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A GRAMMAR

OF

OSCAN AND UMBRIAN


WITH A COLLECTION OF INSCRIPTIONS AND A GLOSSARY

BY

CARL DARLING BUCK,

PH.D.

PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT AND INDO-EUROPEAN COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

BOSTON,

U.S.A.

GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS


Cbe &t&en*tim
1904

COPYRIGHT,

1904

BY CABL DARLING BUCK


ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

PREFACE
an attempt to furnish in a single volume of moderate compass what is most essential for the study of the Oscan and Umbrian dialects. In spite of the meagreness of the material, as compared with languages like Greek and Latin, and
following
is

THE

work

in spite of the many questions of detail which are still unsolved, the main features of these two dialects are well understood. And

such
is

is

their relation to Latin that

some acquaintance with them

important, not to the Indo-Europeanist alone, but to the student of the Latin language, and, in a less degree, to the student of the In order that a knowledge of history and antiquities of Italy.
the dialects should become more general, it is not enough that we have now such excellent works as Conway's Italic Dialects, with
its

full presentation of the existing material, and von Planta's The exhaustive Grammatik der Oskisch-Umbrischen Dialekte.
v.

fullness of
possibilities,

and the

Planta's treatment, the conscientious weighing of liberal citation of authorities, all add to its

value as a work of reference, but the resulting bulk of 1372 pages is likely to deter one who can devote only a moderate amount of

time to the subject. That there is need of a briefer grammar has long been the author's conviction, which has only been strengthened
1 by inquiries and suggestions from others in this country and abroad. In order to secure the desired brevity, it has been necessary to

eliminate almost wholly any detailed discussion of disputed points, as well as special references for the views adopted or rejected.

Any

one for

whom

sufficient
1

may

the general bibliography given below is not be referred to v. Planta. Only in a few cases, here

So Skutsch, in a review of the author's Oscan-Umbrian Verb-System, Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift, November, 1895: "Der Verf. kame einem Bediirfniss entgegen, wenn er eine vollstandige Grammatik des O.-U. im Massstab seines Verb-

Systems schriebe Denn neben dem treffl ichen, aber weitschichtigen Werke v. Plantas ist einkurzes Handbuch zur Einfiihrung erwiinscht."
.

iii

iv

Preface
there, I

have added references in footnotes, mostly to discussions more recent than v. Planta. Generally I have simply stated the view which seemed to me on the whole the most probable, or It is scarcely necessary else contented myself with a non liquet.

and

to state that in matters of dispute I

my

have had no predilection for own previously expressed views, but have with equal freedom

rejected

them

in favor of others or retained

them against

others,

according to

my
is

present judgment.
is

and comparative, not merely But the emphasis is on Italic, descriptive, rather than on Indo-European, relations. In the case of words which are peculiar to the dialects and not found in Latin, a fairly wide range of cognates is cited, as in sections 15, 16. But ordinarily comparison within the Italic is deemed sufficient, and forms from
historical

That the treatment

a matter of course.

other Indo-European languages are introduced only for special


reasons.

The grammar

is

called a

Grammar

of Oscan and Umbrian,

not of the Oscan-Umbrian dialects, for it does not pretend to treat systematically the minor dialects included under the name Oscancharacteristics of these dialects (so far as they are clear) are mentioned incidentally, mainly in the Introduction. But to discuss or even mention all the questions arising in

Umbrian.

Most of the

the attempt to generalize from material consisting of only a few lines, would require an amount of space not justified by the results.

Unless the material from these minor dialects is notably increased, our knowledge of the Oscan-Umbrian group will be almost coinci-

two principal dialects. And in this approximate sense a grammar of Oscan and Umbrian is also a grammar of Oscan-Umbrian. As the book has been practically ready for the press since the beginning of the year, and the Phonology in type since February,
dent with what

we know

of its

almost nothing in the literature of 1903 has been taken account of. But in what has appeared there is little which has entirely convinced me. Special mention may be made of Brugmann's discussion
of the negative prefix anmyself wished there were

and anter inter' (I.E. 15, 70 ff.). I have some way of equating these directly with
'

Preface

the Latin, instead of assuming by-forms (as in 98 with c), which indeed seems out of the question in the case of Anafriss if L. Imbribus But Brugmann's assumption that " initial e before nasal (see 98, b).

had a very open pronunciation in the Oscan-Umbrian had and perhaps become identical in this position with period Italic a" fails to convince me, in view of 0. embratur, Entrai, and

+ consonant

Nor do I see the necessity of especially U. iseceles 'insectis.' ' t separating 0. ant from L. ante because of its meaning as far as
(see 299, 2).

For assistance I am indebted to Professors J. C. Rolfe and Minton Warren, who kindly offered to read proof, and especially to my pupils, Mr. W. C. Gunnerson and Mr. E. B. Nelson, who have gone over the proof with great care, devoting no small amount of time to the verification of references, citations, etc., and con-

way to the accuracy of the text. The remarkable keenness and intelligence of the proof-reader in the office of the publishers has also saved the work from many blemishes.
tributing in every
C. D. B.

DECEMBEB,

1903.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
BIBLIOGRAPHY EXPLANATIONS
.

PAGE
.

xiii

xvii

INTRODUCTION
PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF ITALY CLASSIFICATION OF THE ITALIC DIALECTS
.
. . .

EXTERNAL DATA OSCAN EXTERNAL DATA UMBRIAN OF THE OSCAN-UMBRIAN GROUP CHARACTERISTICS GENERAL PHONOLOGY
INFLECTION

SYNTAX VOCABULARY SUMMARY

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OSCAN SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UMBRIAN

.... .... ...'


.
.

...
...
...
.

17

BORROWED WORDS

PHONOLOGY
ALPHABET AND ORTHOGRAPHY OSCAN UMBRIAN RELATION OF THE ALPHABETS NOTES ON ORTHOGRAPHY
:

....
:

gO

^
24

HISTORY OF THE SOUNDS

VOWELS
a

:.
e
i i

U FOR
B

-;.-;: ....
u
I

.'
vii

29
30
3i

33
3*

85
36 o,

...

38

s
41

FOR U

viii

Table of Contents

DIPHTHONGS
ai
ei
oi

..........
.

PAGE
41

43
44

45

au, eu, ou

LENGTHENING OF VOWELS SHORTENING OF VOWELS ANAPTTXIS IN OSCAN CONTRACTION AND HIATUS VOWEL- WEAKENING IN MEDIAL SYLLABLES. SYNCOPE IN MEDIAL SYLLABLES SYNCOPE IN FINAL SYLLABLES SAMPRASARANA Loss OF FINAL SHORT VOWELS VOWEL-GRADATION CONSONANTS CONSONANTAL i (i) CONSONANTAL u (u)
. . .
.

........ ......... ....... ...... ....... .......... ......... ............


.
. . .

40
47

49
50

53
57

.55
59

60 62

.61
66
66

.67
68
68
70

r
1

AND

..........
.
.

OMISSION OF NASALS BEFORE CONSONANTS

.70
71 71

FINAL n AND
ns
s

INTERVOCALIC FINAL s
an,

s.

sm,

si,

zd

INTERVOCALIC rs rs BEFORE CONSONANTS

...... ........ .......


RHOTACISM
.
. .
.

73
74

74 76
77 77

.75

FINAL
sr
Is

rs

78
78

P pt
.
.

78
78

ps
b

79

79
.

bh
t

79 79

LABIALS AND NASALS

80

FINAL t FINAL nt
fl
.
.

80 80
82

Table of Contents

ix

....
f,

...
.
.

PAGE
82

UM BRIAN
FINAL d
wd,
.

rs,

FROM d

82

.84
84 85

INITIAL di

dn

dh

DENTAL + s DENTAL + DENTAL OTHER COMBINATIONS OF DENTALS THE GUTTURALS


.

.84 ....... ........ .85


.

86
87
87

......
. .

k
kt

88 89
.

UMBRIAN PALATALIZATION or k
ks

.89
91 91

LOSS OF k BETWEEN CONSONANTS


g

.....

92

UMBRIAN PALATALIZATION OF g
gh k
g

93 93
94 94

gh

Loss OF U IN kU ETC. CHANGE OF SURD MUTES TO SONANTS. CHANGE OF SONANT MUTES TO SURDS CHANGES OF THE ORIGINAL SONANT ASPIRATES DOUBLING OF CONSONANTS IN OSCAN SIMPLIFICATION OF DOUBLE CONSONANTS CHANGES IN SENTENCE-COMBINATION. SANDHI
. .

.94 ....... .....

95 96
97 97

ACCENT
OSCAN UMBRIAN

SUMMARY OF THE OSCAN AND UMBRIAN SOUNDS

...... ......
IN
-iis

..... .... ..... ....


. .

99 100 100
101

.102
.

107

INFLECTION
NOUNS
:

FIRST DECLENSION
ZO-STEMS

SECOND DECLENSION

... ..... ... ....


.

113 116

119
121

OSCAN GENTILES THIRD DECLENSION

..........
ETC.
.

124 128

MUTE

STEMS, LIQUID STEMS


.

NASAL STEMS, S-STEMS IRREGULAR NOUNS

130
131

Talle of Contents

FOURTH DECLENSION
FIFTH DECLENSION ADJECTIVES DECLENSION COMPARISON
:

...

PAGE
131

132

ADVERBS NUMERALS

........... ........... ... .......


NUMERAL ADVERBS

133
134

136
137

CARDINALS AND ORDINALS


DISTRIBUTIVES AND
:

PRONOUNS PERSONAL PRONOUNS POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

INTERROGATIVE, RELATIVE, AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS PRONOMINAL ENCLITICS RELATIVE ADVERBS AND CONJUNCTIONS VERBS THE PERSONAL ENDINGS EXAMPLES OF CONJUGATION
:
.

FIRST CONJUGATION

SECOND CONJUGATION THIRD CONJUGATION FOURTH CONJUGATION IRREGULAR VERBS

......... ........ ......... ........ ........


.
.

......
.

139 139 140


140 143
146

148
151

153
154

.156
157

.159
160

FORMATION OF THE MOODS AND TENSES


THE PRESENT STEM
:

FIRST CONJUGATION

SECOND CONJUGATION THIRD CONJUGATION FOURTH CONJUGATION FORMS OF THE TYPE OF L. capio IRREGULAR VERBS REMARKS ON THE FORMS CONNECTED WITH L. habed REMARKS ON THE FORMS CONNECTED WITH L. facio THE IMPERFECT INDICATIVE Tin: FUTURE INDICATIVE THE PERFECT INDICATIVE THE FUTURE PERFECT
.

......... ......... ......


.
.

...

THE SUBJUNCTIVE THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE THE PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE

......... ........... ........ ........

Table of Contents

xi

PAGE

THE IMPERATIVE THE PASSIVE THE PERIPHRASTIC PASSIVE THE PRESENT INFINITIVE, THE SUPINE THE PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE THE PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE THE GERUNDIVE
.

175
177

........
.
.

179

179
. . . . .

180
180
181

WORD-FORMATION
DERIVATION OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES
:

NOUNS
ADJECTIVES

SECONDARY VERBAL DERIVATION DENOMINATIVES


COMPOSITION
:

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES VERBS

........... ........... ........


:

182
185

190
192

193

USES OF THE CASES THE GENITIVE THE DATIVE THE ACCUSATIVE THE LOCATIVE
:

THE ABLATIVE(-!NSTRUMENTAL):

ABLATIVE USES INSTRUMENTAL USES LOCATIVE USES PREPOSITIONS (AND THE CORRESPONDING PREFIXES): WITH THE ACCUSATIVE ONLY WITH THE ABLATIVE ONLY WITH THE ACCUSATIVE AND LOCATIVE WITH THE LOCATIVE AND ABLATIVE WITH OTHER CASES ADJECTIVES ADVERBS
.

........... .......... .......... ........ ........ ...... ......... ............


. .
. .

SYNTAX

195
198

199
199

200
201

203

205
207

209 210

210
211

211

THE VERB
VOICE TENSE

212
;

213 214

MOOD: COMMANDS AND PROHIBITIONS THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF WISH THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES
CLAUSES OF INDIRECT QUESTION

....... ....... ....

215
216
217

xii

Table of Contents

RELATIVE CLAUSES

TEMPORAL CLAUSES
INFINITIVES

CONDITIONAL CLAUSES AND PARTICIPLES

AGREEMENT
OMISSION OF

WORDS ORDER OF WORDS

......... ......... ........ ............ ...........


.

COLLECTION OF INSCRIPTIONS
OSCAN

THE CIPPUS ABELLANUS THE TABULA BANTINA


INSCRIPTIONS OF POMPEII:
INSCRIPTIONS ON PUBLIC

........
WORKS, AND DEDICATIONS
. .

225 226 230 239


242

THE EITUNS
INSCRIPTIONS OF

INSCRIPTIONS
:

CAPUA THE CURSE OF VIBIA THE IOVILAE-DEDICATIONS OTHER CAPUAN INSCRIPTIONS INSCRIPTIONS FROM OTHER CAMPANIAN TOWNS

........
.....
:
.

243
247
261

253
254

INSCRIPTIONS OF SAMNIUM AND THE FRENTANI

THE DEDICATORY TABLET OF AGNONE


OTHERS
INSCRIPTIONS OF LUCANIA, BRUTTIUM,

.256
AND MESSANA
.
.

268 259
260

COINS

UMBRIAN

THE IGUVINIAN TABLES

V
Vl-VIIandl
I II

260
262

288

IV COMMENTARY MINOR UMBRIAN


III,

.......... .......
INSCRIPTIONS

293 297
301

310

GLOSSARY AND INDEX


OSCAN
311 327

UMBRIAN
PHOTOGRAPHS OF OSCAN INSCRIPTIONS FACSIMILE OF OSCAN INSCRIPTION FROM POMPEII FACSIMILE OF THE TABULA BANTINA PIII>T<><.KAI-II OF Vb, IGUVINIAN TABLES MAP OF CENTRAL ITALY
,

PLATE I PLATE II PLATE III PLATE IV PLATE V

BRIEF BIBLIOGRAPHY
The

history of the study of the Italic dialects might be expected to date from the discovery of the Iguvinian Tables in 1444, but for several centuries all the attempts to decipher these were wholly

sign of progress is found in Lanzi, Saggio di lingua Etrusca e di altre antiche d'ltalia, Borne, 1789, in which In the first the ritual character of the contents was recognized.
worthless.
first

The

half of the nineteenth century fall, among others, the contributions of K. 0. Miiller, who in his great work on the Etruscans (Die Etrusker, 1828 2d ed. by Deecke, 1877) definitely disposed of the
;

error that

Oscan and Umbrian were connected with Etruscan

of

the Sanskritist Lassen, who gave a critical treatment of a section of the Iguvinian Tables in his Beitrage zur Deutung der euguof Grotefend, celebrated for his binischen Taf eln, Bonn, 1833
;

decipherment of the Old Persian cuneiform, who treats selected passages in his Rudimenta linguae Umbricae, Hanover, 1835-1839;
of Lepsius, the future Egyptologist, who in his dissertation, De tabulis Eugubinis, Berlin, 1833, cleared up the remaining difficulties of the alphabet and proposed a chronological arrangement, of the tables which is still followed in the universally adopted numbering.

Lepsius also brought out the first trustworthy edition of the Oscan inscriptions together with the Umbrian, the Inscriptiones Umbricae
et Oscae, Leipzig, 1841.

A work of prime importance for the study of Oscan and the minor dialects was Mommsen's Unteritalische Dialekte, Leipzig, A similarly fundamental work for Umbrian was Aufrecht 1850. and KirchhofF s Die umbrischen Sprachdenkmaler, 1849-1851, the
first really critical

attempt to interpret the Iguvinian Tables as a


first to

whole.

Kirchhoff was also the

recognize the true character

Oscan inscription, the Tabula Bantina, in his elaborate commentary, Das Stadtrecht von Bantia, Berlin, 1853. In Huschke's Die oskischen und sabellischeri Sprachdenkmaler, 1856, and Die iguvischen Tafeln, 1859, a wealth of knowledge on the side of antiquities
of the longest

A full bibliography is given by v. Planta, II, pp. xi if. For the history of the interpretation of the Iguvinian Tables, see especially Breal, Tab. Eug., pp. i ff.
1

xiii

xiv
is

Brief Bibliography

critical judgment, especially in grammatical while that some of the many daring conjectures have so points, his in general mark a step backward. works proved serviceable, Newman's Text of the Iguvine Inscriptions, London, 1864, is without

marred by a lack of

much

Grammatical questions were also discussed in numerous articles by Corssen, Ebel, Bugge, and others. Bruppacher's Oskische Lautlehre, 1869, and Enderis' Oskische Formenlehre, 1871, were convenient little manuals for the time, though valueless to-day. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century the most notable advance in the interpretation of the dialect remains was made by the works of Breal and of Biicheler. Besides their exhaustive commentaries on the Iguvinian Tables, cited below, each of these scholars has discussed in one form or another most of the more important Oscan inscriptions. Important contributions were also made by Bugge, Danielsson, Deecke, Jordan, Pauli, and others. New editions of the Oscan and Sabellian inscriptions with facsimiles were brought out by the Russian scholar Zvetaieff in 1878 and 1884 (cited below). The Italic dialects have always held an important place in the interest of Indo-European philologists, and Brugmann especially has done much to further their study, both as author and teacher. It is not too much to say that the works of former pupils of his, appearing from 1892 on, especially the treatises of Bronisch and the present writer, von Planta's grammar, and Conway's edition of the texts, all cited below, have put the whole subject on a new footing. Contributions on special points, too numerous to specify here, have
value.

been made in recent years by F. D. Allen, Bartholomae, Ceci, Ehlich, Fay, Horton-Smith, Pascal, Skutsch, Solrnsen, and others. The following is a list of the works which are now the most
useful to the student.

Indo-European

Grammar
der vergleichenden

BRUGMANN-DELBRUCK, Grundriss

Grammatik

der indogermanischen Sprachen. 5 vols. Strassburg, 1886-1900. Vol. I in 2d ed., 1897. Vols. I-II (Phonology and Morphology)

by K. Brugmann (abbr. Brugmann, Grd.) vols. III-V (Syntax) by B. Delbruck (= Delbriick, Vergl. Syntax, I-III). The Oscan and Umbrian dialects are treated systematically and as fully
;

as the wide scope of the

work permits.

Brief Bibliography

xv
der indogermanischen

BRUGMANN, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik


Sprachen.

Parts I-II, Strassburg, 1902-1903.

In this shorter work, to be completed within the limits of a single volume, Oscan and Umbrian forms are mentioned only incidentally in connection with
the treatment of Latin.

Latin

Grammar
Formenlehre.

LINDSAY, The Latin Language.

SOMMER,

Handbuch

der

Oxford, 1894. lateinischen Laut- und

Heidelberg, 1902. STOLZ, Historische Grammatik der lateinischen Sprache. 1894.

Leipzig,

Oscan-Umbrian
Strassburg, 1892-1897

Grammar
Dialekte.

VON PLANTA, Grammatik der oskisch-umbrischen


(abbr. v.

2 vols.

Planta). sound and exhaustive treatment, fundamental for


texts.

all

future work.

Also contains the

A brief sketch of Oscan-Umbrian


Dialects,

grammar

is

included in Conway's

Italic

and

of

Umbrian grammar

in the

commentaries of

Bre"al, Biicheler,

and

grammar are treated Iund Die oskischen E-Vocale. BRONISCH, Leipzig, 1892. BUCK, Der Vocalismus der oskischen Sprache. Leipzig, 1892
Osk. Voc.).

others, quoted below.

Special chapters of the

in

(abbr.

BUCK, The Oscan-Umbrian Verb-System.


Verb-System).
Texts and Commentaries

Chicago,
*

1895

(abbr.

CONWAY, The
with
full

Italic Dialects.

vols.

Cambridge, 1897.

collection of the material, containing the inscriptions epigraphical data, the glosses, lists of proper names, etc., together with a brief sketch of the grammar, and a glossary.

The most exhaustive

A
v.

concise but complete collection of the inscriptions

is

also included in

Planta's Grammatik, cited above.

CONWAY, Dialectorum Italicarum Exempla Selecta. Cambridge, 1899.


Selections

from the

dialect inscriptions, with translation

and

brief notes.

AUFRECHT UND KIRCHHOFF, Die umbrischen Sprachdenkmaler.


2 vols.
Berlin, 1849-1851. See above, p. xiii. Still to be consulted with
profit.

References for particular Oscan inscriptions are given in the Collection of Inscriptions.

xvi

Brief Bibliography
Paris,

BREAL, Les Tables Eugubines.


Tables.

1875 (abbr. Tab. Eug.).

This and the following are the two leading commentaries on the Iguvinian

BUCHELER, Umbrica. Bonn, 1883. On the whole the most convincing interpretation
and followed
in large

of the

Umbrian remains,

measure in the present work.

MOMMSEN, Die
See above,
graphical and

Unteritalischen Dialekte.

Leipzig, 1850 (abbr.

Unterit. Dial.).
p. xiii.
Still

valuable for the epigraphical data and the geo-

historical notes.

ZVETAIEFF, Sylloge Inscriptionum Oscarum.


Leipzig, 1878.

St.

Petersburg and

ZVETAIEFF, Inscriptiones Italiae Mediae Dialecticae. Leipzig, 1884. These two collections are now mainly valuable on account of the accompanying facsimiles.
Contributions on special points of
especially the following.

grammar and

in the various journals, proceedings of learned societies,

interpretation are found and series of studies,

American Journal of Philology


Beitrage zur

(abbr.

Am.

J. of Ph.).

der indogermanischen Sprachen. Ed. by A. B.B. Bezzenberger (abbr. Bezzenbergers Beitrage). Berichte liber die Verhandlungen der koniglichen sachsischen Gesell-

Kunde

schaft

der Wissenschaft

zu

Leipzig.

Philologisch-historische

Classe (abbr. Ber.


Classical Review.

d. sachs. Gesell. d. Wiss.)./

Indogermanische Forschungen. Zeitschrift fiir Sprach- und Altertumskunde (abbr. I.E.), with indogermanische Sprach- und Altertumskunde Memoire de la Socie'te de Linguistique de Paris
Ling.). Pauli's Altitalische Studien.

indogermanische
the Anzeiger fur
(abbr. I.F. Anz.). (abbr. Mem. Soc.

vols.

Hanover, 1883-1887.

Rheinisches
Zeitschrift

Museum

fur Philologie (abbr. Eh. M.).

vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen. Founded by A. Kuhn (abbr. K.Z.
fiir

Kuhns

Zeitschrift).

EXPLANATIONS
Black type is used to transcribe words in the native alphabets, and italics for those in the Latin alphabet. The same distinction
for separate letters or groups of letters. But sometimes, to save unnecessary repetition, italics are used referring to the spelling of both the native and Latin alphabets. Glosses
is

commonly employed

cited are always indicated as such, except the frequently cAtedfamel. The meanings of words cited are usually given, though not

always, especially where they can easily be inferred from the Latin cognates cited. Vice versa, Latin cognates are sometimes left to be
inferred

from the Latin translations.

doubtful meaning these translations in the

In the case of words of grammar are to be

regarded as expedients, subject to amplification or correction in In the texts uncertain letters are distinguished by a the glossary.

change of type, and where obvious mistakes are corrected the original reading is given in footnotes to the text. But in the grammar proper such matters are usually ignored except when bearing directly on the subject of discussion. T.he signs i and u are used for consonantal i and u, English

y and w n, m, r, /, for the syllabic nasals and liquids assumed in Indo-European forms. The colon (:) is used to point out relationBesides the abbreviations of ship, in the sense of "cognate with." works of reference mentioned above, the following are used.
;

= Avestan. = Cippus Abellanus (no. Eng. = English. Fal. = Faliscan. Germ. = German. Goth. = Gothic. Grk. = Greek. I.E. = Indo-European. Ital. = Italian. L. = Latin. Lith. = Lithuanian. Marruc. = Marrucinian. 0. = Oscan.
Av.

O.Bulg.
1).

C.A.

O.Eng. O.H.G.
O.Ir.

= Old Bulgarian. = Old English. = Old High German.


Old
Irish.

O.Pruss.
Pael.

Old Prussian.

= Paelignian. = Sabine. Skt. = Sanskrit. T.A. = Tablet of Agnone (no. 45). T.B. = Tabula Bantina (no. 2.) U. = Umbrian.
Sab.
Vest.

Vestinian.

xvii

OSCAN AND UMBRIAN GRAMMAR


INTRODUCTION
PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES OF ITALY
1.

The

was occupied by various peoples speaking a variety and dialects.

Italian peninsula, in the earliest period of history, of languages

in the northwest have usually been regarded an aboriginal, pre-Indo-European, population, but are now thought by some to be Indo-European. 1 The linguistic remains, consisting largely of geographical names, are too

The Lig-urians

as relics of

meagre to be decisive. The Etruscans (Latin Etruscl or Tusci, the latter from *Turscl; cf. Umbrian Turskum, Greek Tvparjvoi, Tvpprjvoi) occupied Etruria, and, previous to the Celtic invasions, much of the central part of northern Italy, in the valley of the Po. They were also masters of Campania from the eighth century B.C.

down

Samnite invasion in the last quarter of the fifth The Etruscan inscriptions 2 number over six thoucentury sand, but only a few hundred contain anything more than proper names, and less than a dozen of these are of any considerable
to the
B.C.

length.

interpretation is wholly uncertain and nothing positive can be affirmed as to the affinities of the language. But it is reasonably clear that it is not Indo-European. The
riddle will probably

The

remain unsolved until the discovery of a

bilingual inscription of
1

some length.

Cf.

Now

Kretschmer, K.Z. 38, 108 ff. being collected in the Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarura.
1

Introduction

[l

The Veneti,
pians and

head of the Adriatic, and the Messain Calabria have commonly been grouped lapygians
at the

There are several hundred short together as of Illyrian origin. 1 Venetian inscriptions, and the Messapian is also represented
2 From these by some hundred and sixty short inscriptions. remains it appears that the two languages, though Indo-European, do not belong to the same group, and it is uncertain whether the Venetian, or the Messapian with the modern Albanian,

should be classed as Illyrian. 3


colonies occupied nearly the entire southern portion of Italy, many of them dating from a period earlier than the beginnings of Roman history and retaining their Greek character for several centuries after Christ.

Greek

Celtic tribes which poured in from the north, and in the early part of the fourth century B.C. sacked Rome, maintained

themselves for some time in the central plains of northern


Italy.

The

rest of Italy

was occupied by
it

tribes

speaking dialects

akin to the Latin and with


the Indo-European family.

constituting the Italic branch of

CLASSIFICATION OF THE ITALIC DIALECTS


2.

The

Italic

Dialects fall into two groups, the Latin-

Faliscan and the Oscan-Umbrian.

The
were

local variations in the different

Latin-Faliscan comprises the Latin, of which there towns of Latium, and the

Faliscan, spoken in the Faliscan plain in the southeastern part of Etruria. The few short inscriptions 4 are sufficient to show
that Faliscan differed but slightly from Latin. The Oscan-Umbrian group is so named from
its

two most

important members, the Oscan and the Unibrian, but includes


1

2 8

Collected in Pauli, Die Veneter, Altitalische Forschungen Mostly in Fabretti, Corpus Inscriptionum Italicarum.

III.

On

the Illyrian question,


ff.

gricchisclic Spnicligeschichte, 244

K.Z.

30, 299

Pauli, I.e.; Kretschmer, Einleitung in die Hirt, Festschrift fiir Kieport, 181 if. Pederscn, Collected in Deecke, Die Falisker.
cf.
;

IT.

3]

Oscan

External Data

also the dialects of most of the minor tribes of central Italy, which may be conveniently designated as Sabellian. 1 The best known of these is the Paelignian, which shows a very close resemblance to Oscan. Much the same are the dialects of the neighboring Marmcinians and Vestiiiians, of which there are some scanty remains. Volsciaii, known only from an inscription of four lines from Velitrae, is more strongly differentiated and in several particulars resembles Umbrian more than Oscan but there is no sufficient reason for grouping it otherwise than among the Sabellian dialects. The Marsiaiis, Aequians, and Sabines are connected historically with the other Sabellian tribes, and their dialects doubtless belong properly to the same group. But they were subjected to Latin influence from a very early period, and the meagre remains that we have give no satisfactory picture of their characteristics.
;

OSCAN

EXTERNAL DATA

3. Oscan inscriptions have been sive of the territory of the Frentani

found in Samnium (incluand Hirpini), Campania, northern Apulia, Lucania, and Bruttium, and in the Sicilian city of Messana from the period after its occupation by the Campanian Mamertines. These are precisely the regions which we know were occupied by Samnite tribes. In calling the language Oscan rather than Samnitic we are following the usage
of the Latin authors, as
1

when Livy

(10, 20) relates

how
,

in one

The etymological connection of Sabellus (from *Saf-no-lo-) Sablnl (from *Saf-inoi), and Samnium (from *Saf-nio-m; cf. Oscan Safinim), together with the tradition of the Sabine origin of the Samnites and the minor tribes like the Paeligni,
a witness to the tribal relations of these peoples. The Roman writers use Sabellus and it is properly a generic term including Samnitic. Strictly speaking the Samnite tribes were Sabellian, and their language, the Oscan, a Sabelis

in the sense of Samnitic,


lian dialect.

But the Samnites and their language occupy such a preeminent position that they are best grouped by themselves, and we may, for convenience, reserve the name Sabellian for the- closely related minor tribes and dialects. The so-called Old Sabellian inscriptions, found in various parts of central Italy,
are wholly unintelligible, and certainly are not in any of the Sabellian dialects. possibly represent the language of some Illyrian tribes.

They

4
of the Samnite

Introduction

[3

wars the Roman consul sent out spies who were Now the Oscans (Lat. acquainted with the Oscan language. Oscl, earlier Opscl, Grk. 'Oirifcoi) were a Campanian tribe, and it has been held by some that Oscan was not the original language of the Samnites, but was adopted by them after their
invasion of Campania.

But

this is altogether improbable.

We
;

must, rather, assume that the Oscans were simply a detached branch of the Samnites, speaking essentially the same language and the principal reason why this language was called Oscan rather than Samnitic is that it was among the Oscans that the Greeks and Romans first came in contact with it. The Sam-

from the Oscans

nites entered the field of history as a politically distinct people but their language, being the same, was called ;

by the name already Oscans, by reason of


can
civilization,

was among the their early contact with Greek and Etrusthat the language was first reduced to writing,
established.
it

Moreover

so that while they did not give the Samnites a new language, they did give them its written form, and to a certain extent,

This last probably, a sort of normalized standard of speech. supposition would help account for the fact that local variations
of Oscan, outside of Campania, are far less marked than one would expect, considering the extent of the territory in which the language was spoken. 4. The Oscan inscriptions number over two hundred, but more than half of \hese contain only proper names or fragments About three quarters of them come from Campania, of words. where Pompeii, and in recent years Capua, have furnished the greatest number.

period of time covered is nearly five centuries, the earliest remains being some coin-legends from the end of the fifth or first half of the fourth century B.C., while the latest are

The

some of the graffiti of Pompeii, which there is reason to believe were scratched on the walls after the first earthquake in 63 A.D. But by far the greater part of the material falls between 300 B.C. the Social War in 90-89 B.C. After the Social War Oscan

5]

Oscan
official

External Data

documents, but continued to exist how long we cannot tell. If as a local patois for some time, at Pompeii it was still spoken, to some extent at least, in the first century A.D., it very likely lingered on for several centuries
ceased to be used in
in the remoter districts of

Samnium.

of the inscriptions are written in the native Oscan alphabet, which is derived, through the medium of the Etruscan, from the Greek of the Chalcidian type. But a few from Lucania,

Most

including the longest Oscan inscription known, the Tabula Bantina, are in the Latin alphabet, and some from Sicily and various parts of southern Italy are in the Greek alphabet.
5.

As

regards contents,

scriptions are represented.

many well-known classes of inThe Tabula Bantina, the longest

inscription, itself only a fragment of the original, contains a series of municipal regulations. The next longest, the Cippus is an between the cities of Nola and Abellanus, agreement

Abella touching certain temple property held in common. From Agnone in Samnium comes an inventory of statues and
altars in a sacred grove.

The Curse

of Vibia,

from Capua,

together with a few shorter curses, belongs to the class of devotiones of which there are many examples among Greek

and Latin inscriptions. There are several inscriptions on public works from Pompeii and elsewhere also dedications, including a peculiar series of 2<m7ae-dedications, mostly from Capua, the nature of which is not fully understood. Certain inscriptions painted on house-fronts near some of the street-corners in Pompeii seem to be guides for the allied troops occupying the city in the Social War. There are numerous inscribed coins from various towns, some of them older than any of the inscriptions on stone also several from the time of the Social War, bearing the legend Viteliu 'Italia', and the names of the leaders of the allies. There are a few epitaphs, many bricks inscribed with names, and probably one of the well-known inscribed missiles also some illegible electioneering notices, not to mention various other insignificant scrawls, on walls in Pompeii.
; ; ;

6
6.

Introduction

[6

Besides

the

inscriptions,

there

sources,

such as the

Oscan

glosses,

secondary mostly in Varro and

are

some

Festus, and the geographical and personal names from Oscan But they contribute relatively little to our knowledge territory.
of the dialect.
7.

Oscan was not a mere

the earlier

Roman

writers.

patois, nor was it so regarded by Ennius, in boasting of having three

souls because he could speak Greek, Oscan, and Latin, gave to Oscan a position which he had no thought of giving to the local

For a long time, while vernacular of his home, the Messapian. Latin was still confined to Latium and its immediate borders,
Oscan was spoken over a vastly wider territory. It was the language of the people which gave the Romans the hardest
In the early centuries the fight for the hegemony of Italy. Oscans of Campania, under the Etruscan rule, and close to the
stood on fully as high a plane of civilization as the Romans of the same period. Eminent scholars like Mommsen have expressed the conviction
etc.,

Greek colonies of Cumae, Naples,

that there once existed an

Oscan

literature,

and certainly the


to us, not

conditions for the rise of a native literature were as favorable


as at

Rome.

But nothing has come down

even a

reference to anything

more pretentious than the puppet-shows

introduced in
Atellanae or

Rome from Campania under the name oi.fabulae ludi Osci. At Rome, of course, these were no

longer given in Oscan, but in rustic Latin.

UMBRIAN
8.

EXTERNAL DATA

Aside from a few short inscriptions from various towns of Umbria, the Umbrian remains consist of the Iguvinian
Tables, discovered at Gubbio, the ancient Iguvium, in the fifteenth century. These jiro seven small bronze tablets (originally

two were lost soon after the discovery), most of them inscribed on both sides, and containing together between four and five thousand words. This makes a far more extensive docunine, but

ment than any representing any other

dialect except Latin.

11]

General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian


9.

Some

of the tables are written in the native


like

alphabet,

which

the Oscan

is

Umbrian derived from the Greek

through the Etruscan, others in the Latin alphabet. These two divisions of the material are conveniently distinguished as

Umbrian, but the differences are in part merely orthographic, and, at most, far less marked than those which are usually associated with the terms Old and New in such a connection. The New Umbrian tables may date from
the early part of the
first

Old Umbrian and

New

century B.C.
is

How much

earlier the

Old Umbrian tables are it were inscribed at different


not fully determined.
Tables.
10.

impossible to say; different parts times, and even the relative order is

See the Commentary on the Iguvinian


of the Tables consist of the acts of a

The contents

certain corporation of priests known as the Atiedian Brothers, and in their general character resemble the Roman Acta Arvalium.

They contain

directions for various ceremonies, such as

the Purification of the Sacred

Mount and the Lustration of the more private functions of the brotherhood, with minute prescriptions as to the taking of auspices, manner
People, as well as the

of sacrificing the victims, etc.; also statements as to the duties of certain officials, perquisites of the priests, contributions to Some of the be made to the brotherhood by certain gentes, etc.

older tables contain matter which

is

repeated in an expanded

form

in the later tables.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OSCAN-UMBRIAN GROUP


Phonology
11.

The most
:

striking

characteristics,

as

regards

pho-

nology, are

the labiovelars q% and $#, which appear in Latin as qu and v (gu after n), to the labials p and b ; e.g. O. pis O. bivus vivi' 'quis', U. pisi, Volsc. pis, Marruc. nipis ;

Change

of

'

U. benust 'venerit'

U. umen (from *imilen) 'unguen'.

Introduction

[11

Extensive syncope of short vowels in non-initial syllables actud 'agito'; -- U. fiktu 'figito'; O. hiirz 'hortus'; O. e.g. O. akkatus 'advocati'. U. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus';
Assimilation of
-

nd

to nn\

e.g.

O. upsannam operandam' ;
'

U. pihaner 'piandi' (n for nn, 26). Retention of s before nasals and liquids, where Latin e.g. O. fisnam 'fanum', U. fesnaf-e, P&el.fesn.
; ;

it is lost

in

O. kersnu

'cena', U. sesna

Pael.

prismu prima'.
4 ;

Retention of a in medial syllables, where it is weakened in Latin to e or i\ e.g. O. Anterstatai *Interstitae' - - U. antakres
*procinuerint'. of Representation original bh and dh by/, not only initially as in Latin, but also medially, where Latin has b or d\ e.g.
'integris';

-- U. procanurent

O.

tfei,

U.

tefe 'tibi';

O.

mefiai 'in

media';

-- U.

rufru 4 rubros'.

which in Latin is shortened, in the direction of 0; e.g. O. molto, U. mutu, muta'multa'. Change of kt to ht, and of pt to ft (Umbrian, further, to U. rente recte' O. seriftas Jit) e.g. O. Uhtavis Octavius' scriptae', U. screhto.

Change

of final a,

'

Assimilation of ks to

ss,

s;

e.g.

O.

destrst

'dextra

est',

U. destram-e.

Change of ns to Oscan and Umbrian;


U. Ace. PI. eaf'e&s'

/,

though under
Marruc.
iaf-c)

different conditions in

e.g.

O. uittiuf'usus' from *oition-s

(also

from *eans (but O.

viass).

Inflection

12.

DECLENSION.
Latin to

The types
fall

of noun-declension are suf-

naturally into the same grouping of Five Declensions. But the Fifth Declension is represented a few and in the Third Declension the consonantforms, by only stems and i-stems are kept distinct in a greater number of caseficiently like the

forms than in Latin.

The Cases

are the

same

as in Latin, except

that, in the Singular, the Locative exists as a distinct form with full syntactical functions. The important differences in case-

formation are as follows (for examples, see the paradigms)

13]

General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian

First Declension.
is

Sg. has the original ending -as, in which preserved Latin only in phrases like paterfamilias ; the Nom. PI. has the original ending -as, which is lost in Latin.

The Gen.

Second Declension.

Sg. has the ending -eis, from i-stems ; the Dat. Sg. has the ending -oi, which occurs in Latin only in Numasioi of the Praenestine brooch the Nom.
;

The Gen.

has the original noun-ending -os for both nouns and pronouns, while the Latin has -I, from -oi, the pronominal ending
;

PL

the Gen.

has only the original -dm (L. -um), there being nothing to correspond to L. -drum, which is a specifically Latin

PL

development. Third Declension.

Sg. always has -eis, the ending of z-stems, while Latin -is is the proper ending of consonantstems ; the Ace. Sg. of consonant-stems has -om, from o-stems ;

The Gen.

in the

Nom. PL

the consonant-stems

and i-stems are kept

distinct, the former having the original ending -es with syncope of the e, the latter -es as in Latin (O. humuns 'homines',

but

tris'tres').

conjugation-types are the same as in Latin, the material grouping itself under the Four Conjugations, leaving the relics of unthematic inflection as "Irregular
13.

CONJUGATION.

The

Verbs."

But the type represented by Latin

capio

is,

in origin,

more closely connected with the Fourth Conjugation than with the Third, and in Oscan-Umbrian is better grouped with the
Fourth.

The Moods are the same. As in Latin, the Subjunctive is a fusion of original Subjunctive and Optative forms, and the distribution of the forms is the same as in Latin, except in the Perfect Subjunctive (see below).
The Tenses
there
is

are the same, except that, perhaps accidentally,

no example of a Pluperfect. The Voices are the same, but of the Passive there are only forms of the Third Singular and Third Plural. Of the non-finite forms there are found a Present Active Participle, Perfect Passive Participle, Gerundive, Present Active

10

Introduction

[13

Infinitive, Perfect Passive Infinitive,

and Supine.

The Ger-

und, Perfect Infinitive Active, Future Infinitives, Present InfinThe itive Passive, and Future Active Participle are lacking.

absence of examples of some of these forms is possibly a mere accident, but it is probable that most of them are specifically

Latin formations.

The important differences in formation are as follows The Pres. Infin. Act. ends in -om e.g. O. ezum, U. erom'esse*. The Future is an ^-formation, in origin a short-vowel Sub: ;

junctive of an s-Aorist e.g. O. deinast 'iurabit', U. ferest 'feret'. The Fut. Perf. is an ws-formation, probably based on an
;

old Perf. Act. Partic. in -us combined with a short-vowel Sub-

junctive of the verb 'to be'; e.g. O.


'venerit'.

efc'etttf

'dixerit',

U. benust

Among

the different formations making up the Perfect


is

System, the /-Perfect

characteristic of

Oscan-Umbrian

e.g.

O. aikdafed 'decrevit', U. andirsafust 'circumtulerit'. (OscanSabellian has also a ^-Perfect, and Umbrian an Z-Perfect and

an TtH-Perfect.)

The Latin
is

vl-

The
sign
<?,

Perf. Subj.

a real

and s-Perfects are lacking. Subjunctive form with the mood;

barakattins 'aedificaverint',

not an Optative with mood-sign I as in Latin U. combifiansi 'nuntiaverit'.


is

e.g.

O.

tri-

In the Third Singular and Third Plural there


tion

a distinc-

between primary endings, which are -, -nt, and secondary endings, which are -d (lost in Umbrian), -ns; e.g. O. faamat 'habitat', but fakiiad 'faciat'; -- O. stahint 'stant', U.
'purgant', but

furfant O. deicans 'dicant', U. dirsans 'dent'. Latin shows -d in some of the earliest inscriptions, but nothing cor-

responding to -ns. The unthematic form of the Third Plural, -ent, which in Latin is always replaced by the thematic form -ont, -unt, is preserved, and even extended to thematic formations e.g. O. set, U. sent 'sunt', O. censazet 'censebunt'. The Third Singular and Third Plural of the Passive have an ending -ter, unknown in Latin, while the Latin -tur appears
;

15]

General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian


;

11

e.g. O. vincter 'convincitur', only in Umbrian secondary tenses karanter 'vescuntur', U. herter 'oportet'; U. emantur 'accipiantur'.

The Third Singular Passive


in

has also a peculiar set of forms


;

which the ending U.ferar 'feratur', O.


is

is

neither -ter nor -tui\ but simply -r

e.g.

sakrafir (Perf. Subj.) 'sacrato'.

The Imperative Passive has an ending


which samur
'censetor',

-mo(d), O. -mo-r, of similar origin to the early Latin -mino ; e.g. O. cen-

U. persnihimu 'precator'.
Syntax

14.

The Syntax shows

the Latin.

a remarkably close resemblance to There are no uses of the moods and tenses which

cannot be paralleled in the Latin, the agreement being closest, some respects, with early Latin prose. The Passive forms include both genuine Passives and Deponents, as in Latin, but
in

the frequent impersonal use is characteristic of Oscan-Umbrian. In the use of the cases there are many interesting constructions,

which the following are the most noteworthy. The Locative, being preserved as a distinct case-form, is used where the Latin
of

requires in with the Ablative, e.g. O. eisei terei 'in eo territorio'. The Partitive Genitive has a wider scope than in Latin, e.g. U. iuenga peracrio tursituto 'iuvencas ex opimis fuganto'.

Genitive of

Time

is seen in O. zicolom

XXX nesimum 'in die bus

XXX proximis'.

The Genitive
;

is

to denote the matter involved

e.g.

used more freely than in Latin O. eizazunc egmazum 'in these

' matters', U. pusi ocrer pihaner as in the case of the purification The prepositions corresponding to Latin inter of the mount'. and trans are used with both Accusative and Locative; those

corresponding to ob and post are used with the Ablative.


Vocabulary
15.
l

Oscan-Umbrian as compared with Latin, the following are the most important examples

Of words which
:

are characteristic of

1 Special attention is given here to the lexical peculiarities, since these are not, like the other characteristics, the subject of fuller treatment in the grammar proper.

12
1. her- 'velle'.
teis

Introduction

[15

O. herest

volet', heriam 'arbitrium, vim', Herenta-

'Veneris'

(Pael. fferentas);

U. heri'vult', heriest

'volet',

etc., herter 'oportet', heris 'vel', pis-her 'quilibet'.

Cf. L. horior,

Grk. %atjO<, Skt. Jidrydmi 'be gratified, delight in', Goth. This root completely displaces -gairns 'eager', Eng. yearn.
hortor,
uel- (L. void) in the

meaning 'wish', the latter appearing only in a specialized meaning e.g. U. veltu'deligito', ehueltu 'iubeto'.
;

2. toutd- 'civitas,

urbs, populus'.

O. rwpro Ma/jLepnvo 'civitas

Mamertina',

'publicum', tuderor totcor 'fines urbici', etc.; Mamie, toutai Maroucai Cf. Lith. tauta 'civitati Marrucinae'; Volsc. toticu 'publico'. 'people', O.Pruss. tauto 'country', O.Ir. tuath 'people', Goth.

toutad praesentid 'populo praesente', touticom U. totam liouinam 'civitatem Iguvinam', etc.;

piuda 'people', O.Eng. peod 'people, nation',


3.

etc.

<m-'sacer, divinus'. esono 'sacrificium';

O. aisusis

'sacrificiis';
(

U. esona
Mars, esos
VTTO

'sacras',
'dis'(?);

Mamie.

atfot

d]fl'(?);

Tvpprjvwv Perdeus (Suetonius). (Hesychius), and to Goth, aistan related to Germ. Ehre haps (Goth. *aiza),
aesar Etrusca lingua
'revere', L. aestimo,
4. Jcomno-

Volsc.

esaristrom 'sacrificium';

alaoi

Oeol

from
O.

aiz-d-.

'comitium'.

comono 'comitia';
conventu'.

U.

super

kumne
'cum'

'super comitio',
-no- (cf. 5. hontro- 'inferus'.

kumnahkle 'in

From kom
U.

+ suffix

L. pro-nus, trdns-trum).

O. hu[n]truis
'infimo'.
etc.

'inferis';

hondra

'infra',

Superl.

hondomu

From

horn-, related to

L. humus,

6.

For meaning cf. L. humilis, Grk. a/*a^ %^^, %^a/iaX,o'?, Lith. 8$ma8'low\ zemyn 'down', from seme 'earth'. medes-^ius U. mefs, mers 'ins', mersto 'iustum', mersuva O. meddiss 'iusta'; 'meddix', official title (cf. Festus "meddix apud Oscos noraen magistratus est"; Livy 26, 6, 13 "medix
Grk.
1

tuticus [O. meddiss tiivtiks see above, 2] qui summus magistratus apud Campanos est"; cpd. like L. index from *iu*-dik-), medicim 'magistracy', meddikiai 'in the meddixship'; medicatinom
;

'iudicationem', medicatud 'iudicato'; Pael., Volsc., medix (Nom.

PL); Mars, medis.

