their camp.PUBLICOLA. when the Sabines invaded the Marcus Valerius. 1. After 1 this. Moreover.

TT}? TrarpiSos. aldOofJLevos Be TOUTOU? KOI Trpocrfcpovovra Tot? iroKe^oTTOLol^ real cnpaeavrov. e(fjoj3elro TTJV /cpicriv. naaai yap avdirijpa. dv0pci)7ra)v <yap etyaiveTO KaracrKV)] KCU ovv "AvrTTio? KXaucro? eV L Te Svvarb? KOI crco/^aTo? \6yov SeivorrjTi irpwrevwv.j3aivt t Tot? fj. 'Pw/xatw^. KOI TeXo? ovoejjLia ryevecrts ecr^ev. o9ev K TWV 108 " 6 IIoTrXi/coXa? t'Xacrayuevo? TW KOL e\. ov ie(f>vye iraOclv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES \a[ji(BdvoiVTO TrpoLOvaais rat? K\^KTLOL<JIV et? rov To) S' e?}? 6T6L TraXiv viTaTeve TO TerapTov r]v Be irpocrBoKLa 7ro~\. eraipeiav Be KCU Bvvajiiv <$'i\b)V Kal ol/ceicov e 556 . eVl TvpavvioL 3 /tat Sov\wcrei. aXX' KOI rot? fy9ovov(JiV alriav Trapecr^e TOV vroXe/zo^ av<~civ TO.e/uiov real Tt9 %a]3iv(0v Kal AaTLVwv a-vvLaiaiJievwv.7ri(Ti TT/^O? TI^TI TO Tot? Oelov aTr' rjSiova /cardan'] eras TTO\IV.yd\OL<. o Se Trdcri avp. ayua Seicn'&aiiJL.ovia rr}? TroXea)? jty~aro' al KvovaraL Tore ryvvaiices t'^/5aXXoy r XXI.

he feared the issue. as his personal prowess made him illustrious. Perceiving that the multitude gave a ready ear to these stories. he turned his attention to what it feared from men. i. but who was most eminent for his lofty character and He could not. according to Livy. xx 3-xxi. 4. 1 At the same time also a sort of superstitious terror seized upon the city because all the women who were pregnant were delivered of imperfect Wherefore. but with a large and powerful cotsrie of friends and 1 Livy gives a very brief account of this war (ii. In the following year Publicola was consul O v again. but was an object of jealous hate. with a view to making himself tyrant and master of his own country. For their enemies were plainly making great preparations and a powerful league against them. 2-6). Appius among the Romans. 3 doors open out into the when the XXI. Attius Clausua among the Sabines. and all births were premature. and when he tried to stop the war. VOL. those who hated him charged him with trying to increase the power of Rome.PUBLICOLA. 16. for his great eloquence. and renewed certain games that had been recommended by Apollo. ii. and after he had thus made the city more cheerful in its hopes and expectations from the gods. by direction of the Sibylline books. Publicola made propitiatory sacrifices to Pluto. and that he himself was obnoxious to the war party and the military. when there was expectation of a war with the Sabines and Latins combined. taken by surprise street. escape the fate of all great men. Now there was among the Sabines one Appius 2 Clausus. 16. a man whose wealth made him powerful. however. offspring. 2 Claudius 557 . for the fourth time.

1%V ClvSpCLS CTTtT^SetOUS Ofc W KXaucrro Bi6\eyovTo Trap avrou roiavra. ei? TOV Ho7T\tKO\a Kal 7rl & 6 irpoOvfjiteS BiKaow. oTrep rjv eV a66pv[3ov /jLciXicrra Kal /3iov Trpaov /cal olfceiov. KOi KIVLV KOL ov&vl KCIKW .<74? TO?? Ea/St elSe TauT' ow IIoTrXt/coXa? ot [JLOVOV (JVV%GTUMIV. Ta 55S e ^ajBivwv OVTW 6iaKpi6evra T . v7ro&J. /ca . Aral ov&cvbs dfj-avpoTepov ev Pw/iy TO KXaft'a>i> XXII. teal TOUT' TJV TOV 7To\/jiov Siarpiftr) teal yueXXr. Kal 7Tpl TOV iraai 77)9 e&coKV. /5e'X- e/ceivatv re 7roXXoi>? OyLtoico? avaf^era OS irai&wv KOL yvvat/ccav. $elv o'leral TOU? aeavrov el v Kaiirep dStKov/jLevov 3e eavTov /jLTacrTf)vai teal fyvyelv TOU? Ta?. d\\O. TOU? OIKOVS evOvs dve/jii^e TO) 7ro\iTv/JLaTi. a>? 6 Hu7r\iKo\a^ avSpa ere ^p^crrov ovra KCLL Bi/caiov 1 epJOV.7ai ere Bjjfjioaia KOL l$ia TT}? 5 Tavra TroXXa/a? avatrteairovvTi TO) KXaucrw TWV ava^Katov &avTO. avrov tie rfj SovXfj irpocrei]V TroXtreias \a/JL/3dvovra efj.PLUTARCH'S LIVES vovaav 4 rrep avrbv o ecrracria^e.(f)p6v(i)S ave$pa/jLev et? TO d<^>' Kal ^vvafJiLV ecr^e ^70X771'.

to change thine allegiance and flee from those who hate thee. Publicola knew beforehand of their coming. But if thou wishest. admitting them to all rights and privileges. kinsmen This to xxi.1. however. of gentle and sedate lives. for thine own safety. to join him. i defend him. he led them to Rome. 3-xxn." On repeated consideration of the matter. just a citizens in man to inflict " Publicola thinks thee too worthy any evil upon thy fellow VOL. kept some of his followers employed in bringing to Clausus from him such messages as this : made the Sabines put and art self-defence. even though thou wronged by them. and taking five thousand families from their homes. XXII. To Clausus. he gave twenty-five acres of This land. but also to foment and promote the faction. For he at once incorporated the families in the Roman state. accordingly. The Claudian family. he will receive thee with public and private honours which are worthy of thine own excellence and the splendour of Rome. and gave them an eager and a kindly welcome. and gave each one two acres of land on the river Anio. the most peaceful folk among the Sabines. and enrolled him among the senators. which is descended from him. T2 559 . making it his business not only to know about these matters. and delay the war. continued off his opposition. is no less illustrious than any in Rome. who in like manner persuaded many more. wives and children included.PUBLICOLA. Publicola. was the beginning of a political power which he used so wisely that he mounted to the highest dignity and acquired great influence. Though the schism among the Sabines was . this course seemed to he therefore Clausus the best that was open to him summoned his friends.

fD Trepl <&i$rjva<? /caTrjv\icravro. OVK yovvres el eiacrav ol drpe/uiijcrai /cal KaTaaTrjvat. 'Pcofj. jjiJiepa 0a^e/5w? 6\iyoi<i linrevcri \eiav e\aveiprjTO 8' CLVTOLS. aXXa (fievyovras. IIocrTOL/yiao? <yap BaX^o? o <yafi/3po<.? ev \ov a/M 2 vew. ol? evrjbpevov ol 7rape(j)v\arrev 6 8e crvvdp^wv Aouev rfj TroXet Kal e'%a>i> TO /covtyoraTOV erd^Orj rot? eXavvovGt.' d/jLvvo/jLvov<$.6craTO TT/OO? Trdvra KOI /jiev BiVi/j. ^a{3iva)V /cal 8te(f)06Lp6TO' TOU? 8' evravda //>. TroXeyiuo?./3d\a)criv et? rrjv dveBpav TOV? TroXeyLaou?' ravd' 6 IloTrXf/coXa? avdrj/nepov 1 TTvOoiJLevos Trap avTO/xo\a)v Trjv ra^v &ir)pfj. Kal rot? 109 e<pr)Ke TOU? Tre/^l avrov 6 AovKal IIoTrXi/coXa? TrpoaefidXe rot? crrparo4 TreSois TCOV 7ro\/nicoi>.PLUTARCH'S LIVES TWV dvbpwv. pr) KXaucro? a Trapcbv OVK eireiae Biairpdyevojuievos teal <f)V<ya<? Sovvat &L/CIJV 'Pw/jiaiovs wv v/3piov(Tiv. en avrov rpicr^iXioi^ TT poe\6 wv /cal /carav<$> TOU? aKpo\6(j)ov<i. KCLI \6%ov Qk^voi KCU Trpo TT}? 'PaJ/^T. VTrocfrevyeiv ew? e/j. TT)^ \eiav auro? 8e T^Z/ aXXrjv ava. /tara Trepl opOpov dfjia IIocrTOU/uo? re TOL>? eveSpevSaXez^ a?ro TWZ^ a/epcov. Travrr] /JLCV ovv eKa/covro TO.6 e<nrepa<s SvvajjLiv. orav rfj TroXej 7rpocre\d- crcoariv. apavres ovv a\.aloL. oTrXtraf? \afitov 3 2.aftivoi. ev9vs eKreivov ol icpr)Tio<s. TT}? eXTuSo? aurot? 560 .

