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DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION

STRATEGIES IN WRITING DISCUSSION


a) Explain the findings - Interpret the findings and show what they mean

b) Compare the findings of the research with the findings of other research within the same field (discussed in literature review) - Any similarities or differences?
c) Evaluate the findings - Decide if the results are negative or positive, successful or otherwise - Show whether or not the results fulfil the Research Purpose and Research Objectives OR answer the Research Questions d) Infer the findings - Develop your own viewpoint and ideas based on the results

*NOTE: a, b, c & d should NOT be written under separate headings.

CONCLUSION
Elements to be included (should not be written under separate headings): A) Overview of the study B) Restatement of the objectives or questions tried to be answered

C) Review of the findings / summary of results (paraphrase so they will not be a repetition of the findings)
d) Implications Do the findings have significant implications for anyone?

e) Limitations - Weaknesses identified which are related to the study E.g. Small sample size, inappropriate research instrument(s) used, or limited time factor -OR What the study did not do and why? f) Recommendations i) Give suggestions or actions to be taken based on the findings E.g. What can be done? OR What are the solutions? OR What measures can be taken by the authorities? ii) AND/OR Provide directions for future research

ABSTRACT
A concise summary consisting of: a) The Research Purpose + Research Objectives OR Research Questions - What was done? b) The rationale of the study - Why was it done?

c) Methodology - How was it done?


d) Findings - What was found?

e) Conclusion + Implication + Limitation + Recommendation


*NOTE: i) Abstract should be written: - on the second page with heading - in one paragraph (150-250 words) ii) State the keywords at the end of the Abstract

Title Page
a) Running Head and Paging (1) b) Title c) Authors Name d) Authors Affiliation *NOTE: b, c & d should be centred

Reference List
a) Centred Heading b) Arranged in alphabetical order c) Indented

Appendices
a) A copy of questionnaire (Appendix A) b) Additional graphs, charts, or tables (if any) (Appendix B onwards) *NOTE: No page numbers for Reference List and Appendices