Cf. L. modus, modes-tus, Grk.

/u-e'So/iat,

etc.

15]

General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian


ner- 'vir, princeps', title of rank.

13

7.

O. nerum (Gen. PI.), niir (Nom. Sg.); U. nerf (Ace. PL), nerus (Dat. PL). For related Sabine forms cf. Suetonius Tib. 1 "inter cognomina autem et

Neronis adsumpsit, quo significatur lingua Sabina fortis ac strenuus"; Aul. Gellius 13, 23 "id autem, sive Nerio sive Nerienes est, Sabinum verbum est, eoque significatur virtus
et fortitude";

Lydus de Mens.

4,

42

"vep(icr) <yap

rj

avbpia
Cf.

earl

vepwvas rou? avBpefovs ol 2a/3tz>ot /caXovaiv". Grk. avrip, Skt. war-' man', O.Ir. nert' strength'.
fcal
'

8.

nessimo- 'proximus'. O. nessimas (Nom. PL), nesimum (Gen. nesimois Cf. PL), (Abl. PL); U. nesimei proxime' (adv.). O.Ir. nessam 'nearest', etc. Cf. also O. nistrus 'propinquos'.
l
'

O. pert viam 'trans viani', am-pert not more pert 'trans'. An than, dumtaxat'; U. pert spiniam trans columnam'(?). extension of per. Umbrian also uses traf L. trans. 10. postin 'according to'. O. piistin slagim 'according to the
9.

territory';

U.

pusti kastruvuf

'

per capita' (?)

etc.

An

exten-

sion of *posti (early Latin paste).


11. pur- 'ignis'. U. pir 'ignis', pure-to 'ab igne'; O. purasiai 'in Cf. Grk. irvp, TTU/JO?, O.H.G./im^wr, Eng.^re, etc. igniaria'.
12. sewo-'totus'.

'sollemne'.

O. smoWomnino'; U. sewom'totum', sev-akne Cf. L. so-lus, Goth. se-ls(?).

O. saahtum tefuriim 'sacred burnt13. tefro- 'burnt-offering'. 'carnes U. tefra cremandas', tefru-to 'ex rogo'. offering'; Probably from *tepsro-, related to L. tepor, Skt. tdpas, etc.
14.

re-'habitare'.

U.

trebeit

'

versatur', tremnu 'tabernaculo';

O.

triibum

'domum',

tribarakkiuf 'aedificium',

tribarakavum

'aedificare', etc.

Cf. O.Ir. treb 'dwelling-place', Lith. trobd

'building', Goth, paurp 'field', Germ. Dorf, etc. 15. wero-'porta'. O. veru 'portam'; U. uerof-e 'in portam', etc. Cf. Skt. vr- 'enclose', Goth. warjan'w&Td off', Lith. veriu

'open, shut', varoi 'gate', L. aperio, operio. For other examples, see, in the Glossary, O. akenei, U. acnu O. aikdafed, U. eitipes O. eehiianasiim, U. ehiato O. eizo-, U. era-;
;
;

O. pumperiais, U. pumpefias.

14
16.

Introduction

[16

Of the many words which are peculiar to Oscan (orOscan-

Sabellian) or to Umbrian, the following

may be mentioned here.


.

A. OSCAN. 1. aeteis 'partis', a]ittium 'partium'. Cf Grk. alua from air-La. From aw-'amb-' 2. amnud 'circuitu', amnud 'causa' (prepos.).
/**

+ suffix
3.

-no-.

(Cf. kom-no-, 15,

4.)

Perhaps contained in

L. soll-emnis.

comparascuster 'consulta erit', kujmparakineis 'consilii'. From the same root as L. posed, precor, but with the meaning

which

it

has more

commonly

in other

languages of 'ask,

question' (Skt. prcchami 'ask', sam-prcchdmi 'consult',


4.

Germ.

forschen, etc.). Denominative from deiud- 'iurare' (deiuatud c i\M?iio\ etc.). *deiuo- 'god'. Cf. Lettic diwatl-s 'swear', from diws 'god'.

5.

egmo

'res',

egmazum

'rerum', etc.

Etym. uncertain

(L.egeo?).

6.

eituam,

eitiuvam 'pecuniam', 'muris'.

eituas 'pecuniae',

etc.

Also

Marruc. eituam 'pecuniam'.


7.

Etym. uncertain.
Cf.

feihuss 'muros',

feihiiis

Grk. reZ^o?, Skt. dehi

'heap, wall', etc.


8.

inim,

mm'et'.

the same root as L. fingd, figura, etc. Also Pael. inim and mom 'et'. Related to

From

L. enim, U. enom'tum'.
9.

loufir 'vel'.

as L.

libet.

In form a 3d Sg. Pres. Pass, from the same root Cf. L. vel from void, and U. heris 'vel' (15, 1).

Also Pael. puclois 'pueris'. Cf. 10. puklum 'puerum, filium'. Skt. putrd- 'son', and, from the same root, L. puer, Grk. vrat?.
11. tanginom 'sententiam', Abl. Sg. tanginiid, etc.
Cf. Festus

i'tongere nosse est,

nam

Praenestini tongitionem dicunt noti.

onem. Ennius 'Alii rhetorica tongent'". Cf Goth, pagkjan, Eng. think. For other examples, see, in the Glossary, aflukad, ampt,
amviannud, angetuzet, brateis, cadeis, karanter, deketasiui, ehpeilatas,
faamat,
fertalis,

heriiad,

iiiklei,

iuvilu,

lamatir,

luisarifs,

prupukid,
vereiiai.

serevkid, slagim, sullus, sverrunei,

B.

UMBRIAN.

trutum, usurs, ualaemom, 12. anglaf, ancla i osGmes\

as L. oscines

from cano.

17]

Greneral Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian

15
cf.

13.

anouihimu 'induitor'. From *an-ouio (Conj. IV); L. ind-uo from *ind-ouo^ Lith. aviu 'wear (shoes)'.

14. ape, appei^cum, ubi' (always temporal). Probably from ad pe (L. -que), and so in form like L. adque, atque.

15. arsmor 'ritus',


etc.

arsmatiam 'ritualem', arsmahamo 'ordamini',

Etym. uncertain.

16. ctfwfo^a-'nuntiare,

mandare' (combifiatu, kupifiaia, etc.). from the same root as in L. fido, Grk. Trei^o), Probably fif-, or possibly from fuf-, the same as in Grk. TrvvQavo^ai.
'gravidas'.

17.

gomia
Grk.

Cf. \j.gemo, and, for

meaning

especially,

yefjico.

18. nertru 'sinistro'.

Cf. Grk. veprepos 'lower, nether'.

Accord-

ing to Italic ideas

Imus = sinister.

19. purdouitu 'porricito',

From purditom 'porrectum', etc. with the root in L. duam. seen duim, *por-douio, 20. tuder 'finem', tuderus 'finibus', tuderato 'finitum', eturstahmu
21. wera?-'vertere' Cf.

'exterminato', etc. Etym. uncertain. in ahauendu 'avertito', preuendu 'advertito'.

Germ, wenden (Eng. wind). For other examples, too numerous to mention, see the Glossary. Many of them are technical terms, often of obscure
meaning.
17.

Several words

are

used in a sense which

is

either

unknown

or nearly obsolete in Latin. 1. O. kasit (L. caret) means 'decet' or 'oportet', e.g. fakiiad kasit 'faciat decet'. Cf. Eng. "it wants to be done", that is "it

needs to be done".
2.

O. castrom, U. castruo (L. castrum), mean either 'fundus, landed property', or, more probably, 'head'.
O. carneis, U. karu (L. card), have the general meaning 'part,
portion' (cf. also U. kartu 'distribuito'), e.g. maimas carneis senateis tanginud 'maximae partis senatus sententia', U. mestru karu fratru

3.

'maior pars fratrum'.

But Umbrian shows

also

the specialized meaning 'piece of


secta carne'.

flesh', e.g. aseceta karne

'non

16
4.

Introduction

[17

The forms corresponding


of 'make, construct',

to L. operor are

used in the sense

O.

ekass viass uupsens

'

where Latin would employ facio; e.g. has vias f ecerunt', triibum ekak upsannam
dedit';

deded'domum hanc faciendam

U. capirse perso osatu

'capidi fossam facito'; Pael. Herec. fesn. upsaseter coisatens 'Herculi fanum fieret curaverunt'.
5.

O. ant (L. ante) means 'usque ad',

e.g. ant

punttram 'usque ad

pontem'.
6.

7.

U. com (L. cum), when postpositive, has developed a locative meaning, e.g. ueris-co 'at the gate', asa-ku 'at the altar'. O. op, up (L. ob), means 'apud', e.g. lip sakaraklud'apud ternplum', op toutad apud populum'. pro- (L.pro-) sometimes has a temporal meaning 'before', for which in Latin prae-, or ofterier ante-, is used ; e.g. U. prupehast
i

8.

9.

U. emantur

'ante piabit',O.prupukid'ex antepacto, by previous agreement'. (L. emo) 'accipiantur' shows the original meaning

10.

compounds and in the particle em. Cf. also Festus "emere, quod nunc est mercari, antiqui accipiebant pro sumere". The specialized meaning 'buy' is found in emps on one of the short inscriptions, where it is perhaps due to Latin influence. U. prever (L. privus) means 'singulis', e.g. numer prever 'nummis singulis'. Cf. Festus "privos privasque antiqui dicebant pro singulis". So also O. preiuatud means 'reo,
'take' seen in Latin

defendant' (as rarely in Latin, e.g. Livy 26, 3, 8, etc.), single man among the many making up the assembly.
11.

the

U.

orto (L. ortus) is

sometimes used in the


e.g.

literal

sense of
rising'.

'rising,

standing up',

urtes puntis'the

pentads

Cf. Velius

Longus

(Keil,

Gram. Lat. VII, 74)

"oriri

apud

antiques surgere frequenter significat, ut apparet ex eo quod dicitur oriens consul magistrum populi dicat, quod est sur:

1 2.

gens"; Livy 8, 23, 15 "consul oriens". U. tursituto, tursiandu (L. terreo), have the meaning drive off', which in Latin is only poetical e.g. ponne im-tn/ar tursiandu
' ;

'cum iuvencae fugentur'.

But

also tursitu 'terreto'.

18]

General Characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian

17

13. U. couertu (L. converto) always means 'return', with the intransitive meaning which is rare in Latin e.g. enom traha
;

Sahatam couertu

'turn trans

Sanctam

revertito'.

14. U. vurtus (L. verto) has the meaning 'take a turn, change', which is rare in Latin (verterat fortuna, Liv. 5, 49, 5) ; e.g. pune naraklum vurtus 'cum nuntiatio mutaverit'.

15. U. ostendu (L. ostendo) has more nearly its etymological meaning than in Latin. It is used of 'stretching out', that is 'offering', fruits of the field or vessels; once of 'putting

'choosing', an official. 16. O. urust (L. oro ; see 21) is used in the technical sense of in pon posmom 'plead, argue'; e.g. com preiuatud actud, -

forward', that

is

con preiuatud urust 'cum reo agito, et cum postremum cum reo oraverit'. Cf. Festus "orare antiquos dixisse pro agere"; Cic. Brut. 12, 47 "oravisse capitis causam" ; Livy
,

39, 40, 6 "si causa oranda esset", etc. 17. U. comohota (L. commotus)
G-rabouie,
tio

means 'brought,
,

offered', in

Di

comohota tribrisine buo, tiom subocau 'lupte commoto te invoco'. ternione bourn, piter Grabovi, Cf. Cato, De Agric. 144 "lane pater, te hac strue commovenda

(MSS.

also

ommovenda) bonas preces

precor".

Summary
18.

The

differences between

Oscan-Umbrian and Latin are

considerable.

They

between the Greek

are far greater, for example, than those dialects, especially in the inflectional forms.

But the resemblances with

Latin, as

Indo-European language, are also that we have to do with two closely-related divisions of the same branch, sharing in many important characteristics which
distinguish this

compared with any other notable, leaving no doubt

This again is we can maintain that the Latin inflectional system as a whole
is

the various branches of the great family. most marked in the inflectional system, so that

among

also the Italic.

The

simplest proof of this

lies in

the fact

18

Introduction

[18

that the general classifications which have been found most


suitable for the treatment of Latin forms apply also to OscanUmbrian. For such classifications, as, for example, that of the

verb-forms into the Four Conjugations with scattering Irregular Verbs, are not mere arbitrary devices, for which others equally

good might be substituted, but actually

reflect the distribution

of the linguistic material in a given language. few specific examples of these resemblances are

merging
;

of the Instrumental with the Ablative


tive in -d

extension of the Abla-

from the 0-stems to the other declensions partial use of the Interrogativefusion of z-stems and consonant-stems fusion of Aorist and Perfect Indefinite Pronoun as a Relative
;
;
;

formation of the Imperfect Indicative


fect Subjunctive.

formation of the Imper-

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF OSCAN

Oscan is the Gothic of the Italic dialects. In the conservatism and transparency of its vowel-system it is rivaled only by Greek of all the Indo-European languages.
19.

Diphthongs Abl. PI. -ais and


of

are preserved intact in all positions


-ois:
:

e.g.

Dat.-

L.

-is

LOG. Sg.
; :

-ei:

L.

-I;
;

Gen. Sg.
:

-M-stems in -ous

L. (com-)mtini8.

The

finer

L. died L. -us deicum muinikei So also Paelignian and Marrucinian. nuances of pronunciation are expressed by a

The qualitative difhighly-developed orthographical system. ference between the long and short vowels (except the a-vowels),
which is known to have existed in Latin, is more marked in Oscan than elsewhere. For example, the short e is denoted by the letter e, but long e has become so close in pronunciation as to be denoted by an ^-character (in the Oscan alphabet by i,
the sign of the relatively open i)\ e.g. estud: L. esto, but ligud, L. lex, legdtus. Note also pod, pud L. quod, but estud, ligatuis L. esto also (in the Oscan alphabet) pid estud L. quid, but
: : :

Abl. Sg.

-id:

L.-ld.

20]

Special Characteristics of Umbrian

19

between vowels, which becomes r in Umbrian as in Latin, remains a sibilant (also Paelignian) e.g. Gen. PI. -azum L. -drum. Final d after long vowels is preserved, as in early Latin, while in Umbrian it is lost even after short vowels (20). A specifically Oscan (also Paelignian) process is the development of an anaptyctic vowel between liquids or nasals and mutes e.g. aragetud 'argento'; perek(ais) 'perticis': U. per cam.
s
;
:

An original

other secondary changes are the doubling of consonants before certain sounds, and the change of u after a dental ; e.g.

Among

kiimbennieis 'conventus', alttram 'alteram', tiurri 'turrim'.

See also under

20.

SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF UMBRIAN

Umbrian, as compared with Oscan, is characterized mainly by a number of secondary phonetic changes, of which the most important are Monophthongization of the original diphthongs in all posiO. -ois, L. -is ote O. aut, tions e.g. Dat.-Abl. PL -es, -ir, -er L. aut\ So also Volscian. pre: O. prai, L. prae. in Oscan preserves the sibilant as where Rhotacism, Latin, O. -azum. e.g. Gen. PL -arum Loss of final d e.g. -po in suepo 'sive': O. pod, L. quod 20.
:

facia 'faciat':

O.
I

fakiiad.
t
;

So also Volscian.
e.g.

O. molta, L. multa. Assibilation of k before front vowels, as in late Latin and

Loss of

before

muta

Romance
L. agito

e.g. facia

Change
(cf.

L. faciat. So also Volscian. of gutturals before t to i; e.g. aitu: O. actud, French fait from L. factum).
:

O.

fakiiad,

Change of intervocalic d Umbrian alphabet) e.g. persi,


;

to
peri

a sound written rs
:

(f

in

L. pede.
;

Change

of ft (in part

from

pt) to ht

e.g. screhto 'scriptum':

O. seriftas, L. scrlptus. Assimilation of secondary's;


nam, L. operor.

e.g. osatu 'facito':

O. upsan-

Change

of initial

to

e.g.

vutu

L. lavito.

20

Introduction

[20

Among
-ss;

other

Development

peculiarities are of original final -ns to -f, for


:

Umbrian

which Oscan has

So also Marmcinian. e.g. U. eq/'eas': O. viass'vias'. Retention of intervocalic rs e.g. tursitu 'terreto'.
;

Ending
while Oscan

of Abl. Sg. of consonant-stems in -e, as in Latin, has -od after o-stems ; e.g. natine ' natione' O. tan:

ginud

'sententia'.

Ending

of

D at.-Abl.
Oscan has

PI. of consonant-stems in -us, after


-iss,
-is,

w-stems, where

after

i-s terns

e.g.

fratrus

'fratribus' (as if L. *fratrubus): O. ligis 'legibus'. Presence of pronominal forms with sm ; e.g.

pusme

'cui',

eswe^'huic': Skt. kdsmdi, dsmdi, etc. Imperative futu, contrasted with O. estud, L. esto (also Volsc. estu).

Perfect in

and

nki, contrasted
-ter

with O. ^-Perfect
-tur,

(13).

Passive endings both


-ter (13).

and

Oscan having only which

Use of et-&s the usual connective, Oscan has inim (16, 8).
Arrangement
father's

as in Latin, for

name,

of the proper name, which is praenomen, gentile, while in Oscan it is the same as in Latin.

BORROWED WORDS
21.

The borrowed words


names

Oscan, introduced from


are mostly

consist mainly of Greek words in the neighboring Greek colonies. These

(Dor. 'A7reXXft>*>) ; Herekleis ( H/3arXr}?, with synHermes in Magna Graecia); of a and the of the vowel before r consocope shortening
f

or epithets of divinities, such as Appelluneis Evkliii (probably Ew/coXo?, an epithet of

anaptyctic vowel in different positions, come both the Oscan and Latin forms the Oscan form, in contrast to the Latin, is an o-stem, Dat. Sg. Herekliii cf. also
nant, whence, with
;
;

Vest. Hereto)}

Piistiai

(IJmo9;
;

cf.

Zeu?

ITta-rto? for

luppiter

Fidius in Dionys. Hal. 4, 58 the ii of the Oscan is perhaps due to contamination with some such form as Piihiiii); Herukinai

21]

Borrowed Words
Herentatei Herukinai
j,

21

corresponds to the Sicilian

'A(/>/oo-

the worship of whom as Venus Erycina was also introduced among the Romans in the second Punic war; cf.

Livy
of

22, 9, 10)

Meeilikiieis

(MetXr^to?
ee

eei is
;

merely the result

an attempted correction of

to

ei)

Arentika[i (Hesych.

But

there are also a few

common nouns
is

of the

same

class

as those introduced into Latin at the

same period, such


kiiiniks

as the-

savnim (Orjo-avpos

neuter), (%omf), L. turris with limu'famem' passtata (Trao-ra?), tiurri, (rvppis); is also suspicious, since cognates of Grk. Xtyu-o? are otherwise
;

the Oscan form

unknown
O.
aidil
'

in Italic.

Latin influence

shows

aedilis' (the d of in O. kenzsur (cf also Kenssurineis) beside the regube/ Oscan) ; lar keenzstur, censtur 'censor' (see 244, l,a) ; probably O. kvaisstur,
.

some official titles, as L. aedes comes from dh, which would


itself

in

U. kvestur 'quaestor', though there is a possibility that the initial was not qu, but ku, and that this gives O.-U. ku, not p (141, a). O. urust is best taken as a borrowed legal term (see 17, 16), since we should expect *uzust (see 112) as a cognate of L. oro according to what is still the most probable derivation of the

namely from os. Some proper names show Latin or half-Oscanized Latin forms, as Niumeriis 'Numerius', for which the genuine Oscan form would be *Niumsiis (cf. the praenomen Nijumsis).
latter,
0. Mener, L. Minervium,
if,

as

is

shows that the Oscan,

probable, an abbreviation of a form corresponding to like the Etruscan, name of the divinity
cult,

was borrowed, together with the place (*Menes-ua). Though the

cult of

from a dialect in which rhotacism took Minerva may have originated among

the Faliscans, as many suppose, it probably reached the Oscans through the medium of the Komans, but at a time when the Latin form was still Menerva

(CIL.

703, 799,

VI

523, etc.)

Pael.

Minerua
'

is

likewise borrowed.

U. vinu 'vinum' (and O. Viinikiis Vinicius', if related) must be borrowed from t)mum, if the latter is from *ueino-, earlier *uoino- (olvos). For the change of uoi to uei is probably Latin only (U. uocu Grk. FoDcos ?), and even if it were
:

Italic,

we should
6,

expect then U. *venu (65).

A possible example of borrowing from one of the minor dialects is U. felsva,


See 149,

[22

PHONOLOGY
ALPHABET AND OETHOGRAPHY
OSCAN
22.

The native
D, v

Oscan. alphabet consists of the following


:

twenty-one characters
R, a

\l,

^, s

9, b
>,

I, z(= ts) B, h
I,

kM,

m
'

T, t

H, n

V, u
8, f

9, d
3, e

R, p

X,

k
letters are
i

Q,

H(H

k),

V,

ii

The

last

two

nary characters for


1

simply differentiations of the ordiand u, and are not found in the oldest

They are commonly transcribed by i and ii, but sometimes by i and u, the latter also by o. The i is used to indicate an open z-sound, representing etymologically a short
inscriptions.
i

(44),

an

e (41), a short e in hiatus (38,


1)

i),

and occurring reguii

larly in i-diphthongs (61,


i

(47).

The

ii

representing denotes an 0-sound, the character o being lacking


in the writing, except in

and

in the combination

in both

Oscan and Umbrian. Double consonants are indicated


of the oldest inscriptions. The length of vowels is often
: ;

some

shown by a doubling
:

of the

L. Flora. Fluusai vowel, as in aasas L. dra 23. The Latin alphabet of the Tabula Bantina
z does not denote the sound usual type, alphabet, but the voiced sibilant (English
1

is

of the

ts

as in the native

z in zero},

which

in

The occurrence of h on a few Boeotian inscriptions (CIGS. 11888, 1943, 2456), representing an open i which comes from original ei or from e before vowels, but in the usual Boeotian orthography is not distinguished from t, suggests that it may not be an Oscan invention after all, but possibly borrowed at a comparatively late period
from some type of the Chalcidian alphabet in southern 22
Italy.

25]

Alphabet
is

23
s

the native alphabet

not differentiated from

e.g.

Gen.

PI.

-azum (-asum). Double consonants are only rarely indicated, and the doubling of vowels to denote length is unknown. 24. The Greek alphabet, used in a few inscriptions of Sicily and southern Italy, is of the Tarentine-Ioiiic type, such as appears in the Heracleian tables. This is the normal Ionic = h and L v. Neither 77 nor co is used with the addition of
I-

to indicate quantity. According to the system of orthography represented in no. 62 and some others, rft and o>/r are used to represent the

diphthongs ei and ow, as in Gen. Sg. -776? = -eis, TCD/TTO = touto while et and ou represent monophthongs, the former the open
i-sound, the
original
<J,

of the native alphabet, the latter the w-sound of meddiss, ovrraev^ uupsens. e.g. peBSeit;
i

inscriptions ei and ou are used for diphthongs, and original o then appears as o, e.g. Fepcro/aet 'Versori' (contrast the last two syllables with those of A-TrTreXXouz^t, 110. 62),
in
Aov/cavofji

But

some

'Lucanorum'

(cf.

Liivkanateis

for the last

syllable

contrast
a.

The

spelling Atov/rei (cf

Diiivel, luvei) is

probably due to the fact that

the syllabic division was not clear. Cf. U. auuei beside usual aueif 'avis'. 6. character S, occurring in Se<rrtes and a^aSa/cer (nos. 65-66), is of Cf. also the coindisputed value, but is probably the equivalent of Oscan 8.

legend

^EN^EP
In

beside Fensernu.

c.

Nivfjurdiriis

with the dialectic use of

Niumsieis, the cr5 <rS for the usual

is
f,

probably connected in some way though in the latter case it repre-

sented the actual pronunciation.

UMBRIAN
25,

The
a

native
:

Umbrian alphabet
*,

consists of the following

nineteen characters
fl,

z(=ts)
i

KM (A),
H,
1,

>(T),
V, u
8,
f 9

9, b S,
f

0, h
I,

n p
s

3, e
1, v

>l,

Q, r
*,

d,

,1,1

24

Phonology

[25

There are no signs for d and </, the letters t and k answerand sonants. The ^ represents a sound which comes from an original For intervocalic d and appears in the Latin alphabet as rs. convenience it may be pronounced simply as rs, but probably it was a sort of sibilant r, like the Bohemian r, from which comes It is also transcribed, with more the usual transcription f.
ing for both surds

regard for its origin than for its pronunciation, as d or tf. The d transcribed c, also sometimes s, represents a sibilant
,

derived from k before a front vowel.

Double consonants are not indicated. Vowel-length is sometimes shown by an added h, e.g. kumnahkle with suffix -dklo-. a. A by-form for m, A occurring also in Etruscan, is regularly employed
,

in

Table V.
t.

for

which

san, M, occurs twice for s, and the theta, 0, is twice used The appearance of p in place of f in kutep, vitlup, turup (I b 3, 4), for there is no likely phonetic explanation, is perhaps to be accounted for by
f

The

the existence of a by-form for

resembling the form of p

(cf.

Faliscan T).

26.

no

z.

The Latin alphabet is of the usual type, but with The secondary sibilant, the d of the native alphabet, is
, ;

which is transcribed s. denoted by q is used before the vowel w, as often in Latin inscriptions (pequnia) e.g. pequo, dequrier, peiqu. Double consonants are rarely indicated. Vowellength
is

shown by an added
;

A,

by vowel

+ h + vowel, rarely

by

doubling of the vowel e.g. spahmu, spahamu, eetu. NOTE. For the probable origin of the use of an added h to denote vowelThe use of length, which is characteristic of Uinbrian of both alphabets, see 75. vowel + h + vowel is probably a combination of this with the double-vowel method.
Relation of the Alphabets
27. Both the Oscan and Umbrian native alphabets are derived from the Greek alphabet of the Chalcidian type, through the medium of the Etruscan. That they are not derived directly from the Greek is shown by the absence of the letter o, as well as by other evidence. At the same time, the presence of 8 Difpoints to an earlier type than that of the extant Etruscan inscriptions. ferences between Oscan and Umbrian may be attributed to both local and
chronological variations of Etruscan, as well as to divergent development after borrowing. It is extremely probable that the Oscan development was influenced
in

some

particulars by the neighboring Greek,

28]

Notes on Orthography
The
fact that

25

>, g, is present in Oscan, but not in Umbrian, is sometimes the supposition that the Oscan alphabet was borrowed earlier than explained by the Umbrian. But at all periods Etruscan possessed both characters, > and )l,

Umbrian took only possibly because this was Oscan took over both preferred in the local type from which it was derived. characters and differentiated them again. That in this process the original value of the signs in Greek was restored, instead of the opposite (see followused as by-forms for the surd.
,

ing),

might be accidental, but Greek usage.

is

very likely due to the influence of Campanian

The apparent transposition of the signs for d and r is accounted for as The Etruscans had no sound d, but used Q as a by-form of S = r, in fact preferred it, as less likely to be confused with T = p and with this value it was adopted by the Oscans and Umbrians. But the old signs for r were also taken over and employed for the sound d, ft by the Oscans, S by the Umbrians. This early Umbrian use of S as d is seen in some of the minor inscriptions. But with the change of intervocalic d the letter was retained for the new sound, that which we transcribe f, and thenceforth the unchanged d was expressed by
follows.

the letter

t.

Possibly it is a rounded form origin of the sign 8, f, is disputed. of B, used first in combination with C, and then alone, as vice versa in Latin
first

The

FB, then F. The relation

of the alphabets

may be

seen from the following 1

Chalcidian Greek

Latin

Primitive Etruscan

Campano-Etruscan

Oscan

Etruscan
(of Etruria)

Umbrian

Notes on Orthography
28.

Resume

of

methods of indicating vowel-length.


be indicated
:

The

length of a vowel
1)

may

by doubling

of the

vowel

alphabet, rarely in Umbrian See 25, 26. in Umbrian of both alphabets. A, 2) by vowel in Umbrian of the Latin alphabet. 3) by vowel 4- h 4- vowel,

in Oscan of the native sign, the Latin of alphabet. See 22, 26.

See

26.

1 From Comvay's Italic Dialects, Part II, which also contains a comparative table of the alphabets with the variant forms of the letters.

26

Phonology

[28

no designation of the length, and in such cases it is not customary to supply marks of quantity, as is done in the case of Latin, where metrical usage furnishes For example, we write a criterion lacking in the dialects. O. aasas, eituas, U. totar, though in this case there is no doubt

But

oftenest there

is

of the vowel-length in the last syllable (Gen. Sg. ending -as). In Oscan the designation of length is, with a few exceptions, confined to root-syllables. 29.
ei, ei,

Use

of

ei, ei,

in

Umbrian.

While

in

uniformly designates the diphthong ei, where the original ei had become a monophthong, are various.
<

Oscan the digraph its uses in Umbrian,

Sometimes it designates a secondary diphthong, the i of which comes from a guttural, e.g. teitu, deitu dicito' (143). But it is frequently used in the Latin alphabet, and rarely in
the native, much as in Latin inscriptions of the first century B.C., as one of the various spellings of a monophthong. It is notably Oftenest it frequent in the first thirty-odd lines of Table VI a.
i, e.g. screihtor (L. scriptus); sometimes for the close e resulting from oi in final syllables (67, 2), e.g. Dat.-Abl. PL uereir, or from original e, e.g. nesimei 'proximo' (adverb in

stands for original

-e), heriiei (Perf. Subj.

with mood-sign

e).

There are

also a

few

reasonably certain instances of its use for a short i, namely Dat.Abl. PL aueis (*-ifs), Ace. Sg. Fisei (-im), 3d Sg. Pass, hertei beside herti, herter (-tir from -ter; see 39, 2).

Puzzling
see
84),

is

the use of

ei in neip,

neip 'nee' (with neifhabas

in eikvasese,

eikvasatis,

of uncertain

meaning, and

in

eiscurent 'arcessierint'.
a.

For

eitipes

see 264,

2.

For eikvasatis and eikvasese connection with L. aeqiius is plausible and comparison with O.H.G. eiscon (Germ, heischeri), Lith. jeszkoti 'seek', etc., pointing to a Present *ais-sko (Skt. icchdmi from *is-sko with reduced grade of root) is the most probable of all suggestions offered. Yet
;

for eiscurent the

according to the usual orthography we should expect e for the open e coming from ai (63). It is conceivable however that we have here isolated survivals of

when ei was still pronounced as a diphthong, but a second period, in which the spelling ei was retained for the sound resulting from ei and extended to the same sound resulting
archaistic spelling, representing not the earliest period

30]

Notes on Orthography
ai (both ei and ai resulted in and inceido.

27
Cf. early Latin

from
deico

an open

see 63, 65).

The ordinary use of ei for z, close e, etc., as described above, cannot be any such orthographical development within the Umbrian, since it does not appear where the sound was originally ei. It must rather be regarded as borrowed from contemporary Latin spelling. b. For neip, neip we might also assume archaistic spelling (cf. 0. neip), but its almost uniform appearance in this particular word (neip, neip 9 times, once nep) would remain to be accounted for. A suggested derivation from *ne (from *ne, 0. ni, or *nei, 0. nei) + particle -I + p would explain the spelling, as
the result of

representing a genuine diphthong, but for various reasons seems improbable.

30. While Oscan orthography, barring the inconsistency in the designation of vowel-length and a few other, mostly local,

remarkably uniform, Umbrian orthography is as diverse as possible. Various spellings of the same_sound are used, sometimes wholly promiscuously, sometimes with a marked
variations,
is

preference for one spelling in certain portions of the tables or in certain classes of forms. Among the commonest variations
are the following
1.
:

Variation between e and


lies

i.

occurs where the sound

between
i
;

In the great majority of instances this and i, or, more correctly, between the
is, it is

extremes of an open e and a close


short
i

that

either the

open

from

original

(45), or the, close e

from

original e (42)

(67, 2).

The
e

spelling e

is

from original I, or, vice versa, of i for or short from e, open e from original ai or ei, is rare. open original The variation between e and i corresponds then in general to the Oscan use of f See 29. 2. Variation between ei and e or i. 3. Variation between o and u (only in the Latin alphabet, of course, since the native alphabet has no o), mostly in the case of original 6 (54), sometimes
Latin alphabet.

The use

relatively more of e for closed I

or from oi in final syllables frequent in the native than in the

for the

o, especially before r (51). Variation between a and u (in the native alphabet only in the Latin alphabet always o) for the rounded a (as in English call), coming from final -a (34). 5. Variation in the designation of vowel-length, e.g. ee, eh, or ehe (in

for short
4.

native alphabet only eh), or, oftenest, simply See 25, 26, 28.
6.

e, e,

without indication of length.

It is doubtless

Variation between p and b in the native alphabet, e.g. habina, hapinaf. owing to the double value of t and k, which answer for both

surds and sonants, that p is also used not infrequently for b. Double consonants 7. Variation between single and double consonants. are not indicated in the native alphabet, and only occasionally in the Latin.

28
8.
is

Phonology
Presence or absence of
h.

[so
of h in

The weak pronunciation

Umbrian

responsible for considerable inconsistency in spelling, just as is the case in The use of h as a sign of hiatus is common to both Oscan Latin. See 149, a.
e.g.

and Umbrian,
9.

O. stahint 'stant', U. ahesnes 'ahenis'.


1).

10. 11.

Presence or absence of n before a consonant (108, Presence or absence of r before s (115, 116).

Presence or absence-of most

final

consonants (164,

9).

important difference between the orthography of the native alphabets and that of the Latin alphabet, in both
31.

An

The glide sound which is the following. i or u and a between intervenes following vowel is naturally regularly expressed in the native alphabets, but nearly always
Oscan and Umbrian,
omitted in the Latin alphabet, as in the spelling of Latin. So U. triia, but trio (L. trio) U. tuves, but duir (L. duo) ; O. eitiuvam,
;

but eituam.
a.
ii, I.

are:

triia (9), trio (2); heriiei (1), Aeriei, herie (4);


;

In Umbrian, of words occurring in both spellings the examples Atiiefiur etc. (17), Atiersur
(2),

etc. (5)

Klaverniie

Claverniur

(1)

Vehiies (2), Vehier (4)

in

all,

46 occur-

rences with no exception to the distribution of the two spellings as stated. In Oscan too the spelling ii is employed consistently, as in the oblique cases of names in -iis, contrasted with i in the oblique cases of names in -is e.g.
;

Dekkieis Rahiieis Gen. Sg. of Dekis Rahiis (174). Since ii is so evidently the normal spelling in the case of vowel

i,

there

is
is

the strongest presumption that,

where the

spelling in the native alphabets

must represent something different, namely the consonantal i. And this is often corroborated by other evidence, such as doubling of consonants in Oscan, occasional omission of the i in Umbrian, etc. (100, 3). Yet some exceptions must be admitted. In O. Dekkviarim and U. tekvias
simply
i,

this

cannot possibly represent a consonantal i O. Itiviass is not to be separated from Iiiviia in O. viu, U. via, vea, consonantal i is of course impossible, and that the vowel is other than original i (cf. L. via) is improbable consonantal i is also impossible in U. arvia, and improbable even after v preceded by a vowel, as in aviekla etc. It is perhaps for the very reason that there would be no
;
; ;

ambiguity, that

is

different case
1).

so often used in place of is that of the Oscan

ii

after v.

coming from
used
;

vowel (38,
b.

Here too

in the earliest inscriptions the spelling is


i

original e before a ii, but after

the introduction of the character


uv,
u.

this alone is

e.g. iiuk, later ftik 'ea'.


:

duir

(2);

In Umbrian the contrasting examples are tuves etc. kastruvuf (4), castruo (11); prinuvatur (5), prinuatur (8); vatuva

(5), (G),

uatuo

47 occurrences with no exception to the distribution of the two But we find saluuom, saluua, once each beside 24 examples spellings as stated.
(6); in all

32]
of saluom etc.,
touer).

Vowels

29

and fama'tua' once beside 18 examples of tua, tuer (once also The omission of v in purtuetu is doubtless accidental, and aruvia beside
is

usual arvia

probably an engraver's error.


eitiv.

In Oscan, v

is

used instead of uv in
in minive (no. 31
6).

sakrvist beside sakruvit, in

for eftiuv(ad),

and probably

So possibly in U. iveka 'iuvencas', though here the omission of u seems much stranger, and many assume an actual phonetic change of iuu- to iu-.

VOWELS

remains unchanged, as in Latin. U. ager L. ager O. allo So O. actud L. ago L. alius - O. patir, U. patre L. pater ; O. fakiiad, U. facia L. facio - O. castrous, U. castruo L. castrum O. ant L. ante.
32.
1.

a in

initial syllables
;

2.

Final a

is

also

Tursa,
3.

louia, etc.

unchanged, See 169, 5.

as in the

Umbrian Vocatives

Likewise in medial syllables, where in Latin a has been weakened to i or e, it is regularly preserved. So O. Anterstatai:
L.
*Interstita
(co)-erceo
;
;

L.

Praestitia) ; - - U. antakres L.
(cf.
:

--

O. tribarakavum 'aedificare':
integer
;

- - U.

procanurent
;

L. (oc)-cinui

--U.

afkani 'cantum':
(cf.

L. *accinium

U. tuplak

'furcam'
1

(?)

L. duplex

Grk. SnrXaf).

See

85.

The arrangement

considerations of convenience.

of the material and the choice of headings is dictated by Since we are dealing primarily with the relations of

the sounds of the dialects to one another, rather than with their relations to the sounds of the other Indo-European languages, the material is arranged with refer-

ence to what belongs together from the Italic point of view. Thus, under the heading a is considered the history of Italic a, regardless of its various I.E. sources (a, 9, etc.) en from I.E. n has the same history as original en, and need not be treated separately similarly with or, ol, from r, I, ou from eu, etc. Only in the treatment of VowelGradation is there any necessity of reverting to the I.E. vowel-system. But the headings do not always represent the Italic sounds. It is often simpler to take the I.E. sounds as the starting-point, as, for example, in the case of the sonant aspirates, dh, bh, etc., for which the precise stage of development reached in the Italic period is not in all cases certain. Or, again, it may he desirable to discuss in one place the history of a sound or group of sounds, which is partly of Indo-European, partly of Italic, and partly of still later origin, as, for example, in the case of ns. In general, the author has not hesitated to sacrifice consistency to convenience.
;
;

30
4.

Phonology

[32

But

consonant precedes or follows,

a weakening in the direction of w, where a labial is seen in a few words. See 86.

except when final, remains unchanged, as in Latin. O. Maatreis, U. Matrer So O. fratrum, U. fratrum: L. frater
33.
a,
;
:

L. mater

O.

aasas,
:

U. asam: L. dra
;

Abl. Sg. of First Decl.,

O. toutad, U. iota
L.

L. -a

suffix -dno-,

O.

Abellanus,

U. Treblanir:
its

Romdnus.
34.

Final
is

a,

which in Latin

is

shortened, preserves

quantity, but

changed

in quality to a

rounded sound

like the

a of English call. In Oscan it went so far in the direction of o that it is never denoted by the letter #, but always by u, 0, o,
or,

rarely,

by

u, u.

In Umbrian the sound

is

written both a

and u in the native alphabet, but always o in the Latin. Examples are the forms of the Nom. Sg. of a-stems, which ended in a, as shown by Greek, Sanskrit, etc., and of the Nom.- Ace. PL Neuter, in which the belonging properly to o-stems, was extended in the Italic period to other stems.
,

OsCAN.
io-c 'ea',

viii

'via', fiisnu

'fanum' (Ace.

molto 'multa',

allo 'alia',

fiisnam), iiu-k, iii-k, touto 'civitas'; -- comono

'comitia',
(192, 2).

teremenniu 'termina', petiru-pert,* petiro-pert 'quater'

UMBRIAN.

muta, mutu 'multa', panta 'quanta', etantu 'tanta';

- veskla, vesklu 'vascula', vatuva, vatuvu, uatuo 'exta'(?), proseseto 'prosecta', atru, adro 'atra'. See also 235, 236, 2, 237, 300, 9.
35.

In Umbrian this rounding of the d takes place also


-ts

before final

(from

-to-s

pihos 'piatus', kunikaz,

by vowel-syncope). So conegos 'conixus' (in form as if L.


or
-ti-s

pihaz,

*coni-

gdtus), Casilos 'Casilas' (Dat. intermissio' from *uakdt(i)-s.


a.

Casilate), -vakaz, -uacos 'vacatio,

the

which can hardly be separated from in seen Prestate, Prestote, and Tesenakes, phenomenon just described, The former word, although L. Praestitia suggests * prae-stfita-, may Tesenocir. be from a by-form *prae-stata- (cf. L. prae-status beside prae-stitus), and for
similar variation in spelling,
is

37]

Vowels
word a
is

31

the latter
of

suffix -ako- is in itself

which

doubtful.

more probable than -ako-, the existence But the explanation is difficult, since elsewhere there is

no indication of a change of a except under the conditions described above. It is possible that in the later Umbrian even the a of medial syllables changed Yet slightly in the direction of o, but not enough to affect the usual spelling. it is strange that the o is so consistently employed in these two words, and never found as a variant in the great majority of words containing a. But to regard the o as standing for short a only increases the difficulty. Such a weakening of a where there is no contiguous labial consonant (86) is unsupported and
unlikely.

A somewhat different, but equally difficult, case is subotu same word as subahtu 'deponito' with secondary a (121, 75).

if

this is the

generally remains unchanged. So O.edum: L. edo; O. ezum, est, estud, U. erom: L. esse, etc.; O. destrst 'dexL. dexter; --O. mefiai: L. medius-, tra est', U. destram-e
36.
1.
e
:

U.

ferest,

fertu

L. fero

O. aragetud
I

2.

e also

remains before
first o,

L. argentum. consonant, or final Z, where in


: :

Latin is

it

becomes
U.

then

u.

So U. pelmner
O. famel
:

L.

pulmentum

(also

veltu 'deligito', eh-velklu 'sententiam',


;

from
3.

uele-: L. volt, vult)

but in these uelL. famul ; U. sumel


:

L. simul (early inscr. semol).


also remains generally in medial syllables, where in So U. tagez, Latin before a single consonant it is weakened to i.
e

tasetur

L.

tacitus

U. maletu

L.

molitus

O.

Genetai

L. genitus.

before a labial in medial syllables a weakening occurs, resulting, just as in Latin, sometimes in u, sometimes in i. See 86.
4.

But

37.
perias,

A change

of.
'

*kenke
two

U. pumperias (150), where

seen in *pompe 'quinque' (O. pum*quincuriae', O. pomtis 'quinquiens') from


e to o is
it

seems due to the position between

etc.)

a. The combination sue which becomes so in Latin (soror from *swesor, remains unchanged in O. sverrunei (96), but Umbrian shows the same change as Latin in sonitu L. sono, from *suen- (Skt. svan-).
:

32

Phonology

[38

for

Before another vowel, e becomes an open i and is invariably denoted by an i-cliaracter (i in the native alphabet, earlier ii; see 31, a). Compare Ital. mio from L. meus,
38.
1.

OSCAN.

cria

from L.

creat, etc.

So

iiu-k, iii-k, io-c 'ea', ion-c

'eum', ius-c,
fatium

iussu 'iidem':
'fari':

L. ea etc.

(cf.

also

Mamie,

iaf-c 'eas');

L. fateor;

putiiad,

piitiad 'possit',

as
;

if

tummiiad 'torqueatur', as if L. *tormeat Loc. Sg. Tiianei ; Tiiatium Teatinorum'.


'

- -

L. *poteat;Tianud 'Teano,'

2.
is

Before r the

had a

closer pronunciation than usual, as

shown by amiricatud '*immercato', with which may be compared rustic Latin Mircurios, stircus, etc. further by Tirentium Terentiorum' and Virriis 'Verrius'. But the change was so
; '

slight as to be
pumperias, etc.).

commonly ignored

in the spelling

(cf. pert, perek.,

Tintiriis, if, as probable, from *Tinktrio- and related to L. tingud, tinctus (Grk. rt&yyw), is evidence of the same change as occurs in Latin before n + guttural.

3.

4. In nistrus 'propinquos' beside nessimas 'proximae' ably only a misspelling. 5. For 1st beside est 'est', see 217, 2.

etc.,

the

is

prob-

39.

UMBRIAN.

1.

Before another vowel


as

had a

rela-

tively close pronunciation,

shown by

farsio,

fasiu 'farrea',

tursiandu 'terreantur', and by iepi, iepru, in case these are from the stem eo-. But the change did not go so far in the direction
of
i

as in

Oscan, and the spelling

is

regularly

e,

e.g. earn, eaf,

eo, etc.
2.

From

ostensendi for *ostensender (ending

-ter, 238, 1)

and

herti (4 times), hertei (once), beside herter, herte, we may assume that e before final r had a close pronunciation verging on i.

In cringatro, krikatru 'cinctum' beside krenkatrum, from *krengh- (O.Eng. hring, O.Bulg. kragu 'circle'), we have a
3.

change of

in the direction of

i,

as in Latin before

+ guttural

(tingud, lingua, etc.).

See

38,

3.

41]
4.

Vowels
In

33
isec,

mr

'his'

beside

esir,

iso,

issoc 'ita' beside eso, esoc,

isek

isunt 'item', the i is perhaps due to a partial contamination of the 'item', stems esso- and i-. But see the following. 5. The single occurrence of tasis against 21 examples of tases etc., and
of visti$a against 18 examples of vestica, vestigia, etc., show that in the following forms, which occur but once each, we may have, accidentally, the abnormal rather than the normal spelling: tiit: L. decet; iseeles 'insectis', with i for
e(ri)-;

vafetum-i se 'in vitiatum

sit'(?)

with

for postpositive
.

e(ri).
,

But

it

cannot be wholly accidental that in all these cases (cf also isir etc. above) the vowel is followed by a sibilant. Apparently the i-quality of the sibilant has had some effect on the preceding e but so slight that in most words it is never

shown

in the spelling.

6.

In U. vitlu 'vitulum',

uitlu, etc. the

i is

Italic (L. vitulus, also O. Viteliu vetus, Skt. vatsd-

'Italia'),

'calf

').

though probably from original e ('yearling'; cf. L. Where and how the change came about is unknown.
e

had a closer pronunciation in Latin than the short e, as we know from its development in the Romance languages and from statements of the grammarians. It was the French 6
40.
e

of 6te rather than the e of mere.

It

probably had this rela-

tively close pronunciation in the Italic period, and in Oscan and Umbrian progressed still further in the direction of i.
41.

In Oscan

it

has gone so far that

we may speak

of a

change to f, since it is invariably denoted by an i-character. This I was a relatively open i, indicated in the native alphabet by i or ii, being thus distinguished from original t, which was
close. 1

Examples: ligud
fiisnii,

'lege',

ligatiiis 'legatis':

L. lex, legd(99, 1);


1

tus

fiisnam, fisnam

'fanum': L.festus, feriae


;

hipid 'habuerit', from *heped belonging to the same Perfect-type as L. cepl, legl, and with the fusid 'foret', hjerrins 'caperent' with the Subjunctive-sign e; same mood-sign e as the Latin Imperfect Subjunctive, but withlikitud, licitud 'liceto': L. liceto

out the shortening seen in L.


to the

-et,

-ent (78).