1-4 thus removed by the emigration of these men. his colleague. to retire gradually until drawn the enemy into the ambuscade. as soon as it was day. the Sabines were worsted and undone. At all points. at break of day Postumius. they encamped near Fidenae. should boldly ravage the country. but complained bitterly that Clausus. Their intention was that a few of their horsemen. namely. by becoming an exile and an enemy. with loud shouts. and kept the enemy under forces. that Rome pay no penalty for her outrages.PUBLICOLA. and took measures accordingly. but and the Romans straightway slew them. whenever they approached the city and were attacked. Favoured by a heavy fog. he himself took the rest of the army and encircled the enemy in their camp. popular xxn. fell upon the ambuscade from the heights. and Publicola attacked the camp of the enemy. But these had been ordered. with a large army. should bring to pass what he could not effect by his persuasions at home. dividing up his Postumius Balbus. Wherever they were. occupied the hills under which the Sabines were lying in ambush. their leaders would not suffer them to settle down into quiet. his son-in-law. then. while it was yet evening. observation . retaining in the city the lightest armed and most impetuous troops. fled. went out with three thousand menat-arms. and placed two thousand men-at-arms in ambush just outside of Rome in wooded hollows. was ordered to attack the enemy's horsemen as they ravaged the country . Lucretius. they had That very day Publicola learned of this plan from deserters. they made no defence. The 561 . therefore. Setting out. while Lucretius hurled his troops upon the horsemen when they rode towards the city.

oa-oi Se <&iBr)va)v Sitf/jLaprov Bie- rj ^covres dTr^Oriaav VTTO TWV \at3ovrwv. (frcvyovcriv eviirnrTov fcal /9o^^eta? Seo/Jievois ou? eiv. /cal e'/e TWI^ arparoTreSwv. TO 5e /x^ Trdvras di TOL>? ^aftivovs. rivas rj oixra 7raea"e. TO?? d\\a /cat TrepvyeveaOat. 3 jjiopiov efcaarov errl Tipf) avveiaeveyKelv.^0? Xot? Kal dyaOols. /caropOco/jia 'Pwyaaioi. rerapTrjat Be . epptocrOrj Be /cal %prj yuacr iv /cal Br/jjios ex TWV \a<pvpa)V T&V al^/^a\a)ra)V. aXXa jraaav Ta<f)rjvai o(f>ei\(t)V ^(dpiv.PLUTARCH'S LIVES crcb^ecrOai yap olofjievoi erepoi T&> ^d^ecrdai KOL TOL? e-repovs ol /neveiv ou Trpocrel^ov. aXX' 01 fjizv . Kaiirep diracri Tot? fjbeydXois en L$>r) jjii^eiv TO Sai- e^o? epyov rjyovvro rov arpar^yov yeyo- vevai. 'O Be IIoTrXt/coXa? TOZ^ Te OpiafJLJSov dyayajv l Tot? /ACT' avrbv d7roBei%d6i(nv VTrdrois jrapaO~TIV dvOptoTTOlS /AttXiCTTa TOt? VGVO[JLl(T yU.v. ol ex TWV epvjjLcirtov rrpos TOJ)? eveBpevBe iraKiv a>? e/ceivovs et? TO arparoTT/OO? Oeovres evavrlot. XXIII./zocrta TO aw/jua. TOUTO TO /JLOVIOV. KOI TWV /cal jjLe/JLa^rjiJievMV QTI ^coXoi)? Tot? TV(p\ous Trpwrov rjv CIKOVZIV avTols Kal JJLOVOV ov TOL? o 2 TroXeyCttou? Ho7r\iKo\a<i TrapeBco/ce %i(pecrt. 06^ faicr/cero. /cal aaro 563 8?. TOV eavrov fiiov e o Be Bfj/jios oxrTTep ovBev et? ^wvra ra>v 7re7roir}K(*)<?.

blind. especially to those who fled from the camp when it was captured. by private agreement honour. on their part. decreed that his body should be buried at the public charge. other was safe. died. and that every man should contribute a quadrans towards the The women also. while these. although they were wont to attribute all such great events to the influence of the gods. All who did not gain this city were either slain or as prisoners. brought back to Rome XXIII. selves. and found those needing succour from whom they expected succour themAnd all the Sabines would have perished. Great wealth also accrued to the people from the and prisoners. considered to be the work of And the first thing his soldiers their general alone. This success the Romans. had not the neighbouring city of Fidenae afforded a refuge to some. but spoils owed him every homage. had no thought of holding their ground and fighting. 4-xxm. to be dispatched by their swords. xxn. immediately after celebrating his triumph and handing the city over to the consuls appointed to succeed him. but those in the camp ran towards those in the ambuscade. But Publicola. so that fugitives encountered fugitives. were heard to say was that Publicola had delivered their enemies into their hands lame.PUBLICOLA. to show their esteem for him while he was alive. as if they had done nothing perfection. 3 very hopes they placed in one another proved most For each party. So far as it can possibly be achieved by men who are regarded as honourable and good. supposing that the fatal to them. he had brought his life to The people. 563 . ran to those in the camp. and all but imprisoned.

P. /cal 1 "In the following year. died. in the height of his glory. /jLaprvpo/jievos epyw TO Be r?}? TIJJLIJ^. Ko/JLia-avres Be TOV vexpov e/cel /caraTi6evrai KOL BaBd ri? rj/jL/jLevrjv ~\. but so poor that means to defray his 564 . BieTrevo\ov eVt TW dvBpl rrev0os evTtftov erdfj)^ Be KCU oirr9 TWV TTO\LTWV irapd TTJV eVro? acrreos wcrre /cal /ca\ov- vvv Be OaTTTerai /j. TOV CTepov Be fidpTvv. *A/o' virdp^ei ovv tBiov TI Trepl ravrrjv rrjv crvy/cpicrn) KOI /jirj irdvv (ruyuySe^S^/co? erepa TWV dvayeypajji/jievwv. OVT ai)ro? ev rot? Trot-^aatv a>? dvSpb? dyaflov \6yov ea"%ev OVT 7rat6? OVT TeX\ov yap. Agrippa Menemus and P.ev TeXXw 2 rrpocnJKei' ov etTre yeyovevai fiaKapiWTaTOV Bi* evTroTjJLiav KOI dpeTrjv xal evTetcviav.PLUTARCH'S LIVES yvvalrces. avras crv/j.ev ovBels ra)V CLTTO <yevov$. et9 B6av rf\6ev IIo7rXiA:oXa9 Be fcal Tevcre Bvvd/jLei /cal Bo^rj Bi dpeTrjv 'Pwfjiaiwv. opa yap rjv ^6\wv e^tjveyKe a)? Trepl evBaijAOVias aTTofyaaiv rj 7T/009 KpolcTOV.a{3(*)v ocrov VTTTJelra dvaipeirai. Postumius being consuls. . by universal consent the foremost Roman in the arts of war and peace. 6 TOV (-Tepov yeyovevai fJUfjirjTrjv TOV eTepov.(f)povijcracrai. Valerius.d\\ov /j. IToTrX^oXa fj. IBia TT/JO? Orjcrav eviavTOV KOI QrfKcoTov. /cal TOV veKpov 01/70)9 KAI nOHAIKOAA I.

while he lived. near the so called Velia. and then takes it away. funeral expenses were lacking. this the After body is borne away. however. and something that has not been true of any other thus far. too. and the first bore witness for the second. none of the family is actually buried there. and his goodly offspring. family were to have privilege of burial there. within the city. 2 and all his Now. by express vote of the citizens. that the second imitated the first. his virtue.SOLON AND PUBLICOLA. ii. and the matrons mourned for him as they " had done for Brutus (Livy. 1-2 amongst themselves. For it must be plain that the verdict concerning happiness which Solon pronounced to Croesus. i. COMPARISON OF SOLON AND PUBLICOLA I. was not celebrated in Solon's poems as a good man. is more applicable to Publicola than to Tellus. with a mourning which was honourable and enviable. THERE is. 1 He was buried. nor did his children or any magistracy of his achieve a reputation whereas Publicola. namely. mourned a whole year for him. attesting by this act that the deceased has the right of burial there. because of his fortunate lot. 7). then. something peculiar in this comparison. Solon pronounced the most blessed man he knew. 2. but the body is carried thither and set down. Tellus. and some one takes a burning torch and holds it under the bier for an instant. 565 . but relinquishes the honour. 16. 2 See chapter x. was foremost among the Romans in in- whom . He was therefore buried at the public charge.