1 This and similar statements as to the distinction in use between i and i refer normal Oscan orthography. It must be remembered that the I is lacking in the oldest inscriptions, and also that after its introduction it was so carelessly employed in some inscriptions, mostly those of Capua, that their evidence in this

regard

is

to be ignored.

34

Phonology

[41

a. An e which is the result of contraction in the Italic period has the hiirtin same development as original e. Thus tris L. tres, from *treies See 82, 1. 'in horto' from *hortei-en. 6. But an e resulting from some later process of vowel-lengthening retains the quality of the short e, and is riot written i e.g. keenzstur, censtur, eestint,
:

etc. (73, 77).

In Umbrian the spelling i occurs frequently, especially in the Latin alphabet, but e is far more common. The Imperatives of the Second Conjugation always have i
42.

in the Latin as against e in the native alphabet, but this disThus habitu, habetu tinction does not hold for other words. feliuf 'lactentes' L. habeto tusetu: L. terreto ; - :

tursitu,

filiu,
:

from thefe- of !L.fe-mina


L. recte, earlier *rected.
e.g. heriiei

L. plenus ; rehte plener, plenasier In a few cases the spelling ei occurs

nesimei 'proe\ xime', adverb in e like rehte; sei-(podruhpei) 'seorsum': L. sed-. Evidently e in Umbrian had a very close pronunciation,
'voluerit'

with the Subjunctive-sign

but had not gone as far in the direction of

as in Oscan.

43.

remains an open
i

i.

This open quality


1

designation

in the

Oscan alphabet, and


Final
i,

for

shown by its Umbrian by the


is
i

frequent spelling e (30, 1). in Oscan, but becomes e in


ote 'aut':
i-s terns).

unless dropped, remains


as in Latin.

Umbrian,

Thus U.

ute,

O. auti-,--\J.

sakre, sacre, etc.

(Nom.-Acc. Sg. N. of
L. dedico

44.

OSCAN.

Examples:

dadikatted 'dedicavit':

meddiss, meddis 'meddix',

/xeSSetf (for et

Gen. Sg. medikeis, Nom. PL meddiss, see 24; compare also eiveifji = inim), a compound
:

of dik-i like L. index, iudicis (15, 6); likitud, licitud 'liceto': 4 L. liceo\ uincter convincitur' "L.vincd; tiurri: L. turrim;

pis, pis, pid,

pitpit

L. quit, quid, etc.

suffix -iko, e.g. tiiv-

tiks 'publicus', toutico 'publica'.


a.

When

vowel

is

the consonantal i intervening between the vowel i and another expressed in the writing, as is nearly always the case in the native
1

See footnote,

p. 33.

47]

Vowels
i is

35
not
i; e.g. fakiiad 'faciat', heriiad

alphabet (31), the vowel

then written

i,

'capiat', Heleviiefs 'Helvii'.


i arising from consonantal i 6. by saniprasarana (91, 1) seems to have differed in quality from original i, judging from the spelling of piistiris * posterius' with -is, not -is, from -ios, in consequence of which the anaptyctic vowel

An

is

also
i

i,

not

f.

Cf. also the proper

names
are
:

like Vibis

'

Vibius' etc. (172-174).

For

in Mais etc., see 176, 3.


c.

Isolated examples of e for


;

menvum 'minuere' on

the carelessly

written Curse of Vibia


inscriptions of essuf 'ipse'.

Samnium,

esidum, esidu[m], for the usual isidum 'idem', on two possibly due to a local contamination with the stem of

45.

UMBKIAN. The

former.

As

is

spelling is either i or e, oftener the the case also with other sounds which are repis

resented by both spellings, the e See alphabet than in the Latin.

more frequent in the native For the rare ei, see 29. 30, l.
L. dicd(44, 95)
;

Examples:
tio etc.;

ticel

'dedicatio', tikamne 'dedicatione':

dersicust 'dixerit'

from *de-dic-ust
L. video:,
:

O. dicust

-uirseto 'visum' from *uideto-:


stiplo
:

steplatu, stiplatu,
tefa, dirsa,

L. stipulor
etc.

sestu, seste

L. sisto

dersa
pif-e,

'det'

(from Redupl.
:

pirs-i, pers-i,

*dido): L. quid, O. pid ;

Pres.

O. didest 'dabit';
suffix -iko-,
e.g.

- -

Pupfike

'Publico'

(?),

fratreks,

fratrex '*fratricus'.

a. The Accusative Singular of i-stems nearly always appears as -e(m), -e(m), e.g. uvem, uve, ocrem, ocre, etc. (178, 4), indicating that before final an i was more than ordinarily open. Contrast the -i(m), -i(m), -ei, of jo-stems,

in

which the

comes from consonantal

by saniprasarana

(91,

1).

Cf. 44,

6.

46.

had a

closer pronunciation in Latin than the short


;

i,

as is proved by the Romance development from L. qm, scrlptus, contrasted with che, lece from L. quid, licet. The same qualitative difference existed in Oscan-Umbrian, as is shown by the fact that original I is indicated in Oscan by
e.g. Ital. chi, scritto
i,

not

i,

and that in Umbrian the spelling

e,

so

common

for short

i,

is rare.

47.
is

OSCAN.
as a

employed

The mark

spelling is i, not of length we find

i,

but where doubling ii, not ii like aa, etc.

36
This spelling
orthography,
ii

Phonology

[47

may possibly
le,

something like
ii

but more

indicate a nuance of pronunciation probably it is purely a matter of


its

being avoided on account of


liimitu[m] 'limitum':
;

other uses.
imad-en
; 4

Examples: imo': L. Imus


slaagid

seriftas 'scriptae':
;

L. limes; L. scriptus

ab

Abl. Sg.

contrasted with Ace. Sg. slagim

suffix -mo-, e.g. deivi-

nais 'divinis',

Bantins 'Bantinus', Ma/ie/ort^o 'Mamertina'.

48.

UMBRIAN.
Latin

The
it
a),

rarely e; in the

spelling in the native alphabet is is i, ihi, ei (very frequent in the


e.
4

i,

ih,

first

thirty-odd lines of

VI

rarely

persnimu, persnihmu, persnimu, persnihimu precator', Imperative of the Fourth Conjugation ; scre'hto, screih:

Examples

L. scrlptus ;--peica, peico, peiqu (10 times in Via 1-17): : L. pica, plcus ; pehatu, pihatu, 'pi&to', pihaner, pehaner, peihaner
tor
' suffix -mo-, e.g. 'piandi': L. pio from *pw, O. Piihiiii Pio' ; Ikuvins 'Iguvinus', louinam, loueine (ei once only in over 100

occurrences).

49.

remains for the most part unchanged, and appears in

the Latin alphabet as o, in the native Oscaii alphabet as ii. But in the native Umbrian, and also in the earliest type of the

All forms from these Oscan, the V did duty for both o and u. sources must therefore be ignored in distinguishing the sounds
of o

and

u.

U. ostendu 'ostendito' from ops-: L. 05, obs; O. piist, post, U. post L. post; O. pud, pod, U. puf-e, pors-e: L. quod; O. upsannam 'faciendam', U. osatu 'facito': Ij.operor; O. hiirz: L.hortus; U.poplom: L. populus.

Examples: O.

up,

op,

The

o is also

preserved before

consonant and before n

-h

guttural, where in Latin, except in early inscriptions, it appears as u. Thus O. molto 'multa', miiltasikad 'multatica', U. motar: L. multa, early molta, moltdticod - - O. ultiumam 'ultimam':
;

L. ultimus from *oltimo-; L. hunc, early hone.

O. ionc 'eum', with which compare

51]

Vowels

37

u for
50.

In Oscan, before

final

the

was changed so
written u.

far in the direction of

became w, or at least u as to be commonly


241),

Thus

the Present Infinitive (ending -ow,

with

the possible exception of tribarakavum (n not certain) on the Cippus Abellanus, shows -urn, -um; e.g. acum, deicum, ezum,

censaum, deikum, fatium.


appears as -um;
isidum
4

e.g. jMm-tm'cuiuspiam',pidum

idem'.

(201, 5) always 'quidquam' (C. A.), The Ace. Sing, of 0-stems, however, though

The

enclitic particle

-om

sometimes showing -um, as in dolum, trutum, Nuvellum, etc., usually appears as -om (more frequent than -um on the Tabula It is altoBantina) or -um (always on the Cippus Abellanus).
gether probable that this spelling of the Ace. forms is a sort of pedantic orthography, due to the o of other case-forms (-oi,ui-,etc.),

while the spelling of the other forms, which were not subject to such influence, represents more faithfully the actual pronunciation.
NOTE.
In Umbrian not only does o remain unchanged before
final

m,

but even u becomes o (57).

51.

In Umbrian before r
find so

consonant, or even before r

alone,

we

also occurs, as to

many make

examples of the spelling u, although o it evident that the vowel was consider:

Thus curnaco, curnase (5 times) ably modified in this position. L. cornlx; in prefix purpurditom 'porrectum' etc. (10 times, never por-): L. por-\ tursitu 'terreto' etc. (4 times) from *torseo
(97);

courtust 'reverterit' for *couurtust beside couortus:

furo 'forum': L. forum (it is unnecessary, though possible, to assume that furo contains the reduced grade dhur-, like Grk. 6vpd, as compared with dhuorin L. forum) tursiandu 'fugentur' with -du for -tur from -tor
early L. vorsus, advortit, etc. (97);
;

uru
a.

'illo'

beside orer

<illius'(?).

Possible examples of u for o before rs from d (131) are du-pursus, peturpursus (but see 94) also atripursatu tripodato', the explanation of which depends on the view taken of L. tripudium etc. beside early tripodo (late weakening of
' ;

o to w, or
b.

An

contamination with a derivative of a root pud- related to pavio?). isolated instance of u elsewhere is sunitu beside sonitu L. sono.
:

38

Phonology

[52

52.

The

relation of o to o

is

parallel to that of e to

e.

We

know
ment
in

that in Latin the o had a closer pronunciation than the 0, and the same is true of Oscan and Umbrian. But the developof o in the direction of

u has gone further in Oscan than


u,

Umbrian. 53. In Oscan,

uu, u,

Examples: Fluusai 'Florae': L.flos, Flora uupsens, djuunated 'donavit' L. dono pru 'pro' L. pro upsens, ouTrcrez'? 'fecerunt', Perf. with lengthened vowel to *opsdless
;
:

not by u, o due to an error).

regularly denoted by u, (except duniim 'donum', no. 53, which is doubto


is

becomes

and

seen in upsannam
stur 'quaestor',

(49);

suffix -tor- in Regaturei 'Rectori', kvais'censor',

censor

kenzsur,

censtur 'censores'; -

suffix

4on- in tribarakkiuf

'aedificatio', liittiuf 'usus';

Impera-

tive ending -tod in likitud, licitud, estud, actud, factud. The only exceptions to this orthography are case-forms in o

such as Abl. Sg. -od, Nom. PL -as, Gen. PL -dm, 1 which on the Cippus Abellanus and other specimens of the standard Oscan
orthography appear as -lid, -us, -um. But -um, and in the Latin alphabet always -ud,
spelling u

we
-us,

also find -ud, -us,

-um.

So that the

is probably another piece of pedantry in the standard due to the u of other case-forms (see also 50). Examspelling, Abl. Sg. tanginud, amnud, sakarakhid, Buvianiid, etc., but also ples
:

tanginud, aragetud, tribud, tristaamentud,


etc.
;

amnud, dolud, amiricatud,


but also
oi/Trcrew

Nom. PL

Abellanus, Nuvlaniis, etc.,

ius-c

Gen.

PL

Abellaniim, Niivlanum, fratrum, etc.,

but also nesimum (once zicolom),


;

nerum, egmazum, MapepTLvovfj, (ov as in


see 24).
no.
a.

for Aovtcavofji

The Pompeian inscriptions have Abl. Sg. in -ud, not -tid. Hence, in Nom. PI. iussu is more probable than fiissu, though from the stone it is impossible to tell whether u or u was intended.
3,

54.

In Umbrian both u and

ously.
1

The
in

found, but not promiscuspelling of individual words is uniform, likewise


o are
it is

Here and

54

assumed that -dm had not been shortened

to -om.

See 78,

4.

54]

Vowels

39

It is not clear whether we have to do with an actual difference in pronunciation, or with an artificial regulation of what was once a promiscuous use of both spellings

that of most formations.

for the

same sound.
spelling

The

is

universal in the Imperative endings -tod,

-mod, e.g. fertu, deitu, etc. (some 300 occurrences); likewise, with one or two exceptions (171, 6, a), in the Abl. Sg. ending -od, e.g. poplu, pihaclu, etc. (over 100 occurrences); in the suffix
-tor-, e.g.

arsferture.

The Nom.

PI.

M.

of 0-stems, ending -os,

has -ur (on the forms in or see 171, 13), e.g. Atiersiur, tasetur-, note especially the contracted form dur 'duo' from *dm~tr, *duos.

The Ace. PL M.
74, note) usually ueiro (171, 11, a).

of o-stems, with secondary o (74

but see also


-o,

shows

-u, e.g. torn, rofu,

but sometimes

e.g.

Cf. also du-pursus 'bipedibus', petur-pursus


4 ;

bue bove', 'quadrupedibus', probably containing pod- (94) Ace. PL buf (cf Dor. /3wv, /3w?) the pronominal adverbs pue
.

ubi'

(202,

7),

podruhpei 'utroque'
is

(190, 2),

panupei 'quandoque'

(202, 12).

The

spelling o

found in the Gen. PL ending -dm, 1 with a

single exception (pracatarum) ; in the suffix -on-, as Acersoniem, 4 homonus, etc. ; in the pronominal adverbs ulo 'illuc,' imo retro,'
eso(c) 'ita', etc. (190, 2);

in the root-syllables of several words,

as

name 'nomen' (nearly 100 occurrences):


L. po-sca, po-tus, etc.

L. nomen;

pone

'posca':

syllables

NOTE. Observing that the occurrences of u are in final syllables, or which were final before the addition of enclitics (podruh-pei etc.), or

before r (arsferture etc.),

had a

we may surmise that in these positions the o actually closer pronunciation than elsewhere (for the position before r compare u for short o, 51). Further, the predominance of o even in final syllables before

m might

be attributed to the same influence of

m which is seen

in the change

of original u to o (57). So much is reasonable, perhaps even probable. But to make further distinctions in final syllables for example, to account for the o

compared with the u of the Ablatives on the ground that these is to lay more stress adverbs are Instrumentals, and so ended in -o, not -od on the spelling than Umbrian orthography will warrant, not to speak of the It is not unreasonable to additional complication caused by podruh-pei etc.
in eso etc. as
1

See footnote,

p. 38.

40
suppose that even in

Phonology

[54

by

o,

and that
is

there

final syllables the sound was one which might be denoted in the almost complete uniformity of spelling in the Ablatives something artificial, which would not necessarily affect the spelling of

the adverbs, whether themselves of Ablative or Instrumental origin.

U
55. Original u remains in general unchanged. Examples O. supruis 'superis', U. super, super-ne, subra: L. superus, super, O. purasiai 'in igniaria', U. pure-to 'ab igne': Grk. supra
:

Trupero?, Trf/ao?, etc.;

O.

puf, puz

1
,

U. pufe, puse: L.

ubi, uti\

U.

rufru, Rufrer: L. ruber.

Oscan

iu

for u

56. In Oscan, after the dentals t, d, n, and once after s, found the spelling iu. Thus Diumpais 'Lumpis': L. lumpa L. turrim tiurri from *dumpd; eitiuvam 'pecuniam' eituam in Latin alphabet ;-- liltiumam 'ultimam' with secondary u
is
:

(86,

1);

Niumsieis,

This spelling is from eituam, eituas, was not used.

'Numerii'; - - Siuttiis ^Suttius'. not found in the Latin alphabet, and to judge
Ntu/>tcr8i7;t9

Just what modification of

the sound this iu was intended to represent it is impossible to But the theory that it was iu like our English pronunsay.
ciation of

in cube etc.

meets with the least objection.

Umbrian
57.

for u

In Umbrian,

somo: L. summus;

Thus appears regularly for u before m. Ace. Sg. of it-stems, e.g. trifo 'tribum';
o

Supine in -turn, e.g. aseriato 'observatum'. spelling, though usually u (superne, dupla),
:

Before
is

also, the
o,

sometimes

as in

L. suplnus. Here too the sound sopa, sopam, sopo, beside supo must have been open, but not so markedly as before m. Another

example of
'suilli',
(cf.

o for u,

the cause of which

is

not

clear, is sorser

sorsom, sorsalem, etc., probably from *su-do-, *su-d-<tliL. pecu-d-, pecu-d-ali-) L. su- in su-bus etc.
:

Oncepons, but the oil is probably a mere slip of the on^ravcr, whose eye was caught by the ou of the following word on the copy, touto.
1

60]

Diphthongs
a.

41

A change

of initial iu to

is

'iuvencas'.
eltiuv(ad) etc.

But possibly
See 31,
b.

this is only a

generally assumed on account of U. iveka matter of spelling, as in O. eitiv for

U
58.

ples
4

etc.);

u generally remains unchanged, as in Latin. ExamO. Fuutrei 'Genetrici' from bhu- (cf. Grk. <0/>ta, Skt. bhuti-, O. fruktatiuf fructus': L. frux, fructus; U. mugatu

muttito': L. mugio. Note also the secondary u in U. strul^la, strusla 'struem, *struiculam' from *struuikeld-.
i

for u

59. It is probable that a change of u to I (through the intermediate stage of a u pronounced like French w, German u) is to be recognized for monosyllables in Umbrian and perhaps

for final syllables in both

Oscan and Umbrian. Examples U. pir 'ignis': Grk. TTU/O; U. sim 'suem' from *su-m (Grk. v-v), Ace. PL sif from *su-f; -- "U.frif Bruges' from *frug-f: Ij.fr fix; -Abl. Sg. of w-stems, e.g. U. trefi tribu', afputrati 'arbitratu',
:

mani'manu', O. castrid
NOTE.

'capite'(?)

(Gen. Sg. castrous).

(Osk. Voc., p. Ill ff.) shown the the assumption that they come etc. without of U. pir explaining possibility from forms containing u. But it must be admitted that the direct comparison

The author has elsewhere

with forms in u (especially pir TrO/a) is far simpler. The Ablatives might be explained as examples of heteroclism, but if the change is admitted at all, it may be assumed for these also. At best, however, the precise conditions under which the change took place cannot be formulated with certainty without more
:

material.

DIPHTHONGS
In the following sections are considered together not only the original diphthongs ai, oi, etc., but also those which, with shortening of the first element, come from I.E. di, <n, etc., For as in the Dat. Sg. of a- and J-stems (Grk. -at, -77*, -wi).
60.

no evidence of the preservation of a long diphthong as such even in Oscan, and the monophthongization in Umbrian presupposes an intermediate stage of short diphthongs.
there
is

4:2

Phonology

[60

certain conditions the long diphthongs, instead of shortening the first element, lost the second element, and in this case their further history became identical with that of the
original long vowels.

But under

(Grk.

-cot),

the Dat. Sg. ending of o-steins, -oi became on the one hand -oi, represented by the Oscan-

Thus

Umbrian forms and by early Latin (Praenestine) Numasioi, on the other hand -o, represented by the usual Latin form.
PI. ending of o-stems, -ois (likethe old Instrumental wise Grk. -ots), represents ending -ois (Skt. -fa's) or the or both. After the analogy of -ois was Locative ending -ois(i) (Grk. -oun)
a.

It is

uncertain whether the Dat.-Abl.

formed the
61.

-ais of a-stems.

Diphthongs are always preserved unchanged in Oscan, while in Umbrian they have become monophthongs, even such
as are retained in Latin.

ui,

In the Oscan alphabet the ^-diphthongs appear as ai, ei, the i, as usual, denoting the open quality of the second ele1.
(cf. ae, oe,

ment

in Latin).
in the

2.

The w-diphthongs appear

Oscan alphabet
.

as av

But there is (rarely au), ev, uv, that is with the sign U, not V no reason to believe that this represents a. pronunciation like
that of

modern Greek

au, eu, in

which the second element

is

spirant (English v or /).

sign the consonantal u simply (English w) and might with perfect for the second element of a diphthong. Compropriety be used

The

we

transcribe v denoted

pare the occasional appearance in Greek inscriptions of for the usual au, ou e.g. Na/rTraKTtW,
;

a/r, o/r,

a.
,

but also

In the Oscan inscriptions of the Greek alphabet we find likewise A/rSetey, ravpofji, Av<TK\i, and beside the last the curious spelling AW-I/<TK\I,
(cf.

that

is

AvhvffK\i

also Ahvdiu

on a fragment).

i is

the history of z-diphthongs followed by consonantal exceptional, as it is also in Latin, and is not included in the
3.

But

In Oscan the following treatment of the several diphthongs. second element is written i, not i (compare fakiiad, 44, a), and
in

Umbrian the diphthong does not become a monophthong. Thus O. Piimpaiians "Ponipcianus", Pumpaiianeis, Pumpaiiana, etc.,

62]

Diphtliongs
pernaiaf, pustnaiaf (pusnaes

43

for *pusnaies, like pernaies), pefaia, persaia, persaea (for pefaem, pefae, persae, see 173, 1), with suffix O. vereiiai, vereias (once -aiio- (253, 1) ; O. Maiiui 'Maio' (147, 3) ;
verehias?),
etc.,

U.

U.

Teteiesf?),

with

-eiio- (253, 2);

O.

Kerriiai, Kerriiuis,

with

-eiio- (253, 3);

O.

puiiu, puiieh

L. quoins, Grk.
is

vroto?,

most exactly *quoi-io- (199, b). represented by the spelling with two i's, which is usual in Oscan and frequent in Latin inscriptions and early manuscripts But a (Maiia preferred by Cicero to Maia, eiius, quoiius, etc.). single z, representing a sound belonging equally to both syllables, was also sufficient, and this spelling is regular in Umbrian, Maraies occasional in Oscan (Buvaianud, Tantrnnaium, vereias beside Maraiieis, 176, 4), and usual in Latin.
from
;

The pronunciation

a. With O. ai, ei, lii, not ai etc. , compare L. mai(i)us, quoi(i)us, not*mae(i)us, *quoe(i)us, and with the preservation of U. diphthongs in this position compare L. ei(i)us contrasted with died from deicd, and quoi(i)us, hoi(i)us, contrasted with

unus from oinos (the change to cui(i)us, hui(i)us, is much later than that in unus and of an entirely different character). L. Pompeianus beside O. Pumpaiians shows that -aiio- became -eiio and so was merged with original -eiio. That is, the diphthong ai became ei, as regularly in medial syllables (cf. *in-caidd, inceido), and this ei instead of passing on to I (incldo) retained its diphthongal value before the i (as in ei(i)us). At least it remained ei in Pompeii, Pompeianus. But for many proper names which sometimes show -ems, as Pobleiios, Publeius, Clodeius, etc., and which seem to belong here, the normal Latin form has -ius,
as Publius, Clodius, etc.
Cf. also

Harms

beside Faliscan Hareio, 0. Haraies.

One might assume that these names simply yielded to the analogy of the commoner type of proper names in -ius. But in view of L. Bovidnum beside
worth while to consider the possibility that in medial syllables, i, the ei became i, which was then shortened to i; and that it was retained, as in Pompeianus, only under certain (accentual?) conditions no
O. Buvaianud, 1
it is

even before

longer understood.

ai

62.

OSCAN.

Examples
;

See

21)

L. quaestor

aidil

Kpaia\rop (borrowed ? borrowed from L. aedllis ajittium


:

kvaisstur,

prai, praesen'portionum', aeteis 'partis': Grk. alcra (*aiT-ia); -tid 'praesente': L. prae; Dat.-Loc. Sg. of svai, suae 'si';
1 That this word, which occurs in an inscription found on the site of Boviamun, has nothing to do with the name of the toAvn, as some assume, is incredible.

44
-stems
(60),

Phonology
e.g.

[62

Fluusai "Florae',
;

ejisai

viai

mefiai 'in

ea via
(60, a),

media', Bansae 'Bantiae'(Loc.)

Dat.-Abl. PI. of

-stems

kerssnais 'cenis', exais-c-en 'in his'. e.g. Diumpais 'Lumpis', a. The ai of the last example, as contrasted with usual ae in the Latin
alphabet,
is

due to the following

s.

For mats see 91,


e.

1,

for

maimas 114,

b.

63.

UMBRIAN.

ai

became an open

Its

open quality

is

attested by the fact that the spelling e, so frequent in the case of original e, or oi in final syllables, never occurs (cf. also
82, 2, a).

Examples:
;

kvestur:
:

O. kvaisstur;
svai,

pre,

pre, prehabia,

etc.

L. prae

sve, sve

O.

suae

rt-stems, e.g. ase 'arae', tute, tote 'civitati',

Dat.-Loc. Sg. of ; Turse 'Torrae'; Dat.-

Abl.

PL

of a-stems, e.g. tekuries,

dequrier 'decuriis'; semenies,

sehmenier 'sementivis.'
a. For the possible appearance of ei as an archaistic spelling representing an intermediate stage in the development of ai, see 29, a.

ei

64.

OSCAN.

Examples

deikum,

deicum

dicere',

deicans

'dicant': L. died, early deico-, L.

Deivai 'Divae', deivinais 'divinis':


1

Grk. ret^o?;feihiiss 'muros': early deivus; - set ehpeilatas 'erectae, up preiuatud Teo'': L. prlvdtus; L. pila Gen. Sg. of i-stems, I.E. -eis (Skt. -es) transferred to
dlvus,
: ;

consonant- and
eiseis,

carneis 'partis', eizeis 'eius', Korret^t? 'Cottii', 2raTTt?;t? 'Statii' (for rji see

0-stems, e.g.

Maatreis 'Matris',

Loc. Sg. of o-stems like Grk. ot/cei, Lat. -i, e.g. muinikei terei'in communi territorio', comenei iu comitio'; Dat. Sg. of i24);
i

and consonant-stems,
tori',
a.

e.g. Diiivei, Atou/ret 'lovi', kvaisturei 'quaes-

A]7nre\\ovvr]i, 'Apollini', etc.

L. clvis, early ceivis, if not merely a misspelling, indicates a special development of ei before w, such as is seen in L. sen beside
ceus civis'
:

The form

'

slue, early seive.


b.

e.g.

Gen. Sg. Luvcies 'Lucii';


65.

In some Campanian inscriptions, mixed with Etruscan, we find cf. also Gen. Sg. ptiiieh quoius' (no. 39).
'

e for ei,

In Umbrian the

ei

ling

being of the

utmost

appears regularly as e, e, the spelThis indicates an open c, rarity.

67]

Diphthongs

45
e

like that

from

ai (63), as contrasted

with the close

from

origi-

nal e, or oi in final syllables, for which the spelling i is so common. Contrast the spelling of the Gen. Sg. ending, from
-eis (64),

which

is

regularly

-es, -er,

of the Dat.-Abl.

PL from

-ois,

and only once -ir, with that which in the Latin alphabet is
82, 2, a.

nearly always

-ir (or -eir).

See also

etu, Examples: prever 'singulis': L. pnvus, O. preivatud; eetu, from *ei-tod L. io pronominal stem ero-, e.g. erer 'eius', amid countless etc. erar, examples of e, irer) O. eiseis, (once, eizeis, eizois, etc.; Gen. Sg. of z-stems etc. (see 64), e.g. Matrer 'Matris', katles 'catuli', popler 'populi'; --Dat. Sg. of i- and consonant-stems (64), e.g. luve 'lovi', karne 'carni', nomne
:

nomini'.
a.

For the uses of the

spelling

ei, ei,

in

Umbrian

see

29 with

a.

oi

66.

In Oscan,

oi
ii,

remains, both in initial syllables, where

in Latin it

becomes

and in

becomesi.

Examples:

final syllables, where in Latin it miiiniku 'communis': L. corn-munis, early


etc.);
liittiuf

comoinem (Goth, ga-mains


oetor;

'usus': L. ntor, early

Dat. Sg. of o-s terns (60), e.g. hiirtui 'horto', Abellaniii Dat.-Abl. PI. of o-stems (60, a), e.g. feihuis 'muris', 'Abellano';
(67, 1),

eizois 'eis',

Cf. also Pael. coisatens nesimois 'proximis'. oisa 'usa', Dat.-Abl. PL puclois, etc.
a.

all the examples in the Latin alphabet the oi is followed by a which case we also find ai, not ae (62, a), it is likely that the ordinary spelling was oe.

Since in

sibilant, in

67.

UMBRIAN.

1.

In

initial syllables oi

becomes

o.

The

most obvious examples are in the native alphabet, where u might denote either u or <?, namely: unu 'unum': L. units, early
oinos, oenus;

kuraia 'curet':

Pael. coisatens 'curaverunt';

L. euro, early coir aver e, coeravit, muneklu 'sportulam': L. munus,

related to corn-munis etc. (66; cf. also Lith. But in the Latin alphabet there are several

mamas
more or

'exchange'). less certain

examples, on the basis of which

we assume

that the sound was

46
o,

Phonology

[67

namely: pom 'qua': O. poizad (thought by some to contain oi, Nom. Sg. poei, poe, poi, which probably conbut see 199, d) tains *po, from *poi (O. pui), with the enclitic -i; nosue 'nisi',
;

which
of nei

is (cf.

most naturally explained as containing


O. nei suae
'nisi')
;

perhaps:
2.

Grk.

/rot^o?,

oZ/co?

by-form uocu-cum, vuku-kum 'ad aedem' (?), (sometimes used of a temple or


close
e,

*noi, a

special shrine), L. vlcus.

In

final syllables oi

became a

written

e, 0, i, t, ei.

Tefre, Tefri, Tefrei of 0-stems 'Tefro', pople 'populo';--Dat.-Abl. (60, a), e.g. pre veres Treplanes ante portam Trebulanam', uerir Treblanir,
(60),

Examples:

Dat.

Sg. of o-stems
'

e.g.

PL

uereir

Treblaneir.
e f rom ai or
ei,

For the contrast with the open


also 82,
2, a.

see 63, 65;

au
68.

OSCAN. Examples

Avdiis, A/rSete? 'Audius'; rum': L. taurus; thesavriim, from Grk. Or^aavpo^ 69. In Umbrian, au becomes o. Examples:

avt, aut 'at, aut', auti 'aut': L. aut; - - Aukil 'Aucilus'; - - ravpo/ji 'tau(21).

ute,

oie'aut':

L. aut (see 68); L. auctor title


:

turuf, forw'tauros' (see 68); uhtur, official L. 'fraudatum' frosetom fraudo.


:

eu
Original eu became ou in the Italic period, so that its further history belongs with that of ou, given below. There are no examples of secondary eu resulting from contraction, as
70.

in L. neu etc.

But

it

occurs in O.

Evkliii

borrowed from the

Greek

(21).

ou
71.

OSCAN.

Examples:

touto,

rwpro

'ci vitas',
;

tuvtiks

'publicus', etc.:

'*Lucanatis',
etc.,

Goth, piuda 'people' etc. (15, 2) Aovtcavo/j, 'Lucanorum', Liivkis 'Lucius': L. lux Grk. Xeu/co?; Gen. Sg. of M-stems (L. -v/s, Goth, -aus, etc.),

- - Luvkanateis

74]

Lengthening of Vowels

47

castrous 'capitis';

luvkei 'in luco': L. lucus loufir'vel* (96); ' Liberi' Luvfreis (Pael. loufir 'liber'): L. liber (early loucom); (with dissimilation of ou to oi, ei, between I and labial ; cf lubet,
.

libet),

Grk. e\ev6epos. In Umbrian, ou becomes o. Examples 'rufos' 'civitatem': O. touto etc. (71); rofu (96);
72.
:

tuta,

totam

Gen. Sg.

of u-s terns (71), trifor 'tribus'.


a.

If

example handed down from a period


spelling
is

Vuv^is is 'Lucius' (O. Ltivkis etc.), as seems probable (104), it is an of the. archaistic spelling often found in proper names, in this case

seen in Vuiia-per,

prior to the monophthongization of ou. if 'pro Lucia'.

The normal

Lengthening
73.

of

Vowels

In Latin, vowels are regularly lengthened before ns, nf, net, nx, and so also in Oscan-Umbrian, at least before ns, Thus O. keenzstur and, with accompanying loss of n, before net.

from ns; 110, 1) 'censor': L. censor; O. saahtum - U sihitu sahatam: L. sdnetus U. sahta, cinctos', 'sanctum',
(nz
' ;
.

= nts

ansihitu

L. cinctus.

a. For lengthening before w/, U. aanfehtaf 'infectas, non coctas'(?) is more doubtful evidence, since, with one a at the end of a line, the other at the

beginning of the next, simple dittography


74.

is

not unlikely.

In Latin, final ns loses

its

n with accompanying length-

ening of the preceding vowel, as in the Ace. PL endings -Js, -is, etc. from -ons, -ins, etc. The Umbrian change of -ns to/ (110, 2) seems to have been accompanied by lengthening of the preceding
vowel, since the 0-stem forms are usually written with u (for o; 54), e.g. torn, rofu, and the z'-stem forms sometimes with ei
(for
i
;

48), e.g. aueif, treif.


If,

some suppose, the endings were originally -ons, -ms, etc., the if, further, shortening of vowels before n + consonant had not yet taken place, the long vowels in the forms cited might be regarded as original
NOTE.
as

and

rather than secondary. This would have the advantage of enabling us to in the from the Ace. PI. of consonant-stems as due to regular explain -/ -ef See 178, 10. Nevertheless, in view instead of to syncope analogical influence.
of the uncertainty of the

two premises,
provisionally.

especially the second, the above state-

ment has been preferred

48
75.

Phonology
In Umbrian the h resulting from k before
t

[75

(142)

or/

(121) was weakly sounded or wholly lost, as is obvious from its frequent omission in the writing, and its time seems to have been added to that of the preceding vowel. For only on the supposition that the pronunciation was substantially that of a simple long vowel can we understand such a spelling as sahatam beside sahta (where, however, the vowel was already

before

long before the reduction of h see 73), or the extension of the spelling h to cases where it had no etymological value but was
;

For example, by assuming that only a mark of vowel-length. in apehtre 'ab extra' (cf. O. ehtrad) the eh was pronounced e, we
understand

how

the same characters could be used as a sign of

length in ampr-ehtu 'anibito' beside eetu. 76. There are certain examples of

lengthening, which,
this in

although not

all

mon

that the vowel


1.

on precisely the same plane, have is or had been followed by rs.


In

comis

U. meersta 'iusta'.
its

Umbrian the

r of rs

was weakly sounded, as


this
'

shown by

frequent omission in the writing.


;

And

' sesna original rs (e.g. /asio, fasiu farrea' beside farsio tur), but also of the rs which in the Latin alphabet represents original d (e.g. In meersta the rs belongs to the Acesoniam beside Acersoniem Akefunie).
:

true not only of cenam' beside $ersnais

latter class,

for

it

is

examples of the word

a derivative of mers, mefs (15, (i) moreover, in But the spelling with the r happens to be written.
;

all
ee,

though occurring only once, may fairly be taken as an indication that in general the reduction of r was accompanied by a lengthening, perhaps but slight, of the
preceding vowel.
2.

O. peessl[iim beside pestlum

'

'sacrificium', persclo, pescler.


in rs as in

In Oscan there

templum' from *perstlo-: U. .persklum is no such general reduction of r

Umbrian

(cf.

was

differently treated in the group rstl. peessl[tim and connected with the loss of
3.
'

kersnu 'cena' always written with r), but apparently it That the lengthening is confined to
t

(139, 2),

is

unlikely.

rs,

U. frateer f ratres' from *frater(e)s points to lengthening before final the s then disappearing.

is

NOTE. The early Latin use of ter, from *ters, as a long syllable not parallel, since the form was not ter with vowel-lengthening, but terr, like hocc, miless, etc. The same is true of far, from /ars, which occurs as a long syllable in Ovid and is cited by Priscian (Keil II, 313) among words ending in fir. This form 4. 0. teer[um 'territorium', related to L. terra from *tersa. commonly, and perhaps correctly, derived from *terso-, it being assumed
is

78]

Shortening of Vowels

49

this that original rs between vowels in Oscan became r with lengthening But as this is the only example for such a of the preceding vowel (115, 1). of it is well to rs, point out another possible explanation, which is development

from

as follows
*ters

There once existed a simple neuter s-stem *ters- with Nom.-Acc. Sg. which became O.-U. *ter according to 3. The oblique cases were affected
:

by the analogy

of the Nom.-Acc., e.g. Gen.

*tereis (tereis), just as

influence of far. neuter type, that of the o-stems, giving

Sg. *terseis being replaced by U. Gen. Sg. *farser was replaced by farer under the The word then went over completely to the commonest

Nom.-Acc. Herom.

77.

1.

The

of O. eestint 'exstant',

eehiianasum 'emitten-

darum', U. eheturstahamu 'exterminate', etc., like L. e- beside ex-, must be due to secondary lengthening, but the conditions under which this took place cannot be the same as in Latin,

and are not yet

clear.

NOTE. The e in Latin is readily explained as due to the lengthening which regularly accompanies the loss of s (in this case from ks) before m, n, Z, etc. But this cannot hold for Oscan-Umbrian, where s remains in these positions (114). The Umbrian e might be explained as coming from ek- before t according to
75, but there seems to have been no such reduction of h in Oscan, since in other forms it is uniformly written.
2.
all

U. ahauendu 'avertito', etc., like L. d beside ab, abs, is likewise due to a secondary lengthening, the conditions of which for Oscan-Umbrian are not clear.
of O. aamanaffed 'locavit',
NOTE.
but the
It is possible

The a

here to assume a distinct prefix, original

a-,

difficulty in the derivation from abs is involved in the e of O. eestint, where original

no greater than that e, even if there were

evidence for any such prefix,


3.

is

out of the question (41).

culty.

The o of U. ooserclom, if this is '*observaculum,' offers the same diffiBut meaning and etymology of the word are uncertain. The explanafrom
au(i);

tion as '*aviservaculum' (6

69)

is

also possible.

Shortening of Vowels

Vowel-shortening such as is seen in Latin before final r, Z, m, or when the vowel is itself final, is not observable in Oscan or Umbrian. Positive evidence for the preservation of
78.
,

the long vowel


1.

is

furnished as follows
,

For

final

by the forms

in

-u,

-u,

-o (34),

since final

short a remains

(32, 2).

50
2.
i

Phonology
Before
-r,

[78

by O.

points to e (41); since the u, u points to o (53) similarly by the Passive forms O. loufir (Pres. Indie, of Second Conj. 238, 2), sakrafir (Perf.
:

L. pater (Grk. Trarrfp), since the L. censor (Grk. -cop), O. keenzstur, censtur
patir
:

Subj. with mood-sign e; 3. Before -t, by O.

234).

kasit 1

L. caret

(17,

1),

with

for e of
i

the Present Stem; cf. also (before -d) O. fusid: lu.foret, with for e of the Subjunctive.
4.

it would still be possible assume shortening in polysyllables. But the analogy of the cases in 2 and 3 is against this, and moreover the forms of the Gen. PL are more easily understood as retaining -dm than as having -om. The Oscan forms might indeed be taken as -om according to 50, but in Umbrian even the single occurrence of -um in pracatarum is of weight in favor of -om, since -om never appears as -um. a. It is probable that the shortening of a long vowel before n + consonant, whether final or not, as in L. amant from *ama-nt, Partic. amant- from *ama-nt-, took place in the Italic period, but the evidence in Oscan-Umbrian is very meagre. See 215, 2, on 0. stahlnt 217, 4, on 0. amfret also 74, note. For the similar shortening before r + consonant, cf. 0. Herekleis, L. Hercules, from Grk.

Before w, by O. paam, L. quam. NOTE. As this form is a monosyllable,


to

'KpaK\r)s (21).

The long vowel before the secondary ending -ns (e.g. Imperf. Subj. O. hjerrins 'caperent'), which has replaced original -nt, may well be due to the analogy of the other forms (0. fusld etc.). Or, if the explanation given in
128,
1, is

correct, the

change of nt through nd to n

may have

antedated the

shortening process.

Anaptyxis in Oscan

Anaptyxis, or the development of a secondary vowel between a liquid or nasal and another consonant either preceding
79.

or following,

is

a wide-spread

phenomenon

in Oscan,

unknown
into

in

Umbrian.

It is necessary to divide the

though examples

classes according as the liquid or nasal precedes or If it precedes, the quality of the follows the other consonant.

two

new vowel is that of the vowel the new vowel has the quality
1

preceding, while if it follows, In of the following vowel.

We should expect patir, kasit, but the inscriptions containing these words are careless in the use of i and i.

80]

Anaptyxis

51

other words, the newly developed vowel has the quality of the vowel of the syllable in which the liquid or nasal stands.
a.

In the case of

mn

it is

n which

is

parallel to the nasal in other groups,

In fact there is no example of an anaptyctic e.g. comenei from *komnei (81). vowel developed through ra. b. For the secondary vowel-development in connection with samprasarana see 91.

This type of anaptyxis liquid or nasal precedes. is one of the marked characteristics of the Oscan (and PaeligThe regularity with which it appears makes it well nigh nian).
80.

The

certain that the


as in

newly developed vowel was not a mere glide, vulgar Latin dulicia for dulcia, etc., but formed a full

syllable.

interesting parallel is seen in Russian, e.g. golova 'head' from *golva, bereg 'bank' from *bergu.
1.

An

LIQUID.

The vowel develops between


;
:

a liquid and a

guttural (including h) or a labial (including u) but not between Herekleis a liquid and a dental. Examples aragetud 'argento';
'Herculis'; care'

from

- - tribarakavum 'aedifiMayue/je/ae? 'Mamercius'; amiricatud '*immercato' (38, 2) ; *treb-ark-: L. arx ;


-

Mulukiis 'Mulcius';
go(?)
;

Verehasiiii 'Versori'

from

verh-i

L. ver-

Alafaternum 'Alfakulupu 'culpa'(?) ; -- Urufiis 'Orfius'; - - turumiiad L. tormen; - - teremniss ternorum'; 'torqueatur'
:

'terminibus';

Salaviis 'Salvius' (salavs, o-aXa/r? 'salvus'

owes

its

form to the oblique


O.-U. period;. see 91,
serevkid 'auspicio'

cases, for *saluos


1);

would give

*salus in the

Kalaviis 'Calvius' (Calavius

on Latin
;

inscriptions is simply the

Oscan form);

Heleviieis 'Helvii'
:

*seru(i}kio- ; urvum(?). Cf. also Pael. Herec., Alafis, Helevis, Salauatur. As examples of the lack of anaptyxis before dentals may

from

uruvii 'flexa'(?)

be

mentioned
2.

Ma/ue/mz'o 'Mamertina',
'

molto 'multa',

alttrei

'alteri',

carneis 'partis', kerssnais cenis',

Fepcropei 'Versori.'

some
fed

cases

NASAL. The vowel develops between n and between n and a guttural. Examples
:
;

/,

and in

Anafriss 'Tmbribus'(?)
(223);

aamanaffed 'locavit',
24, 6)

avafa/cer

(for/ see

'dedicavit'

from *manf(e)from *anfciked\

52
Anagtiai 'Angitiae'

Phonology

[80

from * Ang (e)tid--,

Liganakdikei,

name

of

a goddess, from *legdn(i}ko-dik- (or from *legndko-, and so Cf. also Pael. Anaceta Angitiae' beside belonging in 81?).
'

Anceta, Anacta.
NOTE.
tangintid.

no anaptyxis between n and a guttural, The conditions under which it took place are not clear.
Usually there
is

e.g.

81.

The

liquid or nasal follows.


is

This sort of anaptyxis,

seen in Latin poculum, pidculum, etc., is of a It is subject to less determinate character than the preceding.
the same that
local variation

no

at least in the inscriptions of Capua there is Elsewhere it occurs reguindication of it in the spelling.
:

but is not entirely confined to this not being clear. 1 Examconditions the more precise position,
larly after short syllables,

ples

paterei 'patri'

(contrast maatreis 'matris');


puturus-pid, etc.,

puterei-pid

in

from *potro- (88, 4); petirofrom *petrid-pert (192, 2); pert quater' for *petirio-pert (100, 3, c), - Sadiriis Satrius'; from pustiris 'posterius' *postrios (88,4),
utroque',
4 4

Nom. PL

assumed that anaptyxis occurred only after short has since modified his view to the extent of admitting anaptyxis even after a long syllable in the case of r followed by consonantal i or i In this he in hiatus (I.F. Anz. 4, 38). This would cover pustiris, Aadiriis, etc. is followed by Brugmann, who however treats the development in these cases as a
1

Thurneysen,

who

first

syllables (K.Z. 27, 181 ff.),

agree with Thurneysen against Planta that the suffix, though originally -kelo-, has passed through the stage -klo-, and that the vowel of the penult is as truly anaptyctic as any other. But we can see no plausibility in his view that the first syllable of this word, and also of Diiviiai, is to be taken as dii- from dio-. Such a change is without even the remotest analogy in Oscan phonetics. And what of the preservation of (d)io not only in iuklei and luviia, with which Thurneysen equates zicolom and Diiviiai, but also in Diuvei, Aiou/rci,
PI. d]iikulus,
v.

2 phenomenon (Grd. I p. As regards zicolom 'diem', Ace.

distinct

825).

But

still

further restrictions are necessary.

we

Does he mean to assume a local change confined to Bantia, Samnium, and the land of the Frentani ? But Diuvei is also Samnitic. There is no real diffiluveis, etc.?

culty in assuming that anaptyxis in the case of kl took place without regard to the quantity of the preceding syllable. Its absence in sakarakhim may well be due to
the preceding anaptyxis
(cf. Herekleis).

convinced that the quantity of the preceding syllable is not the only factor to be considered, but that others, such as relative rapidity of utterance, local variations aside from that of Capua, inconsistency in the spelling of what was perhaps not a full vowel, etc., are to be reckoned with. In Latin, where the material is so much more plentiful, it is admitted that the factors are t >o complicated to allow

The

.author

is

any precise formulation

of the conditions of anaptyxis.

82]

Contraction
pustrei 'in postero';
;

and Hiatus
Aadiriis 'Atrius'

53

but Capuan

(whence by

Vestirikiiiii 'Vestricio'; extension Aadirans) sakaraklum 'sacellum' from *sakrd-klo-, sakarater 'sacratur', aaicopo 'sacrum', but

Capuan
*tefro:

sakrim,

sakrafir,

etc.

;-- tefunim 'burnt-offering' from


;

U.

tefra

but Capuan
Loc. Sg.
*die-klo1
:

'carnes quae cremantur' Pukalatiii '*Puclato', zicolom 'diem', Abl. Sg. ziculud, puklum filiurn' ;
'

zicel[ei],

Dat.-Abl.
;

PL

zicolois,

Ace.

PL

djiikiilus,

from
akenei
;

L. diecula

Patanai 'Pandae'

from *Pat-nd--,

'in anno'(?),

Gen. PL acunum (probable reading): U. acnu comono 'comitia', Loc. Sg. comenei, from *komno- (15, 4): U. kumne; O. Safinim 'Samnium', from *Safniom: L. Samnium.
also

Cf.

Pael. sacaracirix, pristafalacirix, as

if

L. *-sacrdtrlx,

*praestibuldtrlx.
a.