&)? KOI TeXXo9 VTTO TWV teal TroXeyLttft)^ dvrjp dya0os o ev /jiva)V fjia^o/jbevo^ tcarecrTpetye' 8e TOV? fJLev TToXe/JLiOvs <7Tl. cv^aro 566 TWV dyadcov a>9 a 7^/3 ^eyiara Kal .o<Jiwv 3 evyeveias TTJV B6av dvafyepovcn. 0avu)V v$ai/j./za9 TIo7r\iK6\ai KOI MecracL\ai Kal Qva\\epLOi Si ercov kl[. /cal /jLa/capi^ 4 en Tolvvv ol? 777)09 Mi/mvep/jLOV dvreiTrcbv Trepl aK\avcrTO<: (f)i\oicrt. /caP ?. Kreivas. f^vpLacn TroXXat?.110 rijaas yap ou ^>tXot? ouS' oiiceiois JAOVOV. OVK /cat e'^eXa)/' IIoTrXtAroXa TrXovreiv.(j)ov ' 77 para Be o i^ieipw {lev S' KOLVOV d7ro/3a\ovcrai. <pt]cnv o 2iOMOV. a>9 Si/crj? ^' TreTrdcrdai. VTrrjp^ev aXXa ov JJLOVOV urj /caXaW avaKicnctiv ev TTOLOVVTL TOU9 Seofjievovs. 5 d$e~\. evBai/jLovecTTaTos 6 IToTrXi/foXa?.aK. Ho7r\LKo\av avSpa reXeu. aXXa c rfj SaKpva Kal iroOov Kal Kanj(f)iav e'(^' avrw 7rapeo"%ev at yap Pa>fiaicov yvvaiKes eTTevdrja-av avrov wcnrep vlov rj TToXei Trdcrrj. Trarepa / "f V'S^'-v \ >f e%W.PLUTARCH'S LIVES ev TCH? eTrKfravecrrdTOis yevecri /cat en.ova rbv a\a Kal Trotet. ^6 teal rou VIKCCCTCLV Tr)V TTdTpiSa L* avrbv ap^ovra Be /cal dpiafjbfSevcras erv^e TT}? VTTO %6\o)vo<. WCTT' et cro^coTaro? diravrajv 6 e'/cet^o? SoXcoz/.

wrong2 fully to get it. like the Publicolae. since what Solon prayed for as the greatest and 1 women Fragment 21 (Bergk). . 2-5 fluence and repute for virtue. whereas Publicola slew his enemies." believing that punishment would follow. moreover. i. Tellus. but unto friends Let me be cause. ii. with weeping and yearning and sorrow. I do not wish. died at the hands of his enemies . 1 in arguing with him on the proper duration of human life. So that if Solon was the wisest. and since his death the most illustrious family lines of our own day. what Solon says to Mimnermus. the Messalae. argues Publicola a happy man. Publicola was the most happy of men. have for six hundred years ascribed the glory of their noble birth to him." For when he died. which is a better fortune than to be slain by them. 2 See Solon. saw his country victorious through his efforts as consul and general. but also nobly spent in benefactions to the needy. For the of Rome mourned for him as though they had lost a son. or a common father. when dead. " Wealth I desire to " but have. but the entire city. or a brother. 3. And Publicola's wealth was not only not ill got." says Solon. for sorrow and for sighing. numbering many tens of thousands. his loss filled not only friends and kindred. " May not an unlamented death be mine. though he kept his post and fought like a brave man.SOLON AND PUBLICOLA. Still further. and enjoyed honours and triumphs before he came to the end which Solon pronounced so enviable and blest. and the Valerii.

. '2 6\wv. OvTW [AW 6 %6\Q)V KKO(7/JLrjK TOV Ho7T\l- Ko\av. ave\. 6 fiev aXovTi. 6 /cal t axTTrep 2 /jLiKpov StTrAao'mcra?.PLUTARCH'S LIVES icd\\io~Ta. Tavra KOI KTrjcracrOai Tlo7r\iKo\a /cal (j)v\dgai xpcojAevM f^e^pi re\ov<.%eipoir) Tvpavvelv. wcnrep o SoXaw TOU? Si/cavTa?.w fj re Tav -rafjuwv r)\6ev. Trjv S' ovcrav rjv^aev api0jj. KOL yap ap^ovratv /caracrTacrea)? tcvpovs TOU? TTOXXOU?. V7rdp%i KO\OV T& Ho7r\L/c6\a TO \aSovTa TVpavviKr)v * apyj]V jroiicrai ol? e^rjv e^ovra Xpijcraa-Qai. /cal TOVTO 568 . /3ov\rjv fiev erepav ov/c CTroirjcrev. KOI TWV Trpd^ewv teal TWV ^py^drcov TO Be pier OTV paw ov ev rc5 Kvpto? ryevo/Jievo*. KOI TOt? (freVJOVO'L BifCrjV 7TlKa\l(f6ai TOV Sfjfjiov. TOV iro\iTela 26\wva B* TrapaBeiyfjidTWV av TcdKiv etcelvos ev ry KaXkiaTov dvbpl KO- GJULOVVTL SrjjuoKpaTLav Genevas' TT}? fiev TOP oy/cov a(f)6\(tiv evfjievrj jap dp%ijs iraai KOI a\vrrov KOLT- e TToXXot? e^ptjaaro TWV ziceivov. eirl rot? o /carda-TatTis IJLTJT' e/eeWev 07rco9 e~)(r) el xprjo-ros ecrriv dcr%o\iav el TT/JO? ra /jLei^Q). Ilo7r\iKo\a crtyoBpoTepov. opOcios real crefjivv- TOV SoXcoi^o? BiKaiws OTL /cal teal TOJV TrpayfjidTwv avTM BiBovTwv Tvpavvelv Se%o/jLeva)v OVK aKOvaLcos aTreiTrev. II.elv BbBcocri. ^r]T <aOXo9 d<popfjLa<? TOV abitceiv fjioXXov. el <ydp rt? e7n. &a)K. Tr]v SLKIJV eTTLTiO^crLV. 6 3 Be /cal Trpb vo/jievov Be T% Kpicreox. VTrrjp^ev.

as Solon did. Hatred of tyranny was more intense in Publicola than in Solon. For instance. and did not use even the prerogatives which w ere his by right of And of the wisdom of such a course possession. in his political activities. 3 was privileged to win and continue to enjoy until the end. r 569 . 5-11. Moreover. indeed. whereas Publicola made it lawful to kill him before any trial. and he adopted many of Solon's laws. when he had received a tyrannical power. too. might not have greater opportunities for injustice by having both the administration and the treasury in his hands. II. and. create a new senate. For in case any one attempted to usurp the power. he put the appointment of their rulers in the power of the people. but he increased the one already existing to almost double its numbers. as Solon to the jurors. For he took away the arrogant powers of the consulship and made it gracious and acceptable to all. though Solon rightly and justly plumes himself on rejecting absolute power even when circumstances offered it to him and his fellow-citizens were willing that he should take it. Its purpose was that the consul. he made it more democratic. it redounds no less to the honour of Publicola that. if unworthy. these Publicola i. did not. fairest of blessings. might not be without leisure for his more important duties. enhanced the fame of Solon. by Solon's law he could be punished only after conviction. And his appointment of quaestors over the public moneys had a like origin. by making him the fairest of examples for one who was arranging a democracy. if a worthy officer.SOLON AND PUBLICOLA. And Publicola. and gave defendants the right of apHe pealing to the people. Thus did Solon enhance the fame of Publicola.