In kujmparakineis

'consilii',
;

comparascuster 'consul ta

erit', it is

uncerit

which a is anaptyctic but if the second, and so falling under 80, 1, would be the only example before s. Against the assumption that the first a
tain

is

anaptyctic, the preceding long syllable

is

not decisive.

See footnote,

p. 52.

Contraction and Hiatus


82.
1.

Like vowels are contracted.

of intervocalic^' in the Italic period was attended by contraction of like vowels. Thus the ending of the Nom. PL of i-stems, originally -eies (Skt. -ay as), became -es, and the e had

The loss

the same history as original

So O. tris L. tres U. pacrer Another example of the same 'propitii', from stem pakri-. 'in horto' from *hortei-en (Loc. Sg. with contraction is O. hurtin
e.
:

postpositive en;
2.

171, 7).

In Umbrian the close


2)

e resulting

from

oi in final sylla-

bles (67,

was so near

Dat.-Abl.

PL
i

of stems in
i).

preceding

(and

found
louie,

side

by

side,

e, that in the Dat. Sg. and and -ioit contracted with the o Contracted and uncontracted forms are but the latter are due to the influence of

in quality to
-iio-

the other case-forms.

Dat.-Abl.

PL

Sg. luve, loui, beside luvie, Atiersir beside Atiersier, etc. Compare
1

Thus Dat.

See footnote,

p. 52.

54
Latin

Phonology

[82

Nom.

auspicils,

PI. fill beside fllil, Dat.-Abl. PI. auspicls beside etc., the contracted forms being very frequent in

inscriptions. is seen in U.
a.

Contraction of u with the sound resulting from o dur 'duo' from *duos (54).

original e (Voc. Sg. arsie), or the

There are no such contracted forms in the case of the open e from open e from ei (Loc. Sg. Fisie, Gen. Sg. Fisier)

or from ai (Dat.-Abl. PI. of First Decl. dequrier).

is

83. Unlike vowels remain uncontracted, and sometimes h used as a mark of the hiatus. Thus we find uncontracted:

do, in Infinitives of the First

kaviim (v
;

is

Conjugation, O. moltaum, tribarasimply the glide sound preceding the rounded

do,

vowel cf. occasional Grk. apvrdp for avrdp, etc.). in U. stahu 'sto' from * staid, U. subocau, subocauu 'invoco' from -did (uu uu with glide as in tribarakavum less probably
;

doubling to indicate length, since this


syllables).
ae, in

is

very rare in

final

U. ahesnes 'ahenis' from* a(i)esno (Skt. dyas) 'stabunt' from *sta(i)esent.

U.

staheren

de, in Present Subjunctive of First Conjugation,


sakahiter,
eo,

O. deiuaid,

from

-die-. n

oe,

ol,

iak, U. earn, etc.: L. ea, eum, etc., from For O. i, see 38, 1. in U. Puemune Sabine Poimunien, L. Pomona, pomum from 1 *po-emo- (cf. comd from *co-emo). in U. pue 'ubi' from *po (L. quo) + T; U. poei 'qui' from

ed, in

O.

ioc, ionc,

eid-. *eio-, " />

al,

*po (earlier *poi) -f i. in O. stahint 'stant', U. stahitu


the hiatus here
is

'stato'.

But

the retention of

probably due to analogy, partly of other

forms of this verb, partly of the corresponding endings in forms of other verbs.
i and a following vowel there is no hiatus, but a glide j, indicated in the spelling of the native alphabets (31). The consistent use of h in U. pihatu 'piato', pehatu, pihaner, etc. and O. Piihiui'Pio' (also

a.

Between

which

is

Volsc.

pihom 'pium')

is

remarkable, and without adequate explanation.


i

Osthoff, I.F. 5, 317

ff.

86]

Weakening of Vowels
84.

55

Of the various phenomena which take place when vowels of two different words are brought together in the sentence, namely "crasis," "aphaeresis," "slurring," etc., we
have but
little

evidence.

With

O. teremnatust 'terminata

L. bonast for bona est etc. are obviously parallel est' and destrst (for *destrust) 'dextra est'.
is

ne adhibeant', if for With animadverto from animum adverto, with slurnei(-a)rhabas. is parallel U.eitipes decreverunt' from *eitom *hipens (264, 2). ring,
neifhabas
4
'

more anomalous case

U.

a. For 0. pusstist (C. A. 33) the meaning 'positum est' is so much more suitable to the context than that of 'post est' that we cannot reject the possi-

bility that the

form comes from *piistum


final

larity

with which

m is written

point to

its full pronunciation. absorbed, as in teremnatust, would be accounted for by the fact that the the Cippus Abellanus is est (217, 2).

1st, in spite of the fact that the reguin Oscan, except at Pompeii, would naturally That it is not the vowel of the enclitic that is

1st of

Vowel-Weakening in Medial Syllables


85.

The wide-spread weakening


iri

thongs which occurs

vowels and diphLatin in medial syllables, such syllaof short

bles being in the earlier system of accentuation unstressed, is unknown in Oscan-Umbrian. Examples of unchanged a and e,

such as U. pro-canurent L. have been cited in 32, 3, 36, 3.


:

(oc}-cinul, or

U.

tacez

L. tacitus,

in the position before a labial, or in some cases after a labial, a weakening takes place, which results sometimes
86.

But

in w,

sometimes in

i.

In the corresponding Latin phenomenon

the determining factor in the development to u or i respectively was the character of the vowels of the surrounding syllables
(cf.

so

occupo, nuncupo, but anticipo, occipio, etc., from cap-), but many secondary changes have taken place, owing to the
for-

mutual influence of forms belonging to the same system or

mation, that the original distribution is only partially reflected in the actual forms. Much the same is true for Oscan-Umbrian.

The superlatives, formed from the suffix -(t)emo- (I.E. Thus -(t)mmo-), show the influence of the preceding vowel.
1.

56
with
L.

Phonology
optumus,

[86

maxumus, proxumus, ultumus (eventually under the influence of the commoner type) may optimus etc., be compared O. ultiumam 'ultimam' (iu from u\ see 56) and U. hondomu 'infimo' (o from u before m; see 57); while wi^h the Latin forms in -imus may be compared O. nessimas 'proximae', nesimois, U. nesimei, and O. messimass 'medioximas'(?). But note U. nuvime 'nonum' from *nouemo- (Skt. navamd-). 2. In O. pertumum 'perimere' from *pert-emom the following vowel seems to have been a factor, though in pertemust, peremust, as well as in pertemest, the e is retained, apparently under the influence of the simplex ("recomposition").
3.

In O.
is

sifei 'sibi'

weakening

due
tfei.

Pael. sefei, U. tefe), as in L. sibi, the to the enclitic use of the pronoun, to which
(cf.

points also O.

In L. simul, early semol, semul, from *semel


first

the weakening in the

syllable

is

likewise due to enclitic use,


'

to this probably corresponds U. sumel simul', although possible to see in the latter an original som- (Grk. oy

and

it is

NOTE. The single occurrence of O. tfei is not sufficient warrant for assuming actual syncope of the e, but on the other hand, taken in connection with slfei, it cannot be regarded as a mere graver's error without any foundation in the actual pronunciation. It is doubtless a careless spelling, but one that is due to the reduced pronunciation of the vowel.

U. prehubia 'praehibeat' beside prehabia may owe its u to the existence of such forms as *prehubust (cf. habus), just as the
4.

of early Latin derupio is probably due to a *derupu7. Although there are no examples of i for original a, it is altogether probable that, as in Latin, the a had the same double

development
in this case

as the

e,

we must

as seen in the superlatives cited above ; regard prehabia as an example of recom4

position for *prehibia.


5.

O. praefucus 'praefectus' beside facus


different

factus',

labial precedes, is

from any case known


is

in

where the Latin, but

here too the vowel of the following syllable

obviously a factor. still different, though uncertain, example is O. prupukid 'ex ante pacto', which is most naturally derived from

88]

Syncope
is

57
a case of vowel-

*pro-pakio-, although it is possible that this o in interchange with #, <7). gradation (u

6.
7.

change of
we
u or
i.

o to

is

seen in O. amprufd 'improbe'.

find a similar interchange of u and i, where the original parallel to L. dissipo beside the more original dissupo, or lacrima beside lacruma, would be U. combifiatu 'nuntiato', if this were related

In Latin

vowel

is

either

is uncertain, since connection with Grk. Vice versa, with L. pontufex beside pontifex we may compare U. atropusatu beside atripursatu 'tripodato', if the former spelling is not simply a mistake. 8. A change of ou to w, such as is seen in L. denuo from *de novo, has been assumed for Oscan-Umbrian, but on insufficient evidence.

to Grk. TTvd-

(n-wffdj'o/j.ai etc.);

but this

TTi0- (irelQu etc.) is

also possible.

Syncope
87.

in

Medial Syllables

Syncope of short vowels in medial syllables, as in L. caldus beside calidus, rettull from *retetuli, etc., is far more extensive in Oscan and Umbrian than in Latin, yet there are numerous examples of the retention of short vowels. We must
confine ourselves to a statement of the facts.
NOTE.

Even

in Latin the factors involved are so


it is

complex and have been

so obscured by subsequent leveling that

impossible to formulate the precise

conditions, though much progress has been made in this direction. For OscanUmbrian, with the limited amount of material before us, it is almost useless to

speculate

upon the

original conditions of the syncope.

Syncope of e. 1. In the Imperatives of the Third Conjugation the original e, which in Latin is changed to i Thus O. actud, U. aitu (agito), is always lost, except after n. U. kuvertu: L. convertito simi(ai from ok, 143): L. agito but U. kanetu L. canito. larly U. ostendu, fiktu, ninctu, etc. 2. In the Participles in -eto- the e is retained, e.g. U. tasetur
88.
;
;

'taciti',

maletu molitum', etc.

'

(244, 4).
:

Further examples are O. pniffed 'posuit' from *pro-fefed, aamanaffed 'locavit' from *man-fefed: L. pro-didit, etc.; O. upsed
3.

upsannam 'faciendam', U. osatu 'facito', from *opesa-: L. operor; O. cebnust 'venerit': U. benust; O. Dekmanniuis
'fecit',
1

201,

<;,

For a few examples of haplology 236, 2, 237, a, 251, 5.


,

(L. fieinestris

from *se(mi)-mestri8), see

58

Phonology
O.

[88

'*Decumaniis': L. decumdnus, decimus from *dekemo-;


tatiuf 'fructus'

fruk-

from

*frug'ttetdtidn-, as if L.*fruitdtio
:

U. mersto

'iustum' from *medes-to


4.

L. modes-tus.

Syncope is usual in the suffixes -kelo-, -elo-, -tero-, -ero-, In some few cases the short form may be an inherited -men-. variety of the suffix, such as -tro- beside -tero-, -lo- beside -elo-, But for the majority of the examples tliis is improbable, etc. and for some distinctly impossible, e.g. in U. tiglu on account of the 9 (144), in U. katlu because original tl becomes kl (129, 2), etc. Examples: U. ticlu 'dedicationem' from *dikelo- (in Norn. Sg. the o of the final syllable is lost and the e remains) ;tigel
U.
veskla 'vascula'
etc.,

'diem'

81)

from from

*ves-kelo-

- *die-klo-

* die -kelo-

-,--

(whence O. zicolom katlu 'catulum' from

*katelo- (Norn. Sg. katel like tigel) ;--U. vitlu 'vitulum' from O. pustrei, U. postra, *uitelo- (cf. O. Viteliu 'Italia', 250);

(whence O. pustiris, 81, 91, 1): L. posterns, posterius; Grk. *potro- (U. podruhpei 'utroque', O. puterei-pid by 81): L. L. terminibus alteroO. teremniss O. alttram Trorepo? nomner: L. nominis. 1 L. --U. O. teremenniu *terminia) (but
*postrios
; :

89.
ter
;

1.

Loss of

i is

seen in O. minstreis 'minoris': L. minisPiipidiis


;

O. Pupdiis 'Popidius' beside


2).

U.

totcor, todceir

O.

tiivtiks, toutico (15,

The

loss is
etc.:

common

to Latin also in

dexter, O.

destrst,

U. destram,

Grk.

Sef/re/oo?,

and in the

prefix of L. amb-igo,
etc.
:

am-plector,

O. am-viannud, U. an-ferener,

2.
(cf.

Grk. a^i. Loss of a

is
;

seen in O.

eestint 'exstant'
:

stahint 'stant')

O. embratur

from *eks-stahint L. imperdtor, from *em-pardtor

(paro)-,
3.

Loss of

O. pruftu 'posita' (244, 1). o is seen in O. akkatus 'advocati' from *ad-uokdto(cf.

from *pro-fato3
;

through *adokdto*adukatus by 91, 1); note) and O. Vezkei


1

102,

otherwise

we should expect
1,

perhaps in O. meddiss (263,


(256, 8).

with foot-

In O. teremnfss, U. nomner, tikamne, etc., it is possible to assume the retention But the probability is that these have of the reduced grade -ran- instead of syncope. the same grade as the Latin forms. That the latter owe their -rain- to anaptyxis

(Sommer, Lat. Laut- und Formenlehre,

154)

we

are not convinced.

90]

Syncope
Syncope in Final Syllables
90.

59

In

final syllables also,

syncope

is

far

more wide-spread
:

than in Latin.
1.

short

0, e,

or

is

Nom.

Sg. of o-stems, e.g. O. hurz'hortus'

dropped before final s. Examples from *hortos, Bantins


tiivtiks 'publicus',

'Bantinus',

Pumpaiians 'Pompeianus',

Mutil

'Mutilus', U. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus', fratreks '*fratricus', pihaz, pihos Nom.'piatus' from *piatos, U. ticel 'dedicatio' from *dikelos ;

Acc. Sg. N. of s-stems, e.g. O. min[s 'minus' from *minos, U. mefs 'his' from *medos Dat.-Abl. PI. (ending -fos L. -bus), e.g.
;
:

O.

luisarifs 'lusoriis', teremniss

'avibus',/mrws

'fratribus';

'terminibus', ligis 'legibus', U. avis Nom. Sg. of i-stems, e.g. O. ceus


(suffix -ni-\
cf.
:

'civis', aidil'aedilis',

U. fons 'favens'

Nom. PL

of consonant-stems (ending -es Grk. -e?), foner) ; e.g. O. humuns 'homines', meddiss 'meddices', censtur 'censores', U. frater 'fratres'. (See also 2.)
a.

Nom. PL

Before

final

m vowels

are retained, e.g. Ace. Sg. 0. hiirtiim, touticom,

slagim, U. poplom, etc.

That u was not dropped even before final s is in itself probable. Cf its universal retention in Latin, and likewise in Gothic (dags from *dagas, ansts from *anstis, but sunus). So 0. sipws'sciens', which in its relation to L. sapid evidently contains the form of the root which characterizes Perfects like L. cepi to copio, etc. (225), may be a stereotyped Perfect Active Participle with Nom. But it is also possible that it comes Sg. in -ws, like Skt. vidus, Avest. vldus. from like O. from *sep-wos, *fak-uos (91, 1) cf. Volsc. sepu 'sciente' from facus
b.
.

*sep(u)od.

Syncope of e before final s and also before a final dental is seen in the 2d Sg. and 3d Sg. Fut. and Fut. Perf. as in U. heries 'voles', heriest 'volet', from *herieses, *herieset. See
2.

221,

230.

But

remains in the 3d Sg. Perf. Indie. (O. kiimbened 'con;

venit', etc.

3d Sg. Pres. Indie, of the Third the only examples are from the minor Conjugation, though U. seste also, dialects (Marruc. feret 'fert', Vest, didet 'dat').
223 ff.); also in the

though variously taken, is probably 'sistis', with e retained, perhaps under the influence of a *sistet. In U.pis-her 'quilibet',

60
probably from *-herit use of the verb.

Phonology
(216),

[90

the syncope

is

due

to the enclitic

NOTE. Assuming that under conditions no longer apparent both syncopated and unsyncopated forms existed in the Present and Perfect, the survival of the latter may be due to the fact that many of the syncopated forms would have lost their distinctive character, e.g. *kumben(e)d would have become
*kumben.

The

Put.

and Put.
-s,
-t.

Perf. forms retained or

seemed

to retain the

characteristic endings

Samprasarana

In those cases of syncope in which the consonant preceding the syncopated vowel itself assumes the function of a vowel, so that there is no reduction in the number of syllables,
91.

the

phenomenon

is

known

as samprasarana.

Such

cases are

best kept apart from the preceding, not only on account of the additional process involved, but because, when samprasarana is
possible,

syncope

may

otherwise occur.
before final

take place in positions where it does not Thus, in general, syncope does not occur
hiirtum,
etc.
90,
1,

(O.

a),

but this need not

prevent our assuming that -iom becomes -im. 1. uo to u\ io to i. Examples: O. facus 'factus' from
*fak-uos (suffix
-no--,

258, 1);

from *postrios (81): *maiios (*magios; see 147, 3): L. mains, like Mais from 'plus' Nom. and Ace. Sg. M. and Maius' beside Dat. Sg. Maiiiii Nom.-Acc. Sg. N. of jo-stems, e.g. O. Pakis'Pacius', Ace. Pakim,
O.
'

pustiris

O. fortis 'potius': L. fortius;L. posterius-, so probably mais

medicim 'magisterium', U. Fisim Fisium', etc. (see 172 ff.). 2. ro and ri to r (syllabic r), later er. Examples U. ager L. ager, from *agros\ U. pacer 'propitius' from *pakris (cf. L. deer from *dkris) U. -per pro', as in tota-per 'pro populo', O. Aderl. 'Atella' from *Atro-ld (cf. L. agellus etc., from -pro; from *agro-los) O. Abella- (Abellaniis) probably from *Apro-ld' : :

Observe also O. trstus 'testes' from *tristo- 1 L. testis O. Tantrnfrom *tristi- (but O. tristaamentud L. testdmentum) naium from *Tantrinnaio-(?). See also 239 on O. -ter.
(L. aper).
: :

That

'

is,

third party

'.

Sec Skiitsdi, B.B.

2:5,100,

Sohnson, K.Z.

37, IS.

92]

Syncope
a.

61
is

The

parallel

change of no
lo

(cf.

U. Padellar from *Padenla, *Padnla, *Patno-la

L. Sabellus from *Safno-lo-) (cf. O. Patanai).

seen in

For the
ti9el,

corresponding development of

there are no certain examples, since U.

O. Fiml, Mill katel, perhaps also 0. /ameZ, contain the suffix -do- (88, 4). stand for *Mitel L. Mitulus O. famel L. famulus). *Fimel, probably (*Mitel
:

b.

okri-, is

U. ocar, ukar'mons', although its oblique cases are from the stem not from *okris, but from a by-form with suffix -an-, or an-.

NOTE. The chronology of this process, is a difficult problem. The agreement between Latin and Oscan-Umbrian would lead us to infer that it took place in the Italic period. But 0. Aderl. and
with the change of surd to sonant which is observed elsewhere before r (157), would indicate that in the Oscan-Umbrian period the development had not passed beyond the stage r, and now comes the Latin form s]akros = sacer on the newly discovered foruminscription, which, unless an analogical restoration, proves that the whole process took place independently in Latin. The reduction of ri in accented syllables (L. ter from *tris, etc. 1 ) was doubtless later than the change in unaccented syllables, and this is borne out by the existence in Oscan of tristaamentud. But here too the development seems to have begun in Oscan, judging from trstus.
Abella-,

Loss of Final Short Vowels


92.

As

in Latin, final short


It

sometimes retained.

may

vowels are sometimes dropped, be assumed that in the Italic

period sentence-doublets arose, of which the dialects inherited now the form with the vowel, now the one without it.

The primary personal endings


without the
final

-ti,

-nti

(Grk.

-rt,

-vn) are

vowel in Oscan-Umbrian, as in Latin, e.g. Further examples are: O.-U. est'est', O. stahint 'stant', etc. O. nep, neip, U. neip U. et L. et, from *eti (Grk. en) L. nee beside neque O. avt, em'at, aut', but also O. auti O. puf, but U. pufe L. aut O. ant L. ante 'aut', U. ate L. ubi O. pun, but L. quamde O. pan, but U. pane U. ponne L. *quomde.
:

The contrast between

ter, testis,

and

tribus, not to

speak of

triplex, etc.,

shows

'that in Latin the change was conditioned by the nature of the following sound. It took place before s (cf. change of final -ros, -ris), and possibly before n, though cernd is not decisive.

62

Phonology
Vowel-Gradation
93.

[93

In

many

cases the difference in the vowel of related

not due to any of the regular vowel-changes of a particular dialect, such as have been described in the preceding

words

is

sections,

inherited from a system of Vowel-Gradation, or Ablaut, already existing in the parent speech. It is unnecessary here to enter into any discussion of the subject as a whole, but

but

is

will be sufficient to

as

show themselves

in the relation of

mention such of these inherited variations Oscan-Umbrian forms to

one another or to the cognate Latin forms.


94. e, 0, etc. The interchange of e and o (L. tego toga) U. mefs 'ius', O. meddiss, seen in L. gemo U. gomia 'gravidas' 1 U. nurpener '-pondiis': L. ponetc. (15,6): L. modus, modestus;
:

is

dus, du-pondius.
rato'(?),

Less certain examples are U. sukatu declaa denominative from *sokoL. insece probably
4
:

U. pruzufe 'praestante'(?), possibly for *pro-sode L. sede.o. The e-grade is seen in U. prusikurent 'pronuntiaverint':
:

L. insece

(cf.

L. sedl

sedeo)

O. triibum 'domum'
trabs,

etc. (15, 14):


if

U.

trebeit 'versatur',

tremnu tabernaculo' (L.


'

related,

has a reduced grade).

The o-grade

petur-pursus (cf. the o-grade is possible.


95.
ei, i,

is probably seen in U. du-pursus 'bipedibus', Dor. TTW?, Goth, fotus) L. ped-, ped-, although
:

dictus)

is

'dixerit',

etc. The interchange of ei and i (L. deico, died seen in O. deicans 'dicant': O. dicust, U. dersicust O. feihiiss 'muros' (Grk. U. tigel 'dedicatio', etc.;
:

ret^o?)

An
suai

L. Jingo, figura, etc. example of the oe-grade


:

is

U. nosue

'nisi', if

from

*noi-

(67, l)

O.

nei, L. nei, nl.

Nouns formed with the suffix -ien- show an interchange between the strengthened grade -ion- and the long reduced
grade
a.

-In-

(181, a).
'

O. Diiviiai

But

this,

Diae' beside Defvai etc. would point to a reduced grade dlu-. although not inconceivable in view of such forms as Skt. divyati
1

But some regard the

o in

modus

as due to assimilation.

97]

Vowel-gradation

63

'plays', sivyati 'sews', is regarded with suspicion, since the cognates such as 1 Skt. divyd- point rather to diu-. Possibly the Oscan form is due to an error.

96.

ou, u, etc.

Since eu becomes ou in Italic

(70),
:

ou

may

Examples O. lourepresent either this or the original cw-grade. L. iuvenis ; fir 'vel': L. lubet, libet; --U. iouies 'iuvenibus'
:

U. purdouitu U. ro/k'rufos': U. rufru 'rubros', L. ruber from *dmtoL. U. 'porricito' purditom (cf. duam).
; :

The interchange

of ue
:

man' (?) from *sueresdn suer-, sur-, being the same swear and answer.
97.

seen in O. sverrunei 'spokesL. susurrus from *sii-sur-eso-, the root


is

and u

as in Skt. svdrati 'sounds'

and Eng.
Italic,

er

(el),

or

(0Z),

etc.

Since I.E. r becomes or in

or

may

grade.

represent either this reduced grade or the original orExamples: U. couertu 'revertito': Fut. Perf. couortus

U. tursitu 'terreto'; 'sacrificium', persnimu 'precator': U. pepurkurent 'poposcerint', L. posed from *porkskd (Skt. prcchami) L. circulus (i from e): U. kurclasiu *circulario, extreme' (?).
etc. (early

L. vorsus, advortet, etc.);

--L.

terreo:

U. persclo

'

<?-grade is seen in the Nom. Sg. of nouns of relationin as O. patir 'pater' (78, 2), beside Dat. Sg. O. paterei from ship, *patrei (81), U. patre, with reduced grade as in L. patrl, Grk.

The

O. niir 'vir', beside Gen. PL Trar/H; Skt. na, Vedic Gen. PI. naram). (cf.

nerum with the


of agent-nouns,

e-grade

The

o-grade

is

seen in the

-tor-

which

belonged originally to the Nom. Sg., but was extended to all See 53, 54, 180, 1. The reduced grade -tr- is cases, as in Latin. seen in some derivatives, as U. kvestr-etie beside kvestur, etc. L. victr-ix). See 246, 1, a. (cf.

The long reduced grade

becomes ar or rd in

Italic.

Prob-

able examples are: O. kujmparakineis 'consilii', comparascuster 'consulta erit', with park or prdk (81, a) L. posed (see above); :

U. mantrahklu from *man-trdg-klosli-

L. mantele from *man-terg-

(terged).
1

v. Planta,
all

See Solmsen, Stud z. lat. Sprachgeschichte, 112. Neither the explanation of I, 173, nor that of Thurneysen, I.F. Anz. 4, 38 (see footnote, p. 52) is at probable.

64

Phonology

[97

fc

U. comatir, kumates 'commolitis', with loss of I as in mutu multa\ is an example of al for I (cf. Skt. murnd-), while the
1

Goth, malan, Lith. malti) is seen in Pres. Imperat. comoltu, kumultu (kumaltu is probably due to confusion with the
oZ-grade
(cf.

For maletu see following. preceding). The antevocalic form of the reduced grade, that is rr, becomes ar in Italic, as in L. card, U. karu, from the root kerO. karanter'vescuntur', eana'panis' (gloss) iceipo) etc.); Of similar origin is al szeriu 'feed'). Grk. Lith. (cf. Kop&rpvfju, in U. maletu 'molitum' and in O. ualaemom 'optimum': L. void.
(Grk.
a. The relation of 0. aflukad 'deferat'(P) to Fut. Perf. aflakus is wholly uncertain, as is the etymology, though connection with L. flecto seems probable. They might contain the root in the forms flok and flak from/$fc (cf. L. falx), but

such an interchange between Present and Perfect stems is without parallel in A more natural interchange would be that of flak and flak, but the Italic.

assumption of weakening of a to u in aflukad


uncertainty as to the precise conditions of this

is

somewhat

bold, in spite of the


(86).

phenomenon

98.

en, on, an.

Italic

en

may

represent either original en

and an may represent either the long reduced grade n, or, according to a view which we regard as probable, the antevocalic reduced grade nn (L. canis, etc. cf. card with ar for rr, 97). The negative prefix, which repreor the reduced grade
; ;

sents the reduced grade of the ne seen in O. ne, L. ne-fas, etc., appears in Latin as in-, from en-, n, but in Oscan-Umbrian always

O. ancentto'incQnssS, U. anhostatu'non hastatos'. That this an- represents n, for which there is no other evidence, 2 is less likely than that it is a generalization of the antevocalic form (Grk. av-, Skt. an-) as compared with the generalization in
as an--,
e.g.

Latin of the anteconsonantal form (Grk.


a.
'

a-,

Skt.

a-).

In O. tanginom sententiam' beside L. tonged, tongitio, the an might represent n (cf. g, and on in Goth. J>ugkjan beside tagkjan), but the assumption
of a grade

in this root

meets with

difficulty.
3).

Perhaps

it is

a case of secondary

gradation, with interchange of a and o (99,


1

L.

mold

is

commonly derived from *meld (O.Ir. meliro),but U.


see

ol

cannot have
siichs.

this origin (36, 2).


2

On Grk.

vr)Ktp8r)s

now Brugmann,

Sitzungsberichte d. kouigl.

Gesellschatt d. \Viss. 1901, p. 102.

99]
O. Anafrlss,

Vowel-G-radation
6.

65
i

if

related to L. imber (*m-bhri-;


to point to a

cf.

Skt. abhrd- 'cloud',

by-form *m-bhri-, but this is regarded with rightful suspicion. The connection of the two words is entirely uncertain. c. The relation of O.-U. anter to L. inter is almost certainly a different
Grk.
d<ppfc)

would seem

one.

It is

by a similar formation from anis

probable that *en-ter, containing en 'in' (L. in, Grk. ev), was replaced (L. an- in an-helo, Grk. ajc), which in Umbrian

used interchangeably with en- (andendu, endendu). Cf. O.Bulg. atrl 'within' (as against jetro 'liver': Grk. ei/repo?), which is of similar origin.

99.
1.

Other variations are U. fetu e, a (I.E. d).


: ;

'facito':

O.

fakiiad,

U.

facia
(cf.

(cf.

L. feel: facia)

O. fiisnam, U.
*
'

fesnaf-e,

from *fes-nd-

L.

Cf. also the ^-Perfects festus,feriae): L.fdnum from fas-no-. with to Presents a, O. hipid habuerit', sipus 'sciens' (90, 1, b).
2.
eestint),

a,

a (I.E.

d).

O.

Staatiis

stahint

(short a

shown by

probably also with short a (cf. L. stare, L. fdrl O. fatium, prae-stdtus, etc.: statio, praestitus, etc.); L. fateor (denominative from a Partic. *fato-, replaced in Latin
statif,

status,

by fdto-);
3.

O. faamat 'habitat, tendit':


d.

L. famulus, familia,

O. famel, famelo.
L. ocris, L. acies, acuo, etc. (Grk. a/epo?) U. ocar (Grk. o'/ept?) L. deer (so probably O. akrid, but possibly L. hasta U. hostatu, etc. O. kahad: L. incoho &k-)
a,
o,
: :

4.

e, a.

Of

this variation,

which

is

seen in the relation of

L. pateo, pando, O. patensins, to Grk. Trerapw/jii, the following are uncertain examples: L. tepor: U. tapistenu 'caldariolam'(?);
-

U.

erietu (or e?):


i,

L. aries. (Goth, wair,


O.Ir. fer)
:

5.

I.

L.

vir

U.

ueiro, uiro

(Skt. vlrd-, Lith.

vyras).

NOTE.
that this
is
'

three occurrences of the spelling ueiro make it less likely Cf. also Volsc. to be added to the rare cases of ei for short i (29).

The

couehriu curia' from *co-uirio- (L. curia from *co-mria-).

U. pure-to, O. purasiai U.^V ignis' (59). relation of U. veskla vascula' to U. uaso, L. vds, is 7. The A variation of e or e with d is not w.ell established. not clear. 8. o, o. But O. upsannam, etc. (49) O. uupsens, etc. (53).
6.

u,

ii.

'

see 225,

a.

66

Phonology

[100

CONSONANTS
Consonantal
100.
1.
4

(i)

Initial

i
:

remains unchanged, as in Latin.


L. iuvenis (Skt. ydvainA.

Thus

U.

iouies iuvenibus'

For
2.

from

di, see

134.
i

Intervocalic

was

lost in the Italic period,

and of the

resulting vowel-combinations some are contracted, while others remain in hiatus. See 82, 83. But between i and a following

vowel there naturally intervenes a glide, or transition sound, i, which is shown in the spelling of the native alphabets, but not in the Latin See 31, a. e.g. U. triiu-per, but trio-per: L. tria.
;

The
a.

following an t-diphthong
kuraia, etc., see
2.

is
;

also retained.

See

61, 3.

For U. portaia,

232

for U. fuia, fuiest, 215, 3; for

0. staiet, 215, 3.

Postconsonantal i, which in Latin becomes a vowel medius for original dissyllabic ^medh-io-), retains its con(e.g. In the Latin alphabet it is impossible to sonantal function.

know whether an

stands for consonantal or vocalic

t,

but in

the native alphabets, where the latter regularly appears as ii, a single i is evidence of consonantal value, though there are

some few cases


See
31, a.

in

which

it

is

used carelessly in place of

ii.

But more

direct evidence of the consonantal function

is

furnished in those cases in which a preceding consonant has been affected, as follows
:

a.

Gemination of consonants before

i is

frequent in Oscan,
tribarakkiuf

e.g.

kumbennieis 'conventus',

Mamerttiais 'Martiis',

'aedificatio', etc.
b.

is

See 162, i. In Umbrian, i palatalizes a preceding n and &, and the i So spina beside then sometimes omitted in the writing.

spinia,
c.
1,

Ruline beside Rupinie


d, k, to

fa$u beside fagiu,


i

etc. (144).

In the local dialect of Bantia,

r,

t,

L. alia;

form 1(1), r(r), s, z, famelo from *famelid:

x.

unites with a preceding Thus allo from *alid


:

L.familia;

so perhaps

102

Consonants

67

mallom, mallud, malud from a stem *malio- beside L. malo-;

U. heriest -- petiro-pert'quateT' from *heriest Bansae from * petirio-pert, this from *petrid-pert (81, 192, 2); zicolom diem from *diekolom: L. diecula from *Bantiae\ - meddixud 'magistratu' from *meddikiod (250, 2).
herest i volet'
:

>

NOTE.

In some cases the


i,

So *petria-pert must have had

the result of a local change of vocalic i. not|, and probably *diekolom (134, a).
itself is

Consonantal u (u)
101.
Initial
:

and

intervocalic

remain,

as

in

Latin.

Examples
O.

viii,

U.

via, vea,

uia

L. via

-- O.
:

Fepcro/oet

**Versori',

U.

ku-vertu, co-uertu 'convertito':

L. verto.

O. bivus L. vivus; O. deiviU. luve L. lovl U. avif, auif: L. avis. U. uvem, oui L.ovis; divmus The glide u, which was regularly sounded between u and a following vowel, shows itself in the spelling in the native L. duo. e.g. U. tuves, but duir alphabets, but not in the Latin
O.
luvei,
:

nais: L.

See

31, b.

102.

1.

Thus O.

Postconsonantal 'u generally remains unchanged. svai, swae'si' (L. si is from a form without u)
;

O. dekkviarim 'decurialem'; 2. After labials u is


y^i

--U.
lost,

arvia f rumenta' : L.
'

arvum.
fufans

as in

Latin.

Thus O.

O. amprufid 'improbe', pnifatted 'erant': L. -bant from -bhud-; * - - U. subocau 'invoco' probavit': L. probus from pro-bhuo4 ;

from *sub-uocdio 2 O. Piihiui 'Pio\ U. pihatu 'piato': L. plus from *pulio- (cf. L. purus). 3. du, in Latin b (and v), becomes d. Thus U. di-fue 'bifidum': L. bis etc., from *dui-: U. dia det' from *du-iio ~ * L. U. (cf. duam) pur-ditom 'porrectum' from *du-lto- beside
; 4

/>

for
it,

1 In the citation of Oscan and Umbrian forms it is customary to use the v only forms written in the native alphabets, in which there was a distinct character for and not for forms written in the Latin alphabet. But for Latin words we continue

to use the v, in spite of the resulting inconsistency. 2 L. subvenio etc., under the influence of the simplex (but aperio the uerio, simplex being lost). See 164, a.

from *ap-

68
pur-douitu
this
4.

Phonology
(96);

[102

O. akkatus 'advocati' from *ad(o)kdto'

(89, 3),

from *ad-uokdto-. 1

apparent loss of u after r is seen in U. seritu servato', anseriato observatum', and caterahamo '*catervamini', as compared with L. servo, caterva. But the precise explanation is not clear. In seritu etc. it may be due to the
'

An

position between r and i, i.e. *serio from *seruio. 5. For sue, see 37, a.

103.

amples: O. teremniss'terminibus', U. termnom-e: L. termen


ferar, etc.:
2.

r usually remains unchanged, as in Latin. ExO. Regaturei 'Rectori', U. rente 'recte': L. rego\1.
;

U.

fertu,

L.fero.

It is also retained in

some combinations

in

which

it is

lost in Latin, as rsk, rsn.

and in general before


omitted in the writing.
a.

s,

in Umbrian, in these combinations, the r was faintly sounded and often See under rs, 115, 116.
though the sound of r

But

In 0. Falenias, beside Faler. on a companion inscription, the omission


to carelessness in spelling,
is

of r

is

due

naturally some-

what

less distinct before

consonants than elsewhere.


rl
Aderl.

'

appears unassimilated in O. Atella' of an old coin, but has become Z/, as in Latin, in
3.

The combination

Abella-

(Abellaniis),

4.

probably from *Aberld-, *Apro-ld- (91, 2). Final r is frequently omitted in Umbrian, mostly in the

forms of the Passive.


emantu beside emantur
;

So

herte,

herti,

hertei,
:

beside herter ;

pihafi, pihafei beside usual tuta-per 'pro po*pulo'.

O.

sakrafir

tuta-pe

104.
'liceto'
;

Initial
'

loufir

seen in O. %wd'lege'; likitud, licitud L. libet Luvfreis Liberi' vel' liivkei 'in
I

is

'

luco', etc.

no example of an initial I on the Iguvinian Tables, and a change of initial I to ?/, though disputed, is
is
1

In Umbrian there

L. advoco, etc., under the influence of the simplex.

See 164,

106]

Consonants

69
:

vapef-, uapersprobably to be recognized in vutu 'lavato' L. lava 'sella': L. lapis (cf. subsellis marmoreis of the Acta Arvalium)
;
;

- Vuvcis 'Lucius'

(72, a).
I

Other examples are very doubtful.


;
:

e.g.

NOTE. A change of French autre from L.


I.

likewise in

u before consonants is seen in many languages, Dutch koud Eng. cold. In such cases, and Umbrian, the change must have been through the medium of a
to
alter

strongly guttural

105.

1.

Medial

is

Umbrian.

Examples:
4

O. Alafaternum, U. alfu - U. saluom 'salvum'.


a.

generally preserved in both Oscan and O. Fluusai 'Florae'; -- O. a^o'alia';alba': L. albus ; - - U. plener 'plenis'

lessness of the engraver,

0. Fiuusasiais^Floralibus' beside Fluusai, if not simply due to the carewould point to the beginning of a change similar to what
etc.

has taken place in Italian fiore, piano,


2.

But
I is

all

other evidence

is

against

this.

In the combination

It

the

lost in

motar, etc.: O. moltam, L. multa; tis'. But in the Imperatives kumultu, comoltu 'commolito', veltu 'deligito', etc., in which the I and t were formerly separated by
'

So muta, kumates, comatir commoli-

Umbrian.

a vowel, the I is always "written. a. The Oscan atrud beside altrei on the Tabula Bantina
that in the dialect of Bantia the
I

is

an indication

was not fully sounded, though

in the

numerous

never omitted. 3. U. Uoisiener Volsieni', on an inscription of Assisi, shows a local palatalization of I before s, or else is due to Etruscan influence.
occurrences of molta
it is
'

In a number of Umbrian words an original I is represented by f, rs, which commonly stands for an intervocalic d (I3l). This points to a change of I to d, with which we may compare
106.

the opposite change of d to I in L. lingua, lacrima, etc. The most certain examples are kafetu, car situ 'calato', ufetu adoleto',
4

famefias 'familiae'.
arsir (VI a 6, 7) is 'alms' or Dat.-Abl. PI. ' caerimoniis' belonging to Voc. Sg. arsie 'sancte', is uncertain. That Pupfike, Pupfice, epithet of Puemune, is Publico' is extremely probable, in view of L. Publica Fides,
a.
'

Whether

Publica Fortuna, etc. The old explanation of tribficu'ternio' as = L. *triplicid cannot be considered impossible, but Brugmann's derivation from *tri-p(e)dikion- 'band of three' (L. pedica) offers a plausible substitute for this.

No satisfactory statement can be the change took place.

made

as to the conditions under

which

70

Phonology
n and
107.
1.

[lor

Initial

and intervocalic n and


:

m remain unchanged,
: :

as in Latin.
;

U. neip L. ne, nee, etc. O. dunum, U. dunu L. donum - O. Maatreis, U. Matrer: L. mater', O. moltam, U. mo tar L. multa O. pertemest, U. emantur: L. emo. 2. Similarly postconsonantal n and m e.g. O. egmo res'; O. Patanai Pandae' from *Pat-nd- (81) -- O. comono 'comitia', U. kumne, from *komno- (15, 4, 81).

Examples O. -- U. name L. nomen


:

ni,

nep, neip,

'

perhaps to be recognized in the Passive Imperathough this is by no means certain. See 237. This would involve the supposition that in all the numerous examples of mn the combination is of secondary origin, as indeed it probably is in many cases, e.g.
a.

A change

of

mn

to ra

is

tive ending, O. -raw, U.

-rait,

U. nomner nominis'
'

etc. (88, 4). 1

liais

Assimilation of nl to U, as in Latin, is seen in O. Vesulfrom * Veson.-lid-: U. Vesune U. Padellar from *Paden-ld


3.
;

(91, 2, a)

also in

U.

apelust etc.

with

from

nl, earlier

ndl

(135).

Omission of nasals before consonants

In Umbrian, nasals were not fully sounded before mutes and spirants, as is evident from their frequent omission in
108.
1.

the writing. The circumstance that in the Latin alphabet this omission is to be noted only before s (once before /) is perhaps due to the influence of Latin orthography, the omission of n on

Latin inscriptions being far more common before s than elsewhere. iveka beside Examples: ustetu beside ustentu, osenc?M'ostendito';

-iuenga iuvencas';
4

tiato'

combifiatu 'nunazeriatu, aseriatu beside anzeriatu, anseriato observatum' ;


'

kupifiatu beside kumpifiatu,

- dirsas beside dirsans dent'


4

beside Sarnie
2.

; Sa$e aferum, afero, beside anferener 'circumferendi'.


;

sis

beside sins 4 sint'

In Oscan, n
'sunt',
fiiet

is

regularly omitted in the case of final ent.


4 4 stant', censazet censebunt', etc.
:

Thus set
'

'fiunt', staiet

1 Admitting tin- cliMii.^c, w<- should hold to the derivation of O. comono etc. and amnud circuitu' from *kom-no-, *am-no- (v. Planta prefers *kom-beno-, *am-beno-) and assume that the words came into existence at a later period.
)

no]

Consonants

71
this case the

U.

sent, benurent, etc.

Note that in

is

always

written in Umbrian, while, vice versa, in the case of final -ns, where it is frequently omitted in Umbrian (above), it is always

written in Oscan (deicans, uupsens, etc.). The same omission is frequent, though not universal, in the case of medial ent, e.g. aragetud 'argento', Aretpkai] beside
Arentikai, deketasiui (degetasis etc.)
a.
4

*decentario'.

Isolated examples of omission elsewhere are mistreis beside minstrels

and AaTrom 'Lamponius'(P). In ekak'hanc' and iak'eam' beside ionc 'eum', eisunk 'eorum', etc., the omission is probably due to the influence of Accusatives with final m omitted.
'minoris'

All the certain occurrences of ekak are on

Pompeian

inscriptions,

which have
is in

via'viam'
3.

etc. (109, 2).

A special case in
nkt.

which n

is lost

in both

Oscan and Umbrian

the

combination

See 73.

final n and
109.
1.

In Umbrian, final n were so faintly sounded that they are far oftener omitted than written. Thus Ace. Sg.
puplu, poplo, beside puplum,

m and m
;

beside -en

'in'.

For

final

name: L. nomen; e poplom n we also find m written. This is not

merely the result of confusion caused by the reduction of both nasals, since we never find n for m, but is due to the influence of a preceding M, as in numem beside nome, and in Akeruniam-em etc. beside esunum-en, esunum-e, etc. From its use with the Ace.
Sg. the -em

came

to be

used elsewhere

too, as in

Loc. Sg. Acer-

soniem
2.

etc.

In Oscan, final n is never omitted. Final m is nearly always written except on inscriptions of Pompeii, where it is But oftener omitted than written, e.g. via 'viam', tiurri 'turrim'.
it is

was regularly written possible that even where reduced in pronunciation. See 84, a.
ns
110.
plicated.

it

was

The

history of the combination ns

is

somewhat com-

It is necessary to separate the cases of original ns

72

Phonology
in

[no

from those

of later origin, and again to distinguish these latter according to the period at which the ns arose. 1. Original medial ns becomes nts, as appears from the

which

it is

spelling nz in the native alphabets, though this is not constant. In the Latin alphabet ns is written. Cf. z s for final -ts in
:

Thus tases 'tacitus', etc. (137, 2). see 162, 2), censtur 'censor' from *kens-tor ;
U.
tagez
:

O. keenzstur (for zs U. anzeriatu, anseri;

ato

'observatum' from
cf.

*an-serid-',

U. menzne 'mense' (from stem

*mens-en-;

Sab. mesene), antermenzaru 'intermenstrium'

U.

uze,
2.

onse 'in humero' from *om(e)so-. Original final ns becomes -ss in Oscan, but -f in Umbrian.
viass, eituas, feihiiss,

Thus Ace. PL O.
a.

U.

vitlaf, vitluf, etc.

Umbrian

final

was so weakly sounded as

to be frequently omitted in
is
is

the writing, e.g. uitla, uitlu. infrequent, while in those written in the Latin alphabet the

In the oldest tables the omission

comparatively omitted nearly


it is

it is written, except in monosyllables, where as omitted. times as often four nearly

ten times as often as

written

Secondary medial ns from nss, originating in nt-t or nd-t (138), becomes / in Umbrian, there being no examples in Oscan. Thus s/?e/<a'sparsam' from *spensso-, * spend-to- 1 (cf. Grk.
3.

L. sponsus from *sponsso-, *spond-to- 1 similarly -- subra spafu mefa 'mensam' from *menssd-: L. me ma, me
<T7reVS&>)
:
-,

mm

'superiectum' from *spansso-.


a. *mensso- is not from * mend-to- (cf. L. metior, Skt. ma-, etc.), but is formed after the analogy of Participles of related meaning such as *pensso*spansso- may be of similar (L. pensus), *tensso- (L. tensus), from roots in -nd.

origin,
ffirdw)

but

it is

there

was another root-form *spand- and

possible that beside the *spa- of U. spahatu, spahamu (cf. (irk. that L. pando represents a

contamination of this with the root seen in L. pateo.


could be compared directly with L. pdnsus.

In this case U. spafu

Secondary final ns from -nss, earlier -nts, becomes / in Umbrian, there being no examples in Oscan. See 243. Thus restef, reste inzefef, serse 'sedens': L. sedens from *sedent-s\ For omission of /, see above, 2, a. staurans'; traf, tra 'trans'.
4.
4

5.

Secondary

final

ns in the
uittiuf,
1

Nom.

Sg.

of w-stems (181)

appears as /.

Thus O.

tribarakkiuf,
footnote.

statif,

and probably

See

p.

8(5,

ill]

Consonants

73

O.

essuf, ewf'-ipse',

U. esuf

(197, 5).

On

the strength of esuf

we

assume that Umbrian had the same formation and that in and karu the f is omitted, as often (above, 2, a).

tribfi$u

6. Secondary final ns resulting from syncope of vowels remains (90) unchanged. Thus O. Bantins 'Bantinus', U. Ikuvins O. humuns homines' from *hdmones, etc. See 90, 1. 'Iguvinus',
4

7. Final ns appears also in the secondary ending of the Third Plural, as in O. deicans, U. dirsans, etc. On its origin

see 128,

l.

In tabular form the representation


1. 2.

is

as follows

O.
Orig.
-ns-

U.
-f

-nts- -nts-ss

Orig. -ns
-ns-

3. II.

4.

-ns

from -nss- (-ntt-) from -nss (-nts)

-f-

-f

5. -ns in

Nom.

Sg. of w-stems

-f

-f

III.

6.

-ns

by Syncope

-ns

-ns

NOTE. Although there are no Oscan examples for 3 and 4, the probability Oscan agreed with Umbrian and that 3, 4, and 5 belong together. This change of secondary ns must have antedated the appearance of what might be called the tertiary ns of 6, which doubtless belongs to the close of the Oscanis

that

Umbrian
ment.

period. Again, the change of original ns must have antedated the of the appearance secondary ns, else they would have had the same develop-

Here arises a complication in the case of original final ns. The diverbetween Oscan and Umbrian shows that the development could not have gence been completed in the Oscan-Umbrian period. The only solution is to assume that final ns, either in Italic or in the earliest Oscan-Umbrian period, was so changed as to remain distinct from both secondary and tertiary ns throughout
the Oscan-Umbrian period, and also in Oscan, though in the same result as secondary ns.

Umbrian

finally yielding

111.

Initial s

and

s in
:

as in Latin.
etc.;

Examples
:

connection with a surd mute remain, L. sum, sunt, O. sum, set, U. sent, sins
: ;

- O.

O. sakrim, U. sakre L. sacer L. est O. est, U. est, est


:

O.
pust,

stait,

U. stahu
:

L. sto

U. post

L. post.

74

Phonology
Intervocalic

[112

s.

Rhotacism

Rhotacism of intervocalic s occurs in Umbrian as in In the latter the s has become 2, Latin, but not in Oscan. written z in the Latin alphabet, but s in the native alphabet, in which z had the value of ts. This change of s to its corre112.
z is a necessary stage in the development of and was rhotacism, probably reached in the Italic period, Oscan then remaining on this stage. Examples Gen. PL of a-stems, O. -asum, -azum, U. -aru, -arum L. -drum (Skt. -dsam, Horn. -aa>v O. ezum, U. em, erom'esse': L. era, etc.; from *-aaci)v; O. eiseis, eizeis, U. erer 'eius' from *eiso-; O. kasit 'decet': L. caret forms of Imperf. Subj., Fut. Indie., and Fut. Perf. Indie., in which s is a part of the tense-sign (see under Inflec: :

sponding sonant

tion),

O. censazet 'censebunt', O. fusid'esset': L. foret; O. tribarakattuset 'aedificaverint', U. benurent U. furent erunt'


e.g.
'

venerint'.

Cf.

also

Pael.

coisatens 'curaverunt'
fieret'.
in

(U.

kuraia

'curet'), upsaseter 'operaretur,


a.

In most cases where

s is

found between vowels

Umbrian,

this s is

obviously not original but comes from a group of consonants, such as ss, tt, ts, But there are some forms the explanation of which is not so apparent. kSj ps. Nothing satisfactory can be said of asa-, asa- O. aasai, L. ara. For esono:

'sacer', related to O. aisusis

'

sacrifices' etc. (15, 3),

it is

possible to

assume an

extension of an s-stem,

*ais(e)s-ono-, while erus 'magmentum'(?) and ereclu In plenasier, 'sacrarium', if cognate, show the regular change of simple s. urnasier, etc. as compared with Latin words in -arms, the s is probably due to
i.e.
,

the fact that the following i was consonantal, that is they contain the suffix -asio-, while the by-form -asio- is perhaps to be recognized in ezariaf escas'(?),

from

*ed(e)s-asio-(?).

Final
113.

remains in Oscan, and in Umbrian on the older Tables I-IV, but on Tables V-VII it appears as r. Thus Nom. PI. of o-stems (O. -us, -MS), U. prinuvatus, prinuatur, Atiieriur (V),
Final
s

etc.

Dat.-Abl. PI. of o-stems (O.

-uis, -ois),

U.

veres, uerir, tri-

These r-forms doubtless represent sentence-doublets, arising before words beginning with
pler (V), etc.;

2d Sg. U.

air* sis'.

114]

Consonants

75

a vowel, but finally coming into general use without regard to the following word.
a.

Before enclitics an

is

treated in the
i

same way

as in the interior
'

of a word.

So U.

funtler-e, fondlir-e

ueris-co

'apud portam'.

But
it

'si quis'),

and retained
final s of

apud under the influence of pis pis-i kept even after the latter had become pir (plsi, but
its s

in fontulis', but esunes-ku

sacra',

(svepis
sopir).

Similarly pis-est.

Tables I-IV is sometimes omitted, e.g. Ikuvinu beside beside Ikuvinus, prinuvatu prinuvatus, snate beside snates, antakre beside antakres, etc. The later r is also occasionally omitted, as in sei, si, beside sir 'sis', heri
b.

The

'vel' beside heris, but scarcely ever in noun-forms.

In Oscan there are two examples of h for final s, where the next word begins with s, namely upsatuh sent' opera ti sunt',
c.

puiieh

sum'cuius sum'.
Sg. of proper

The
in

occasional omission of

in the

Nom.

names

-is, -iis, etc.,

e.g. Steni, Paapi, Paapii,

Paapii, is

merely graphic, perhaps due

to the influence of Latin

orthography (Claudi

Claudius,

etc.).

sn, sin,

si,

zd
si,

114.

The combinations
(if

sn,

sm,

zd,

which in Latin

lose

the sibilant

medial, with lengthening of the preceding vowel),

remain unchanged. U. snata 'umecta': L. ndre sn.


naf-e

O.

fiisnii

'fanum', U.
;

fes-

Pael. fesn.) L. fdnum from fas-no- (99, 1) U. ahesnes 'aheiiis': L. alienus from *a(i)es-no- (aes, Skt. dyas, O. kersnu L. cena ;-- O. casnar cena', U. sesna etc.);
*

(also

'

senex' (Festus, Varro; also Pael.): L. cdnus, cascus. U. pusme'cui', esmei'hmc' (Skt. dsmdi etc.); so also sm. O. posmom 'postremum' with sm from stm (139, 2). Cf. also
4

Pael.

prismu
si.

'prima'.
slaagid'fine'

O.
;

(derivation

uncertain);
fecerit'
(cf.

O.
L.
si

Slabiis

'Labius'

-- U.

dis-leralinsust 'inritum
;

dlligo
stl

from
(139,

*dis-ligo, etc.)
2).

so also O. peessl[um with

from

zd.

U.
:

sistu 'sidito', ander-sistu, is


.

best explained as from

*sizd(e)tod

L. sldo from *si-zdo (cf nidus from *nizdos, Eng. nest).

76
a.

Phonology

[114

initial s

(Eng. snow, Lith. sriegas, Grk. Te7os beside o-r^os, etc.


6.

U. ninctu 'ninguito', the root of which appears in other languages with etc.), may represent a by-form without s, like

O.

maimas 'maximae'
s.

is

probably from *maisemo- (147,


z, in

through the stages *maizemo- (112), *maizmo-, with loss of


preservation of
c.

3, a, 189, 3), contrast to the

U. sumtu 'sumito', which cannot be explained in the same

way

as

L.

sumo from *susmo, *sups-(e)mo, is probably from*SMwmd, *sup-(e)mo (125, 1). d. That O. imad-en 'ab imo' comes from *ins-wo-, often assumed as the
is

derivation of L. Imus,

unlikely.

Intervocalic rs

Original intervocalic rs, which becomes rr in Latin, remains unassimilated in Umbrian, while in Oscan it appears as In Umbrian rs the r with lengthening of the preceding vowel.
115.
1.

was weakly sounded and often omitted


:

ples

U.

tursitu,

tusetu 'terreto':

L.

in the spelling. Examterreo from *terseo;

U.farsio,fasio, fasiu 'farrea': L.farreus from *fars-eo- (see 117), O. terum, teer[um'territorium': L. terra from *tersd. a. U. Gen. Sg. farer instead of *farser (L. /arm) is due to the influence
of the

Nom.-Acc. far
2.

(117).

Intervocalic rs arising from syncope, in Latin not distinguished from the preceding, appears in Umbrian as rf, in

Oscan as rr. Examples U. Cerfe, Serfe L. Cerus (i.e. Cerrus), O. Kerri 'Cereri' from *Ker(e)s-efrom *Ker(e)soU. par/a O. hjerrins 'caperent' from *her(i)sent 'parram' from *paresa-\ from *sueres-on-: L. susurrus (96). O. sverrunei (216)
:
:

NOTE.

For the development of


:

rz following stages must be assumed rs The later rs of 2 passed through the ening.
(the
still

original rs in Oscan, as given above, the rr r with compensative lengthfirst

two
in

stages, but stopped at rr

later rs of 3

remained unchanged, though

Umbrian the

rs of 2

and 3

have the same history). But it should be pointed out that the assumption of a double development in Oscan, according as the rs was original or arose through syncope, rests wholly on the form teer[um, and that for this a different expla-

though somewhat complicated (see 76, 4). Barring that Oscan, like Latin, had rr for the rs of 1 as well as for that of 2, and at least one of the examples under 2, namely sverrunei, would be more naturally put under 1. Further material, such as a form corresponding to U. tursitu, is necessary to settle the matter conclusively. (0. teras of Vibia, might stand for *terras as well as for *teras.) ), from the Curse
nation
this
is

at least possible,

word, we should assume

117]

Consonants
3.

11

earlier rts or rtt (137, l, 138), remains in Oscan as in Latin, but appears as rf in Umbrian. Thus O. FepcropeL ' * Versori', U. trahuorfi 'transverse': L. versus.
rss,

Intervocalic rs from

rs before consonants

116.

rs before consonants,
s,

which in Latin
in

loses

r,

or in

some combinations

is

retained,

in the case of intervocalic rs,

r, as though was weakly sounded and often

Umbrian the

omitted in the spelling. 1. rsk. U. persklu, persclu, pesclu 'precatione': L. posed * from porsco here also O. comparascuster 'consulta erit' if
;

from parse-, not prase- (see 81, a);--U. Turskum, Tuscom'Tuscum' (cf. Grk. Tvpcrrjvot, Tvppijvot).
2.

rsn.
:

O. kersnu
l

'ceria', kerssnais, kerssnasias, etc.,

U. sesna,

cersnatur

L. cena from *kesnd, *kersnd (earlier *kers-snd-, *kertsnd, from root qert- cuf, Skt. fort-, etc.; for meaning, cf. Grk.
pes-

&u? beside 8ato/>tat) ;-- U. persnihmu, pesnimu, persnihimu, nimu 'precator', denominative from *persk-ni- (146).
NOTE.
3.
rst.

For

original rsn,

which gives

L. rn (cernuus), there
(?)

is

no example.

*U.

perstu,

pestu 'ponito'

pestliim, peessl[um, indicates that in Oscan the r in the combination rst, or at least in rstl (76, 2).

But O.

from *persktod (146). was lost

Final
117.

rs

Final rs becomes
.

-r,

as in Latin.

Thus O.

far,

U.far

L. far from *fars (cf Gen. Sg. arris from *farsis, Goth, barizeins 'of barley') likewise in the case of rs arising from syn-

L. ager from *agers, *agros (91, 2) -- Nom. PI. cope, U. ager O. censtur 'censores' from *censtor(e)s, U. frater, frateer 'fratres' from *frater (e)s (90, 1). The spelling frateer points to compensa:

tive lengthening.
a.
b.

See

76, 3.

In O. usurs, Ace.

PI., -rs is

from

-r(e)ss.
is

Before an enclitic beginning with a vowel U. rs medial rs. Cf. 113, a. Thus U. pars-est 'par erit'.

preserved, like

78

Phonology
sr
+

[118

118.

change

of sr to fr,

medial br (ftlnebris from


Italic period,

in Latin initial fr, *funes-ris), belongs doubtless to the

whence

and in Oscan-Umbrian we should expect fr in all from A probable example bh, O.-U./ = L. /, b). positions (as, is O. tefunim burnt-offering', U. tefru-to'ex rogo', tefra'carnes cremandas', from *tesro-, *teps-ro L. tepor, Skt. tdpas, etc.
4 :

Is

119.

1.

Of

original intervocalic

Is,

which becomes

II

in in
is

Latin,

and which we should expect to find unchanged Umbrian (like rs), there is no certain example. For the Is
a}.

probably secondary in U. pelsatu etc. (see 262, 1, 2. Final Is (from -l(i)s, -l(o)s) becomes -L
4
'

Thus O.

aidil

'aedilis', O.famel famulus', U. katel 'catulus', O. Mutil 'Mutilus', O. Upfals and Upils have -Is from -Us (cf. Paakul Paculus', etc.

Gen. Sg.

Upfalleis).

P
120.
'patri'
;

remains, as in Latin. O. prai, U. pre 'prae'


;

Examples

O.

paterei,

U.

patre

O. supruis 'superis', U. super


157,
l.

'super' ;-- U. dupla duplas'.


4

For br from pr, see


pt

121.

pt becomes

ft, just as kt

becomes
ft,

ht (142),

and

this

remains in Oscan.

In Umbrian this

which / comes from dh (136, a), same further history as the lit from
or wholly lost in pronunciation
'scriptae',

together with the ft in becomes lit, and this has the


kt

that

is,

the h

was almost
seriftas
c

(75, 142).

Examples: O.

U.

screhto, screihtor:
:

tatis', uhftis,

change

*optiof secondary pt,

from

L. optio

L. scriptus ; O. uf teis volunso probably, with the same


;

U.

hahtu, hatu, Jiatu

capito' (also subahtu


(cf.

'deponito', subator 'omissi') O. hipid ; see 218).

from *haftod, *haptod, *hapitod

NOTE. The peculiar spelling of O. uhftis perhaps indicates the beginning of a development like that in Umbrian.

125]

Consonants

79

122.

1.

ps Before consonants ps becomes


intervocalic

s,

as in Latin.

Thus
Thus
esuf,

U. ostendu 'ostendito': L. ostendo from *ops-tendo.


2.

Original

ps

is

assimilated

to

ss.

O.

osii[ns 'adsint':
if

L.

ob-sint-,--so perhaps O.

essuf,

L. *ipso (197, 5). 3. Secondary intervocalic ps remains unchanged in Oscan, but is assimilated in Umbrian. Thus O. upsed 4 fecit', upsannam, etc., but U. osatu, oseto, from *opesd-: L. operor.

U. esuf'ipse', as

b
123.
b remains, as in Latin.

So O.

triibum

kiuf 'aedificatio',

U.

trebeit 'versatur' (15, 14);

'domum', tribarakU. kebu: L. cibus.

bh 1
124.
is

bh,

L.fui,forem, Grk. e<i, Skt. bhu-; U.fertu, O. fratnim, ferest, ferar, etc.: L. fero, Grk. <e/o&>, Skt. bhar-', U. fratrum 'fratrum': L. Jrater, Skt. bhratar- ; - - U alfu'alba',
etc.:
.

always/. U.futu 'esto',

which appears in Latin initially as /, medially as 5, Examples: O. fust, U. fust'erit', O. fusid 'esset',

O. Alafaternum
Skt. lubh;

L. albus, Grk. aX^>o? ; O. loufir'veY: L. libet, O. tfei, U. tefe L. tibi, Skt. tubJiyam ; - - Dat.-Abl.
: :

PL ending
a.

-fs

seen in O.

luisarifs 'lusoriis' (?):

L. -bus

(cf.

also

Skt. -bhyas).
This final
-/s,

except in the example cited, which


;

is

from one of the


'

earliest

Oscan
'

inscriptions, is assimilated to -ss, -s


,

e.g. O.

teremniss termini-

bus', ligis
6.

legibus'

U. avis avibus'

'

For Umbrian mb from m/, see 161.


Labials and Nasals

125.

1.

As

in Latin,

or b followed

So U. somo 'summum' from *sup-mo-; L. pulmentum from *pulpmentum (pulpd)',--\3. tremnu 'tabernaculo' from *treb-no- (cf. L. somnus from *sop-no-, *suep-no-).
a.
1

by a nasal becomes m. U. pelmner 'pulmenti':

But/n remains.

Thus

O. Safinim

from *Safniom

(81): L.

Samnium.

For the development

of sonant aspirates in general, see

160-161.

80
2.

Phonology

[125

mb becomes

'unguen' from *omben, with

comburat

nn from nd 135). Thus U. umen b from gu (151). Cf. L. commurat = comburatur (Orelli-Henzen 6404), eommuratur
(cf.
;
'

mm

(OIL.
a.

VI

19267).

U. menes venies' might have arisen in a compound *kommenes from *kom-benes (0. kumbened with recomposition), but as all other forms show b
(benust^ benurent) the

m may

be merely a graver's error.


t

126.

O.

tris,

Thus In general, t remains unchanged, as in Latin. O. scrifO. estud 'esto', U. etu 'ito'; U. trif L. tres
: ;

tas 'scrip tae',


a.
b.

U. screihtor
ti

'scrip ti', etc.


'

becomes s, as in Bansae Bantiae'. See 100, 3, c. For change of nt to nd and tr to dr in Umbrian, see 156, 157, 2.

At Bantia

Final
127.
1.

Original final

as in the secondary

ending of the

Third Singular, became d in the Italic period (early L. feced, sied, etc.); and this d, like original d, remains in Oscan but is Thus O. deded, U. dede'dedit'; regularly dropped in Umbrian. - O. fakiiad, U. facia 'facia t', etc. See also 133.
a.

In 0. tadait censeat' the


'

is

due

to

an

error, as in pocapit beside

p]ocapid, pukkapid (201,


2.

4).

from earlier -ti (92), as in the corresponding primary ending, remains t in both Oscan and Umbrian, though in Umbrian it was not fully sounded, and, in a few instances, is Thus O. faamat tendit', U. ticit 'decet', omitted in the writing. U. trebeit versatur', U. habe, habe 'habet', heri'vult'. 3. The t of final -st and -rt is also frequently omitted in tri<>Umbrian. Thus /ws, heries, etc. for usual fust, fieriest-, U. pis-hcr per 'ter' (cf. also L. sem-per) O. petiro-pert 'quater'; 'quilibet' from *-hert, this probably from *-herit (216).
final
t
c 4
:

But

final nt
128.
1.

dispute.

The history of original The secondary ending of

final

nt

is

a matter of

the

Third

Plural

in

128]

Consonants
is -ws, e.g.
'

81

Oscan-Umbrian
'dent' (for

O. deicans dicant', U. dirsans, dirsas omission of n see 108, 1), O. fufens 'fuerunt', U. eitipes

'decreverunt', etc. (also Pael. coisatens 'curaverunt'). It has been held that this comes by regular phonetic change from the original ending -nt, and that the same change is seen in Latin in the

numeral adverbs

like quotiens etc.

coming from

-ient, -int (Skt.

But the Latin forms admit of another explanation, kiyat, etc.). and for Oscan-Umbrian the fact that the -ns is retained and does not appear as O. -ss, or even as -f, indicates that it is of comparatively late origin and could not have come from -nt in the Italic
period.

See

HO

with note.

more probable view is the following. As original -t changed to -d (127, l), so original -nt to -nd, and this became -n. In Latin this was mostly replaced by the primary ending, -nt, as was -d in the Third Singular by -t but a trace of it remains in the old forms like danunt, explenunt, etc., in which -unt is added after the analogy of legunt etc. In the Oscan-Umbrian
;

period the forms in -n were remodeled in another way, namely by the addition of s, under the influence of the plural endings of nouns, or perhaps more specifically of the Nom. PI. of %-stems
like

O. humuns 'homines'
2.

etc.

Final nt from earlier -nti

(92), as in

the corresponding

primary ending, remains unchanged. Thus O. stahint 'stant', O. set (for omission of n see 108, 2), U. sent 'sunt', U. furent
'erunt', etc.
a.
'

In Uinbrian there are three examples of omission of


'

surur-o item' (VI beside usual -hunt,


latter

form

is

final nt, namely b 48) beside the usual surur-ont, eru-hu eodem' (II b 22) and fefure 'fuerint' (II a 4) for *fefurent (cf. benurent). The more commonly taken as 3d Sg. Perf. Indie, 'turbavit' from a

root fur-, but against this view is the obvious parallelism of the passage with VI a 26. In staheren stabunt' the omission of t is due merely to the fact that
'

the following

word begins with

t.

who

1 The above explanation combines a suggestion of Ehrlich, I.F. XI, 299 ff., thinks that the whole ending -ns was adopted from nouns, with Johansson's assumption of a secondary ending -nd, -n, preserved in L. danunt etc.

82

Phonology

[129

tl

129.

1.

Initial

tl,

which, becomes

in Latin, as in Idtus

from *tldtos, is seen in U. Tlatie, perhaps connected in form with L. Latium. and 2. Medial tl becomes kl except after *, as in Latin the change may well belong to the Italic period. Thus, with
;

the suffix which

was once
etc.:

-tlo- (248, 3),

U. pihaclu 'piaculo', U. persclo O. pestliim 'templum' (for peesslfum see 139,2). cationern' is probably persc-lo with suffix -lo-, not -tlo-.
.

L. pidculum, poculum, etc.;

O. sakarakliim 'ternplum', but


'pre-

as

if

NOTE. Cf the Paeligriian change of tr to kr in sacaracirix, pristafalacirix, L. *sacratrlx, *praestibulatrlx.

130.

d remains in Oscan
O.
destrst

Umbrian.
'dicito';

and initially in Examples: O. deikum, deicum 'dicere', U. teitu, deitu


in all positions,

'dextra est', U. destram-e 'in dextram'; - O. edum 'edere'; -- O. deded, SeSer U. tuves, duir 'duobus'. 'dedit';

-- O.

pid 'quid',

pod

'quod', etc.

Umbrian
131.
rs.

f,

rs,

from d
f,

In Umbrian an intervocalic d regularly appears as

scribed

For the pronunciation and origin of the character tranf see 25, 27. Examples: tefa, dirsa 'det': O. didest 'dabit' from a Reduplicated Present as if L. *dido, *didere ;an-dirsafust circumdederit'
' ; ;

a-tefafust,

pefi,

persi 'pede^petur-

pursus 'quadrupedibus'
a.

zefef, serse 'sedens'.

In a few words intervocalic d remains.


to

doubtful meaning and


failure to

change

f,

Except for a single form of these contain an r, so that the origin (tesedi, tenzitim), due to the seems rs, dissimilatory influence of this r.
'
;

Thus

Coredier, Kureties Coredii' This last tuderato 'finitum', etc.


1

utur
is

'

aquam

1
:

Grk. vdwp

tuder 'finem',

from an original s-stem *tudes-, and where the 3 is preserved the change of the d takes place, as shown by etufstamu, eturstahmu 'exterminate from *tur(e)sta-, denominative from *tudes-to- (cf.
,

L. modes-tus).

132]
b.

Consonants
The occasional omission of r from
is

83
Acesoniam beside Acersoniem
See 76,
1.

rs,

as in

(Akefunie),
c.

parallel to the omission in the case of original rs.

few of the minor inscriptions antedate the change of intervocalic d, and show the sign S with its original value of d (27), as in dunum dede 'donum
dedit'.

132.

The

sonants

is

occasional presence of f, rs, before and after condue to syncope of an intervening vowel or to transfer

from the intervocalic position. So afpes beside afepes 'adipibus'; - tribficu 'ternio' from af-fertur, *tri-p(e)d-ikion- (? see 106, a); ars-fertur, af-peltu, afveitu, etc., with the prefix af-, ars-'ad-', which gained this form before words beginning with a vowel mefs, mers 'ius' from *med(o}s, with f from other forms (not teftu, dirstu 'dato', extant) in which the vowel was not lost; tefte 'datur', with f from forms like tefa (131).
;

NOTE. In the last two examples we cannot explain the f as having arisen in the unsyncopated forms *medos and *didetod, since the syncope here took place in all probability in the Oscan-TJmbrian

The normal development of *did(e)tod, namely *dittod, is period. probably to be recognized in titu, ditu, which interchange with teftu etc., although these can also be regarded as standing for *dltod and
connected with dia'faciat'.
find r, r, in place of f, rs, in mersus, Dat.-Abl. PI. of mefs, and tertu beside teftu; armamu mersuva, derivative of the same (*medes-uo-) beside arsmahamo ordinamini' tribrisine beside tribficu ar-veitu, ar-ueitu
a.
;

We

'

arfertur beside ars-fertur. (once even a-veitu) beside af-veitu, ars-ueitu The difference between mersus, mersuva, and mefs is probably only one of
;

spelling.

In the Latin alphabet


sit'

we have

regularly rs for rss, as in mers

mefs
rs,

(and even mersi 'ius

for merss-si).

The sound
s it

of f
still

was not
nearer

far

from

and we may assume that when followed by

was

rs,

so that the

combination might be written either fs (mefs, etuf stamu, in I b) or rss, whence rs Perhaps tertu, armamu, are mere mistakes in spelling (mersus, mersuva, in III). for S cf. fanu corrected (Q by graver to ranu). The r for rs in tribrisine may
;

be due to the following s. But the resemblance of ar-veitu, ar-fertur, etc. to early Latin ar-vorswm, ar-fuerunt, etc. suggests that ar- is the form which the prefix regularly assumed
before
v, /,

(see above), as
b.

af-, ars-, which in af-veitu etc. is analogical the ad- of L. ad-fui. According to the most probable explanation of dersua, desua'pros-

and does not come from


is

peram' (*ded(e)s-uo- 'giving, granting', from *dedos 'gift ), tesvam would stand for *tersvam, this to be explained precisely like mersuva (a).
1

84

Phonology
Final d
133.

[133

Final

d,

in Oscan, but

is

including the d from earlier t (127, 1), remains dropped in Umbrian, in both cases without
:

Examples regard to the quantity of the preceding vowel. O. jt?0c?'quod', pid'quid', but U. svepu'sive' (= O. suae pod}\Abl. Sg. O. toutad, dolud, slaagid, O. deded'dedit', but U. dede;
but U.
aitu
;

tota,

poplu, mani 3d Sg. Subj. O.

-- Imperat. O.

estud, actud,
fa$ia,

but U.

futu,

fakiiad, hipid,

but U.

combifiansi.

a. In Oscan there are two examples of h for d, both on the Curse of Vibia, These are svai indicating a weakening of the final d in the Capuan dialect. of the Tabula Bantina suluh 'omnino', an Ablative suae pod puh 'sive'
:

used adverbially. 6. By combination with an


final

enclitic
is

beginning with a vowel, an original


,
:

preserved in Umbrian as f rs. Thus pif-i, 0. pod, L. quod L. ef-ek 0. id-ic. O. puf-e, pors-i pid, quid pirs-i in the where U. -af 'ad' the next word Similarly only examples (two)

d becomes intervocalic and so


: ;

begins with a vowel, and twice also even all other examples the form is -a.

when

it

begins with a consonant.

In

Initial di /^

134.
is

The

history of initial di

is

the same as in Latin.

It

preserved in a

few Oscan

inscriptions of early date, as in early


lost.

Latin Diovis, but elsewhere the d is diuvilam, but Iiiveis, luvei, iiivilam, U.
a.

So O.

Diiivei, Atou/ret,

luve, loui.

It is doubtful if the

It may be from contains original di. note to of i to i. See 100, 3, c.

*diekolom to which Bantian zicolom 'diem' points die-, like L. dies, with dialectic change

nd,

dn

135.

nd becomes

nn, usually written

in

Umbrian
:

(25, 26).

So the Gerundives O. upsannam 'operandam,'


sum, U. pihaner, anferener, etc.
;

sakrannas, eehiiana-

de;--U.
L.

O. pan, pam 'quam' L. quamO. pun, pon c\in\\ from *pomde as if ponne, pone,
i

*quomde

like

quamde;
;

L. ostendito (see also 156)


'intendito', etc.

U. ostendu, ustentu from *ostennetod similarly ampentu 'impendito', endendu


:

137]

Consonants

85

In the case of ndl the change to nnl, nl, with the further change of nl to II (107, 3), led to such forms as U. apelust 'impendent', entelust 'intenderit', which are based upon -pend-lo-,
-tend-lo- (226).
a.

U. une

is

The

relation of 0. Perkens to Gen. Perkedne[is

probably from *udne, Abl. Sg. of utur, i. e. *udor is not clear.


1

Grk. vdwp.

dh
136.

but medially as d or b according to the surrounding sounds, is f in both positions. Examples O. fakiiad, factud, U. facia, fakust, etc. O. fiisnu 'fanum', L.facio, Grk. rtBrjpi, Skt. dhd- (root dhe-}; U. fesnaf-e L. fdnum, festus, etc. (probably from the same root
dh,
in Latin initially as/,
:

which appears

as the preceding); O. feihiiss 'muros': L. fingo, Grk. ret%o?, Skt. dili- (root dheigJi-) ; -- U. furu: ~L. forum, Grk., Ovpa, Eng.

L. medius, Skt. mddhya-\L. O. Aiifineis U. comAedinius, aedes, Grk. aZ0o?, Skt. edha- ; or: 'nuntiato' L. Grk. Grk. Tret'00), fido, TrvvBdvofiat bifiatu
:

door.-

- O. mefiai 'in media':

(86,

in either case the

/ represents dh). ;

U.

rufru 'rubros':
' :

Grk. epvdpos, Skt. rudhird--,--Q. Luvfreis Liberi' L. liber, Grk. e\ev9epd<; -- O. stafktas 'statutae', U. staflarem '*stabularem' L. stabulum, stabilis, with suffix -flo-, Grk. -0Xo-, - - U. uerfale 'teniplum' L. verbdlis, verbum, Goth. orig. -dhloL. ruler,
:

waurds, Eng. word.


Here belong also U. Ace. PI. uef portiones' from *ueif-f, and U. vetu In vetu the / has 'dividito' from *ueif(e)tod L. dl-vido, Skt. vindhdte, etc. passed through the same development as that of ft from p (121).
a.
'
:

Dental
137.
1.

assimilated to a following s, as in Latin, and the change to ss doubtless belongs to the Italic Thus U. revestu'revisito': L. vlso from *ueid-so period.

dental

is

U. Fiso 'deo Fidio', O.


(cf.

Fiisiais '*Fisiis':

L. fisus from *fid-s-o-

fidus-tus).
1

For the development of sonant aspirates in general, see 160-161.

86
2.

Phonology

[137

But secondary

ts,

due

to the syncope of

an intervening
z

vowel or to a

late combination, remains

under the designation

in the native alphabets, appearing as s in the Latin alphabet. Thus O. hurz'hortus' from *hortos (90, l);--U. tacez, tases'tacitus'

from *taketos

O. az'ad' from *ad-s

(cf.

L. ab-s etc.);-

O. aserum O. puz, puze, puse, from *put-s (202, 6). 'adserere' is ambiguous, since it is not found in the native alphahere also bet, but probably belongs here rather than under 1
jpows'ut', U.
;

U. ostensendi 'ostendentur' from *ostend(e)senter.


NOTE. It is uncertain whether the s of the Latin alphabet also denoted It has been suggested that the sound had actually become s. whether te, or U. zefef sedens' with z for s is an indication that even before the native alphabet was abandoned, a change had taken place so that the sound of z was pracBut there are no examples of s in place of z in the native alphabet, tically s. and U. zefef has also been explained as arising in a compound like *anzefef (cf. Still, if the analysis of U. pruzufe as *pro-sode (94) were anzeriatu, 110, 1).
'

more

certain,

it

would add weight to the


Dental

first

suggestion.

Dental

138.

The combination

of the final dental of a root with

the

shows the same treatment as in Latin, and had Examdoubtless become ss, or st before r, in the Italic period.
t

of a suffix

ples

O. Fepo-opei <*Versori' (U. trahuorfi 'transverse' with rf from rss see 115, 3): L. versus, earlier *verssus, from *vert-to- 1 U. sesust 'sederit', probably based on a participial stem *sesso-:
:
;

L. sessus (*sed-to- 1 ); O. usurs probably: L. dsor ^od-tor 1 );1 O. luisaU.frosetom 'fraudatum': early L.fraussus (*fraud-to- )
.

rifs

probably as

if
:

L. *liisaribus

from lusus
1
;

(*loid-to- );

O. cas-

L. castrum (*cat-trocf. cassis from *cat-ti-). a. In the case of dh + t, the normal phonetic development is different, the combination becoming ddh in Indo-European, and resulting in st in Italic, 1 e.g. L. custos: Grk. icfoBos, Goth, huzd hoard', from *kudh-to(for root cf. l So L. U. hostatu from /cej50w, Eng. hide). hasta, *ghadh-ta (cf. 'hastatos', Goth, gazds 'sting'); U. from ufestne probably *op-fest(i)no-, 'operculatis'(?) an extension of *festo- from *bhendh-to- 1 (root bhendh-, Eng. bind, seen also in
trous,

U. castruo

'

L. offendix 'knot').

So written for convenience in showing the partially transformed even in the parent speech.
1

root.

'These combinations were

140]

The Gutturals
But
in

87

most cases

this

restoration in prehistoric times of the

development has been interrupted by an analogical t of the suffix, so that ddh was replaced

by dt (tt), which then became ss in Italic, as usual. Thus L. iussus, not*iustus, though from a root ending in dh. There is, then, no difficulty in the assumption (189, 1) that 0. messimass 'medioximas'(?) comes from *medh-tmmo(Skt. mddh-ya-), and O.-U. nessimo- 'proximus' (cf. O.Ir. nessam 'next') from *nedh-tmmo- (Skt. nah- 'tie', Partic. naddhd-), though the latter may also come from ned-, a by-form of nedh-, seen in Skt. nedistha- next', Av. nazdista-. O. nistrus 'propinquos' is also, probably, from *nedh-tero- (*neddhero-) either through
' ,

*nestero- with the

restored suffix

same development as in L. custos, or through *nettro- with and syncope, and subsequent development as in L. castrum (in
is

the latter assumption there

a chronological

difficulty,

though not an insur-

mountable one).

Other Combinations of Dentals


139. in Latin.
1.

dental

is

assimilated to a following

k,

p, or/, as

Thus O.

piikkapid,

pocapit 'quandoque', a

compound
102,

of pod, probably *pod-kdd-pid ; - - O. perek., L. pertica O. akkatus 'advocati' *pertkd


:

U. percam, from
(89,
3,

3);-

U. appei, ape 'ubi' probably from *ad-pe (202, 8);--U. Ace. PI. capif chides' from *kapid-f (kapif is a mistake due to f in O. aflukad from *ad-flok- (? see 97, a). other case-forms);
i

a.

for 0.

A remarkable assimilation of d to a preceding k or s must be assumed ekkum'item' and O. iussu 'iidem', if these contain the enclitic dom.
5.

But

see 201,

2.

loss of

in the combinations stm, stn,


is

and

stl,

subject

to special local or chronological conditions,


;

seen in O.

posmom

-- U. pusnaes beside pustnaiaf 'posti'postremum' beside pustm[as cas' O. peesslfum (for ss, see 162,2) beside pestliim 'templum'.
;

So in Latin, with subsequent loss of s, pomerium from *postCf. moiriom, pone from *post-ne (U. postne), Us from slis, stlis. also U. pusveres beside post uerir 'post portam'.

THE GUTTURALS
140.
It is necessary to distinguish

between the two

series of

gutturals

known

appear as

as the palatals and the labiovelars. The palatals simple ^-sounds in the western languages (Greek,

88

Phonology

[140

Latin, Celtic, Germanic), conveniently known as the centumlanguages, while in the eastern group (Indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic,

Armenian, Albanian), known


e, i,

sat9m = L. centum], they develop into sibilants


in the

as the satera-languages (Avestan


(like L.
c,

g, before

labiovelars, which were languages). the soft back on well palate and with an accompronounced panying rounding of the lips, appear as simple ^-sounds in the

Romance

The

satem-languages, while in the centum-languages the rounding of the lips has resulted in a distinct w-sound closely following the guttural, giving what

may

be called &#-sounds.

This

It-element may remain distinct, as in Latin qu, or may unite with the guttural to form a labial, as in the Oscan-Umbrian p. It
is

one of the chief characteristics of Oscan-Umbrian as compared with Latin that the labiovelars appear regularly as labials.

There is still a third series of gutturals, called the pure velars, which remain simple ^-sounds in both groups, showing neither the ^-element in the centum-languages nor the developto sibilants in the satem-languages. But since within either group this series is identical with one of the other two, it will

ment

we are for the most part only comparing Oscan-Umbrian with Latin, to distinguish only two series, the one which shows the w-element and the one which does not. We shall treat, then, the ^-sounds, which include the IndoEuropean palatals (k etc.) and the pure velars (q etc.), and the &#-sounds, which represent the labiovelars (qu etc.).
be necessary here, where

k
141.
keenzstur
:

k appears as
L.

k,

c,

as in Latin.
;

Examples

O. cemaum,
:

L. cano
cust):

U. kanetu, procanurent censed, censor, etc. O. deikum, deicum, dicust, U. dersicust (from *dediL. died O. Dekmanniuis <*Decumaniis', U. tekuries, dequ; ;

rier 'decuriis':
a.

L. decent.
(i.e.

It is

uncertain whether ku

I.E.

became p

like

kV (I.E. qV).

Cf. L. equus
if

+ u) remained unchanged or from ekuo- and sequor from seqV-.


for the

For the former would speak U. ekvine,

connected with L. equinus,

144]

The G-utturals

89

the gentiles Epidius etc., found in Latin inscriptions from Oscanterritory, if they belong with L. Equitius etc. and are genuine O.-U. forms.
latter,

Umbrian
6.

In Umbrian a
0.
izic.

final

is 1.

often omitted in the writing, e.g.

ere, ere,

beside

erek, erec:

See 201,

kt

142.

But

before

a k became a spirant and then simply

h,

so that the combination kt appears as Jit in both Oscan and Umbrian. In Umbrian, however, the h was weakly sounded

or wholly lost, as is evident from its frequent omission in the See 75. writing, and the preceding vowel was lengthened. Examples O. ehtrad, U. ap-ehtre, from *ek-tro- L. extra, etc. ; :
:

O. Uhtavis

L. Octdvius

U.

rehte

L. recte;

O. saahtum,
:

L. (in-)spector. that the same change from k to h should be recognized before p, examples of which would be 0. ehpeilatas 'erectae', and ehpreivld, of uncertain meaning, on a fragmentary inscription. But the eh may be due to extension from compounds of words beginning with t.
speture
a.
:

U. U.

sahta,

satam,

sahatam

L. sanctus

U. uhtur

L. auctor ;

It is possible

Secondary kt, resulting from the syncope of an interIt remains vening vowel, has an entirely different history. unchanged in Oscan, while in Umbrian it appears as it, the k
143.

having passed through the same development as in French fait O. actud fi'om'L.factum. Examples: Q.factud: L.facito; U. aitu, aitu O. actud L. agito O. uincter L. vincitur
:

is

deitu 'dicito' from *deik(e)tod (the original diphthong U. feitu, feitu, fetu, represented by the e only; see 65);

U.

teitu,

Here belongs also U. -veitu feetu 'facito' from *fek(e)tod (219). (afveitu, arsueitu 'advehito', kuveitu 'convehito') from *uektod, this
from original *ueghetod
(160).

Umbrian palatalization of k 144. In Umbrian a k before the vowels e and i, and before consonantal i, becomes a sibilant, written 5, s, or often simply s. This recalls the development of Latin c before palatal vowels
in the

Romance languages,

as in

French cent

etc.

The

precise

90

Phonology

[144

pronunciation of the Umbrian sound, the difference between it and the ordinary s, is of course uncertain. It may have been s As regards the use of s for s, it or s (palatal s). (i.e. Eng. sh) is comparatively rare initially, but between vowels vastly more

common than
:

Examples: sesna 'cenam',


;

^ersnatur
;

cenati'

L. cena, O. kersnu always s) L. pace


tus
;

sihitu, sihitu
;

tacez,
;

pase (15 times, tases (14 times, always s): L. tad:

L. clnctus

desenduf
;

L. decem

tiit

L. decet
;

ar^if

L. ancus,

uncus

skaJ$e-ta, scalse-to

L. calice

curnase 'cornice' (Ace.

Observe also pesetom 'peccatum' from *pecceto-: Sg. curnaco). L. pecco from *petco. Further, with consonantal i, which is frequently omitted in the writing, fa$ia, faiu, fa$u L. facio ; Sansie, Sansie, Sage: L. *Sancius (Sancus); tribfigu 'ternio' beside
:

Abl. Sg. tribrisine


purdinsust,

(-ik-ion-,-ik-in, 181);

jowr^wsms^'porrexerit',
of words, but in these the

purtincus, etc. (ftyh'-Perfect, 229).


9!,

We

find also

s/,

in a

number

palatalization of the k is due to a following e which has been lost by syncope after having affected the k. Thus ti^lu 'dedica-

tionem' from *dik-elo-

preuislatu (also preuilatu by engraver's error) '*praevinculato', denominative from *uink-elo-: L. vincustrusla '*struiculam' from *struuikeld-. But lum; struhcla,
;

preceded by s 'vasculis' from *ues-kelo-.


is

when k

it

is

The

not affected, e.g. veskles, uesclir instrumental suffix -klo- remains

unchanged, since this does not come from -kelo- like the diminutive suffix. So pihaklu, pihaclu 'piaculum', etc.
a.

In several words

we

due

to the analogical influence of other cases in

another vowel, as Gen. Sg. of the Dat. Sg. and Dat.-Abl.

unchanged before e or i. In some this is which the k is followed by Naharcer after Naharcom. So probably also forms
find k

comes from

PI. like fratreci, todceir, etc. though in these e, i, Cf also Pupfike beside Pupfise etc. A few forms occurring in the oldest tables may be regarded as survivals from a period antedating

earlier

oi.

the process of palatalization, e.g. kebu L. cibus. The origin of Akefunie, Acersontew, and its relation to 0. Akudunniad are obscure. For cehefi 'accensum sit'(?),
:

ku-kehes, there
*Kaf-i<i)
6.

is

no satisfactory etymology (connection with Grk.


.si,

icalw

from

impossible).

For

etc.,

above),

original fci, which regularly appears as qi, we find simply i in usaie beside usace,

or

s (fa$iu, 9, d,

fa$u,

and

in peiu, peiu,

from

146]

The
:

G-utturals

91
for this
is

*pik-io- (for e for i see 45) L. piceus. some prefer to assume an error in usaie

The reason
and

not apparent, and

to reject the comparison of peiu with

L. piceus.

meaning
form,

peiu denotes some color, contrasted with rufru 'rubros', and the 'piceos' is so strikingly suitable that in spite of the difficulty in the

But

we

prefer to accept the connection.

Cf. also feia 'faciat' (219).

ks
145.
1.

Before consonants ks becomes

s.

Thus O.

destrst

'dextra

est',

U. destram-e
*persk-,

tariarum';

dextram'; -- U. sestentasiaru 'sextan*porsk-, etc. (97) from *perk-sk- (cf. L. posed,


'in

beside precor), in U. persclo 'precationem', persnihimu precator' (see 146), etc., beside pepurkurent ' 'poposcerint', and in O. comparascuster consul ta erit' beside
'

*porsco from *pork-sk-,

kujmparakineis.
NOTE. The reduction to s in the examples given belongs to different In *persk- it is probably Indo-European, in sestentasiaru Italic, in destrst Oscan-Umbrian.

periods.

both original and secondary, becomes ss, s. Thus O. meddiss, meddis 'meddix' (Gen. Sg. medikeis); also Nom. PL meddiss from *meddik(e)s (90, l);--U. uas 'vitium' from
2.

Final

ks,

But sometimes the k is restored under *uak(o)s (cf. L. vaco). the influence of the oblique cases, e.g. O. Nom. PL /^eSSetf =
meddiss, O. tuvtiks 'publicus',
3.

U.

fratreks,

fratrexs '*fratricus'.
etc.,

Intervocalic ks

is

seen in O. eksuk'hoc', exac'h&c',

to

which corresponds U. esu, esu, essu 'hoc', esa 'hac', etc. If the uncertain whether this ks is original or secondary. compare O. upsannam: U. osatu (122, 3).
Loss of k between consonants
146.

It is
latter,

Loss of k

(in part

from A# by
:

153)

between consonants
;

is

seen in O. molta,

U. muta

L. multa, mulcta (muled]

O. fortis 'potius':

L. fortis, forctis

;--U.

Urnasier '*Urnariis':

L. urna from *urcnd (urceus)-, O. turumiiad 'torqueatur', denominative from *torkmo-, *torku-moL. tormentum (torqued) ;
:

U. persnihimu precator', denominative from *persk-ni- (*perskfrom *perk-sk-, 145); - - U. perstu 'ponito'(?) from *persk(e)tdd
'

92

Phonology

[146

(cf.

O. Puntiis, U. puntes 'pentads', from *ponk-t-, peperscust); ( -tO. Ho/iTrrte? and pomtis 'quinquiens' from beside *ponkl (153),

*pomptis, with
tus);

after

similarly,

*pompe 'quinque' (cf. L. Qulntus, Qulncwhere the combination is due to syncope,

U. anstintu 'distinguito' from *-stinktod, *-stink^tod (153), but ninctu 'ninguito' with the guttural restored from unsyncopated
forms prior to the labialization in the latter (or were n and nc two spellings for the same sound, namely the guttural nasal?). a. In the examples of nt from nkt the k of the latter is

from
nasal

ky> (153).

In the case of original nkt

(i.e.

with I.E.

k) the

was

lost

and the

kt

became
'

ht, as elsewhere.

See

73, 142.

U. kunikaz, conegos conixus' shows the same reduction of nkn to n as L. conlveo (root kneiguh-, Goth, hneiwan).
b.

g
147.
1. Original g is for the most part unchanged. ExamO. Genetai 'Genitae' O. aragetud 'argento' O. ligud O. tanginiid'sententia': L. tongitio ;--\J. #</er 'ager'.
; ;

ples

'lege';

2.

Initial

Umbrian.
3.

gn remains in Oscan, but appears as n in Thus O. Gnaivs 'Gnaeus'; U. natine L. ndtio from
:

*gndtio (gens]

naratu, naraklum

An Italic

change

is

L. ndrro, gndrus. that of intervocalic gi to M, the first


:

then forming a diphthong with the preceding vowel. For to L. maior from *magios (magis, magnus), mains, Mains, etc. belong O. Maiiui 'Maio' (see 100, 2), with Nom. Sg. Mais, and mais 1 'magis,
plus',

from *maiios

(91, 1).

Cf. also

U.
'

aiu 4 agitationes, disturb-

ances^?), probably from agio.


a.

In *maistero- (whence U.

mestru

O.
L.

maimas 'maximae', 114, 6), the *mais- may maiestas), but more probably has replaced magis
O. Maesius
'

maior') and *maisemo- (whence also be from *maiies (cf.

influence of forms like O. mais. 1


also, in contrast to L.

Maius, 0.

Maiitif,

(cf. L. magister) under the mensis Maius' (Festus) seems to be formed directly from mais.

4.

Assimilation of g to a following
(59).
to another view, once held
etc.

is

seen in U. Ace. PI.

/rz/'fruges' from *frug-f


1

According

cognate with L. magis, maior,

by the author also, these words are not but with Goth, mais (Eng. more etc.).

149]

The G-utturah

93

Umbrian palatalization of g
148.
i is

Corresponding to the palatalization of k before

and
.

the
i.

by

Umbrian g Thus muieto 'muttitum' beside mugatu


change of
to a

sound which
'

is

represented
(cf.

muttito'

pru-

secetu,

eveietu proseseto 'prosecta' beside prusekatu 'prosecato'); 'voveto' from *e-uegetod, *e-ueigetod (L. victima, Germ, weiheri). 1
a.