o>5' on Bf)/j.ev dpxfj rjK re/90? o SoXwzr yap Kal OVK ru> aQ* avrov. errpa^e ra Be fjieyicrra rwv KOIV&V ^XeoTof. /cal rrjv ovaav (rrdcnv avTov dperfj S' /cal Bo^y r^? rov Trpdyfiaros d T?}<? 0X779 TroXtreta? rfj rjyrjcraro fJieO' /j. TOVTOV Be iLeifyv.o<. ov l erepcov. Be Ho7r\iKo\a n>zxpi> rwv jJLev Bt(j)i>\a^i> ev KOCT/JLW rr]V 7ro\. reXec arepos 3 evrv-)(rj^ Kal rrjv /Jiev yap rj Kara\v6el<jav. \ir)V dveOels firjre III.iv o yap a/ma OecrQai TOW? VOJLOV^ drco\nT^>v ev ^uXo^9 Kal 570 . > e/cecvrj povr). ev ra> ucaC .PLUTARCH'S LIVES eoixe arvviBetv Trporepo? 6 %6\a)v. Bov) rot? irKovaiois. av dpicrra <rvv riyepoveacnv ercoiro. la"%vpw Be eXucre.iv VTrrjpe- Kal ap%eiv KOI \eyeiv eTriraTTo/jievoi KOI 2 Towre?. y [jid\iara rrjv e\ev6epiav eftefiaicoae rot? ovSev yap i}v o^jeXo? VOJJLWV IcrorijTa d^cupelrcu ra %/oe'a rfj TOU? Trevrjras' aXX' OTTOV e\ev6epiq Bo/covcn. "IBiov Be rov ^6\covo^ rj rcov %pewv avecris. on irdar) %pewv cnTO- crracreet)? erro^v^. rfj ev/caipcos. fcaddrrep fjiev.

though always follows an abolition of debts. For Solon's was more brilliant in the beginning. as it were. this he confirmed the For equality under the laws is of no avail if the poor are robbed of it by their debts. left them 1 Fragment 6 (Bergk) . And what sedition is of greater moment here. in this case alone. by employing opportunely. But in the ending. 571 . xii. of Athens . as soon as he had made his laws. especially liberties and by means of the citizens. a dangerous but powerful medicine." Peculiar to Solon was his remission of debts. As regards their political careers in general. 2. Aristotle. 3-111. they are under their orders and do them service. Solon actually put an end to the sedition that was already rife. and in public debates. it is neither humoured nor oppressed too much. since in the courts of justice. the offices of state. Nay. there they are most in subjection to the rich. and it was alone and without colleagues that he effected the most and greatest of his public measures. when he says that a people "then guides will yield the best obedience to its When III. in the very places where they are supposed to exercise their liberties most. he led the way and followed no man. the other was more fortunate and For Solon lived to see with his own eyes enviable. for his own virtue and high repute prevailed over the ill-repute and odium of the measure.SOLON AND PUBLICOLA. cf. the dissolution of his polity. Solon. 3 Solon seems to have been conscious even before l Publicola. while that of Publicola preserved order in the city down to the civil wars. Const. n.

e/c rov ftoridovvros o $X er d dpxa)v /cal ' rwv ^KOiivwv. ovrco /cal Be rot? /cal &e%0yuez. VTrep epwv rov re Tap/cvviois 7rporjX0ev o S' avr60ev dvapetyaypacre' /cal irepl ra)v fieyicrTcov KIV&VVOV eTravecnr) /cal rrjv irpo^ocriav rov KO\aaQr]vai /cal pr) Sia^wyelv TOU? rrovrjpovs alriwraros jevo/JLevos ov rd d(a[jLara JJLOVOV rwv rvpdvvwv e'^e/3aXe r?)? TroXeco?. en B' e/ceivw /xev ovSe /jLe\\ovra * r)TTr)07j (JWiGTa^vr]^ T^? rvpavviSos' OUTO? Ill e'/c 7ro\\cov \povu>v tf&r) KOI /cparovaav e%e[Sa\e /cal /careXvaev. oyUiXta? avroXeyLtou /cat 572 . Trpd^eis p.ev ev TratSm? TLVI Kal TrpoaTTOLrjfia fjiavlas dva\aj3(*)V. wcnrep TyyLtet? Bi\i j\vOajjiei' f auro? /cal err parity wv /ca ftrjv /caTwpdwcre. aXXa Kal ra? Ko^ev. Twi^ fievroi TroXcfii/cwv SoX&m fiev ov$e ra Tvprj/cev. Be /levcov /cal TToXirevo/jievos ISpv&e /cal /careffrrja-ev et? aox^aXe? 4 rr)v TroXiTeiay.o<? dywva Kal %pr]craro rot? Ovfjiov dvrirafyv eri ftekriov areyw? dTravrtfaas. dperrjv icrrjv Kal rrpoaipeaiv opoiav Be ftcLGikelav Icr^vovaav perrjv IV. o /cal eri TT/OO? ra? 7ro\iTiKa<.PLUTARCH'S LIVES eprffiov*.

without any subterfuges. he was not able to hinder them. Solon. after being mainly instrumental in the capture and punishment of the he not only drove the tyrants themselves from the city. Thus. Da'imachus of Plataea does not allow Solon even the conduct of the war against the Megarians. and detected their treachery. so to speak. on wooden tables and destitute of a and departed from Athens whereas . When we consider their military careers. fighting and commanding in person. and counterfeiting madness. serving as consul. as we have described it l but Publicola. comparing . Const. though Solon knew beforehand of the designs of Peisistratus. And still further. moreover. of Athens. 2 defender. and busying himself with public affairs. viii. xiv. went forth to plead . brought the greatest struggles to a successful issue. he enjoyed a good fortune and an efficacious power which supplemented his virtues. 3 -iv. but extirpated their very hopes of return. Publicola. cf. inscribed in. Solon's. for the recovery of Salamis but Publicola. by remaining in the city. 573 . ran the greatest risks. firmly and safely established his form of government. while exhibiting virtues equal to and a purpose identical with his. still better did he deal with those which required peaceable intercourse and gentle traitors. Aristotle. in play. And further. but yielded to his tyranny in its incipiency whereas Publicola subverted and drove out a kingly power which was strong with the might which many . 1 Solon. ages bring. And if he thus sturdily and resolutely confronted situations which called for active and spirited opposition. their political activities.SOLON AND PUBLICOLA. IV. 1. . set himself in opposition to the party of the Tarquins. Then.

6 7TO\ITIKOS W rpOTTQ) TWV OVTWV TTTOV (7TL jL6Ta6lLCreTCU t KOi v7TOKi{.ievovs Trot/aXo? jap wv KaaTOV 6V\rj- eawae TO TTCLV KCU Ketvo<? 4 fjieiovwv erw^ev. and Bekker: 574 . Kal Trepiyevo/jievos rfj TrpocreXa/Bev real oaa BovTas djaTnjrov YJV vucrjcrai' yap TOV TToXe/tov BieXvae /cal TTJV irapaffKevrjV TOV TroXeKaTe\i7rev aiiTols Bia TTLCTTIV dpeTrjs teal IJLOV Ka\o/caya0La<. TJV 6 apywv with two Paris MSS. TOV Se T\. Trpo? TOVS /ccupovs ra? Trpd^eis Oewpelv.OTT\iKo\av Bel ^? Be e/ceKTrjVTO 'Pca/jialot %a)pas a7roa"rijvai..PLUTARCH'S LIVES Seopevois. cocnrep avrjp Tore T?}? a\\OTpia<$ %(t)pas aTroara^ eawae rrjv eavrov irokiv fjv TI^V e/3ala)S aTraaav. ol? S' ^Le<ya TTpocreKTrjcra'ro TO rwv iroKiopKovvTwv eTTirpe^a^ Be TW TroXeyu-tft) Bi/crj. Corags. Bi/cacrrfj <yevea&ai. /col (f)o/3epov e/i/AeXco? Hopcrivav a^a/yov avBpa irpocrayayo/jLevos KOI 3 KaiTOf TrpoefJievoLS (frrjaei TJ? IvravOa TOV JJLCV avaKa^elv 'A^vaiOf? ^aKafuva..

and often saves the whole by relinquishing a part.SOLON AND PUBLICOLA. and left For the Porsena put all a his Romans provisions for carrying it on. and made him a Rome. But here. as when he tactfully won over Porsena. He made in the controversy. And so Publicola. and by yielding small advantages secures greater ones. The subtle statesman will handle each issue that arises in the most feasible manner. iv. for those who were hard put to it to save their city. whereas Publicola relinquished territory which the Romans had acquired. But we must view men's actions in the light of the times which call them forth. some one will say that Solon won back Salamis for the Athenians when they had friend of it up. the given besiegers with all its stores. saved all that was assuredly his own. owing to the confidence in their virtue and nobility with which their consul had inspired him. perhaps. in that instance. won his case. an invincible and formidable foe. and received besides what his people would gladly camp of their his adversary judge have given for the victory. and procured besides. by yielding the territory which belonged to others. 2-4 persuasion. stop to the war. 575 .