An

apparent example of palatalization of g by a preceding


etc.

i is

seen in

liuvina, liouinur, louinur,

modern forms

of the

name

beside Ikuvins 'Iguvinus'. But the mediaeval and the and it has been preserve g, suggested that the

spelling cited is due to a "pious fraud" of the priests who wished to connect Cf. luve, louie, liouie, etc. the name of the city with that of the divinity.

Examples: O. hurz, hiirL. hortus, Grk. %dpTO<; O. humuns 'homines', U. homonus tiim homo L. O. hu[n]truis 'inferis', U. hondra 'infra', 'hominibus': O. herest 'volet', hondomu 'infimo': L. humus etc. (15, 5); O. heriiad 'capiat', U. heriest 'volet', etc.: L. horior etc. (15, 1); hjerrins 'caperent': L. heres, Grk. %et/o, Skt. hdrdmi hold' O. feihiiss 'muros': Grk. ret^o? (L. Jingo with g for gh after n);
149.

gh appears

as A, as in Latin.
;

'

O. Verehasiui Versori'(?), perhaps O. eehiianasum 'emittenL. vergo (g for gh after a consonant); of the victims 'let out' for the ehiato 'emissos' darum', U. (used
O. kahad 'capiat'
:

L. incoho

'

sacrificial

hunt)

L. hid (occasionally transitive 'emit'), Lith.


-veitu 'vehito', see 143.
is

zioju 'gape'.
a.

For U.

Umbrian h was

so weakly sounded that, as in Latin, the letter

some-

times omitted, or, vice versa, an-ostatu Thus eretu beside usual heritu optato' (: heriest volet' etc. above) enclitic -out after consonants beside an-hostatu, hostatu hastatos' L. hasta ; beside -hont after vowels (er-ont, eri-hont 'idem' etc., 195); eitipes from *eitom
it
l
'

employed where
:

has no etymological value.


, ;

'

hipens (84, 264, 2)

habina 'agnas':
etymological);
etc.).

' hebetaf-e beside ebetraf-e in exitus' from *e-baitra (L. baeto) L. agnus (? or: Skt. chdga 'goat', in which case the h is
;

Hule, holtu 'aboleto'(?), perhaps


'

from a root

ol-

(Grk.

6\\vfj.i

In O. Herukinai Erycinae' the h


of

is

due to the influence of Herentatef,

which

it

is

an

epithet.
i

Osthoff, I.F.

6,

39

ff.

94

Phonology

[149

b. The substitution of / for A, in folus for holus and other forms cited by Latin writers, and in Faliscan foied 'hodie', seems to have been characteristic of rustic Latin and some of the neighboring minor dialects. It is possible that

U. felsva is a borrowed technical term originating in regions where this change .was made. For, certainly, the comparison with L. holus is more attractive than any other explanation offered.

For U. era-font beside era-hunt 'eadem', see 201,

6.

150.

H*, L. qu, appears as p.

Examples

O.

piid,

pod,

U.

puf-e:

L. quod;

O.

pid,

U.

pif-e:

L. quid;

U. panta:

L. quanta; O. petiro-pert 'quater', U. petur^pursus 'quadru-pedibus': L. quattuor *pompe (O. piimperiais, U. pumpefias): L. quinque.
;

a.

though
Grk.

this

Both O.-U. *pompe and L. quinque are from an Italic *k^enkVe comes by consonant-assimilation from an earlier *penktte (cf.
1

TT^J/TC,

Skt. pdnca).

151.

cfti,

Latin v or (after n) gu, appears as


:

b.

Examples

O. kiimbened 'convenit,' U. benust 'venerit' -O. bivus'vivi': L. vlvus (Eng. quick)


L.

L. venio (Eng. come);


berus 'veribus':

;--U.

veru;--U. bum'bovem' (Eng. cow; L. bos is borrowed from some O.-U. dialect); U. umen 'unguen' from *omben (125, 2):
L. unguen ; - - U. habina: L. agnus
(?

see 149, a).

152.

<^A, Latin

(initially),

(between vowels), or gu

(after w), appears


vis':

as/.

Thus U.

vufru 'votivum', vufetes * voti-

L. *uoueto- (whence votus, like motus from *moueto-), voveo u u Skt. (cf. vdghdtr 'sacrificer', Grk. eu^o/xat, root ueg h- and eug h-). from guJi are wanting. Unquestionable examples of initial

a.

U. uouse

in
its

form to a L.

commonly *vovicio-. But


is

translated *voto' and regarded as corresponding there is no adequate explanation of the uou- in

relation to the vuf- of the other forms.


1

For the development of sonant aspirates in general, see 160-161.

154]

The Gutturals

95

Loss of U in kU
153.

etc.

The u

of kJf etc. is lost before another consonant, as

in Latin coctus beside coquo, qulntus beside quinque, etc.

Thus

O.

U. puntes 'pentads', from *ponk-t- (146), *ponku-t-, beside *pompe with the usual development of k% (150), while See also in O. HofjiTTTLes and pomtis the labial is analogical. The same loss occurs in combinations resulting from syn146.
Puntiis,

cope,

showing that the

latter process antedates the


fiktu 'figito'

ku

etc. to

p
:

etc.

Thus U.
;

O. fruktatiuf L. flgo, earlier fivo 1 L. *fruitdtw, fruitio;--~U. gUetdtion-

change of from *flkMt6d, *figUetod l 'fructus' from *fruk u t-, fru:

anstintu 'distinguito'
;

from *-stinktod (146), *-stink u tod, *-stingUetod l - - U. ninctu 'ninu guito' from *ninkt6d, *ning ,etod (originally g%h; see 161).
a.

like O. pomtis,

U. umtu unguito' instead of *untu or *unktu is an analogical form in this case coming from forms like *wmmo, *umbo (cf umen
'

from*om&en:
6.

L. unguen 151). U. subocau ' invoco' agrees with L.

TJOCO,
CTTOS,

Nom.

Sg. *uoks (L. vox) from *udk^s (Grk.

the k probably originating in In U. kunikaz, conegos 6^).


:

if L. *conigatus for *conivatus) L. conived, Goth, hneiwan 'kneel' (root kneig^h-), the simple guttural might be attributed to the influence of forms such as L. nixus, nlctd, but in that case it is not clear why we have

'genu nixus' (as

not *conecos.

Loss of the u before a following u, as seen in L. qulncuplex beside qulnque, etc., is perhaps to be recognized for Oscan154.

Umbrian
material

also,
is

and so attributed to the Italic period. But the meagre and indecisive. Examples would be U. pru-

sikurent 'pronuntiaverint': L. inseque (but it is fully as likely that the k in this, as in the probably related U. sukatu and in L. insece beside inseque, is due to the influence of forms like

L. msectio, in which the

nant)

U.

*arkelo-,

u was lost before the following consowhence arclataf arc ulatas' (144), instead of
arcu-.

*arpelo-,

perhaps due to the analogy of *arku- as L. arcitenens


is

for arquitenens
1

due to

We

Latin, even though the gVf in these forms

are justified in assuming that the Oscan-Umbrian forms go with the is not Indo-European. See Brugmann,

Grd.

12, p.

603.

96

Phonology

[154

The p

in O. puf, U. pufe'ubi'

and O.

puz,

U. puze'ut' must
(.).

then be attributed to the influence of forms like

pud, pid, etc.

a. L. ubi, ut, etc. are variously explained, but there are no serious objections to the view that they represent the regular Latin development of

initial kttu.

Change
155.

of

Surd Mutes to Sonants

of nkl to ngl, seen in L. angulus from *anklo- (ancus), doubtless belongs to the Italic period. Thus U. anglom-e 'ad anguO. ungulus 'anulus' (Festus): L. uncus ;

The change

lum'

U. anglaf oscmes' (g 6 times, but twice c) from *an-kld(L. cldmo; cf. oscen from cano). 156. In Umbrian, nk, nt, except when final, become ng, nd. L. iuvenca -- ander: O. anter, L. inter;-- PasThus
'

iuengar:

sives tursiandu, ostensendi, with endings -tor (L. -tur), -ter (U. herostendu 'ostendito' from *os-tentu, this from ter, O. uincter);

*os-tennetod

(135),

similarly andendu,
;

endendu

'intendito'

*an-tentu, *en-tentu

hondra

'infra':

O. hu[n]truis

from 'inferis' ;

hondomu
anfif

'infimo':

L. -tumo-.
is

NOTE. and preuislatu


157.
1.

This change
(144).

later than the palatalization of &, as is

shown by

regular in Umbrian. Thus subra, subra 'supra', kabru 'caprum', cabriner 'caprini', abrof In supru, kaprum etc., apruf, the p prob'apros', abrunu 'aprum'. for as not In Oscan stands b, infrequently elsewhere (30, G). ably
is

change of medial pr to br

also

we
2.

find embratur 'imperator'


(91, 2),

and

Abella- (Abellaniis)

probably

from *Apro-ld-

but usually pr remains (supruis etc.). similar change of tr to dr is seen in a few words,

though usually tr remains (U. fratrom, O. fratrum, etc.). Thus U. podruh-pei 'utroque': O. puturus-pid from *po-tro- (81);O. Sadiriis 'Satrius' (81) U. adro 'atra', O. Aderl. Atella' from Atro-ld (see 91, 2, and note but it is possible that dr in this case is original, becoming tr in Latin, as in taeter from *taed-ro-).
' ;

NOTE.

The reasons

for the variation in the representation of tr

and

(in

Oscan) of pr are obscure.

160]

The G-utturals
158.

97

Other, more isolated examples are U. Padellar from *Patno-ld- (91, 2, a), with which may be compared L. scabellum

from *dec-no-, etc. O. degetasis, degetasiiis, beside deketasiiii, from *dekentdsio-, the explanation of the g being doubtful (cf. L. vigintl ?) U. todcom-e totcor 'in urbicum', todceir, beside O. touticom), the d being (cf. a due the to probably graphic vagary following tuder. from
*scap-no-lo- (scdpus), dignus
;

Change
159.

of

Sonant Mutes to Surds

The change

mute

is

an

of sonant to surd before a following surd Indo-European process, but repeats itself in the case

of combinations arising

period.

through syncope in the Oscan-Umbrian Thus O. actud'&glto' from *ag(e)tod, U. fiktu 'figito'
(153), etc.

from *fyu(e)tod

a. 0. akenei, U. acnw, peracni-, etc., if the frequently assumed connection with L. ago is correct, indicate that ak- in place of ag- was generalized from such forms as L. actus, actio (cf. U. ahtim), reinforced in the Oscan-Umbrian

With this view would agree O. acum on the Tabula Bantina, though no great weight can be attached to this on account of
period by forms like 0. actud.
the frequent misspellings
(e.g. licud for ligud).

The words in question have also been connected with L. annus from *atno(Goth. a/n), and on the side of meaning this is most attractive, especially for the fairly certain acunum VI nesimum of the Tabula Bantina and the akun. CXII of no. 13. Moreover the resemblance of the compounds U. per-acni- and seu-acni- (cf. U. seuom 'totum', O. siuom omnino') to L. per-ennis and soll-ennis
'

by-form sollemnis contains a different word, perhaps one related to 0. amniid 'circuitu') is too striking to be ignored, though peracni- is not 'perennis' in meaning, but is used, like seuacni-, in the same sense as L. sollennis. Now an Oscan-Umbrian change of medial tn to kn is not sufficiently paralleled by the
(the

change of tl to kl, which is Italic (129, 2); and it is, moreover, opposed by But there may be an O. Patanai Pandae' from *Pat-na- (or earlier *Patena ?). indirect connection; that is, the O.-U. *akno- may represent a contamination
'

of *atno- with

some other form, perhaps an *agno- or *akno- coming from agand meaning 'ceremony' (occurring at fixed periods).

Changes
160.

of the original

Sonant Aspirates

In the Italic period the Indo-European sonant aspirates became first surd aspirates, as likewise in Greek, and then the

corresponding spirants.

That

is,

67t,

dh, gh, guh,

became

first

98
ph,
ih, Jch, JcUh,

Phonology

[160

then/, p (= Eng. th in thin), % (= Germ. ch), %*J. The further changes of p to/, of ^ to A, and of to/, even where common to Oscan-Umbrian and Latin, probably took The d of L. medius place independently in each branch.

(O. mefiai)

from
is

must come directly from p (cf. and since in *llprd, whence L. libra)
;

also \frpd borrowed


this position Italic/

Intervocalic impossible, it is improbable in the others. appears as h in all dialects, but U. -veitu 'vehito' makes

%
it

unlikely that

it

had reached

this stage at the time of the

Oscan-

Umbrian syncope, for this implies *uektod (see 143), which can come from *ue%etod, but hardly from *ueh(e)tod. 161. In Latin we find regularly a sonant mute after a nasal that is, not only mb and nd (in which the sonant would not neces;

but also ng and ngu, e.g. lingo (Xe</\;&>), The same holds true for Umbrian. Thus ninguit (i>ei'$et). mb from mf: ambr- (ambr-etuto ambiunto') beside O. amfr-(amfret 'ambiunt'),from*ara/er, which is formed hom*amf(i)- (L.amb-,
sarily be

due

to the nasal),

Grk.

afjL(f)i)

after *anter-eo, L. inter-eo

after the analogy of anter, super, etc. (i.e. *amfer-eo cf L. comb-tiro after amb-uro) ; ;
.

comhere probably also amb-oltu 'ambulato' (Grk. aXao/^at?); bifiatu 'nuntiato' from *com-fif-: IL.fldo, Grk. ireiOa), root bheidh-

Grk. TrvvOdvopai, root bheudh- ; see 86, 7). For the operation of the process even in composition, see 164, a. nghomnx'- cringatro ciiictum': O. Eng. hring 'ring', O.Bulg.
(or
l

krqgu

'circle',

root krengh-.

It

For nd from rij> and for ngU from nx there are no certain examples. would be attractive to derive -uendu (ahauendu 'avertito', preuendu 'advertito') from *uenetod (Germ, winden, wenden, root uendh-)

through the medium of *uendetod (like ostendu irom*ostendelod, 156), and ninctu from *ninx~*etdd (Grk. i/e/0ei etc.) through *ningyetud (like
fiktu

from *ftgVetdd, 153). But the vowel-syncope belongs in all probOscan-Umbrian period, whereas the change to sonant seems to be Umbrian only, not Oscan (see a with footnote). It is better, then, to assume the development *uenj>(e)tod, *uentod, uendu, and *ninx(e)tod, *ninkXtod (cf. *uexetod, *uektod, 160), ninctu.
ability to the
'
,

O. ampt circum' is obviously connected with *ara/(i)-, L. am&-, etc. formed being by the addition of the same -t(i) seen in pos-t, per-t, etc. But
a.

162]

Doubling of Consonants in Oscan


well derive
it

99

from *amf-t with a change of ft to pt, since Oscan shows, rather, the opposite change of pt to ft (121). Nor can we start from see *amb-t, since amb- from *amf- is confined to Latin and Umbrian (O. amfr;

we cannot

1 The explanation is as follows In the Italic period *amf- became above) *am- before certain consonants, e.g. before / (cf. U. an-ferener). This *am- was extended to other forms, and became a regular by-form of *amf- as in L. am-icio
.

Oscan-Umbrian examples are 0. am-viannud vico' (cf. Grk. Afj-QoSov); O. amniid 'circuitu' (16, 2); probably O. ampu[l]ulum 'ministrum'(?), diminutive from *am-polo- (p from kU): L. an-culus, Grk. d/j.<f>l-iro\os U. an-ferener
etc.
'

'

circumferendi'
sides'
;

on both

U. an-dirsafust circumtulerit' possibly U. am-pefia (see Glossary).


l ;

U. aplenia impleta,
'

full

From

this

by-form am- was formed *am-t, which became ampt with the
is

same secondary p which


mini in Festus).

seen in L. em-p-tus, sum-p-tus,

etc. (cf. also

ampter-

Doubling of Consonants in Oscan

Doubling of consonants is to be observed in Oscan frequently before consonantal i, and occasionally before r and v. uittiuf 'usus' from *oitionExamples Mamerttiais 'Martiis' PL Gen. beside Gen. Sg. aeteis (i instead a]ittium 'portionum', of i is due to the influence of other case-forms, as -im, -iss, etc.); - meddikkiai 'in *meddicia' from *meddik-idtribarakkiuf 'aedificatio' from *trebark-ion-; Dekkieis 'Decii' (Nom.Dekis) kumbennieis'conventus' from *kom-ben-ioteremenniu 'termina' as
162.
1.
:

if

L. *terminia - - Dekmanniiiis '*Decumaniis' Vitelliu Italia', 'alteri' etc. alttram 'alteram', alttrei punttram 'pontem'. Dekkviarim 'Decurialem'.
* ; ;

2.

Doubling of
piisstist

before

t is

seen in kvaisstur 'quaestor' (once


keenzstur' censor' (nz
84, a), passtata

kvaizstur; influence of keenzstur?);


110, 1)
;

= nts,

'positum

est' (?

see

'porticum'

(21).

Probably

kerssnais 'cenis'

and

kerssnasias are also

examples of simi-

lar doubling, in spite of the fact that they 88 (lie, 2); also peesslfum (139, 2).

once had etymological

3. Appelluneis 'Apollinis', ATTTreXXoui/^t,

puleius beside Apuleius,


1

etc.,

remind us of L. Apand the spelling is perhaps due to

The possibility of separating the / of O. amfret from that of *amf(i)-, as advocated by some, and assuming an Italic change of sonant aspirate to sonant after a nasal, has been considered, but given up as improbable. Cf. also O. Verehasiiii;
L. vergo (? 149).

100
the influence of

Phonology

[162 Helleviis

compounds

like

L. appello etc.

for

usual Heleviis
NOTE.

is

simply a mistake.
by no
It
is

means

Even for words falling under 1 and 2, the doubling is universal, the spelling sometimes varying for the same word.

probably an attempt to indicate that the consonant was sounded both at the end of one syllable and at the beginning of the next. Cf. L. quattuor, and the
occasional iuscriptional spellings such as frattre, aggro, mattrona, asstante,
iussta, Vessta, etc.

before

and

p is

In Greek, aar for <TT is especially common, and doubling found in dialectic inscriptions.

Simplification of Double Consonants

In Oscan, which in general, apart from the oldest inscriptions and the Tabula Bantina, faithfully represents double
163.

consonants in the writing, there are some examples of single in But even in these cases it is not place of double consonants.
clear

how

far

we have

ity in spelling.
(cf.

dat

<de')

do with anything more than irregularExamples: dadikatted 'dedicavit' from *dad-dikeehiianasum 'emittendarum' beside upsannam etc.;
to

amvianud 'vico'

amviannud; - - medikeis, medikei, beside meddiss 'meddix' medikkiai beside meddikiai; further, on the Tabula Bantina, medicim, medicatinom, medicatud, beside meddis,
beside
;

meddixud.
Changes in Sentence-Combination.
Sandhi.

164. The history of initial and final sounds has been included in the general treatment. For crasis etc., see 84. Following is a resume of the changes of finals.
1.
2. 3.

Final short vowels are sometimes lost


Final a
is

(92).

Final

rs,

Final /8, 5. Final ns in certain cases


4.
6.

changed in the direction of d (34). Is, become r, I (117, 119, 2). ks, become ss, s (124, a 145, 2).
;

becomes/
is

(no,

2, 4, 5).

Final
Final
Final

becomes d

(127, 1).

7.
8.

d,
s

including preceding,
r in later

lost in

Umbrian

(133).

becomes

Umbrian

(113).

165]

Accent
9.

101

Final consonants were weakly sounded in Umbrian, and, with more or less frequency, omitted in the spelling. This is
true of all except r from
rs,
I

from

Zs,

and

s
t

from/s,
(127, 2),
2, a).

ks.

Thus
(141, 6),

m, n
s

(109,

1),

r (103, 4; 113,

),

(110, 2, a),

(113, 5).
a.

Omission of
IN

final nb is rare (128,

CHANGES

COMPOUNDS.

Noteworthy

is

changes affecting the initial of the second member Oscan-Umbrian without interference from the analogical influence of the simCf. U. subocau from *sub-uok- (102, 2), O. akkatus plex, if such still existed. from *ad-yok- (102, 3), U. endendu from *en-tend- (156), U. combifiatu from
*com-fif- (161), U. anzeriatu from *an-ser- (110, 1). possible, but uncertain, example of such a change even reacting on the simplex is U. menes (125, 2,- a).

the extent to which phonetic of a compound take place in

But the

influence of the simplex

is

sometimes seen,

e.g.

U. an-ferener (not

mb by

161), U. an-dirsafust (not

nn by

135), O. kiim-bened (not

mm

by 125,

2).

Accent
165.
1.

WORD-ACCENT. The Latin

accentual system, based

on the quantity of the penult, is comparatively late, having been preceded by a system, dating from the Italic period, according to which the accent stood always on the first syllable. Whether
this initial accent

was preserved

in

Oscan-Umbrian or replaced

by some such system as arose in Latin, cannot be determined.


a. There are certain phonetic changes, such as the simplification of double consonants (163), which with added material may prove to be connected with an accentual system like the Latin, but at present the evidence is far from

conclusive.

SENTENCE-ACCENT. There is substantial agreement with the Latin. For pronominal enclitics, see 201 for enclisis
2.
;

of personal pronouns, see 86, 3 for that of the indefinite pronouns for that of cf. O. suaepis (usually so written), U. svepis, etc. ;
;

the verb 'to be

',

cf.

O. teremnatust,

destrst (84), piisstist (84, a),

and

also O. pniftuset, staflatasset, ehpeilatasset,

U. peretomest,

ortoest,

parsest

(117, 6),

mersest, mersi (132, a), etc. (the writing as

words is also found, but less frequently). With L. qullibet The enclitic use of prepositions is far pare U. pisher (90, 2). more common than in Latin (299 ff.).

two com-

102

Phonology

[166

SUMMARY OF THE OSCAN AND UMBKIAN SOUNDS


166.

OSCAN

a
a,

written

a, a,

= orig. a, e.g. ant 'ante'. 32. = anaptyctic a, e.g. aragetud 'argento'.


a
a,

80, 81.

written

a, aa, a,

= =

orig. a, e.g. aasas 'arae' (Gen. Sg.).


orig.

33.

a with secondary lengthening,


tum'.
73.

e.g. saahtiim 'sanc-

?
,

written

e,

e,

anaptyctic e, e.g. Herekleis 'Herculis'. in er = ro or n, e.g. Aderl. 'Atella'. 91,


i
e,

= =

orig.

e,

e.g. estud,

estud l esto\

36.

80, 81.
2.

written

e, ee, e,

orig. e

with secondary lengthening,


41,
6,

e.g. keenzstur, censtur

'censor'.

73, 76, 77,

l.

|,

written

i,

z,

= orig. i, e.g. pis, JMS 'qnis'. 44. = orig. e in hiatus, e.g. iiik, ioc 'ea'. 38, 1. = anaptyctic i, e.g. amiricatud '*imrnercato'. = orig. e in medial syllables before labials,
'proximis'.
1

80, 81.

e.g.

nesimois

86.

A survey

of the

Oscan and Umbrian sounds, with their normal


;

spellings,

and

their various regular sources. No account is taken here of the spelling of Old Oscan, or of that in the Greek alphabet, for which see 24 and no attempt is made to cover
all

the details of the preceding sections. Attention is called by means of asterisks to some of the most important differences between Oscan and Latin. Open and close
letter, e.g. e

vowels are distinguished by a hook or a dot placed beneath the


e=

= open e,

close

e.

166]

System of Sounds

103

i
j,

written

i,

ii,

i,

orig.

e,

e.g.

ligatuis 'legatis',

ligud 'lege',
41, #, 82.

fiisnu 'tern-

plum'.

41.
e.g. tris 'ires'.

from contraction,

i i,

written

i,

i,

= =

orig.

by samprasarana,
before
is
|,

e.g. pustiris 'posterius'.


44, a.
?

44, 0, 91,

i.

orig.

e.g. fakiiad 'faciat'.


i

NOTE.

Or

the difference from

only graphic

1
1,

written

i,

ii,

z,

=
?

orig.

i,

e.g.

Abl. Sg.
47.

slaagid, liimitiifm

'limitum', scriftas
59.

'scriptae'.

orig.

u in

final syllables, e.g. castrid.

9
Q,

written

ii,

0,

orig.
orig.

o,
e,

e.g. pud, ^?0<#

'quod'.

49.
37.
80, 81.

= =

in

*pompe 'quinque'.
0,

anaptyctic

e.g. tefuriim 'burnt-offering'.

Q
<J,

written

ii,

0,

orig. final a, e.g. viu 'via',

aW0

'alia'.

34.

u
u, written
u, w,
'

= orig. u, e.g. puf ubi'. 55. = anaptyctic u, e.g. Mulukiis 'Mulcius'. 80, 81. = orig. before final m, e.g. ezum 'esse'. 50. = orig. a, e, or in medial syllables before after)
(or
e.g.

labials,
86.

orig.

praefucus 'praefectus', pertumum 'perimere'. u by samprasarana, e.g.facus 'factus'. 91, 1.

104

Phonology
JU (precise sound uncertain}

[166

iu,

written

iu, u,

=u

after dentals, e.g. eitiuvam, eituam 'pecuniam'.

56.

u
U, written u, uu, (u), u,

= =

orig. u, e.g. Fuutrei 'Genetrici'.

58.

orig. o, e.g. estud, estud'esto', Fluusai 'Florae'.

53.

ai
ai,

written

ai,

ae

(ai),
),

orig. ai (or

e.g. svai,

suae

'si'.

62 (60), (61,

3).

ei
ei,

written

ei, ei,

orig. ei (or ei), e.g.

deikum, deicum 'dicere'.

64 (60), (61,

3).

oi
oi,

written

iii,

oi,

orig. oi (or oi), e.g. ligatuis 'legatis', nesimois 'proximis'.

66 (60), (61,

3).

au
au, written
av, au, au, 68, 61,
2.

orig. au, e.g. avt, auti 'aut'.

eu

eu occurs only in the borrowed


ou
ou, written uv, ou,

Evklui.

70.

orig.

ou or eu,
61,
2.

e.g. tuvtiks 'publicus',

touto *ci vitas'.

71,

166]

System of Sounds

105

i
i,

(consonantal

i)

written

i,

i,

= =

orig.

?',

e.g. kiimbennieis

'conventus'.
134.

100.

initial di, e.g. Iiivei 'Iovi\

u (consonantal M)
U, written
v, u,

orig. u, e.g. svai,

suae

'si'.

101, 102.
i

NOTE. But when i and u are merely glides following a vowel 31. are written in the native alphabet, but not in the Latin.
r

or

it

they

= = =
rr

orig.

r, e.g.

Regaturei 'Rectori'.
rs, e.g.

103.

intervocalic

tenim 'territorium'.
117.

115,

1.

final rs, e.g. censtur 'censores'.

= =

intervocalic

rs, e.g. hjerrins


1 -

'caperent'.
100,

115,

2.

ri at Bantia, e.g. herest volet'.

3, c.

= =
11

orig.
final

e.g.

%wc?'lege'. 104, 105.


119, 2.

?s,

e.g. aidil'aedilis'.

= = =

orig. H, e.g. Abellanam 'Abellanam'. orig.


I

103,

3.

by secondary doubling,
'

e.g. Vitelliu' Italia'.

162,

1.

orig. nl, e.g. Vesulliais Vesulliais'.

107,

3.

n =
nn

orig. w, e.g. ni 'ne'.

107.
135.

= =

orig. nd, e.g.

upsannam 'operandam'.
1.
2, 3.

orig.

n by secondary doubling,
162,

e.g. kiimbennieis 'con-

ventus'.

For omission of n before consonants, see 108,

orig.

m,

e.g. Maatreis'Matris'.
final

107.

For rare omission of

m, see 109,

2.

106

Phonology
s

[166

= = =

orig.

s,

e.g. estud'esto'.

ill, 114.
1.

ks before consonants, e.g. destrst 'dextra'st'. 145, ti at Bantia, e.g. Bansae 'Bantiae'. 100, 3, c.
'

B(B)= final ks, e.g. meddiss, meddis 'meddix'. 145, 2. = final fs from -bh(o)s, e.g. teremniss terminibus', ligis
'legibus'.
124, a.
2.

= final ns, e.g. Ace. PL viass, eituas. no, = ps, e.g. osii[ns 'adsint'. 122, 2.

= dental + s, e.g. Fiisiais'*Fisiis'. 137, l. = dental + dental, e.g. Fe/oo-o/oet '*Versori'. 138. = s by secondary doubling, e.g.kvaisstur' quaestor'.
ks,

162,2.

written

ks, x,

= =
ts,

intervocalic ks, e.g. eksuk'boc', ezac'hac'. 145, 3. ki at Bantia, e.g. meddixud m&gisteYio\ 100, 3, <?.
i

written

z,

s,

ns

= secondary te, e.g. puz, joows 'ut'. 137, 2. nts = orig. ns, e.g. keenzstur, censtur censor', no, 1. = secondary ws, e.g. Bantins 'Bantinus'. 110, 6, 128,
*

1.

z (as in
z,

Eng. zero)
-asiim,

written

s, z,

= =

intervocalic

s,

e.g.

Gen. PI.

-azum.
c.

112.

di at Bantia, e.g. zicolom 'diem'.

100, 3,

p = =

orig. p, e.g. post 'post'.


orig. A#, e.g.
jt>oc?

120.
150.

'quod'.

b =

orig.

ft,

e.g. triibiim

'domum'.

123. 151.

=
br

orig.

^,

e.g.

kumbened'convenit'.

orig. pr, e.g. embratur 'imperator'.


t

157,

1.

orig.

t,

e.g. tris'tres'.

126.

167]

System of Sounds
d

107

d =

orig. d, e.g.
final
t,

deicum

'dicere'.
127,

130, 133.
1.

=
dr

e.g. deded 'dedit'.

orig. tr, e.g. Sadiriis 'Satrius'.

157, 2.

k
k, written
k,
<?,

= kl

orig. k, e.g. orig.

deikum, deicum 'dicere'.

141. 153, 154.

kU

(gU), e.g. fruktatiuf 'fructus'.


tl,

orig.

e.g. sakarakliim 'sacellum'.

129,

2.

g =

orig. #, e.g. aragetud'argento'.

147,

1.

ngl

orig. nkl, e.g. ungulus'&nulus'.


f

155.

= = = =
fr
ft

orig.

bh (L./,

>),

e.g. fratrum 'fratrum', sifei'sibi'.


d), e.g. fakiiad'faciat',

124.

orig.

dh

(L. /,

b,

Luvfreis 'Liberi',

mefiai 'mediae'.

136.

orig. glth (L./, v,


final
fis

^).

152.
110,
5.

of secondary origin, e.g. uittiuf 'usus'.


118.
121.

= =

orig. sr, e.g. tefiirum 'burnt-offering'.


' orig. pt, e.g. seriftas scrip tae'.

h = orig. gh (L. 7i), = k before f, e.g.


167.

e.g.

humuns' homines'.
142.

149.

ehtrad' extra'.

UMBRIAN
a

a,

written

a, a,

orig. a, e.g. patre 'patri'.

32.

a
a,

written

a,

ah, a, ah, aha,


33.

= =

orig. a, e.g. fratrum 'fratrum'.

orig. a

with secondary lengthening,


73.

e.g. sahta,

sahatam

'sanctam'.

108

Phonology

[167

a (long rounded

a),

written

a, u, o,

orig. final #, e.g. vatuva, vatuvu, uatuo.

34.

e
e,

written

e,

e (rarely

i,

'),

= =

orig.
final

e,
i,

e.g. fertu 'ferto'. e.g. ote 'aut'.

36.

43.

f
,

written

e, eh, e, ee,

eh, ehe

(very rarely

i,

t),

= = =

orig. ai (or di), e.g. pre, jore 'prae'.


orig. ei (or ei), e.g. etu,

eew

'ito'.

63 (60). 65 (60).
e.g.
e-,

orig. e
4

with secondary lengthening,


75-77.

eh-, e-,

ehe-

ex'.

e
e,

written

e,

e, i, z, ei

(rare), ei,

= =

orig.

ej e.g.

habetu, habitu 'habeto'.

42.

orig. oi (or 01) in final syllables, e.g. Dat.-Abl.


-eir.

PL

-es, -ir,

67, 2 (60).

i,

written

i,

i,

and, in the case of orig.


4

i,

frequently
45.

e, e,

orig. orig.
4

i,

e.g. pife, pefe, pirsi, etc.

quid'.

in

medial syllables before


86.

labials,

e.g.

nesimei

proxime'.

I,

written

i,

ih,

i,

ihi, ei

(rarely

e, e),

orig. e.g. persnimu, persnihimu, etc. 'precator'. 48. ? = orig. u in monosyllables etc., e.g. pir' ignis'. 59.
i,

NOTE. For the five preceding sounds both the letters but with different relative frequency, as indicated.

and i are employed,

167]

System of Sounds
9

109

o,

written

u, o,

= orig. 0, e.g. post 'post'. 49. = orig. u before w, e.g. somo 'summum'. 57. = secondary u before m, from e, e.g. hondomu
o
6,

'infimo'.

86.

written

u, 0,

= = =
_

orig. aw, e.g. ute, ote <aut'.

69.
:

orig. ou
orig.
01,

(eu), e.g. tuta,


4

totam

O.

touto.
67,

72.
1.

e.g. joora

qua': O. poizad.

0,

written

u, o, w,

orig. o, e.g.

w0we 'nomen', Abl. Sg.


u

-w.

54.

u, written u, w,

= =

orig. M, e.g. pufe'ubi'. orig. a or


e

55.

in medial syllables before labials, e.g. prehubia


86.

'praehibeat'.

orig. o

before

r,

e.g.

curnaco 'cornicem'.

51.

u
u, written u, uh, u,

orig. u, e.g.

mugatu'muttito'.
ai

58.

ai,

written

ai, ai,

= =

orig.

ok before

^,
z,

e.g. aitu, aitu 'agito'.


e.g.

143.
61, 3.

orig. ai before

pernaiaf anticas'.
ei

ei,

written

ei, ei,

orig.

ek,

or ek with
143.
i,

from

gi

or

az,

e.g.

teitu,

deitu

'dicito'.

orig. ei before
spelling
ei,

e.g. Teteies(?).

61, 3.

For the

see 29 with a.

110

Phonology
^

[167

i,

written

i,

e,

= =

orig.

2,

e.g. iouies

'iuvenibus'.
134.

100.

initial di, e.g. luve, loui.

u
/%

u, written v, u,

= =

orig.

?/,
Z,

e.g. via,

ma 'via'.

101, 102.
104.
i

initial

e.g. vutu 'lavato\

But when i and u are merely glides following a vowel written in the native alphabet, but not in the Latin. 31.

or w, they are

= = =

orig. r, e.g. rehte 'recte'.

103.
s,

intervocalic (and sometimes final)


112, 113.

e.g.

Gen. PI. -arum.

final rs, e.g. oj/er'ager'.

117.

For omission

of

r,

see 115, 116.

orig.

Z,

e.g.

plener 'plenis'.
of
I,

105,

1.

For omission
11

see 105,

2.

orig. nl, e.g.

Padellar^ Patellae'.

107, 3.

n = =

orig. n, e.g.

nome 'nomen'.
1,

107.
1.

For omission

of n, see 108,

109,

initial gn, e.g. natine 'natione'.

147, 2.

nn, written n, w, rarely nn,

orig. ndj dn, e.g.

pihaner

'piandi'.

135.

orig. ?w, e.g. Matrer 'Matris'.

107.

For omission

of final m, see 109,

1.

167]

System of Sounds

111

= = = =

orig.

s,

e.g. es'est'.

ill, 113

ff.
1.

ks before consonants, e.g. destram-e 'in dextram'. 145, = ps before consonants, e.g. ostendu 'ostendito'. 122, 1.
final ks, e.g. final

uas 'vitium'.

145, 2.

fs from

-bh(o)s, e.g. avis 'avibus'.

124, a.

s(s)

= intervocalic ks, e.g. essu, esu 'hoc'. 145, 3. = intervocalic ps, e.g. 08aw*facito'. 122, 2, 3. = dental + s, e.g. Fiso 'deo Fidio'. 137, 1. = dental + dental, e.g. ses^sZ'sederit'. 138.
z, s,

ts,

written

= secondary ts, e.g. tacez, fases'tacitus'. 137, 2. nts = orig. ns, e.g. antermenzaru 'intermenstrium'. no,
ns

1.

= secondary

ns, e.g. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus'.

110,

6,

128,

1.

C, s

(precise sound uncertain)

The sibilant written 9, s, s, = -orig. k before e, i, etc., e.g.


f,

tacez, tases 'tacitus'.

144.

rs (precise

sound uncertain)

The sound written f, rs (sometimes r, r, s), = intervocalic d, e.g. pefi, jpem'pede*. 131, 132. = (rarely) intervocalic I, e.g. kafetu, cars^w'calato'.
P

106.

p =

orig. p, e.g.

pre

'prae'.

120.

orig. &M, e.g. pif-

'quidquid'.

150.

b
b,

written b (sometimes

p), b,

= orig. 6, e.g. kebu 'cibo'. 123. = orig. gu, e.g. benust 'venerit'. 151. mb = orig. mbh, e.g. aw5r-'amb-'. 161. br = orig. pr, e.g. subra 'supra'. 157> 1.
t

orig.

t,

e.g. etu 'ito'.


of final
t,

126.

For omission

see 127, 2.

112

Phonology
d

[167

d,

written

t,
c?,

c?,

= =
dr

orig.

e.g. tuves,

duir 'duobus'.

130.

orig. du, e.g. di-fue 'bifidum'.

102, 3.

nd

= = =

orig.

r,

e.g.

orig. nt,

podruhpei 'utroque'. e.g. ander 'inter'. 156.

157,

2.

orig. ndhj e.g.

ahauendu

'avertito'.

161.

k
k, written
k, c (rarely
'

9-),
'
.

= =
kl

orig. k, e.g.

kanetu canito', procanurent *procinuermt'. 141


e.g. fiktu 'figito'.

orig.

kg (gu,gyli\
tl,

153, 154.
2.

orig.

e.g.

pihaclu 'piaclo'.
g

129,

g,

written

k, g,

orig. g, e.g. ager 'ager'. orig. nk, e.g.


4

147,

1.

ng = =

iuengar iuvencae'.

156. iei.

orig. ngh, ngUh, e.g. cringatro 'cinctum'.


f

= orig. Hi (L./, 5), e.g. fratrum 'fratrum', alfu 'alba'. 124. = orig. dh (L. /, 6, c?), e.g. faciu 'facere', rufru 'rubros'. 136. = orig. ffuh (L./, v, </w), e.g. vufetes 'votis'. 152. = w, e.g. vitluf vitulos'. 110, 2, 3, 4, 5.
For omission
fr
rf

of final /, see 110, 2, a.

= =

orig. sr, e.g. tefrurto'enL rogo'. us. rs (from r(e)a, r), e.g. trahuorji 'transverse'.

115,

2, 3.

h = orig.
(h)t

gJi (L. A), e.g.

h homonus 'hominibus'.
142.

149.

orig. kt, e.g. rehte 'recte'.

=ft from ft from

pt, e.g. screhto 'scriptum'. 121. 6?^^, e.g. vetu 'dividito'. 136, a.

it

As the h in was almost or wholly lost in pronunciation (75, 121, etc.), does not properly belong under the sound h, but is placed here for convenience. For the use of the letter h as a sign of hiatus, see 83.
For the omission
of initial
ft,

see 149, a.

INFLECTION
NOUNS
1

On

the general system of declension, see

12.

FIRST DECLENSION
168.

Examples of Declension. OSCAN


Singular
viii,

UMBRIAN
muta, mutu
tutas, totar
tute, tote

NOM. GEN. DAT.


Acc. Voc. ABL. Loc.

touto, rcopro

vereias, eituas

deivai

viam, toutam

tuta,

totam

Tursa
eitiuvad,
viai,

toutad

tuta, tot a
tafle,

Bansae
Plural

tote

NOM. GEN.
D.-A.

aasas, scriftas

urtas,

iuengar

eehiianasiim,

egmazum

urnasiaru,
tekuries,
vitlaf,

pracatarum

kerssnais
viass, eituas

dequrier

Acc.

uitla

Remarks on
169.
1.

the Case-Forms

NOM. SG.
but
is

The

original ending -a is not shortened

as in Latin,
2.

changed

in quality.

See

34.

GEN. SG.

The

original ending -as, preserved in Latin

only in the phrases pater familids etc., remains unchanged, See 113. except for the rhotacism in the later Umbrian.
1

As the declension
in the

of adjectives

is

like that of

nouns

(see 187),

some adjective

forms are included

paradigms.

In the Plural, the case which is called simply the Dative- Ablative is of course in reality the Dative-Ablative-Locative.

113

114
3.

Inflection

[169

which
62, 63.

original ending -di was shortened to -ai, remained in Oscan, but became -e in Umbrian. See 60,

DAT. SG.

The

4.

Ace. SG.
See
78,
1.

The
For
This

vowel.
5.

original ending -dm retains the the omission of final ra, see 109.
is

long

found only in the Umbrian proper names Tursa, louia, Prestota, Serfia. These forms certainly represent the old Voc. in -a, not the Nom. in -, since in all the

Voc. SG.

occurrences, nearly fifty in number, the spelling

is

uniformly

a,

never

o.

6.

ABL. SG.

The ending

is -dd,

period after the analogy of -od. as in early Latin sententidd etc.,


133.
7.

which arose in the Italic In Oscan the d is retained, but is lost in Umbrian. See
identical

LOG. SG.

The ending
Umbrian, in

is

with that of the

Dative.

But

in

this

and other declensions, the

postpositive en 'in' is frequently employed, either separately as in tafle e, or with contraction, yielding a form in -en, as arven, or

oftener in -em, as Acersoniem (see 109, 1). And since a final is nasal oftener omitted than written, many, perhaps all, of the noun-forms in -e are to be regarded as compounded with -en, rather than as simple Locatives.
a.

Noteworthy are the phrases ocrem Fisiem beside ocre

Fisie,

and toteme

louinem, toteme louine, beside tote louine. The extension of ra to the adjective forms, as if it were a part of the real case-ending (cf. 0. hiirtin Kerriiin,, 171, 7),

was probably favored by the parallelism between Locatives with and without and Accusatives with and without m, where the ra of course appears in the That is, the Loc. ocre(ra) Fisie became ocre(m) Fisie(m) after adjective also. Ace. ocre(ra) Fisi(m). In toteme with e(ri) added again to the already comra

pounded totem the influence


also probable.

of Ace.

forms

like totam-e (cf. destram-e etc.) is

the original -as, which is seen in Sanskrit and Gothic, but which in Latin and Greek has been supplanted by -ai modeled after the -oi of the Second Declen8.
is

NOM. PL.

The ending

sion.
(113).

The only change

is

the rhotacism in the later

Umbrian

169]

First Declension

115

9. GEN. PL. The ending is -dsom, seen in Homeric -ao>i> and belonging originally to the Pronouns (Skt. tasdm). The Umbrian shows rhotacism like the Lat. -drum, while in Oscan

only the intermediate stage


o of the last syllable

has been reached.


still

See

112.

The
-at?,

was probably
-ois

long
is -ais

(78, 4, note).

DAT.-ABL. PL. both modeled after the


10.
ai

The ending
of the

like the

Greek

Second Declension.

The

remains in Oscan, but changes to e in Umbrian, as in Latin to i. See 62, 63. Rhotacism occurs in later Umbrian, 1 and also
in

Old Umbrian before the postpositive


a.

en, e.g. fesner-e'in fano'.

See 113 with


11.

Acc. PL. All forms of Italic (as well as of Greek) go back to an ending -ans, which, modeled after the -ons of the Second Declension, has replaced an older -as. The ns, which
in Latin loses the

n with lengthening
-f,

of the preceding vowel,

becomes O.
See no,
12.
2.

-ss, -s,

U.

the latter being very frequently omitted.

MASCULINE a-STEMS. There are several examples of the Nom. Sg. of Masculine proper names belonging to this Some are borrowed from the Greek, but are withdeclension. out the final s e.g. Santia, Arkiia Ea^as/A/^ta?. But there
;

are also

some which seem


;

to represent a genuine Italic forma-

tion in -as
cases there

e.g. Tanas,
is little

Markas, Maras, Ma/aa?.

For the oblique


is

material.
if

An

Acc. form

seen in Velliam.

The Gen. Sg. Nom. Marahis

not simply a mistake for *Marahieis from with the same adop(176, 4), stands for *Mard-eis, tion of the o-stem ending that is seen in Grk. -do, and also in L. -dl, except that in the latter it is not restricted to Masculines.
Maraheis,

Umbrian is used instead of the specific New Umhrian, so as to which is Old Umbrian, but later than I-IV, and in the rhotacism Simiof final s goes with the New Umbrian (see 113), e.g. plenasier urnasier (Va 2). larly in 2 and 8, above, though there happen to be no examples of the Gen. Sg. or Nom. PL of this declension in Va-Vb 7. The -r forms of 171, 2, 8, 10, are all from
1

The term

later

include

Va-Vb

7,

this passage.

116

Inflection

[170

SECOND DECLENSION
170.

Examples of Declension. OSCAN


Singular
hiirz,

UMBRIAN
Ikuvins, ager
katles,

NOM. GEN. DAT.


Acc. Voc. ABL. LOG.

Bantim

sakarakleis
hurtiii

popler

kumnakle, pople

hurtiim,

dolom
dolud

puplu(m), poplo(m)
Serfe, Tefre

sakaraklud,
terei,

puplu,

poplu

contend
Plural

kumne, onse

NOM. GEN.
D.-A.

Niivlanus

Ikuvinus, louinur
pihaklu, pihaclo
veskles, uesclir
vitluf,

Nuvlaniim, zicolom
Nuvlanuis, zicolois
feihuss
Norn.-Acc. Neuter

Acc.

uitlu

SG.

sakaraklum, touticom
pruftii,

persklum, persclo
iuku, iuka,

PL.

comono

uatuo

Remarks on the Case-Forms


171.
1.

NOM. SG. The o

of the original -os (so in the earliest

For forms Latin inscriptions) is everywhere dropped (90, 91). U. ager from *agros, like O. mirz, U. ta$ez, tases, see 137, 2;
91, 2, 117
-Bios,
;

O.famel, U.
119, 2;
(cf.

katel

(Acc. katlu),

ti$el

(Acc.

ti9lu),

from
-ilos,

36, 2, 88, 4,

similarly O. Aukil, Mutil, from

Paakul from -ulos


Z),

119, 2

O.
( ).

MM,

gentiles Muttillieis, Pakulliis, with doubling of Fiml, probably for *Mitel, *Fimel (like famel),
;

91, 2,

from -Ilos (cf. Gen. Sg. Upfalleis), 119, 2 For fo-stems, see 173, l. O.facus, praefucm, from -uos, 91, l. The ending is -eis, borrowed from the Third 2. GEN. SG.
a
;

Upfals, Upils,

Declension, where it represents the original ending of z-stems, as vice versa the Acc. Sg. of consonant- stems follows that of

171]

Second Declension
In Umbrian the
-eis

117
-es, -er, -er (65, 113),

the 0-stems.
rarely
3.

appears as

-e, -e (113, b).

For O.

Ila/t/r^t? etc., see 24.

DAT. SG.

which thong in Umbrian.


to
-oi,

original ending -oi has been shortened remains unchanged in Oscan and becomes a monoph-

The

The only corresponding form

in Latin

is

Numasioi, the usual ending -o corning from -oi by a different The Umbrian forms usually show See 60, 66, 67, 2. process.
e, e,

but occasionally
a.

i,

or

ei, e.g. Tefri,

fratreci, Tefrei.