of Rome. Agnus." Acilius. xxii. century B. of Athens. flourishing in 650 B.C. a pupil of Diogenes the Cynic. and became the founder of Dorian Attica. Antigonua. of Teos. a mythical king of Aegina. of Faros. 57. 143. probably general of Alexander who was afterwards king of Asia.C.E. 443. A treatise of his on mythology.W. a learned grammarian of Athens in the latter part of the second century B. 291. Anaximenes.C. 205. 67. and Adrastus. suburbs of Athens. 76 f). the Thebais. 3U1. Andron of Halicarnassus. or History of political life of to 346 B. Apollodorus. an Attic township N. son of Minos the king of Crete. Interpreter in senate for the Athenian embassy of 155 B. Aphidnae. a Lydian of Sardis. the orator. 63. a Roman historian who flourished in the earlier part of the first century B. 11. some twelve miles S. Epiffoni. epic cycle. wife of Amphitryon of Thebes. in Greek. has come down to us. a Scythian. who came in his youth to Sparta. m He flourished in lyric poetry. Apollotliemis. 141. 75. Antiniachus. (Cato Major. a people of Euboea In the Homeric period. 29. about fifteen miles N. an early Two poems of the epic poet.C. of Argcs. the Antigonus. 415.C. king " Seven leader of the against Thebes. Antisthenes the Socratic. author of a History of Italy. 319. the latter half of the seventh century B. an ancient Attic township. Aeacus. daughter of Minos and Pasiphae. Alba. Archilochus. 17.C.C. Alcmene. mentioned only here. a genealogical writer of the fourth century B. a pupil of Gorgias and friend of Socrates. probably the latter part of the third Athens from 376 In old age and exile he wrote an Atthis. suruamed the One-eyed. and mother of Heracles by Zeus. Antias. Valerius. 381. active at Athens aa rhetorician and historian in the latter half of the fourth century B. a hill in the S. Alcman. one of the earliest Ionian lyric poets.C. author of a history of Rome from the earliest to his own time. on the Alban lake. the Eibliotheca. 303. after death one of the judges in Hades. 527.E. and was much used by both Livy and Plutarch. iv. Anacharsis.C. and the went under his name. 131. of Crete 577 . 27. which was much read. of Athens. 37. His history extended from the earliest times down to those of Sulla. Ardettus. 97. 159. 11.A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES Androtion. the Roman Caius. who travelled extensively in pursuit of knowledge (Herod. 121. 21. of Lampsacus. active In the Abantes. a very ancient town of Latiuin.E. Ariadne. Androgeos. 4).

Aristonienes.). and much esteemed by Augustus. Deidameia. Cape. 10. one of the earliest epic poets of Greece. apparently a district of Athens at the foot of the Pnyx hill . known as a writer only from this mention ol hia work. Bush-is. 159. author of a work on India. probably the freedman of Cato the Younger (Plutarch.DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES Aristocrates. the third month in the Attic calendar.C. son of Sandon. 303. of Plataea. who ning artificer took refuge with king Minos of Crete. about three miles to the south-east of the ancient harbour of Phalerum. 23. the Euboea. a Greek writer on philosophy and music. a district on the eastern shore of the Euxine sea. The epic Oechalia was attributed to Crommyon. 429. Blon. 63. Chaeroneia. 65. who. Codrus. of Tarentum. 215. king. " cunDaedalus. wife of Peirithoiis. 307. of Proconnesns. Roman imperial period. 63. circa 420-350 B.C. 51. a river flowing through the plain west of Athens. Colias. one of the annalists of Athens. 19. a town on the northern confines of Boeotia. said to have been a native of Chios. a pupil of Aristotle. otherwise unknown. an ancient city on the eastern coast of Attica. serving as the seaport of Delphi. commonly called Hippodarneia. village and district of Corinth. 217. 303. 405. contemporary with Daimachus Camerla. and Sparta (685-668 Aristoxenus .). Ixx. the greatest Spartan hero of the Peloponuesian war.C. 429. a commythical history. of piler of uncertain date. the oldest Cleidemus. works on Harmony and Rhythm have come down to us. 69. Messenla B. a mythical Egyptian sacrificed all foreigners that entered his country. He was the father of Icarus. of Tarsus. 39. and a relative poem him. 37. Butas. 23. 423. Cephisus. on the Euripus. 169. an ancient city of Latium. chief town of straits of the and historical work on probably of the early Sparta. his town on the Corinthian gulf. 167. a mythical son of Ares. 283. Crommyonia. the site of which i3 unknown. 573. Cycnus. 63. a mythical king of Salamis. the last king of Athens. 578 . 67. of Homer. allusions to Cirrha. corresponding nearly to our September. Cato Minor. annalist of Athens. not earlier than the fourth century B. according to tradition. a put there are no other it. 549. Boedromion. known only as the author of an antiquarian Chalcig. Brauron. Philochorus (306-200 B. for whom he built the Labyrinth. who 23. receiving hero worship. 21. a on the Isthmus His death at Amphipolis is described by Thucydides in v. a Roman chronographer. Deinon. sacrificed himself for his country. a Greek historian active in the latter part of the fourth century B. Clod ins. 59. a Stoic philosopher long resident Rome.. the Messenlan hero of the second war between Clirysa. slam by Heracles in Thessaly.C. Cychreus. 39.). Brasidas. Parts of flourishing in 330 B. Creophylus. the " mythical of Athens. at Athenodorus.C.C. Colchis.

one of the oldest cities of Latium. 267. earlier Rome. collecting materials for his great work on the antiquities and history of Rome. 277.. Demetrius the Phalerean. a mountain fastness between Eleusis and Boeotia. Syracuse. perhaps Dieuchidas is meant. of Abdera. Dionysius.). writing in the latter part of the fourth century B. probably Diogenes the Babylonian is meant. of the Eleusls. a celebrated Peripatetic philosopher. 207. the Elder. and Antipater . and grammarian. an Attic township Dionysius. See Plutarch's Alexander. and one of the Athenian embassy to Rome in 155 B.. 45. in 621 B. went to Rome about 29 B.. on the N.C. Dicaearchus. N. the naked philosophers of India. Alexander. correspoudiug nearly to our July. whom Plutarch regards as a source for Fabius Pictor. 19. about 540 B. between Troezen.E. Gyrnnosophists. 21.C.. politics. a city some twelve miles west of Athens. and one on its monuments. archona at Athens.C. one of the ornaments of the court of Hiero of time of Augustus. critic. 335. 301. for many Diodes of Peparethus. and the Isthmus of Corinth. the first month of the Attic calendar. 449.C. 85. 17.E. 276-196 B. one of the six or legislative mothetai. a learned geographer and mathematician.C. 69. contemporary with the first Ptolemy (324-283 B. a disciple of Aristotle and a friend of Theophrastus. and philosophy. Ixiv.DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES Demades. Uidymus. Eleutherae. colony from Alba than Gargettus. was probably an Athenian. tvrant of Syracuse 405-367 B. Dioscorides (or Dioscurides). a Megarian chronicler. regent at Athens for Cassander 317-307 B. Diogenes. 217. G Gabii. the celebrated Alexandrian grammarian. 97. 205.C.C. 113. 579 . 237. a learned philosopher. 467. some sixty years before the Trojan war. 39. " Hecataeus the Sophist. the head of the Stoic school at Athens.C. Epicharmus the comic poet. an otherwise almost unknown Greek writer.E. He wrote a work on the townships of Attica. Evander. of Eratosthenes. and from 484 to 450 B.C. of Halicarnassus. 125. but early taken to Megara in Sicily. a voluminous writer on history. Diodorus the Topographer (or Periegete). 103. a mythical king of the Thessalian city of Oechalia. a pupil of Isocrates. a member of the Macedonian party.C. 405.C. He wrote a treatise on Laws. where he remained for twentyyears. of Athens. Hecatombaeon. 451. the seat of the celebrated mysteries. and flourished at and after the time of Alexander the Great (330-300 B. Cyrene. the reputed leader of a colony from Arcadia into Italy. poetry. 459. Erechtheus. born on the island of Cos. a prominent orator and statesman at Athens in the times of Philip. years librarian at Alexandria.C. a mythical king of Athens. about twelve miles S. Dieutychidas. 27. cost of Peloponnesus. Eurytus. of the fourth century B. two thesDraco. of Rome probably an . 542. Epidauria.). 139.

in historic times a gymnasium in the eastern suburbs of Athens. Heracleitus. comprising the hill-region west of the acropolis. a native of Elis. M Mantinea. of Ephesus. see Idas. 467.C. 41. July. Herodorus. 279. 71. Ion of Chios. and wife of Pelops. 63. a Messenian hero. Meuecrates. and chiefly famous as a mathematician.C. and a learned and voluminous writer on almost all possible subjects. 353. an ancient city of Latium. and October). Lavinium. 2. 409. active in the second half of the third century B.C. i. Quintus..W. the fifteenth day of the (the thirteenth of March. 309. 183. and her tomb was shown at Athena (Pausanias. the greatest of the Greek chroniclers.C. in the consul of 60 B. Inseparable from his brother. Melite. the ancient capital of Latium. also author of a prose work " entitled Sojourns. 79. 67. 277. Melicertes. or ward. 353. 429. a popular poet at Athens between 452 and 421 B. 41. Juba. of Rome.. 59. He lived from 50 B. of the city of Athens. Two dialogues of Plato bear his name.C.. probably Metellus. of the day. to about 20 A. Hippodameia. 429.. Lyceium. flourished in the latter half of the sixth century B. a beneficent sea deity.DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES Hellanicus. 57. of Rome. Cicero thought torian flourishing B. and was the author of an extended work on the mythology and worship of Heracles. recounted his experiences with famous men Ister.C. 131. of 480-395 (?) B. of Heracleia in Pontus. Ides. a Greek hisbetween 250 and 230 him superstitious and uncritical. after his death by drowning. Among his works was a History of Rome. the keen-eyed Lynceus. t Molpadia. 71. She was herself slain by Theseus. Herniippus. 163. May. about seventeen miles Hippias the Sophist. S. 17. on the sea-coast. nourishing in the middle of the fifth century B. 77. 59. of Chios. 1). king of Mauritania. Laurentum.C. one of the most ancient and powerful towns in Arcadia. 405. of Smyrna. Hereas the Megarian. 165. 33. a pupil of Plato and Aristotle. Heracleides Ponticus. Hippocrates. 63. was educated at Rome. 331.. 407. who nourished in the latter part of the sixth century B. Lapithae.W. His father had been consul In 93 B. a deme. daughter of Oenomaiis. and became a learned and voluminous writer. with whom he took part in the Argonautic expedition and the Calydonian boar hunt. otherwise unknown. a Pythagorean philosopher. Juba II. of Lesbos." in which he Roman month sonage. an Amazon who was said to have slain Antiope. Cyrene. a philosopher of the Ionian school.C. and a contemporary of Socrates. Lyuceus.C. known only through Plutarch's citations. 580 . so called from his birth in Heracleia of Pontus. son of Athamas and Ino and.C. about sixteen miles S. a legendary per- Idas. a mountain tribe of Thessaly.D. a distinguished philosopher and biographer.

33. an Alexandrian O Oecballa. 11. 437.C. 353. the earliest Roman annalist. but resident at Athens. in the S. Parrhasius. suburbs of Athens. the Rhodian. the ninth day of the Roman month (the seventh of March. S Samothrace.W. a mountain tribe of Thessaly. Philochorus. that one of the three hills to the S. Rhadamanthus. a sacred precinct. husband of Plutus. 35. 413. Selinus. the fourth month of the Attic calendar. historian of uncertain date. 419.C. wife of Minos. about forty miles south of the Thracian coast. corresponding nearly to our October. an historical romancer. July. and like in the under world. before Themistocles fortified Peiracus. an Attic township N. in 250 B. a prolific writer on philosophy and history. Nones. a mythical queen of 433. Periander. 41. Fabius. 277. Pyanepsiqn. see Eurytus. 37. of the acropolis of Athens on which the people's Polyzelus assembly was held.C. Lydia. otherwise unknown. 97.W. 61. 63. a celebrated painter. Phalerum. of Athens. a mythical king of Elis in Peloponnesus.E. 113. flourishing in 400 B. 37. N Naxos. Pnyx. otherwise unknown. of Eresos. Pelops. king of the Lapithae. tyrant of Corinth 625-585 B. an island east of Euboea. May. 233. 63.C. 35. who was historian and flourishing Omphale. corresponding nearly to our April. geographer. evidently near Ardettus. half way between Attica and Asia Minor. the ancient harbour of Athens. father of Achilles. one of the Seven Wise Men.. Pherecydes. of Cyrene. 41. the largest of the Cyclades islands. a large island in the northern Aegean sea. Phanias the Lesbian. one of three hills to the S. 17. 19. the most celebrated writer on the antiquities of Athens. and died about 400 B. who lived at Athens. a native of Ephesus. and October). 306-260 B.E.C.C. the tenth month of the Attic calendar. became tyrant of Athens in 560 B. Pataecus. Pasiphae. 81. the god of wealth. Peirithoiis. 531 . the most distinguished pupil of Aristotle after Tlieophrastus. 21.DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES Munychlon. In " " historical times the ephetai sat here to try cases of involuntary homicide. mythical king of the Myrmidons of Thessaly. Pictor. 27. wise unknown. century B. Peleus. Pallene. and mother of Ariadne and the Minotaur. Paeon the Amathusian. 447. Philostephanus. other- Palladium. 15. an Promathion. 41. Scyros. Museum. Peisistratus. of the acropolis at Athens. 97. 269. a brother of him a judge Minos king of Crete. a Greek city on the southern coast of Sicily. of Leros. 29.C. 43. a township In the eastern part of Attica. Hippodameia. flourishing in the latter part of the third Phlya. one of the Greek logographers.

Varro..C." an intimate friend of Cicero. 11. 169. greatest 21.E. Sphettus. 291. (ii. a township in the eastern part of Attica.C. 7. and flourished early in the third century B. M. Spendon the Spartan.E. otherwise unknown. and wrote on law and Terpander. 205. an ancient city in southern Arcadia. Simylus the poet. 303. otherwise unknown. about twelve miles north of Rome. "the most learned of the Romans. Zeno.C.C. Tegea. 213. 71. Ltd. Veii. Termerus. 49) as author of a history of Umbria. 299. Bungay.C. see Antias. 301.). Terentius.C. an ancient and powerful Etruria. Printed in Great Britain by Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press).DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES Silanlo. Timaeus. a mythical highway- man slain by Heracles. who taught at Sparta during the seventh century B. Sphaerus. referred to century B. 417. Peloponnesus. Troezen. Zenodotus of Troezen.C. 23. a famous historian of Sicily. 352-256 B. a poet who flourished at Sparta during the second Messenian war (685-668 B. Sulla.C.C. 35. 556-467 B. 221. flourishing in 320 B. lyric poet of Greece. 121. Trachis. Sextius.C. one of the Seven Wise Men.C. flourishing in the sixth government. 291. 27. of Tauromenitim. Simonides. famous Athenian musician of the time of Alexander the Great. coast of Peloponnesus. of Miletus. 333. a Cretan musician and poet. 131. the Carthaginian. flourishing about 250 B. commanding the approach to Ther- mopylae. of Lesbos. Thales. 21. 133. a native of Phlius in N. father of Greek music and lyric poetry. who was flourishing about 680 B. otherwise unknown. 225. probably the Stratonicus. a famous of Athenian the statuary in bronze. 131. by Bionysius Hal. 409. son of Aeacus. earlier 281. father of Aias. a mythical king of Salamis. a city of Malis. a city on the N. a distinguished Lacedaemonian grammarian. Suffolk . Timon the Phliasian. the most celebrated Ionian philosopher. Valerias. Telamon.). composed satirical poems on and current systems of philosophy (320-230 B. city of whose political principles he shared (116-28 B. 411.). who taught at Athens in the third century B. 143. Sosibius. a Stoic philosopher who lived at Alexandria and Sparta.. probably the Stoic philosopher is meant. Ceos. 73. Thales (or Thaletas).C. Tyrtaeus.