Declension.
4.

U. Trebo, Fiso, for earlier Trebe, Fise, show a transfer to the Fourth In 0. Pakiu and Verehasiii the omission of i is simply a mistake.

Acc. SG.

The

original ending

was

-om, as in the earliest

it is usually written -um, -om, In Umbrian the vowel is always o (50). in the Latin alphabet. For omission of the final m, see 109. 5. Voc. SG. The original ending -e is preserved as in

Latin inscriptions.

In Oscan

occasionally -um, -um

Latin.

The only examples

are

from the Umbrian.

With

Tefre compare puere in Plautus. 6. ABL. SG. The d of the original -od
as in early Latin preivdtod etc.,
133.

is retained in Oscan, but dropped in Umbrian. See

The vowel

is

written u or u in the Oscan native alphabet,


u.

but always u in the Latin, and in Umbrian also nearly always See 53, 54.

a. On the Iguvinian Tables, among over 100 occurrences, there is only one certain instance of an Ablative in -o (so?no, VI a 10), apart from adverbs like eso

But as there seems to be something artificial in (see 54, note, 190, 2, note). this uniformity of spelling (see 1. c.), there is no objection on this score to taking
maronato (no. 83) as Abl. Sg. of an o-stem (cf. Loc. Sg. maronatei, no. though some assume that it is Loc. Sg. of a w-stem. See 302.
7.
84),

from which comes the Lat. -i is retained in Oscan, becoming an -e in Umbrian. See 64, 65. A fusion of this Locative with the postpositive -en is to be seen in O. mil-tin Kerriiin, where the apparent ending -in (from -en, -ei-en Otherwise Oscan 41, a, 82, l) is extended to the adjective. has the simple Locative. In Umbrian the combination with -en
Loc. SG.

The

original -ei

is

frequent, perhaps even universal.

See

169,

7.

118
8.

Inflection

[171

In Latin, as in Greek, the pronominal ending -oi has completely displaced the old noun-ending -os, but in Oscan-Umbrian the leveling has been in the opposite direction, and both nouns and pronouns show -os. This appears in Oscan
as -us, -us (ius-c
9.
'ii'),

NOM. PL.

-om,

GEN. PL. -wm (deum etc.),


in

Umbrian as -us, -u, -ur, -ur. See 53, 54, 113. The ending is -ow, which in Latin becomes
in

so far as it is not replaced

by the second-OU/A,

ary -drum.
-O/JL,

It appears in

Oscan

as -um, -um,

once -om,

or

Umbrian as -u, -o(m). See 53, 54, 78, 4, 109, l. The ending is -ois (Grk. -ot?, -oto-t; 10. DAT.-ABL. PL. It appears in Oscan as -uis, see 60, a), which becomes L. -is. -ois, in Umbrian as -es (-er-e), -e, -er (once -is), -ir (-is-co), -er, -eir, the usual forms being -es and -ir (over 100 examples of -ir including
-isco,

7 of -eir, 6 of -er).

See

66, 67, 2, 113


is

with
;

a, b.

11.

Ace. PL.
-os

The ending
loss of

-ons (or -ons

see 74, note),

whence L.
change
latter,

by
2. 0,

of -ns to O.

see no,

n and vowel-lengthening. For the -ss, -f, and the frequent omission of the For the long vowel in Umbrian, usually
U.

written u, rarely

see 74, 54.

a. Several Umbrian forms with o which were once taken as Masc. are more probably Neuter (see below, 13), and the existence of any Masc. forms with o is denied by some. But there is nothing incredible in the appearance of U. o for o (see 54), and any other explanation than as Ace. PI. Masc. is too forced in the case of wiro, ueiro 'viros', and pesondro 'figmenta'(?) in VI b 37 (Masc. as shown by pesondro sorsalem VI b 39 PI. as shown by suf uf in the Probable examples also are ehiato 'emissos' VII b 2, parallel passage la 33). with p\ft, 'quos' (other explanations less likely), and a&ro/, apruf 'apros' agreeing some as for *abronf; cf. abrunu, abrons, 181, 6). (regarded by
,
;

12.

NoM.-Acc. So. NEUTER.

This has exactly the same

history as the Ace. Sg. Masc. 13. NoM.-Acc. PL. NEUTER.

and in the Italic period this was extended to the Neuters of the Third and Fourth Declensions. This -a, which thus became the ending of all Neuters, has the same history as that of the Nom. Sg. of the First Declension, being shortened in Latin, and appearing in Oscan as -ii, -o, in Umbrian as -a, -u, -o. See 34.
is -a,

The ending

172]

Second Declension

119

But in Umbrian there are also some Nom. PL forms in -or and some Ace. PL forms in -u(f), -o(/), which seem to be Neuters
(of various declensions)

with r and

added after the analogy

of the corresponding cases of Masc. 0-stems. This extension probably started with the Ace., where it was favored by the

existence of Masc. forms with and without/, and spread to the Nom. Examples are Nom. uasor (stem uds-, Abl. PL vasus)
: ;

tuderor (stem tuder-, Ace. Sg. tuder, Abl. PL tuderus), with the adjectives in agreement totcor and screihtor: so probably

arsmor with dersecor subator in agreement Ace. krematruf beside krematru, krematra kastruvuf beside kastruvu, castruo (w-stem, O. Gen. Sg. castrous) uerof-e, veruf-e (O. veru Ace.
;
:

PL

1 Neut., rather than Ace. Sg. Masc.; cf. veruis). 14. GENDER. An example of a Fern. 0-stem

is

O.

Eidiiis

w-stem.

'Idibus' (Eiduis Mamerttiais), the Latin cognate being a Fern, O. triibum is also Fern, (triibum ekak), but as only
(tribud)

the Ace. Sg. and Abl. Sg. consonant-stem.

occur,

it

may

be taken as a

172.

Examples

of Declension.

OSCAN

UMBRIAN

120

Junction

[172

OSCAN

UMBRIAN
Atiiefiur,

NOM. GEN.
D.-A.

degetasius

Atiersiur

Tirentium

Atiiefiu, Atiersio
Atiiefies, Atiersier,
feliuf, filiu

Dekmanniuis

Atiersir

Acc.

Norn. -Ace. Neuter

SG.

medicim, memnim, Safinim afkani, tertim


arvia, arviu

PL.

Remarks on
173.
1.

the Case-Forms

NOM. and Acc. SG. M. and NoM.-Acc. SG. N. The forms come from -ios, -iom by samprasarana (91, 1). For
the quality of the resulting
i

(O.

i,

not

i,

U.

~i(m),

not e(m)),

U. Fisei, which occurs once, is one of the few see 44, 45, a. examples of ei for short i (29). Like O. Mais from *Maiios (Dat.
are U. pefaem (Acc. Sg. M.), pefae, persae (Nom.-Acc. PI. F. pefaia, persaea), but with Sg. N.), from *pedaiiom (Acc. the preceding vowel here perhaps U. difue -e(m) for -i(m) after

Sg.

Maiiiii)

'bifidum' (Acc. Sg. N.) from *dui-fuiom (or Astern?). In Umbrian, uncontraoted and contracted 2. DAT. SG. forms are found side by side (82, 2), about evenly divided in Old

Umbrian, but with a great preponderance of contracted forms in New Umbrian. Thus Fisie (1), Fisi (12), Fisei (1). Once Sansii
beside Sansie, Sansi.
3.

DAT.-ABL. PL.

Contracted forms

Umbrian, as Atiersir, Clauerni. are the same as in other o-stems (171,


in
Atiiefies, Atiiefier

New

are found only Variations of the final


(82, 2)

10,

113 with a,

),

e.g.

is the (V), Atiiefie, Klaverniie, etc. only case of omitted -r in a noun-form (see 113, b). 4. The other case-forms are like those of the ordinary o-stems, with the usual Umbrian variations in spelling, for which

But Clauerni

see 171.

For the absence of contracted forms of the Gen., Voc., and Loc. Sg., see 82, 2, a. For O. inciJt/f.rm/ from
sec 100,
:,

c.

174]

Second Declension
5.

121

But there are some examples forms. Thus in the Abl. Sg., beside
paradigms,

of transfer to the z'-stem

the forms given in the

we

find O. serevkid, prupukid, medikid (probable reading),

probably from *seruikio-, *pro-pak-io-, *meddik-io-, rather than from original ^-sterns. A similar transfer is probable in U. arvis,
arves,

form, even

Dat.-Abl. PI. to arvia <*arvia, frumenta', since a contracted if such were otherwise known in Old Umbrian (see 3),
-es.

would not have


without parallel

As an

z-stem form the

-es

would not be
frequency

(aves,

punes),

though

its

relative

(arves 11, arvis 2) is surprising.

Oscan Gentiles in
174.

-iis etc.

examples of w-stems are to be found among the proper names, for which Oscan furnishes copious material. Of forms like O. Pakis, Dekis, etc., some are gentiles and some praenomina. But there is also in Oscan, with some few examples in Umbrian, a distinct class of names in -iis (-iis, With the exception of a few forms -ies, -te?), Gen. -iieis (-iieis).

Many

of the

The on carelessly written inscriptions, these are all gentiles. combination of praenomen in -is with gentile in -iis is frequent.
rpi

Pakis Kluvatiis

Vibis Smintiis

Pakim Kluvatiium
Dekis Rahiis
Dekkieis Rahiieis
Sepis Helevi(is)
l

Vibis Urufiis
Stenis Kalaviis

Dekis Seppiis

27re&?

Ma//,e/oe/ae<?

Sepieis

Heleviieis

Tpeftis Secrrte?
;

Note also praen.


Trebiis.

Sepis

gent. Seppiis

praen. T/ae/3t9

gent.

Further examples from the oblique cases of -iis are Gen. Sg. Aadiieis, Saidiieis, Virriieis (also U. Kluviier, Kastruciie, the only Umbrian examples of the type) Gen. PI. Kluvatiium, Magiium,
:

Viriium.

The only Ace.

Sg. form

is

Kluvatiium.
'tor line

tions,

1 The first i is simply a mistake. The word occurs on one of the which are notoriously inexact in the use of i.

inscrip-

122

Inflection

[174

Examples
;

of forms in

-iis

are Aadiriis (also Aadiriis, probably


;

Gen. Sg. Spuriieis, Dat. Sg. luvkiiui, Vestirikiiui. Kastrikiieis In the Greek alphabet we find -te?, as IIo/zTme? Piintiis, = Avdiis. The few etc. also A/rSete? examples in Ma/jiepeKies, the Latin alphabet have -ies, as Afaries, and such forms are
a mistake), Atiniis, Kiipiis, Sjpuriis, Viinikiis
;

common
175.

also in Paelignian, as Ponties, Loucies, etc.

The

spell-

ing -ies in the native alphabet is

very

rare.

well known, the Latin gentiles are in origin patronymic adjectives formed with the io- suffix from individual names (that is, in terms of the fully developed system
is

As

the praenomina), just as in certain Greek dialects patronymics in -to? are regularly used in place of the usual Genitives of the So Mdrcius from Marcus, Tullius from Tullus, father's name.

correspond the Oscan gentiles in -is. But there are also in Latin praenomina in -ius, as Lucius, Servius,
etc.
etc.,

To such forms

From such praenomina,


in

and in Oscan the praenomina in -is are very numerous. it is clear, are formed the Oscan gentiles That is, the gentile Trebiis stands in the same rela-iis etc.

tion to the praenomen T/ae/Si?, as gent. Heirennis to praen. Heirens, The only unceror as Latin gent. Mdrcius to praen. Marcus. tainty is as to the precise form of the suffix and the actual

pronunciation.
There are three possibilities for the suffix, namely 1) -MO-, 2) -MO-, 3) both and -MO-, the latter in the case of forms in -ifs. The probability is in favor of the first. Not only is -iio- the suffix most natural to assume, whether as the inherited by-form of -io- thus turned to special account, or as actually formed from -io- in the Italic x or Oscan-Umbrian period, but it is also the one which That is, in Dekkieis best harmonizes with the usual spelling of the oblique cases. ii that is elsewhere Rahiieis we have the same relation between i = j and ii
observed (31).

-iio-

lost in

Any such differentiation between -jo- and -wo-stems would necessarily be Latin in most cases, since postconsonantal i becomes vocalic (e.g. medius from

*medhio-). A possible trace is the difference between praen. Gains (from *Gduios before the change of j to i) and gent. Gdvius, but even this is uncertain, as Gavins might be regarded simply as the older form retained in use in the gentile.

176]

Second Declension
The Nominative
in
-iis

123

from

-iios is best

samprasaraua

in the last syllable.

That

is,

as *Pak-ios

explained by the assumption of became Pakis (173, 1),

Against this it may be urged that we should then expect also Ace. *Kluvatiim like Pakim, but it is possible that Kluvatiium, if this single occurrence is representative of the usual form, involves a restoration under the influence of hurtum etc.
so *Kluvati-ios

became

Kluvatiis.

But in the Nom. forms, owing probably to dissimilation, the second vowel somewhat in quality from the first, and this is brought out in the spelling The same thing is indicated by the spelling -ifs, and wherever this -ies, -ies. was in vogue the ii in place of ii was extended to the oblique cases. The forms in -ils, -iieis, then, which are preferred in the Cippus Abellanus and many of
differed

Pompeian inscriptions, but are not found elsewhere, represent simply a graphic variation of the usual type and not an independent formation.
the

176.

1.

Although the interchange of

-iis

with

-is reflects in

general an

earlier interchange of -iios with ios, yet in

many

instances the

be formed, at a comparatively late date, directly from the analogy of the usual relation between the two. Thus Mahii[s

Nom. in -iis may Nom. in -is, after the


is

formed from

Mais, Mais, or rather from *Mahis with the spelling implied by the abbreviation

For Mais comes through *Maiios (Dat. Sg. Maiitii), from *Mag-ios (147, 3), and an inherited by-form *Mag-iios would yield 0. *Magiis, which is actually So probably leiis from praen. *Ieis (like represented by Gen. PI. Magiium. the from *Ieiios, *Iegios, by-form *Ieg-iios surviving in L. legius. original Mais) 2. Similar examples are Rahiis 'Rams' (Gen. Rahiieis) from praen. *Rahis, *Raiios, and Staiis Staius' from praen. *Stais, *Staiios, except that in these ii does not come from gi. 3. The spelling i instead of i (44, 6) in *Stais, Staiis, *Iefs, leiis, as in Mais beside Mais, and in Vesulliais, is due to the influence of the many words conMh.
'

taining the diphthongs ai, ei. 4. The relation of gent. Mamies, Gen. Sg. Maraiieis to praen. Marahis, Gen. Sg. Marahieis is probably the same as that of Mahii[s to Mais, *Mahis (Mh.), except in the matter of spelling, the examples being from different localities

and showing an extension of the

hiatus, to the oblique cases of the

The forms then go back to For the praen. Maras, Ma/oas


see 169, 12.
5.

which belongs to the Nom. Sg. as a mark of praenomen rather than to those of the gentile. *Maraiios, related to Fal. Mareio and L. Marius. (with Gen. Maraheis ?), from the simpler stem Mara-,
ft,

In Dekis

Hereiis,

Gen. Dekkieis Heriieis (no. 40), either Hereiis


2).
is

is

a mis-

take for *Heriis, or Heriieis for *Hereiieis (with suffix -eiio-, 253, is more probable. Virriiis (no. 20) beside Virriis, Virriieis, etc.,
less spelling,

The former
3).

simply a care-

rather than a different form with suffix -eiio- (253, U. Teteies (II a 44), probably 'Tetteius', see 61, 3, 253, 2.

For

1:24

Inflection

[177

THIRD DECLENSION
177.

The Latin Third Declension


and
i-stems.

represents a partial fusion

of consonant-stems
is

In Oscan-Umbrian too there

a fusion in certain cases, but the distinction between the two In the Ace. classes is more faithfully preserved than in Latin.

and Abl. Sg. there is no encroachment of the consonantal forms upon the z-stems, as in L. -em, -e, beside -im, -i and in the Norn. In the Dat.-Abl. PI. the forms are as distinct as in the Gen. PL PL the fusion exists in Oscan as in Latin, while in Umbrian consonant stems follow the w-stems. The relation of the two types may be seen from the following
;
:

A. CONSONANT-STEMS
Singular

B. /-STEMS

NOM. GEN. DAT.


Acc. ABL. Loc.

O. meddiss
O. medikeis (U. -es, -er) O. medikei (U. -e, -e)

O.

aidil,

U. fans
-erj
-e)

O. aeteis (U. -es, O. Fuutrei (U. -e,

O. tanginom (U. O. ligud (but U.

-u, -o)

kapife)

O. slagim (U. O. slaagid (U.


\J.ocre

-e(m), e(m))
-i,

-i)

U.

ferine,

ferine (?)

scalsi-e(?)

Plural

NOM. GEN.
D.-A.

Acc.

O. tris, aidilis (U. -es, -er) O. meddiss, humuns O. fratnim (U. -u(m), -o(m)) O. ajittium, U. peracnio O. luisarifs, Anafriss (U. -is, O. ligis (but U. fratrus) O. malaks, usurs, U. nerf U. trif, trif, auif
Nom.-iAcc. Neuter

-is)

SG.

U.

tuplak, pir,

nome

PL.

(see 178, 12)

U. uerfale, sehemeniar U. triia, triiu-per, trio-per

Remarks on the Case-Forms


178.
1.

NOM. SG.

Owing

i-stems, the

ending becomes

to the syncope of i in the -is of identical with that of most consonantaidil,

stems.

peculiarities in the different classes of consonant-stems, see 179-182.


loss of s in

For the

see 119,

2.

For

178]

Third Declension
2.

125

GEN. SG.

The

-eis,

representing the normal formation

for fe-stenis as seen in various languages, has been extended to In Latin, vice versa, the -is from -es, which consonant-stems.

belongs properly to the consonant-stems, has been extended to


z-stems.
3.

For U.

-es, -er,

see 65.
-ei

DAT. SG.
it is

The
-ai,

which
or

an old Loc.

belongs properly to the z-sterns, of The Latin -I, early -ei, may be the same,

may
4.

stand for

represent both.

the old Dat. of consonant-stems, or For U. -e, -e, see 65.

may

Acc. SG.

The

in Latin,

remains undisturbed.

-im of ^-sterns, only partially preserved In Umbrian the spelling -im

occurs in a few instances, but nearly always we find -e(m), -e(m), Thus indicating the open quality of the i before final m (45, a).

but uve(m), perakne(m), Tafinate, ocre(m), staflaThis -em has of course no connection re(m), Tarsinatem, etc. with the Latin -em, which is not from -im but represents the
spantim, ahtim-em,

ending of consonant-stems. In consonant-stems the original -em (from -m) has wholly disappeared in favor of -om, which is borrowed from the -0-stems. 5. ABL. SG. The ending of 2- stems is -id, identical with
L.
-i,

early
-e

-id.

In Umbrian the spelling


ocre-per

is

usually

-i,

-i

(-ei),

rarely

(cf.

48); e.g. puni (22 times), poni (12), pone (1), ukri(3).

pe(r) (9), ocri-per (16),

In consonant-stems there is a difference between Oscan and Umbrian. In Oscan we find the ending of o-stems, as in the Acc. e.g. tanginud, tanginud, tanginud. But in Umbrian it is -e
;

as in Latin, e.g. kapife, karne, curnase, frite (from *fret-

Abl. more likely than Loc., see 294),


in origin, with
a.

etc.

This

is

L.fretu- ; probably a Loc.


:

-e

for original

-i.

0. praesentid

Participles

show

-ia,

pern, persei-co (aes

shows the form of an i-stem, just as in Latin the Present U. peri, -ium, regularly, and often -I beside -e in the Abl. of the is of the encroachment also an example persti-co),
Latin airld
etc.

i-stein ending, as in early

6.

for z-stems,

Loc. SG. The proper endings are -ei (from -ei or -eii) and -i for consonant-stems. Owing to the absence

126
of

Inflection

[178

Oscan examples and the ambiguity of the Umbrian -e, which may come from -ei (65) or -i (43), the history of the case is not altogether certain, but there is no objection to supposing that ocre contains the ending -ei (for ocrem see 169, 7), and that in This last is favored by scalsie, ferine the -e comes from -i.
apparently for scalsi-e(n) (cf. scalse-to ex patera') with the original i retained before the enclitic.
l

NOTE. U. ferine is obviously a consonant-stem as if L. *ferione (see 181), but the phrase in which it occurs is so obscure that it is uncertain whether it is a Loc. * in feretro' (L. fero) or Abl. cultro' (L. /eno), though the former is more probable.
'

7.

NOM. PL.

The ending of consonant-stems is -es (Grk. -e?,


completely displaced by the -es syncope of the e it appears in O. humuns etc.
is

Skt.

-as, etc.),

which in Latin

of i-stems.

With

For /-stems the ending is -eies (Skt. -ayas), whence -es which appears in Latin and in O. tris and in U.puntes, pacrer,foner.
See
90,
1.

See

82, 1, 41, a.
i,

But O.

aidilis (also fertalis, if

Nona. PL), with

instead of

points to a different formation, probably -is, following the analogy of -as, -Js, in the First and Second Declensions.
8.

GEN. PL.

The endings
1.

are

-dm and

-(i)iom.

For

O.

ajittium, see 162,

The ending of /-stems is -ifos, from -Mos, 9. DAT.-ABL. PL. whence comes the Latin -ibus. This becomes by syncope -z/s, which is found in a single Oscan form of very early date, luisarifs. Thus All other examples show assimilation of the fs (124, a).
O.
Anafriss, sakriss,
i

U.

avis, puntis, sacris, etc., also aves, punes,

with

e for

(45),

and once

sevakne with omission of the s such as

The occurs elsewhere only in the case of original final s (113, b). in aueis not ei is sufficient for of supground single occurrence of was vowelthat the fs accompanied by simplification posing
lengthening.

See

29.

Consonant-stems show the z-stem form in Oscan as in Latin, but in Umbrian follow the it-stems. Thus O. ligis, but U. fratrus,

10.

homonus, karaus, etc. Ace. PL. The ending of /-stems

is -ins

(or -Ins

see

74, note),

whence L.

-is

by

loss of

n and vowel-lengthening.

178]

Third Declension

127

This would give O. -iss, like -ass, -uss, of the First and Second Umbrian examples are Declensions, but examples are wanting.
trif, tref, tre, trif,

treif, avif, auif, aueif,

auuei, etc.

For the change

to/ and the frequent omission of the latter, see 110, 2. For the long vowel indicated by the spelling ei, see 74. For consonant-stems the ending is -ens (from -ns), whence L. -es by the same process as -Is from -ins. This would give O. -ess, U. -ef, for which, however, we find O. -s, U. -f. The Oscan form might be the result of syncope, but this could not be assumed for Umbrian, if the vowel in -ef was long (74). The change may be due to the analogy of the Nom. PL in -s (from -es), since in the other declensions the -f stands in the same relaBut see 74, note. tion to the stem as the -s of the Nom. PI. The probable Oscan examples are usurs 'osores'(?) and malaks In Umbrian we have nerf (ner-, 180, 2), manf 'malevolos'(?). (man-, otherwise manu-), capif, kapi (also kapif by mistake) from *kapid-f (139, 1), uapef-e from *uaped-f, uef from *ueif-f (136, a), For U. abrons, see 181, b. frif from *frug-f (147, 4). 11. NoM.-Acc. So. NEUTER. The -i of z-stems may remain as U. -e (43), or be dropped (92), just as in Latin we have sedlle, but animal etc. Thus U. sacre, uerfale, etc., but sehemeniar. Examples of consonant-stems are U. tuplak (192, 1), pir (180, d), name (181), etc. 12. NoM.-Acc. PL. NEUTER. The ending -d, belonging to has been o-stems, properly generalized, giving -(i)id for z-stems and -d for consonant-stems, which then undergo the usual change of final d. See 34, 171, 13. Examples from z-stems are U. triia,
of final ns
triiu-per,

trio-per (192,

2),

sakreu,

perakneu

(e

for

i,

45).

From

consonant-stems the only Umbrian examples are of the secondary type in -or, as tuderor from tuder- etc. See 171, 13. O. teremenniu
beside teremniss 'terminibus'
is

either an

ment

of the z-stem ending, or else extension of termen-. original e'-stem termeni- is less probable.

example of the encroachcomes from a stem termenio-, an

An

For O. petora 'quattuor'

(Festus),

which may possibly contain


-a,

the old ending of consonant-stems,

I.E.

-d,

see 191,

4.

Inflection

[179

TYPES OF CONSONANT-STEMS
179.

Mute-Stems

OSCAN
Singular

UMBRIAN
zefef,

NOM. GEN. DAT.


Acc. ABL.

meddiss,

meddis

serse

medikeis

medikei

kapife, capirse

capirso, erietu, curnaco

ligud

kapife,

curnase

NoM.-Acc. NEUT.
Plural

tuplak, huntak

NOM. GEN.
D.-A.

meddiss,

liimitu[m
ligis

kapirus,

uapersus

Acc.

malaks

capif, uapef-e, uef, frif

a. For the consonant-changes in Nom. Sg. meddiss and Nom. PI. meddiss, see 145, 2; for U. zefef, 110, 4; for U. Acc. PI. capif etc., 178, 10.

Liquid Stems
180.
1.

Agent>nouns in OSCAN

-tor-, like

Latin

victor, victoris.

UMBRIAN
arfertur, arsfertur, kvestur,

Singular

NOM.
GEN. DAT.
Acc. ABL.

censtnr, keenzstur, kvaisstur,

uhtur

embratur

kvaisturei, Regaturei

afferture, speture

arsferturo, uhturu

Plural

NOM.
Acc.

kenzsur, cemtur, kvaizstur

usurs

180]

Third Declension
2.

129

Nouns

of Relationship, like Latin pater, patris

OSCAN
Singular

UMBRIAN

NOM. GEN.
DAT.
Acc. Voc. ABL.

patir, niir

Maatreis
Paterei

lupater

Plural

NOM. GEN.
D.-A.

frater,

frateer,

frater

fratriim,

nerum

fratru(m),
fratrus,

fratrom

fratrus, nerus

Acc.
a.

nerf
original long vowel (Grk. -77/3, In the other cases 2.
-tr-

The Nominative Singular preserves the


which
is

-up, Skt. -a, etc.),

shortened in Latin.

See 78,
in

we

have, as in Latin, -tor- in agent-nouns, but except in the Vocative Singular. See 97.
sion of

nouns of relationship,

O. Fuutrel, Futrei 'Genetrici', Gen. Futre[ls, apparently follows the declennouns of relationship, but the existing case-forms may belong equally well to an i-stem, and the word is perhaps a relic of the old Feminine formation
of agent-nouns (Skt. -tr-i),

which

in Latin nearly

always appears in an extended


117; for U. frateer, see 76, 3;
Skt. nar-,

form

(gene-tr-l-x etc.).
b.

For the Nom.


O.
niir,

PI. in -r

from

-r(e)s, see

for O. -rs in the Acc. PI., see 117, a.


c.

nerum, U. nerf, nerus,

etc.,

correspond to Grk.

avfip,

Nom.

Sg. nti 'man', Gen. PI.


d.
:

nardm

(Vedic).

Neuter r-stems are U. utur 'aquam' (Grk. vdap), with Abl. Sg. une U. Nom. -Acc. (*udne; see 135, a) from an n-stem (cf. L. femur, feminis); see 59), with Abl. Sg. pure, pure-to, from a pir, pir 'ignis' from*pw- (Grk. irvp
;

stem pur-. From pure-to arose, after the analogy of the Masculines, Acc. Sg. purom-e beside the regular pir.
1 The history of the word would be simplified, could we accept the suggestion De Saussure and Thurneysen (I.F. Anz. 9, 184) that it is not, as commonly supposed,

of

a derivative of fu- with causative meaning 'cause to be, create', but the equivalent of Grk. QvydTyp, Skt. duhita, etc. But, without attempting to discuss here the complicated phonetics of this group of words, it is safe to say that we should expect in

Oscan either *Fuktrei or *Fuhtrei. That the latter should appear three times without h would do for Umbrian, but not for Oscan (142).

130

Inflection

[181

181.

Nasal Stems

MASCULINES AND FEMININES


Singular

NEUTERS
U. numem, nome, umen U. nomner, pelmner U. nomne U. numem, name U. nomne, umne, tikamne

NOM.
GEN.

O.

fruktatiuf,
kiuf,

liittiuf,

tribarak-

U.

tribfi9u,

karu

O. tangineis,
carneis

kujmparakineis,

DAT.
Ace.

O.

leginei, sverrunei,

U. karne

O. leginum, tanginom, medicatinom, U. abrunu

ABL.

O. tanginud, tanginud, tanginud,U. natine, tribrisine,


karne

LOG.

U.

ferine,

ferine

(?)

Plural

NOM. GEN.
D.-A.

O. humuns

[O. teremenniii]

Ace.

U. homonus, karnus U. manf

O. teremniss

a. Most of the Masc. and Fern, forms belong to the type of L. legio, -ioms, but in the oblique cases show the suffix in the reduced grade -In- (95 the vowelIn O. statif 'statua' length is shown by the Oscan spelling i, "not i; see 47).
;

(in

form L.

statio) the

reduced grade appears also in the Nom., but the

is

strange (hardly -in- beside -in-). b. The type of L. sermo, -onis is represented by 0. sverrunei, humuns (cf. U. abrons, Vila early Latin hemonem), U. homonus, abrunu (as if L. *aprdnem).
43, used as Ace. PL, is probably the

Nom. form written by mistake

for *abronf.

c. U. karu, Gen. Sg. O. carneis, etc., agree with L. caro, carnis in showing reduced the grade of the suffix in the oblique cases. d. The Oscan Nom. Sg. in -f represents -ns, with n introduced from the

oblique cases, and s added after the analogy of other Nominatives. The Umbrian forms probably represent the same type with the final / omitted, rather than See 110, 5. the formation in -6 like the Latin.

S-Stems
182.

Examples of s-stems
mersus
(132, a)
;

are:

U. mefs, mers ius\ Dat.l

Abl.

PL

O. Dat.-Abl.

PL

aisusis 'sacrificiis';-

184]

Third Declension

131

U. Dat.-Abl. Pl.vasus'vasibus' (cf. L. vds), Nom. PI. uasor (171,13); - O. far, U./ar 'far' (from *fars see 117), Gen. Sg.farer (instead of *farser, under the influence of the Nom.) - - U. Ace. Sg. tuder
;
;

'finem' (see 131, a),


13),

Dat.-Abl. PI. tuderus,


;

Ace.

PL

tuder o

U.

ose 'opere'(?).

PI. tuderor (171, U. pars in pars-est 'par

Nom.

seems to be like *fars, far, with rs preserved before the enclitic (117, b), but the relation to L. par, paris is not wholly
est'

clear.

IRREGULAR NOUNS
183.

The nouns corresponding


:

to L. luppiter, bos,

and sus

show the following forms


1.

Gen. Sg. O. Iiiveis Dat. Sg. O. Diiivei, Atou/rei, luvei, Ace. Sg. U. Dei Voc. Sg. U. lupater, Di, Dei. luve, luue 2. Ace. Gen. PL U. buo Sg. U. bum Abl. Sg. U. bue Ace. PL U. buf, buf.
;

U.

3.
a.

Ace. Sg. U. sim,


The and
relation

si;

Ace.
Iiiveis

PL U.

sif, sif, si.

between 0.

L. lovis

*Ioue

is

early Diovis (see 134). due to the influence of the Old

and For O.

Diiivei is

the same as between

Auw/rei see 24, a.


spelling.

U. luue for

Umbrian

U. lupater, like

L. lupiter (luppiter), is from *Dieu-pater (Grk. ZeO irdrep). U. Di, Dei, are probin from the stem seen with L. contraction ably dies, Dies-ptter, (82, 2).
6. U. bum, &M/, are from bo- (cf. Grk. Dor. j3w^, /3<Ss), and this form of the stem has spread to the other cases, replacing bou- of L. bove etc. c.

For U.

sim,

sif, etc.,

see 59.

FOUETH DECLENSION
184.

Examples
OSCAN

of Declension.

UMBRIAN
Singular

NOM. GEN. DAT.


Ace. ABL. LOG.

castrous

trifor
trifo,

Ahtu

[maniiri]

trifu, trifo

[castrid]

[mani, mani,

trefi,

afputrati]

manuv-e

132

Inflection

[184

OSCAN
Plural

UMBRIAN
berva, castruo, kastruvuf

N.-A. NEUT.

GEN.
D.-A.

pequo(?)
berus

Remarks on the Case-Forms

Oscan shows the original ending -ous (Skt. -o, Goth, -aus, etc.), whence U. -or (72, 113), and L. -us. U. trifo (also Fiso, Trebo, with transfer from 2. DAT. SG. the 0-stems; see 171, 3, a) may be combined with the Latin Dative in -u on the basis of a form in -ou. This is probably an
185.
1.

GEN. SG.

old Locative, seen in U. manuv-e with the diphthong preserved before the enclitic, the -ou coming from -eu (70), this from -eu
(60
;

cf.

Skt. -du).

For U. -o from -um, see 57. O. manim cannot be reasonably explained from *manum and must be an z-stem form, due perhaps to the Ablatives in -id. 4. ABL. SG. See 59 with note. 5. LOG. SG. For U. manuv-e, see above, 2. 6. NoM.-Acc. PL. NEUTER. The ending is -ud with -d from usual o-stems (171, 13), showing the change of final -a (34). For
3.

Ace. SG.

U. kastruvuf beside castruo, see 171, 13. The ending -us 7. DAT.-ABL. PL.
(L. -ubus),
8.

is

from

-ufs, -ufos,

-ubhos

and

this

has been extended to consonant-stems

(178, 9).

GENDER.
liuvina)
is

As

U.

trefiper

in Latin, w-stems are regularly Fern. (cf. or Neuter. But U. mani, in contrast to

L. manus,

Masc. (maninertru).

FIFTH DECLENSION
186.

The

Fifth Declension

is

represented by only a few


ri 'rei'

scattering forms, namely:

DAT. SG.
rio'

O. Kerri 'Cereri' -- U.
;

(stem auie- more probable than mtid- or auio-,

U. auie auguon account of


4

aviekate, auiecla).

187]

Adjectives

133

ABL. SG.

U.

ri^re'.

Ace. PL. U. iouie. DAT.-ABL. PL. U.


a.

iouies.

The ending

Second Declension
b.

of the Dat. Sg. is -e, from -ei, like L. -o from -6i in the Cf. L. facie etc. quoted by grammarians. (60).

0. Kerri represents a transfer


(L. Ceres)

*Keres

*Ker(e)seis etc.,

Declension, just

from an original s-stem. Nom. Sg. became *Kerres under the influence of Gen. Sg. *Kerreis from and this was drawn into the analogy of forms of the Fifth as was in part L. plebes.

187.

As

First

and Second Declensions or according


1.

in Latin, adjectives are declined according to the to the Third.

A large proportion of the existing


Examples
:

forms follow the First


Ace. Sg. N.
totcor (171, 13),

and Second Declensions.


O.
touticom
tiivtiks
;

'publicus',

Nom.

Sg.

F.

toutico,

U. todcom (Ace. Sg. M.), Nom.

PL

N.

Dat.-Abl.

PL

todceir.

O. muiniku 'communis' (Nom. Sg. F.), Ace. Sg. F. muinikam, Abl. Sg. F. muinikad, Loc. Sg. N. muinikei.

U. Ikuvins 'Iguvinus', Gen. Sg. F. liuvinas, Dat. Sg. F. Ikuvine, Ace. Sg. F. liouinam, Abl. Sg. F. Ikuvina, Loc. Sg. F.
Mouine, louinem
a.

(169,

7,

a),

Nom. PL M.

Ikuvinus.

the Gen. Sg.


*altroi.

Just as the pronominal adjectives in Latin show pronominal forms in and Dat. Sg., so in Oscan we find Dat. Sg. altrei 'alteri', not

is no special pronominal ending, and Masc. and Fern, forms are kept distinct (195, b). Hence it is useless to assume pronominal declension for O. minstrels to account for its use with aeteis (minstrels aeteis minoris partis'), a word which is elsewhere Fern. (cf. ajittiiim alttram 'portionum

But

See 195, c. in the Gen. Sg. there

'

alteram').

We

must rather assume

local variation in the

gender of the noun.

Adjectives of the Third Declension are mostly i-stems. Thus O.-U. sakri- beside saJcro- (cf. early L. sacres porti etc.
2.
;

the Oscan and some of the


tively, while the

Umbrian examples

are used substan-

forms of sakro- are

all adjectives), e.g.

O. sakrim

134

.Inflection

[187

(Ace. Sg. M.F.), U. sakre, sacre (Ace. Sg. N.), O. sakrid (Abl. Sg.), U. sakreu (Ace. PL N.), O. sakriss, U. sacris (Abl. PL). Cf. also
the forms of

pacri-, peracni-, seuacni-, peracri-, etc.


(192, 1)

Consonant
many

stems are seen in U. tuplak


a.

and O. malaks
is

'malevolos'(?).

Observe that U. pacer (Nom. Sg.) early Latin forms in -er.

both Masc. and Fern., like

COMPABISON
The Comparative
188.
1.

(suffix -ies)

Corresponding to the Latin Comparative in are found only a few adverbial forms in -is from
O.
piistiris
:

-ior
-ios
;

(L. -ius)

e.g.

L. posterius

O. fortis

L.fortius

O. mais 'magis': L. mains.


2.

See

91,

1.

in

The suffixes -ero- and -tero-, regular Comparative suffixes Greek and Sanskrit, are used, as in Latin, in adjectives of
;

time and place, but without the force of Comparatives in the grammatical sense and, as O. piistiris shows, a regular Comparative could be
ples,

formed from such adjectives, including some adverbial forms, are


' ;
;

as in Latin.
:

Exam'superis',

O. supruis

O. pustrei 'in postero', U. postra 'posteras, U. subra supra' O. ehtrad 'extra', U. ap-ehtre 'ab extra' O. conposteriores'
;

trud 'contra'

O. pruter (pan) 'prius(quam)' from *pro-ter formed from pro like Grk. Trpore-- O. destrst 'dextra est', /3o? from Trpo (cf. also Skt. prdtdr)
;

*prai-tero- (for the form

O. Entrai '*Interae'; cf. L. praeter);

-- U. pretra

'priores'

from

U. destram-e etc. -- O. hu[n]truis 'inferis', U. hondra 'infra', from *hom-tero- or *homi-tero- (cf. L. humus, humilis) -- U. nertru
;
;

Grk. eveprepos, veprepos from *nedh-tero- 1 (138, a; pinquos'


'sinistro'
:

(cf. evepoi)

O.

nistrus 'pro-

cf.

nessimo-, 189).

from *nedh-is-tero- (cf. 188, 3) and O.-CJ. nessimo189, 3) also O. messimass from *medh-is-mmo-. But it is better not to separate these from the other adjectives of similar use. It 'is true of course that -tero- and -tmmo- are not suffixes of primary derivation; hut by the assumed *ned(h)-tero-, *ned(h)-tmmo-, we do not imply derivatives from the verbal
1

Others derive O. nistrus


(cf
.

from *nedh-is-mmo-

root but from an adverbial form, similar to Grk. u0--Te/3os, Skt. ut-tara-, ut-tamd-, from *ud-tero-, *ud-tmmo-. With the assumed *medh-tmmo- compare Goth, miduma,

Av. maSsma-, from *medh-mmo-.

189]
a.

Comparison
The
suffix -tero- is also frequent, as in

135

inal adjectives.
pos, etc.

Thus O.-U.

(200, 2);

Latin and elsewhere, in pronom*potro- (O. puttirus-pid etc.): L. uterque, Grk. 7r6reL. alter; U. etru 0. alttram 'alteram', aittrei, altrei, etc.
:

'altero', etre, etram-a, etc.

from

*e-tero-: O.Bulg. jeteru

'

some one' (contained the reduced form

also in L. cetera-

from

*cei-etero-).

3.

suffix -is-tero-, a
-ies-,

combination of

-is-,

and the -tero- just mentioned, is seen in O. minstreis 'minoris' from *min-is-tero-, and U. mestru 'maior' from *maistero- (with regular monophthongization of the diphof the suffix

thong) for *mag-is-tero- (see 147,

3, a).

Cf. L. minister, magister,

used substantively.

The Superlative
the forms occurring are from adjectives of time and place, corresponding to L. sum-mus, prox-imus, ul-timus, etc. with the suffixes -mo-, -emo- (I.E. -mmo-), and -temo- (I.E.
189.
1.

Nearly

all

-tmmo-).

Thus U. some summum'


'

(57, 125, 1);

O. imad-en'ab

imo' (derivation uncertain; see 114, d)-, O. pustm[as 'postremae', O. ultiumam 'ultimam'; U. Tiondomu 'infimo' posmom (139, 2);

U. hondra, 188, 2; for d, see 156);-- O.-U. nessimo- 'proximus' (O. nessimas etc., 15, 8), cognate with O.Ir. nessam 'next', from *nedh-tmmo- 1 (138, a); O. messimass 'medioximas'(?) from *medh-tmmo-. 1 For the vowel-changes in the suffix, see 86, 1.
(cf.
a.

The same

suffix

(191,
(cf.

1, 9, 10);

also in U. gimu, simo

-mo- appears in ordinals, as U. promom primum' etc. L. ci-tra retro' from a stem *ki-mo'

also U.

tives in

from a stem *ki-uo-). Under the influence of the adjec-mo- was formed *semo- (U. seraw, sehemu medio' see 305) from an
ive 'citra',
'

adverb *semi (Skt. samf, adv., L. semi-, Grk.


2.

fyxi-,

in cpds.).

O. ualaemom 'optimum' (also Valaimas) differs from the preceding in meaning and formation. It seems to contain -mo-

added to a case-form (Dat.-Loc. Sg.), as perhaps also L. postremus. But neither this nor any other explanation is certain. 3. O. maimas 'maximae' from *maisemo- (114, b} for *magis-

mmo-

(147, 3, a) is parallel to
1

O. minstreis, L. minister
p. 134.

(188, 3).

See footnote,

136

Inflection

[190

ADVERBS
adverbial endings represent stereoof more obscure origin are seen Formations typed case-forms. in many of the Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions (see under Pronouns, 195 ff. passim, 202), and in Prepositions (299 ff.), which
190.
are, in origin,
1.

The most common

Adverbs

of Place.
-e,

Ablatives in -ed (L.

'improbe';

amprufid U. prufe 'probe', rehte'recte', nuvime 'nonum', nesiearly -ed).


1 -

Thus

().

mei 'proxime',
(189,
1,

preve 'singillatim', trahuorfi transverse', cive'citra'

a], etc.

Thus Ablatives in -od (L. -<7, early -od in pordd). O. contrud 'contra' (cf. L. contro-versus), amiricatud ^immeTC&to'
2.

(see 294, a), suluh

'omnino'

(133, a);

U.

Jieritu 'consulto' (294, a,

307), eso(c) 'ita', tertio (postertio) 'tertium', ulo 'illuc', cimu, simo 'retro' (189, 1, a), supru sese 'sursum', testru sese 'dextrorsum'
(cf.

dextro-vorsum

etc.;

for

use

of

sese

see

307),

podruh-pei

'utroque', etc.
NOTE.
times,
it

is

Since the Instrumental was merged with the Ablative in prehistoric But quite possible that this formation is of Instrumental origin.

that the old Instrumental /orm, without the d, is to be recognized in the Umbrian We assume, e.g., that adverbs, is unlikely, in view of the d in Oscan and Latin. See also 54, note. U. supru comes from *suprod, like 0. contrud, L. pordd. 3.

Ablatives in -dd (L.


Here belongs
(cf.
t

'extra', sjiillad 'ubique';


a.

Thus O. ehtrad early -ad). U. subra 'supra', Jiondra 'infra'.


-<7,

an o-stem

The
ized

final
(cf.

also 0. dot 'de', da(d)-, U. da- (300, 3), while L. de is from 0. contrud: L. contra), either Ablative (above, 1) or Instrumental. 1 in 0. dot arose before words beginning with a surd and was general-

the opposite process in L. 06), a contributory factor being the influence of ant, ampt, pert, post. simple error, as in pocapit (127, 1, a), is unlikely, as the form occurs four times.

4.

Ablatives in
is

-~ul

(L.

-7,

mostly replaced by

-iter).

probable example
1

O. akrid

'acriter'(?).

as

<Ji~.

not

In favor of tnkin.^ L. df- as :ui Instrniiiontal form may be urged its appearance '. dr Karrlianalilnis, in which the retention of final *<lf-tl, in the S. (1, although
<

archaistic,

is

absolutely consistent in the body

<>1

the inscription.

191]

Numerals
5.

137

Neuter Accusatives in -om

(L. -um, e.g. multum), espe-

cially frequent in adverbs of time.

Thus O. siuom 'omnino',

posmom 'postremum', U. promom 'primum';


'iterum',
tertim 'tertium',

from

similarly U. duti *dutiom, *tertiom (172, 173, 1).


as

Here belong also the pronominal adverbs such 'turn' and O. pon 'cum', U. ponne, from *pom-de.
quom, cum.
6.

U. enom

Cf. L. turn,

Neuter Accusatives are also the adverbs of the Comparatives like O. pustiris 'posterius' etc. (188, 1), and the conjunctions O. pod, U. puf-e, pirs-e, etc. (202, 1, 2), U. efek, erse 'turn'. The Ace. Sg. F. in -am is seen only in pronominal forms, like O. pan Cf. L. tarn, quam. 'quam', U. pane, from *pam-de.
a.

probable example of the Ace.

PI.

N.

is

U. postro, pustru 'retro'

be separated from postro, pustru, hardly pustra, appearing elsewhere (VIb 5, Vila 8, II a 32, lib 19) as an adjective used See 306. predicatively in the sense of 'retro'.

(Vila

43, 44,

Ib

34, 36), since this

is

to

NUMERALS

CARDINALS AND OEDINALS


191.
1.

Cardinal, U. unu 'unum'.

Ordinal, U. prumum, pro-

mom
4

The stem
prima'.

'primum' (adv.) from *pro-mo- (cf. Grk. TT/JO-^O? 'foremost'). *prlsmo-, whence L. primus, is seen_in Pael. prismu

2. The cardinal is declined like the Plural of an o-stem, the Dual inflection being given up even in the Nom., where it is retained in Latin. The following forms occur in Umbrian Nom. M.F. dur, Dat.-Abl. tuves, tuver-e, duir, Ace. M.F. tuf (cf. also desen-duf 'duodecim'), Ace. N. tuva. For the contraction

old

in dur, tuf, see 54, 82,

2.

is

For the ordinal the pronominal etram-a, etru, etc. (188, 2, a) used in Umbrian, like' alter in Latin. The adverb *du-tiom, U. c?wi 'iterum' is formed after *ter-tiom, U. tertim (3).
The stem du- is also seen in U. du-pla, tu-plak (192, 1), and U. du-pursus 'bipedibus'; and *dui- (L. 6i-, Skt. dm-; see 102, 3) in U. di-fue 'bifidum': Grk.
a.

138
3.

Inflection

[191

in

The cardinal has the regular declension of an z-stem, as Thus in Oscan Nom. M.F. tris (41, a, 82, 1), in Umbrian Latin.
tris,

Dat.-Abl.