Greene. Ash and W. BOETHTUS: TBACTS and DE CONSOLATIONE PHILOSOPHIAE. CICERO DE NATUBA DEORUM and ACADEMICA. Green. F. C. 2 Vols. AUSONTUS. A. M. Book III. E. I. H. 2 Vols. CAESAR: ALEXANDRIAN. SELECT LETTERS. J. H. CICERO: DE INVENTIONE. W. Peskett. Edwards. DE ORATORE. Mackail. 1 . W. 3 Vols. [CICERO]: : : . L. Hooper. Postgate. D. ST. Cornish. Rev. CICERO: BRUTUS. I. E. 2 Vols. Translated by J. 3 Vols. G. 7 Vols. CATO: DE RE RUSTICA. H. M. BEDE. Hubbell. CICERO DE REPUBLICA and DE LEGIBUS SOMNIUM SCIPIONIS. DE ORATORE. H. VOLUMES ALREADY PUBLISHED Revised by S. IV. W. CONFESSIONS OF. G. PERVIGILIUM VENERIS. H. H. II. C. Levine. CATULLUS. VARRO: DE RE RUSTICA. AFRICAN and SPANISH WARS. Spencer. McCracken. Hubbell. V. Vol. J. AUGUSTINE. CAESAR: CIVIL WARS. Hendrickson and H. Vol. Way. King. etc. Clinton W. TIBULLUS. 2 Vols. A. De Partitione Oratoria. Rand. M. W. Walter Miller. F. W. B. AUGUSTINE. CICERO: AD HERENNITJM. De Fato. Rackham. Vol. CICERO: DE OFFICIIS.THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY Latin Authors AMMIANUS MARECLLINUS. CICERO: DE FINIBUS. Caplan. Stewart and E. G. DE ORATORE. K. J. Vol. Evelyn White. G. M. Vol. Rackham. Rackham. Baxter. G. H. M. H. J. ton (1566). AdlingST. E. W. E. II. etc. CAESAR: GALLIC WAR. Rackham. and ORATOR. B. P. Gaselee. Green. VI. AUGUSTINE: CITY OF GOD. Sanford and W. ST. Sutton and H. and II. W. Paradoxa Stoicorum. Watts (1631). J. Books I. Vol. APULEIUS: THE GOLDEN Ass (METAMOKPHOSES). Keyes. Rolfe. W. CELSUS: DE MEDICINA. Vol. G. H. H.


Vol. OVID METAMORPHOSES. : 4 Vols. : : Hutchinson. Frazer. and TACITUS: DIALOGUES. S. J. 4 Vols.) (ARCHAIC SALLUST.) Vol. PLAUTUS. PETRONIUS. H. J. C. NAEVIUS. J.10 Vols. STATITJS. 2 Vols. Heseltine. T. D. Grant Showerman. 2 Vols. Shipley. I. W. DE ARCHITECTUKA. Rolfe. 3 Vols. VIRGIL. M. Sir James G.-V. Mozley. D. B. SIDONIUS: POEMS and LETTERS. L. Eichholz. B. F. H. Kent. Rolfe. Perry. W. JUVENAL. SILIUS ITALICUS. E. 2 Vols. SUETONIUS. SENECA: TRAGEDIES. F. Miller. REMAINS OF OLD LATIN. PLINY: NATURAL HISTORY. VITRUVIUS: H. G. VARRO: DE LINGUA LATINA. C. Maurice Hutton. II. (ENNIUS AND CAECILIUS. 2 Vols. OVID HEROIDES and AMORES. SENECA: APOCOLOCYNTOSIS. Accius. AGRICOLA. J. III. 2 Vols. J. Paul Nixon. H. M. 5 Vols. Butler. H. H. Vols. Miller. 2 Vols. J. M. H. J. PHAEDRUS AND BABRIUS (Greek). SENECA: EPISTULAE MORALES. Vols. 2 Vols. 2 Vols.) PACUVTUS. R. VIII. H. PERSIUS. W. Cf. ANDERSON. Wheeler. Rackham. TACITUS HISTORIES AND ANNALS. L. Jackson. I. TERENCE. VI. TERTULLIAN: APOLOGIA and DE SPECTACULIS. Cf. Warmington. 2 Vola. E. R. E. X. Duff. F. E. H. G. C. 3 Volg. (LuciLius and LAWS OF XII Vol. GERMANIA. R. Melmoth's Translation revised by VV. APOCOLOCYNTOSIS. Vol. Magie. R. H. IV. Rouse. F. J. . SCRIPTORES HISTORIAE AuousTAE. PRUDENTIUS. INSCRIPTIONS. SENECA. A. D. OVID: TRISTIA and Ex PONTO. H. 2 Vols. Basore. E. Vol. J. Fairclough. MINUCIUS FELIX. Mozley. D. Glover. Rendall. John Sargeaunt. H. SENECA: MORAL ESSAYS. 3 Vols.OVID: FASTI. Thomson. 3 2 Vols. PETRONIUS. PLINY: LETTERS. Mooro and J. Granger. Gummere. Sir Wm. PROPERTIUS. VELLEIUS PATERCULUS and RES GESTAE DIVI AUGUSTI. Butler. QUINTILIAN. (Livius. and IX.) TABLES. 4 Vols. Peterson. 2 Vola. VALERIUS FLACCUS. W. Jones. W.

ARISTOTLE: HISTORIA ANIMALIUM. H. ARISTOTLE: ON SOPHISTICAL REFUTATIONS. S. Tredennick and E. trans. On Situations and Names of Winds. Gaselee. Peck. ARISTOTLE: METEOROLOGICA. (with Metaphysics. D. H. L. C. ANDOCIDES. AESCHYLUS. On Plants.Greek Authors ACHILLES TATIUS. H. ARISTOTLE: POSTERIOR ANALYTICS. W. H. On Physiognomies. 3 Vols. L. 2 Vols. TOPICS.). Rackham. Frazer. Forster. Lee. AELIAN. F. Vols. I. C. H. VICES AND VIRTUES. On Indivisible Lines. The Illinois Greek Club. Forster and D. Rackham. ARISTOTLE: ON INTERPRETATION. H. L. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. Horace White. S. S. Peck. R. Peck. Hett. Vol. G. Xenophanes. Adams. and Gorgias. On Things Heard. A. Furley. Cf. PHILOSTRATUS LETTERS. A. II. E. AELIAN: ON THE NATURE OF ANIMALS. Benner and F. ARISTOTLE: GENERATION OF ANIMALS. Sir James G. ARISTOTLE: PARTS OF ANIMALS. Cooke and H. On Marvellous Things Heard. 4 . C. Verse ARISTOTLE: ART OF RHETORIC. On Coming to be and Passing Away. : AENEAS TACTICUS. E. ARISTOPHANES. CALLIMACHUS. PARVA NATURALIA. S. D. PRIOR CATEGORIES. ARISTOTLE: OECONOMICA and MAGNA MORALIA. On Colours. EUDEMIAN ETHICS. 2 Vols. THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Armstrong. 2 Vols. H. APOLLODORUS. 4 Vols. AESCHINES. Tredennick. ARISTOTLE: ARISTOTLE: ON THE HEAVENS. ON THE SOUL. P. A. Scholfield. ANALYTICS. On the Cosmos. ANTIPHON. Weir Smyth. ON BREATH. J. W. A. Mechanical Problems. ARISTOTLE: METAPHYSICS. APPIAN: ROMAN HISTORY. APOLLONIUS RHODIUS. A. Fobes. MINOR ATTIO ORATORS. On Melissus. Guthrie. Seaton. P. 2 Vols. R. H. ARATUS. Freese. Hett. Cf. K. C. MOTION AND PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS. Kirsopp Lake. H. S. AXCIPHRON. ARISTOTLE: NICOMACHEAN ETHICS. 3 ASCLEPIODOTUS and ONASANDEB. ARISTOTLE: MINOR WORKS. Forster. Vol. ARISTOTLE: ATHENIAN CONSTITUTION. S. Tredennick. W. J.

4 Vols. Vols. AND II. VII. R. R. Gaselee. A. M. Rev. Cornford. : Edmonds. Vol. D. C. FUNERAL SPEECH. W. 2 Vols. N. M. J. MAIR. VIII. Dio CASSIUS: ROMAN HISTORY. P. Dio CHRYSOSTOM. II. BASIL: LETTERS. CLEMENT of ALEXANDRIA. Wicksteed and F. Oldfather. I. and LYCOPHRON. C. EURIPIDES. Rackham. J. F. : A. L. C. 2 Vols. T. General Index. H. DIODORUS SICULUS. W. Oldfather. AND XX. ROMAN ANTIQUITIES. 6 Vols. Vince. C. 12 Vols. Thornley's Translation revised by S. 9 Vols. H. Rev. I.. Hett. M. XI. Rackham. Geer. DEMETRIUS ON STYLE. J. Walton. A. C. M.-VI. H. W. Oulton. J. Vol. GALEN: ON THE NATURAL FACULTIES. 5 Vols. W. A. H. ARISTOTLE: POLITICS. 2 Vols. B. Vince. EUSEBIUS: ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. ARISTOCRATES.: MEIDIAS. E. Murray. 5 . OLYNTHIACS. I. J. Vol. OPPIAN. 7 Vols. DIOGENES LAERITITTS. ARISTOTLE: BABRIUS AND PHAEDRUS ST. Cf. Verse trans. : Vols. 2 Vols. W. S. DEMOSTHENES III. Vince and J. IX. DeWitt. DEMOSTHENES I. Trypanis. C. EPICTETUS. W. CALLIMACHUS FRAGMENTS. Vince.: DE CORONA and DE FALSA LEGATIONE. Iliffe Robson. Deferrari. Perry. E. Gary. : R. A. J. TIMOCRATES and ARISTOGEITON.-XII. E. Hicks. Mair. 2 Vols. W. B. 7 Vols. Welles.) H. Butterworth. E. (Latin). W. G. Brock. Gary. R. Way. ARISTOTLE: RHETORICA AD ALEXANDRUM (with PROBLEMS. DEMOSTHENES II. Edmonds. J. A. and PARTHENIUS. Hymns and Epigrams. and N. and X. Geer. 4 Vols. B. GREEK ELEGY AND IAMBUS with the ANACREONTEA. Cohoon and H. DEMOSTHENES IV . GULICK. ATHENAEUS: DEIPNOSOPHISTAE. Kirsopp Lake and 2 Vols. EXORDIA and LETTERS. R. DEMOSTHENES VII. A. W. ANDROTION. M. POETICS and LONGINUS. EROTIC ESSAY. Hamilton Fyfe. R.ABISTOTLE: PHYSICS. S. Sherman. J. G. Lamar Crosby. Rev. PHILIPPICS and MINOR ORATIONS.-XVII. CALLIMACHUS. H.VI. THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. 2 Vols. Vols. Rhys Roberts. CoLLUTHtrs. L. SpelDIONYSIUS OF HALICARNASSUS man's translation revised by E. ARISTOTLE: PROBLEMS. ARRIAN: HISTORY OF ALEXANDER and INDICA. DAPHNIS AND CHLOE. J. Paton.: PRIVATE ORATIONS and IN NEAERAM. ARATUS.

Vols. J. G. Vol. I. W. DINAHCHUS. G. and Companion Vol. Murray. W. T. OPPIAN. COLLUTHUS. Wycherley. H. MARCUS AURELIUS. J. PAUSANIAS: DESCRIPTION OF GREECE. 3 Vols. Vols. Marcus and Allen Wikgren. Page. George Norlin and ST. LYRA GRAECA. l. T. MENANDER. Waddell: PTOLEMY: TETRABIBLOS. F. K. Lamb. E. 2 Vols. Conybeare. Harmon. H. arranged by R.. H. A.. R. W ilmer Cave Wright. Cf.-V. 10 Vols. H. X. 2 Vols. Godley. A. R. 2 Vols. L. CALLIMACHUS. Edmonds. W. VI. MINOR ATTIC ORATORS (ANTIPHON. D. HIPPOCRATES and the FRAGMENTS OF HERACLEITUS. NON-LITERARY SELECTIONS. Colson and the Rev. Haines. Earp.-VIII. H. 7 Robbins. Vols. Whitaker. K. Woodward. 3 Vols. JULIAN. : 6 .L. 8 Vols. THEOPHRASTUS CHARACTERS. M. Vol. DEMADES. JOHN DAMASCENE: BARLAAM AND IOASAPH. Burrt. 2 Vols. 9 Vols. 2 HOMER: ODYSSEY. E. LYSIAS. S. T. HERODOTUS. I. LUCIAN. A.THE GREEK BUCOLIC POETS (THEOCRITUS. S. MANETHO. F. W. Maidment and J. G. C. : Ivor Thomas. 4 Vols. Cf. Evelyn White.-IV. W. W. S. E. Vols. M. VII. Thackeray. J. PAPYRI. A. HERODES. 3 Vols. Hunt and C. HESIOD AND THE HOMERIC HYMNS. MOSCHUS). J. M. R. F. Vol. PARTHENIUS. Thackeray and R. NONNOS: DIONYSIACA. LaRue Van Hook. VI. H. H. ISOCRATES. Macleod. Cf. D. Rev. Vols. Rouse. PHILO: two supplementary Vols. Colson. JOSEPHUS. Jones. W. BION. G.-VIL. 2 Vols. Marcus. F. V. Kilburn.-V. R. LYCOPHRON. 4 Vols. H. Vols. Edmonds... D. GREEK MATHEMATICAL WORKS.. O. Murray. C. Forster.-IX. A. 4 Vols. VIII. H. W. Allinson. PHILO. R. HOMER: ILIAD. HYPERIDES). VI. LYCURGUS. 3 Vols. A. Vol.) Ralph Marcus. IX. G. H. Marcus. TRYPHIODORUS. M. M. Withington. Lang. C. Edgar. Jones and E. ISAEUS. M. PHILOSTRATUS THE LIFE OF APOLLONIUS OF TYANA. DAPHNIS and CHLOE. Colson and Rev. ANDOCIDES. F. F. H. (Translation only. Vol. D. Harold Mattingly and D. Mair. Vols. LITERARY SELECTIONS (Poetry). Feldman.

Todd. B. E. W. E. and SYMPOSIUM. Brownson and O. GORGIAS. Rev. Paul Shorey. C. Vols. 2 Vols. H. S. Edmonds. Sandbach. N. OPPIAN. PHAEDO. Smith. PLATO: EUTHYPHRO. M. THEOPHRASTUS etc.-V. Helmbold. Minar. THUCYDIDES. F. : Bart. Helmbold. R. W. R. XENOPHON: HELLENICA. Rev. Helmbold. G. Babbitt. PHILEBUS. SYMPOSIUM. F. M. E. Storr.-I1I. EPISTULAE. PLATO: CHARMIDES. Paton. C. THEAGES. Sir Arthur Hort. W. Vols. XENOPHON: CYROPAEDIA. PROTAGORAS. IX. D. QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS.. 7 Vols. H. LESSER HIPPIAS. Rev. Fowler. 7 . A. Way. C. STATESMAN. Dewing. 4 Vols. 2 Vols. PHILOSTRATUS and EUNAPIUS LIVES OF THE SOPHISTS. ION. N. Fowler. 15 Vols. Lamb. VI. PLOTINUS: PLUTARCH: A. L. APOLOGY. Pearson and F. Lamb. PLATO: LACHES. Fowler. MORALIA. L. 2 Vols. POLYBIUS. and XIV. 2 Vols. 2 Vols. CLITOPHO. PLATO: TIMAEUS. ALCIBIADES. H. CRITO. M. W. W. J. C. : Bowersock. XI. X. Sir J. APOLOGY. H. 4 Vols. THEOPHRASTUS: ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. MINOS and EPINOMIS. H. H. Jr. MENEXENUS. A. 8 Vols. Vol. Walter Miller. G. Sandys. Einarson. TRYPHIODORUS. Knox. XENOPHON: SCRIPTA MINORA. Fairbanks. PARMENIDES. Vol. LYSIS. C. Jones. PLATO: CRATYLUS. N. I. N. H. L. Vol. G Vols. CHARACTERS. PINDAR. A. HERODES. SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. R. Cherniss and W. Marchant and G. Bury. E. M. G. W. Lamb. PLUTARCH: THE PARALLEL LIVES. ANABASIS. MENO. Vols. H. Bury. H. Verse trans. THE LOVERS. R. J. M. R. VII. Cf. EUTHYDEMUS. Vol. W. Sandbach. 3 Vols. H. F. I. : DESCRIPTIONS. PROCOPIUS: HISTORY OF THE WARS. XII. PTOLEMY: TETRABIBLOS. CALL1STRATUS . Fowler. R. Perrin. Bury. Marchant. P. R. HIPPARCHUS. MANETHO. REPUBLIC. B. F. 11 Vols. PLATO: THEAETETUS and SOPHIST. Verse trans. N. H. XENOPHON MEMORABILIA and OECONOMICUS.: IMAGINES. CRITIAS. C. R. W. GREATER HIPPIAS. Lamb. PLATO: PLATO: PLATO: PLATO: LAWS. Armstrong. Horace L. De Lacy and B. Fowler. C. Wilmer Cave Wright. C. STRABO: GEOGRAPHY. PHAEDRUS. SOPHOCLES. Vol. Cf.





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