Ace. M.F.

trif etc. (178, 10),

Ace. N.

triia

(also

trio-per, 192, 2).

ordinal appears in U. tertiam-a, tertiu, adverb tertim from *tertiom.


4.

The

etc.,

and

in the

O. petora (Festus)

is

a Nom.-Acc. PI. N. from a stem

Cf. L. quattuor, with a of doubtful explanation, and If exactly quoted, it retains the old ending of Dor. reropa.
*ql*etuor-.

consonantrstems, -a (I.E. -9), escaping the usual substitution of -a (171, 13) from the fact that it was no longer felt as an inflected form (cf. L. quattuor). But it is also possible that it stands for

with Latinized ending. *petoro with the usual -a, being quoted For O. petiro-pert, see 192, 2.
probably to be recognized in O. trutum, though the translation 'quartum' is disputed. As such it can readily be explained as from *ktru-to- with a reduced form of

The

ordinal

is

I.E.
'

*<fl*>etrur

fourth'
a.

is

L. quadru-, Av. ca6ru-), just as Skt. turlyafrom *kturlya- (cf. Av. a-ytuirya- beside tuirya-).
(cf.
'

U. petur-pursus

quadrupedibus' shows another form of the


;

stein,

namely
5.

*q!*etur- (Skt. catur- in cpds.

cf.

also *qVetru- above).

The

cardinal *pompe

and the ordinal *ponto- are to be

U. pumpefias, O. Piintiis, HofjLTTTies 'Quintius', O. pomtis 'quinquiens', and U. puntes 'pentads.' See 37, 146, 150, 153.

assumed from O. pumperiais

'quincuriis',

6.
is

The ordinal
The

*sesto- (L. sextus

cf O.-U. destro- : L. dextro-)


. '

to be
8.
9.

assumed from U. ordinal stem

sestentasiaru
is

sextan tariarum'.

seen in O. Uhtavis 'Octavius'.

ordinal *nouemo-, like Skt. navamd- but in contrast to L. nono- from *noueno-, is seen in U. nuvime'nonum'.
10.

An

The

An
O.

seen in U. desen-duf'duodecim' (144). ordinal corresponding to L. decimus is implied by


cardinal
is
;

O. Dekmanniuis '*Decumaniis'
deketasiiii
4

also a *dekento- (Grk. Se/caro?)

by

*decentarius' according to

one interpretation.

193]
'

Pronouns
a.

139

U. tekvias decuriales' and O. Dekkviarim 'Decurialem' are formed with


(cf.
is

the suffix -to- from a stem *dekucentu- in L. centu-plex etc.,

due

L. decussis and late decu-plex), which, like to the analogy of *qll etru (4). Cf. also

U. dequrier, tekuries 'decuriis'.

12. U. desenduf'duodecim'.

See 10.

DISTRIBUTIVES AND
192.
'birds',
1.

NUMEEAL ADVEEBS
(17, 10), tupler

Distributives are U. prever 'singulis'


'binas', tripler 'trims'.

dupla
is

The

last

two agree with

L. duplus, triplus, in form but not in meaning.


tiplicative

The only mul-

U.

tuplak,

Ace. Sg. N. used substantively ('furcam'?):


are U.

L. du-plex, Grk. St-TrXaf.


2.

Numeral Adverbs

O. pert, petiru-pert 'quater'; With -pert, -per (127, 3) compare L. sem-per etc. 'noviens'. It is added to the Neuter Plural in U. triiu-per from *trid-pert,

O. petiropomtis 'quinquiens', U. nuvis


triiu-per, trio-per 'ter',

after the analogy of this form arose *petria-pert, whence O. petiro-pert (81, 100, 3, c). O. pomtis and U. nuvis cannot be connected with the Latin formation in -iens and are probably

and

formed after the analogy of *duis (L. For the m of O. pomtis, see 146.

bis)

and

*tris (L. ter).

PRONOUNS

PEKSONAL PEONOUNS
193. The few occurring forms of the Personal Pronouns are FIRST PERSON. U. mehe 'mini'. O. tfei, U. tefe, tefe SECOND PERSON. O. tiium, titi'tu';
:

tibi';--U.

tiu,

tiom,

tio, teio, 'te'.

REFLEXIVE.
a.

O.

sifei

'

sibi'

- - U.

seso 'sibi'

O. siom

'se'.

sent *meghei, *tebhei, *sebhei.

ening of
b.

The Dative forms mehe, tefe, sifei, correspond to L. mihi etc. and repreThe enclitic use of the forms explains the weakthe vowel in the first syllable in Latin and in 0. tfei, sifei. See 86, 3.
U. seso
is

perhaps

se-so, se

being from *s(u)oi (Grk.

ol) ancfr*so

a particle

of

unknown

connection.

140

Inflection

[193

c. The Ace. forms U. Horn, O. stow, perhaps contain te and se with the addition of the particle -oin seen in O. pid-um etc. (201, 5).. O. tiium would then be the same form, used as a Nom., just as, vice versa, in some Doric Another possibility is that the Nom. -Ace. Sg. dialects rti is used as an Ace.

Neuter of the Possessive *me(i)o-(L. meus) came to be used substantively for both 'ego' and 'me' and that after *meom arose Nom. -Ace. *teom, *seom. For i

from

e,

see 38,

1,

39,

1.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
194. The following forms are found SECOND PERSON. O. tuvai 'tuae'; -- U.
:

touer, tuer 'tui';

tuua, tua 'tua';

-- U. uestra 'vestra'. THIRD PERSON. O. suveis sui' -- suvam 'suam'


k

siivad

'sua';--U. sueso
a.

'suo' (Loc.).

O. siivad

The contrast in spelling between U. touer and tuer and between and suveis (suvam and tuvai. no. 19, are ambiguous) seems to point
stems which are found in other languages, namely

to the existence of both the

*teuo-, *seuo- (early Latin tovos, sovos), Of. Grk. re6s, e6j, beside o-6s, 6s. 1
6.

and

*t(u)uo-, *s(u)yo- (Skt. tvd-, svd-).

U. sueso

is

probably a Locative *suei

so (cf. seso, 193,

b).

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
The pronoun corresponding in use to the Latin is with the latter in the Nominative and Accusative forms agrees (stems i- and e(i)o-, e(i)d-; for the i in O. iiik, ioc, etc., see 38, 1),
195.

but the other cases show a stem *eiso-, O. eizo-, U. ero-. This perhaps has its origin in a Gen. PL *eisom~ (O. eisun-k), properly
*ei-som, with the regular pronominal ending -som (Skt. -sdm ; also Italic in -a-som), but felt as *eis-om on account of the usual

noun-ending.
as in L. hie.

The

enclitic -k
1.

is

attached to

many

of the forms,

See 201,

For the sake of a more complete representation of the cases, the forms corresponding in use to L. Idem are included in the paradigm, but inclosed in brackets. On the enclitics used, see 201, 5, 6.
1

The author
17."i.

is

imnblr to accept the view of


1">1

v.

z. lat.

Sprachgeschiehte,

IT.,

that oy, becomes

uu

Planta and of Solmsen, Studien in unaccented syllables. See

Verb-System,

195]

Demonstrative Pronouns

141

OSCAN
M.
N.
idik
iiuk, iiik,

UMBRIAN
M.
ere(k),

N.
efek,

F.

NOM.

izic

[isidum,

ioc
tf)]

ere(c)

erse

(esidum, 44,

[er-ont,
eri-hottt]

GEN.

eiseis, eizeis

erer,
erer-ek

erar
[erar-unt]

DAT.
Ace. ionc
idik,

iak
(108,2, a}
eisak,

earn

idic

ABL.

eisud, eizuc

eru-ku,

erak
[era-hunt,

eru-com
[eru-hu]

era-font]

LOG.

eisei,

eizeic

ejisai

NOM.
GEN. DAT.
Ace.
a.

ms<? [iwssu,
1

[eur-ont]

iwsu]

eisunk

ezazunc
2

eru,

ero(m)
3
,

ezos

eiza(i)sc

[erer-unt

erir-ont] eu, eo eaf, eaf


idic, but,

U. erec and erse are certainly equivalent to O.

izic

and

although

e for

is

common enough

in

Umbrian

(45), the consistency of the spelling e is

probably due to the influence of the other case-forms, erer etc. 6. The Gen. Sg. U. erar, together with O. ulas 'illius' (197, 3), shows that, in contrast to Latin, the Feminine was kept distinct from the Masculine.

The Dat. Sg. M. and N. of pronominal o-stems had the Locative ending shown by the pronominal adjective 0. altrei 'alteri', thus agreeing with the Latin (illl etc.). Cf. also U. esmei'huic' (197; 1). The Feminine form was doubtless kept distinct, as in the Genitive. Cf. Loc. Sg. 0. ejisai.
c.

-ei,

as

is

d.

U.

iepi

and

iepru

have been thought to contain case-forms of

erec,

but

this is very uncertain.


is sometimes used as an adverb 'turn', is with where it correlative e.g. 6, pirsi 'cum'. U. ife ibi' with the /. The stem i- is seen also in the following adverbs same ending as pufe (202, 5), to which belongs perhaps ef Via 4, with loss of
e.

U. efek, erse, Ace. Sg. N.,

Via

'

See 53, a.

Aes eizasc.

Aes

erererunt.

142
the final vowel
(cf.

Inflection
also i/oni' ibidem', 201, 6);
enclitic as neip, L.
iti,

[195
0. ip'ibi' (Pael. ip) probably U. itek 'item' from
differ in the final

from *i-pe with the same


vowel).

neque;

*i-te-k or *i-V-ik (cf. L. ita, item, Skt.

etc.,

which however

196.

The pronoun corresponding

in use to the Latin hie

is

in in
3).

Oscan formed in part from a stem elco-, in part from ekso-, Umbrian wholly from the latter in the form es(s)o- (145, In most of the Oscan forms the enclitic -k (201, l) is used.
Singular

M.

N.

F.

NOM. GEN. DAT.


Ace. ABL.
LOG.

O.

ek.,

U.

eso

O. ekik

O. ekak

(108, 2, a)

O. eksuk, U. essu, esu, esu-ku O. exeic


Plural

O. exac, U. esa

NOM. GEN.
D.-A.

O.

ekas, ekask

U. esom-e, esum-ek(?) U. esis-co,


esir, isir

O. exaisc-en O. ekass

Ace.
a.

The Oscan Ace.


id-Ik.

the analogy of
6.

The stem
is

Sg. N. ekik (Pael. ecic) is from *ekid-k formed after Cf. also U. este (197, 4). eko- or ekso- is seen also in O. ekss, ex ita', but the precise
(

formation

uncertain

(*efc(e)s

or *eks(e)s with the

same

-s

as in puz, or *eks(e)?).

is also seen in eso, esoc, iso, issoc 'ita' (adv. in -o; see 190, 2), isec, isek 'item' (cf. itek, 195, /), and isunt 'item' (201, 6). For the i in these forms and in Dat.-Abl. isir, see 39, 4.

For O. ekkum 'item', see 201, 5. c. The Umbrian stem es(s)o-

197.
1.

There are some scattering forms from other stems. U. esmei huic', esmik *ei'; Loc. Sg. esme. These, together
4

with U. pusme 'cui', are the sole relics in Italic of a type of pronominal case-forms found in various languages, most clearly in

198]

Interrogative, Relative,

and

Indefinite

Pronouns

143

Sanskrit, e.g. Dat. Sg. dsmdi, tdsmdi, kdsmdi, Loc. Sg. dsmin, etc. The stem of esmei is e, the same as in Skt. d-smdi, the two forms being identical except that in esmei the Locative

used for the Dative, as usual (195, c). U. uru, uru illo'; Abl. Sg. F. ura-ku Dat.-Abl. PL ures here also probably, as Gen. Sg. M., orer Via 26, etc., though

ending
2.

is

see

there are various interpretations of the phrase. For u in uru 51. The stem may be *oro-, *oso-, or even *oiso-, cognate
c

forms being unknown. 3. U. ulu, ulo illo,


Sg. F., L. olle is also related.
4.
estu.

illuc',

O.

ulas (no. 19).

Stem

adv.; here also probably, as Gen. olo- as in L. olim, to which early

U.

estu 'istum';

Stem esto-, The neuter este is from


5.

whence L.
4

Ace. Sg. N. este, este; Ace. PL N. esto, iste with i under the influence of is.
c

*estid

esuf reasonably certain (cf. T. B. 19, 21), so that it is difficult not to assume connection with L. ipse, though inconsistent with the
essuf,

O.

formed after the analogy of id, pid. The meaning ipse' is ipse', U. esuf.

The stem would usual derivation of the latter from *is-pse. then be *epso- (for ss see 122, 2), and the -uf perhaps represent a transfer to the inflection of 7i-stems (O. uittiuf etc., 181) as if

we had in Latin *ipso formed after agent-nouns But the whole matter is problematical.

in

-6,

-onis.

6. U. surur 'item' (whence sururont, suront, 201, 6) is of uncertain origin, but perhaps represents a reduplicated formation *so-so-s or *s6-so-r, so being from the stem so- seen in L. sic, earlier sei-ce.

INTERROGATIVE, RELATIVE, AND INDEFINITE

PRONOUNS
of the I.E. Interrogative-Indefinite Pronoun, stems *qu o- (*qUd-), *qu i-, and, in adverbs, *q%u-, for the Relative is characteristic of Italic. The Latin distinction between qui,
198.

The use

quod, and quis, quid, is also common to the dialects. The o-stem forms are used for the ordinary Relative (with definite antecedent), the i-stem forms for the Interrogative (only one example),

Inflection

[198

Indefinite,

and Indefinite Relative.


pid epsei]
. .
.

For the distinction between


"cf.

the Definite and Indefinite Relative,


terei
1st

O. thesavrum pud

esei

... inim

thesavrei piikkapid eefstit

'thesaurum

et quidquid in eo thesauro quanqui in eo territorio est In exstat'. Latin, too, quis was originally used for the doque Indefinite Relative (Neue, Formenlehre II 3 p. 430), and Cato's
,

quesquomque

is

evidence

for * quisquomque (U. pisi-pumpe).

Cf.

also quisquis, and quisque in its Relative use. How far there was any corresponding differentiation in the other case-forms cannot be determined from the limited number

of occurrences.

Examples of Declension. forms (200, 1) and conjunctions (202)


199.

Some

of

the

compound

are included.

STEM po-,
M.

pa- (L.

quo-, qua-)

STEM piM. F.

(L. qui-)

Singular

N.

F.

N.

NOM. O.

pui,

O. pud

O.

pai, pai,

O.

pis, pis,

O.

pid,
pif-e

U. poi,
poe,

pae, paei

pis,

U.

U.

pis-i, pis-i,

poei

pis-est,

pis-her,
sve-pis,

so-pir

GEN. O. puiieh DAT. U. pusme


Ace.
O. pod,
(U. sue-po,
puf-e,

O. pieis-um O. piei
O. paam, O. phim 1
O.
pid, pid,

pam
(U.

pid-um,
pid-um,
pif-e,

pors-e,
etc.,

pirs-e, etc.,

conj.)

conj.)

ABL.

O. poizad, U. pora
.

its

1 Misspelling for pirn, probably due to the influence of Latin orthography with not infrequent confusion of p and ph, t and th, etc. Cf also O. Aphinis, Perkhen.
.

(beside Perkens)

200]

Interrogative, Relative,

and

Indefinite

Pronouns

145

Plural

M.

N.

F.

M. F.

N.

NOM. O.
U.

piis,

O.

pai

O.

pas,

pas

pur-e,

pur-i

Acc.
a.

O.
0. pui

pai

U. paf-e

is from *quoi, whence L. qui, while U. poi is to be explained as form the same (*po from *poi) with the addition of the particle -I, seen in pur-i,

paf-e, etc.

the particle 6. O.

-I is

0. paei beside pal is probably only a careless spelling for pae, since not found in the other Oscan forms.

piiiieh, for *piiiieis (see 64, 6, 113, c), is in origin the Gen. Sg. of the Possessive Adjective, like L. nostrl, vestrl, etc. 1 The adjective is seen in O. puiiu 'cuia': L. quoins, Grk. TTCHOS, all from a stem *q%oi-io- (253, note). c. U. pusme is a form like esmei and so almost identical with Skt. kdsmai.

See 197,
d.

1.

0. poizad, U. pora, are from a stem *poiso-, standing in the tion to po- as *eiso- to i-, e(|)o-, and probably of similar origin.

same

rela-

See 195.

Nothing
e.

is

gained by assuming a compound *po-eiso-.

0. pieis, piei, instead of which we should expect *peis, *pei, are due to the influence of pis, which as a monosyllable retained the i in contrast to other i-stem

Nominatives.

That

is,

we have
(Nom.

*slag-s,
-is,

Gen.

*slag-eis, butpi-s

The analogy
/.

of io-stems

Gen.
PI.

-ieis)

may

also

and so Gen. pi-eis. have been a factor.

A form pom, porse, porsei, which


Sg.

occurs in place of certain case-forms,

e.g.

N. (Via 15, 19), Acc. PI. N. (VI b 40), although usually explained in various other ways, is best taken as the conjunction (cf. puf-e II a 26), used loosely as a sort of indeclinable Relative.
6, 9, etc.),

Nom.

M. (Via

Nom.

200.

1.

Indefinite
:

and

Indefinite Relative

Pronouns com-

pounded
U.
pif-i

of pis are

pis-i (pif-e etc.).

Indefinite

and Indefinite Relative.

But

VII b

2 has a definite antecedent.

Indefinite. O. *pis-um (pid-um, pid-um, pieis-um). Indefinite Relative. O. pis-pis (pit-pit Festus).

Cf.

L. quis-quis.

U.

pis-Tier.

Indefinite.

Formed

like L. qui-libet, her being

3d Sg. Pres.
1

Indie,

from Aer-'velle'

(216).

Nom.

The suggestion of Sommer, Lat. Laut- und Formenlehre, 472, that pfiiieh is M. of the adjective, would be attractive if it could be shown that the order of the inscription (no. 39) might be puiieh sum perkium, in which case we could translate 'cuiussum? Perkiornm' (cf. no. 55). Yet on the analogy of Mais beside Maiiui (173, 1) one would expect Nom. Sg. M. *puis.
Sg.
|

146
2.

Inflection
*

[200

The pronoun corresponding to L. uterque is seen in O. Nom. PL putunis-pid, Loc. Sg. piiterei-pid, etc., U. Gen. Sg.
putres-pe,

adv. podruh-pei;

also

in

U. sei-podruhpei 'seorsum

L. sed-utraque (Plautus, Stich. utroque', with which compare All these forms come through *potro- (81, 88, 4) from 106).
*(^otero- (Grk. Trorepo?, Skt. katcird-), that is, *qUo- with the L. uterque owes its u to the influence of suffix -tero- (188, 2).

adverbial forms containing the stem *q u u- (see


a.
'

3).

O. alttrei piiterelpid akenei, if akenel is 'year' (159, a), must mean 'in other every year', where the Romans said in anno altero quoque' (Col. R.R. 5, 8).

Besides the stems *qUo- and *qu i-, a stem *q u u-, frequent in the adverbial forms of various languages (e.g. Skt. ku-tas 'whence?', ku-tra 'where?', etc., Cretan oirvt etc.), is to be recog3.

nized in O.

puf ubi', U. pufe;


a, 202, 5, 6.

O. puz'ut', U.

puze, puse, etc.

See 154 with

PKONOMINAL ENCLITICS
201.
as follows
1.
-fc,

The
:

enclitic particles

used with pronominal forms are


In contrast to Latin, this
is

like L. -ce,

-c,

in hie, hunc, etc.

very

common
also in

in forms of the

most In general it is (197, 1), and various adverbs, as esoc, isec, itek, inum-k, etc. more frequent in Oscan than in Umbrian. It has become an integral part of some of the forms, just as in L. hie, hunc, e.g. 0. iiik, toe (but U. eu, eo), while In Umbrian, however, the in others its use is optional, e.g. O. eisud and eizuc.
absence of
intended.
-fc,

pronoun corresponding to L. is (see 195); it occurs of the Oscan forms of efco-, ekso- (see 196); further in U. esmik

-c, is

It is altogether unlikely that ere, ere, is to

not always proof that the formation without the enclitic is be separated from erek, erec

(0. izic), or ersefroin efek (O. idic), or eso

from

esoc.

Probably the

final

fc,

like

other final consonants in Umbrian, was weakly sounded and so, frequently, omitted in the writing.
2.
-ik,

a combination of the preceding.

This

is

seen in the forms just

mentioned, O. iz-ic, fd-ik, id-ic, U. er-ec, etc., also in esum-ek, esom-e, and in the adverbs enum-ek etc. The particle to which the k is added probably stands for
id (like pid). For the change of *id-k to -ik, cf. Abl. Sg. eisak, eizac. 3. -i, as in Grk. ovroy-t. This is found in Umbrian in nearly all forms of the Relative-Indefinite
pu-e, etc.

Pronoun

(199), including the adverbs puz-e, pus-ei,

201]

Pronominal Enclitics

147

4. -pid, used like the Latin generalizing -que in quisque etc. This is seen in the forms corresponding to L. uterque (200, 2), and in the adverbs 0. pukkapid,

poca-pit 'quandoque', U. panu-pei 'quandoque', U. pum-pe in pisi pumpe'quicumque'. It corresponds in form to L. quid and stands in the same relation to
L. -que as Skt. -cid to -ca, both of these being used as generalizing particles though in different combinations. The three occurrences of U. -pei (panupei,

podruhpei, seipodruhpei) make it probable that in Umbrian, in the adverbs at least, the particle -I (above, 3) was added to -pi from -pid.
5.

-om (oT-dom
2) as

?).

This

is

found in Oscan,
-hont
'

1)

isidum 'idem' etc. (195), where


'item';

Umbrian has

as a particle of Identity, in (6), and in the adverb ekkum

an Indefinite particle, in pid-um quidquam' etc. (200, 1), where Umbrian has -I (3), and in the conjunction pun-urn 'quandoque'. It is probably the same element in 0. per-um 'sine', and perhaps in O. tiium, U. tiom, etc. For 0. -urn from -om, see 50. (193, c). There is a difference of opinion as to whether the particle is properly -om or -dom, as it is also a matter of dispute whether in L. Idem etc. the -dem is On general original or due to a wrong division of id-em, Abl. edd-em, etc. grounds there is no objection either to -dem, -dom, from the same stem do- that is seen in various enclitics, e.g. -de in L. quamde, U. pane, or to -em, -om, to be compared with Skt. -am inid-dm. The question is which suits better the actual In the Indefinite forms there is no evidence for -dom, in fact it is very forms. In isidum we may divide is-id-um unlikely that pid-um comes from *pid-dom. The chief support for (as we have assumed *is-id-k for izic) as well as is-i-dum. -dom is found in ekkum and iussu, but the changes involved (kd to kk and sd to
ss) are otherwise unknown (139, a), and it is quite possible that ekkum is for *ekk'-om with ekk' for *ekke (L. ecce), and that of the two spellings iussu and iusu the latter is the more correct, the former being a slip due to the existence

PL form *iuss-u or else to an uncertainty as to the syllabic division with At any rate the (ius-u etymological, iu-su with phonetic syllabification). derivation from *ek-dom and *eos-dom is not so obvious as to constitute proof of
of an Ace.

the particle -dom in Oscan.


6.

-(h)ont.

This

is

found in Umbrian only, namely in

eront, erihont 'idem'

etc. (195),

and in the adverbs ifont 'ibidem', isunt 'item', sururont 'item' (whence also suront by haplology). It probably contains *hom, from the same stem as
-t

L. hie, with the

of pos-t, per-t, etc.

We

find -hont after vowels, but -ont after


2, a.

consonants (149,

The Abl.
wrong
7.

Sg. division of other forms, e.g. if-ont


Cf. L. e-quidem.
enclitics

For sururo and eruhu, occurring once each, see 128, a). F. erafont which occurs twice beside erahunt owes its -font
(ife 'ibi')

to

taken as

i-font.

Here may be mentioned the pronominal prefix


For

e in O. e-tanto 'tanta':

L. tantus.
8.

found only in adverbs, see the following.

148

Inflection

[202

RELATIVE ADVEEBS AND CONJUNCTIONS


202. Many of the pronominal adverbs have been cited among the forms pronominal stems (195-200), but it is desirable to treat separately the Relative (and Indefinite) Adverbs, most of which serve as Conthe forms of the sake of convenience the Conjunctions not formed from and for junctions the stems of Relative Pronouns are included.
of the various
;

O. pod in suae pod 'sive', svai puh (133, a), with which is identical U. suepo, svepu; also in O. pod min[s 'quo minus'. This is Ace. Sg. N. like L. quod, not Abl. Sg. as in L. quo minus.
1.

enclitic -I is seen in U. puf-e 'quod, III a cum, quomodo' (II 26, 5, 7), with which is identical Of. also pors-i etc. used in place of certain case-forms (199, /).

The same form with the

Va

O.

adpiid,
2.

U. arnipo (below, 9, 10). U. pif-e, pirs-i, etc. 'quod,


sederit'

si,

cum',

e.g. sersi pirsi sesust


'si

'sede

cum

(Via
sit,

5),

persei pir orto est

in case fire has

broken out' (Via


ius

ignis ortus est, 26 etc.; similarly pefe II a 3),

persei mersei

'si

in so far as is right'

(Via 28

etc.),

with which compare L. quod opus siet (Cato). In form this is It is not always to be distinguished the Ace. Sg. N. of pis-i.

with certainty from pif-e 'quidquid' (V a 5). 3. O. pon, pun, U. ponne, pone, pune 'cum'; also O. pun-um From *pom-de L. *quom-de (cf. quam-de). See 'quandoque'. Another combination of pom (L. quom, cum) is to be 92, 135.
:

recognized in U. (pisi)pumpe
also 201,
4.
4.

L. (qul)quomque, (qui)cumque.

See

pan 'priusquam' (cf. Grk. irpoin U. From postertio pane 'postquam tertium'. repov ^), pane *pam-de L. quam-de. See 92, 135. The simple *pam (L. quam) appears in U. pre-pa 'priusquam'. (In O. pruter pam beside
O. pan 'quam', pruter
:

pruter

pan

the

pam

probably stands for pan, the next word

beginning with m.) 5. O. puf, U. pufe

'ubi'. From stem *qUu- (200, 3) and an adverbial ending -dhe (cf. Skt. ku-Jia 'where?', O.Bulg. ku-de U. ife 'ibi' has the same ending, 'where'), or -dhi (Grk. -8t). the b in L. ibi being- due to the analogy of ubi (b = dh after ?/).

202]
In L. w6i,

Relative Adverbs
the final

and Conjunctions

149

from

-I,

this

from

adverbs in -ei such a form, but it is far more likely that it preserves the original -dhe, only without syncope as in Oscan (cf. 0. pon U. ponne).
:

t is not the original short vowel, but is shortened early L. ubei), which arose under the influence of the U. pufe might also represent representing Locatives of o-stems.

ibi,

-ei (cf.

6.

O.

puz,

pous (mistake for pus

see footnote, p. 40),

Umbrian also 'quasi'). This U. stands for *pu-t-s (137, 2), in Umbrian with added -i, containing the stem *qttu- (200, 3) and an adverbial ending -the (cf. Av.
puz-e, pus-e, pus-ei, etc. 'ut' (in

ku-da 'how') or and addition of


L. ut
etc.
is

-ti

(as in au-ti etc.),

with loss of the

final

vowel
usquam

(as in L. ab-s, O. az, i.e. ad-s, etc.). the same form without the added s, the latter appearing
-s
is like

in

L. utei, utl,
7.

ubei etc.

U. pue, pue
-i.

'ubi,

where'.

From *po

(L.

quo)

with

enclitic
8.

U. ape, appei, ape, api, ap'ubi, cum' (always temporal). From *ad-pe, in form like L. atque, but with a different force of In U. ap the the particle (cf. Grk. dial. eV-re, eV-re 'until'). final vowel is lost as in L. ac, while the other forms probably
contain the enclitic
like pusei, puz-e, etc. 9. O. adpud 'quoad'. Formed like L. quo-ad (rarely ad-quo], that is pud except probably the same as pod (above, 1), and so
-i,

cognate with L. quod rather than with quo. 10. U. arnipo 'donee, until'. From ar
(as in per-ne etc., or negative donee.
?)

'ad' (132, a)

and

-we

+ *pom

or *pod.

Cf. L. donicum,

11.

U. nersa 'donee,
;

until',

From *ne-ddm
12. U.

cf L.
.

-dam

in

used after a negative clause. quon-dam etc., and dum.

do-que. 13. O.

panupei 'quandoque'. For -pei see 201, 4.


piikkapid,

From

*pan-do-pid

L. quan-

pocapit,

p~\ocapid 'quandoque'.

From

*pod-kdd(?)-pid, the second element being perhaps Abl. Sg. F. of the stem seen in L. -ce, like O. efotf'de' from do- (190, 3, a).
14. O. svai, suae, U. sve, sue
'si',

no-sue 'nisi'.
*sei,

From

*suai,
so-.

Loc. Sg. F. of 8uo-, while L.


Cf. Grk. al

si is

from
o-.

LOG. Sg. N. of

and

et

from stem

so-

or

150
a.

Inflection

[202

The

relation of U. sopir,

VI b

54, to svepis 'siquis' of the parallel pas-

That it cannot be regarded as a later form of the same sage I b 18, is puzzling. The first syllable may be so from *soi, and from beside sve. sue word is obvious
it is

conceivable that this *soi

is

from an

earlier *swei,

though such a change

is

only imperfectly paralleled by that seen in sonitu (37, a). Another view is that sopir is not 'siquis', but an Indefinite Relative 'quisquis', and contains a generalizing particle *sod or *suod, related to the so in Eng. whoso, whosoever.

But the

chief support for this, the derivation of Grk. 8ns


1

from

*<r/ro5-Tu, is

not

beyond question.

15. U. et'et': L.

et,

Grk.

ert, etc.

16. O. inim, inim, ewei/A (44), abbr. in. 'et'; U. enem, eine,
ene,

and ennom, eno(m), enum-ek, inum-ek, These forms, together with Pael. inom 'et', etc. 'turn, deinde'. are obviously connected with L. enim (einom of the Duenos inscription is best left out of account) in some way, exactly
inen-ek (for *inem-ek),

how

is

not so

clear.
of L.

The ending -im


while U. enom
vowel.
etc.

enim

is

seen in the Oscan forms and in U. enem

etc.,

with Pael. inom show -om.


e.

The
are

difficulty is

with the

initial

inom also points to i or most easily combined on the On the whole, in view of L. enim, the probbasis of e, but i is also possible. in favor of *enim and *eno/n, but the matter is quite uncertain. is ability perhaps The nn in ennom is very likely due to the influence of the correlative ponne.
Pael.

The Oscan forms point to i or e, not The various Umbrian spellings (possibly) e.

17. O. auti, aut, avt 'aut,

at',

U.

ote, ute 'aut':


-ti

L. aut, autem.
(et),

From *au

(Grk. av, av-re), with the same

as in *eti

*toti
(92)

The Oscan forms with and without (L. tot), etc. were differentiated in meaning at Bantia, where aut 'at'. Elsewhere we find only avt, usually 'at', In form this is a 3d Sg. 18. O. loufir 'vel'.
root seen in L. libet

apocope
auti
is

'aut',

once

'aut'.

Pass, of the

(96, 238, 2), in the impersonal use (239). the development of meaning, cf. L. vel, Imperat. of void,

For and

the following.
19. U. heris
'vel
. . .
. .
.

heris, Tieri

heri, herie

herie, etc.

These are from *herio 'volo', partly 2d Sg. Pres. Indie, (heris, heri), partly 3d Sg. Perf. Subj. (herie, heriei).
vel'.
1

See Delbruck, Vergl. Syntax,

III, pp.

339

ff.

203]

Verbs
20.

151

The

*ne-sei, etc.),

Oscan has (1) ne (L. ne-fas, ni-si from negatives. (2) ni (L. ne), (3) nei (L. m); and for each of these
-p,

a corresponding form with the enclitic

corresponding to

-c,

-gw, in L.

we<?,

neque,

namely

1) nep, nep,
'nisi

2) nip, 3) neip, neip.

cum' and as a prohibipon tive with a pronoun in ne phim pruhipid 'ne quern prohibuerit', while ni is always prohibitive, and nei occurs in conditional
use, ne occurs in ne

As regards

clauses, suaepis nei, nei suae.

But

all

three

compounded forms
used
like

have the prohibitive


nei, e.g. svai neip.

force, 'neve',

though

neip is also

Umbrian has
neip,
neip

nei in neifhabas 'ne

adhibeant'

(84),

otherwise

prohibitive and simple negative. O. neip or nip or both is not clear, the spelling ei being remarkable in any case. See 29, b. U. no-sue 'nisi' probably contains *noi, a by-form of nei.

Whether

(once nep), both this corresponds to

VERBS

On

the general system of conjugation, see

13.

THE PERSONAL ENDINGS


203.

The personal endings


:

of the Indicative

and SubjuncSECONDARY

tive Active are

PRIMARY
Singular
1. 2.
3.

SECONDARY

PRIMARY
1.
2.
3.

Plural

-d
-s
-t

-m
-s

-d (lost in U.)

-nt

-ns

For the endings

of the Imperative, see 235-237; for those

of the Passive, see 238-239.

Primary and secondary endings, which, in contrast to Latin, are clearly distinguished in the Third Singular and Third Plural, are used as follows primary in the Present, Future, and Future Perfect Indicative, secondary in the Imperfect and Perfect Indicative and in all tenses of the Subjunctive.
:

152

Inflection

[204

Remarks on

the Endings

204. 1. The original endings of the Third Singular and Third Plural were primary -fa', -nti, secondary -t, -nt. By the loss of the final i (92) the former became -t, -nt, but in the meantime the original -t, -nt, had undergone a change, as

follows

The -t became -d, which is preserved in Oscan, and


early Latin (feced etc.) until the primary ending
final d,

existed in

In Umbrian this, like every final t is sometimes omitted in the writing, the distinction is See 127, 1, 2, 133. less clear in Umbrian than in Oscan. The -nt probably became first -nd, then -n (cf L. dan-unt etc.),
lost
;
.

was

was generalized. but since even

and

to this

an

was added under the influence of the plural

ending of nouns. See 128, l. 2. In -tit the n is regularly written in Umbrian (the only exception is furfaB (25, a) beside furfant), while in Oscan it is omitted in the case of -ent (the only exception being one occurrence of sent beside set), but written in stahint and eestint, the
In -ns the n is only forms occurring which do not end in -ent. always written in Oscan but frequently omitted in Umbrian. See 108, 1, 2. For U. fefure and staheren, see 128, 2, a.
plural forms in -ent, -ens, represent the full endings, original -enti, -ent, which belong properly to unthematic formations like U. sent, O. set (cf. Dor. eWt for *evri, Skt. sdnti, Goth.
3.

The

sind, I.E. *senti).

at the expense of thematic forms, just as in Latin, vice versa, -ont (-unt) has Thus we have -ent in the Future driven out -ent.

But they have been extended

completely

and Future Perfect, which are thematic formations

and

-ens in
is

the Perfect, which, while containing types of various origin, always thematic in the Third Singular.
a.

It is

recognized in 0. fiiet as

probable that the same encroachment of -ent upon -ont is to be compared with L. flunt, and likewise in 0. staiet. But

some believe that the original ending of verbs of this class was -ienti or -inti. For the double formation in the Fourth Conjugation, represented by 0. fiiet, staiet, and O. stahint, eestint, see also 215, 2.

204]

Examples of Conjugation
4.

153

times

In the Second Singular in Umbrian the -s is someomitted or changed to -r. Thus seste 'sistis', heri,
19),

heri'vel' beside heris (see 202,

sir,

sei,

si 'sis'.

See 113

with
in O.

b.

5.

The secondary ending of the First Singular occurs only manafum 'mandavi', and in O. sum 'sum' (217, 1).
The primary ending
is

6.

in U. sistu 'sisto',

First Singular, -<J, seen not contracted with the preceding a of

of the

the

Thus U. subocami, subFirst Conjugation as in Latin. ocau 'invoco' from -did. Cf. also U. stahu 'sto' from *staio.
83.
7.

See
See

The Latin shortening of vowels before


So O. faamat
I

final

is

unknown.

78, 3.

'decet' as kasit (with

to be understood as fdmdt, O. kasit For the vowel-quantity from <f), etc.


is

before
8.

-nt, -ns,

see 78, a.
e

Second and Third Singular Present Indicative of the Third Conjugation, and of the Third
short
of the

The

Singular Perfect Indicative,


90,2.

does

not

suffer

syncope.

See

EXAMPLES OF CONJUGATION
or
is

The following paradigms include all the verb-forms occurring in Oscan Umbrian (barring some variations in spelling), except where an "etc." added, that is in the 2d and 3d Sg. Imperat. Act., the 3d Sg. Fut. Perf.,

and the Perf. Pass. Partic. (including the periphrastic Perf. Indie. Pass.). A few Paelignian (P.), Marrucinian (M.), and Vestinian (V.) forms are
included.

In the Perfect System there are given under the First and Fourth Conjugations only those types which are characteristic of these conjugations, namely, in the following order, the /-, tt-, and nfcj-Perfects (and,
in

the Fourth, U. purtiius etc.). The other types, which are found with verbs of all conjugations, but mostly with those of the Third, are given under the Third only, namely, in the following order, the reduplicated Perfect,

the simple Perfect without vowel-change, the Perfect with lengthened vowel, and the Z-Perfect.

Under the Fourth Conjugation are included the forms corresponding


the Latin type capio.

to

See 216.

154

Inflection

[205

205.

FIRST CONJUGATION
ACTIVE
INDICATIVE

PASSIVE
INDICATIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE

PRESENT
1.
2.

SG. U. subocauu
SG. SG. O. faamat

3.

U. aseriaia U. kupifiaia (or 3. Sg.?) O. sakarater O. deiuaid,


tadait,

O.

sakahiter,
sakra**ir(?)

U. portaia,
kuraia
3.

PL. U. furfant,
furfaS

U.

etaians, etaias

O. karanter

IMPERFECT
3.

SG.

P. upsaseter

FUTURE
3.

SG. O. deiuast,

U. prupehast
3.

PL. O. censazet
PERFECT

3.

SG. O. aikdafed

O. sakrafir, U. pihafi,
pihafei

O.

pnifatted,
dadikatted,

O. lamatir

djuunated

U.

combifiaribi

O. teremnatu-st, U. kuratu U. stakazestetc.


3.

si

PL. O.

pnifattens,

O.

tribarakattins

teremnattens,

P. coisatem O.
staflatas-set etc.

205]

First Conjugation

ACTIVE
INDICATIVE

PASSIVE

FUTURE PERFECT
3.

SG. U. andirsafust

U. combifiansiust
U. pihos fust
3.

PL. O. tribarakattuset

U.

cersnatur furent

IMPERATIVE

PRES.

2.

SG.

U.

stiplo, aserio

FUT.

2. 3.

SG. O. deiuatud,

O. censamur,

U. pihatu,
portatu, etc.
2. (3.)

U. eturstahmu, spahamu
U. arsmahamo, caterahamo
INFINITIVE

PL. U.

etafo

PRES. O. censaum, moltaum,


tribarakavm

PERF. U. erow

ehiato, kuratu eru

PARTICIPLES

PERF.

O. U.

staflatas etc.,

anzeriates,

pihos, etc.

GERUNDIVE

O. sakrannas,
upsannam,
eehiianasum,

U. pihaner,
pelsans

SUPINE

U. anseriato

156

Inflection

[206

206.

SECOND CONJUGATION
ACTIVE
INDICATIVE

PASSIVE
INDICATIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE

PRESENT
3.

SG. O.

kasit,
ticit,

O.

putiad,

O.

loufir

U.

^#5e,habe, U.
trebeit(?) 3.

turumiiad, habia

PL.

O.

piitians

U. tursiandu

FUTURE
3.

SG. U. habiest

IMPERATIVE

FUT.

2. 3.

SG. O. licitud,

likitud,

U.

habitu, habetu,
tursitu, tusetu,

carsitu, kafetu, karitu,


sersitu, tenitu,

ufetu, upetu, eveietu


2. 3.

PL. U. habituto, habetutu,


tursituto, tusetutu,

upetuta

INFINITIVE

PBES. O. fatium

PARTICIPLES

PRES. U.

serse, zefef, kutef

PERF. U.

tases, tacez, uirseto, etc.

207]

Third Conjugation

157

207.

THIRD CONJUGATION
ACTIVE
INDICATIVE

PASSIVE
INDICATIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE

PRESENT
1.
2.
3.

SG. U. sestu SG. U.


seste

SG. M.feretj

O. kahad, U. dirsa,

aflukad,

O. uincter

U.ferar
O.
krustatar(?),
kaispatar(?)

V. didet

da[da]d, P. dida,

tefa

U.

teite

3.

PL.

O. deicans,

M.ferenter U. emantur,
terkantur

U. dirsans,dirsas,
neifhabas

IMPERFECT
3.

PL.

O. patensins

FUTURE
2.

3.

SG. U. menes, anpenes SG. O. didest, pertemest,

U.
3.

ferest

PL.

U. ostensendi
PERFECT

1.
3.

SG. O. manafum
SG. O. deded,

O. fefacid, dadid
aamanaffed

U.
O.

dede,
priiffed,

O. kiimbened,
avafa/cer

O. upsed
3.

O. hipid

U. screhto
PL. U. eitipes, O. uupsens,
ovrrcrevs

est etc.

O. scriftas

set,

pniftii-set,

U. screihtor sent

etc.

158

Inflection

[207

ACTIVE
INDICATIVE

PASSIVE

FUTURE PERFECT
2.

SG. O.

fifikus

O. U.

aflakus,

benus, kuvurtus
entelus, apelus

U.
3.

SG. O.fefacust, U. dersicust etc.

O. dicust, cebnust, etc., U. fakust, benust, habus, U. entelust, apelust


3.

etc.

O. comparascuste'r, U. benuso, couortuso

PL. U. dersicurent, pepurkurent O. angetuzet,


U.facurent, benurent, haburent, procanurent,
eiscurent

U.

prusikurent

IMPERATIVE

FUT.

2. 3.

SG. O. aetud,

U.
2. 3.

fertu, ustentu,
aitu, deitu, kanetu, etc.

PL. U.

fertuta, ustentuta,

aituta,

hatuto

INFINITIVE

PRES. O. deikum, deicum, acum, edum, menvum, aserum, pertumum, U. aferum, qfero

PARTICIPLES

PRES. U.

restef, reste

PERF. O.
U.

seriftas, pniftii, censtom,


screhto, sihitu, orto, etc.

GERUNDIVE U.

anferener

208]

Fourth Conjugation
208.

159

FOURTH CONJUGATION
ACTIVE
INDICATIVE

PASSIVE
INDICATIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE

PRESENT
1.
2.

SG. U. stahu SG. U.


heris, heri,

heri
3.

SG. O. sakruvit,

O.

fakiiad,
heriiad,

U.

herter, herte,

3.

U. O. U. PL. O.
O.

heri,
stait,

herti, hertei

U.
staiet

facia,
feia,

pis-Tier
fiiet,

fuia

stahint,

eestint

IMPERFECT
3.

PL.

O.

hjerrins

FUTURE
2. 3.

SG. U.

heries, purtuvies

SG. O. sakrvist

O. U.
3.

hafiest, herest,

heriest, heries,
fuiest,

kukehes(?)

PL. U. staheren

PERFECT
3.

SG.

U.

heriiei,

heriei, herie

U.

herifi,

cehefi(?)

FUTURE PERFECT
2.

SG. U. purtiius

U.
3.

purtingus

SG. U. purdin&iust,
disleralinsust

U. persnis fust,
purtitu fust

160

Inflection

[208

ACTIVE
IMPERATIVE

PASSIVE

FUT.

2. 3.

SG. O.factud,

U.
2. 3.

stahitu, seritu,

purdouitu, amparitu

PL. U. stahituto
INFINITIVE
fasiu, facu

U. persnimu, persnimu, anouihimu, amparihmu U. persnimumo

PRES. U.

PARTICIPLES

PERF. U.

persnis, purditom,
heritu, etc.

209.

IEREGULAR VERBS
THE VERB
'TO BE'
SUBJUNCTIVE

THE VERB
INDICATIVE

'TO GO

'

INDICATIVE

SUBJUNCTIVE

PRESENT
1.
2.

3.

SG. O. sum SG. SG. O. est, ist

U. U.
U. O.

sir, si, sei


si, si,

sei

U.
3.

est, est
set, sent, set

PL. O.

sins, sis

O. amfret

U.

sent

osii[ns

IMPERFECT
3.
3.

SG.

O.

fusid

PL. O. fufans

FUTURE
3.

SG. O.fust, fust

U.
fust

eest, est

U. fust, j-'us,
3.

PL. U. furent

PERFECT
3.

SG.

O.fuid
fufens

(Passive) U. ier

3.

PL. O.

FUTURE PERFECT
2.

3.
3.

SG. SG. O.fust PL. U. fefure

U. amprefuus U. iust U. ambrefurent

210]

Formation of

the

Moods and Tenses

161

IMPERATIVE

FUT.

2. 3.

SG. O. estud, estud

U.
U. O.

eetu, etu, etu

U./WM,
2. 3.

futu
etuto, etutu, etuta
eituns(?)

PL. U.fututo

PARTICIPLES

PEES. O. praesentid
INFINITIVE

PERF. U. daetom, peretom

PRES. O. ezum, U. erom, em

FOKMATION OF THE MOODS AND TENSES


THE PRESENT STEM
Conjugation I
Present Stem in a
is

210.

1.

As

in Latin, this conjugation

made up mainly

of

Denominatives.

Thus O. moltaum
See 262,
l.

'multare' from molto 'multa',

U.

kuraia ' curet', etc.


2.

Frequentatives, also of denominative origin, are See 262, 1. represented; e.g. U. eteum**itenf: L. ito. 3. Primary Verbs like L. seed, domo, etc., are U. prusekatu
:

The

U. mugatu -imiii\.io\ O. dadikatted 'dedicavit', O. censdwm'censere' contrasted with L. censed of the Second Conjuga<

'prosecato',

tion

here probably O. sakahiter 'sanciatur' from sakdetc.).

(cf.

sak- in

L. sacer
a.

to the

inflection of the Present is in the main that which belongs properly primary verbs, in which the endings were added directly to the a. The denominatives, which are formed from a-stems with the zo-suffix, furnish the First In the other forms they would probably by regular contracSingular (204, 6). tion show partly a, partly 6, before the endings but under the influence of the primary verbs the a is generalized. However, whatever contraction took place here occurred in the Italic period, and the O.-U. forms throw no new light on the Note that *sta-io, U. stahu 'sto' follows the Fourth Conjugation (215). question. 6. The interchange of conjugation between O. dadikatted dedicavit' and deicum 'dicere' is the same as between L. died, de-died, etc., and died and with
; ' ;

The

L. occupo beside capio, compare U. anzeriatu'observatum' beside seritu 'servato'. Cf. also U. andirsafust circumtulerit' beside dirsans 'det' (O. didest etc., 213, 4).
'

162
211.

Inflection

[211

As

in Latin, the a

is

not confined to the Present Sys-

So tem, but normally runs through the whole conjugation. U.kuratu, pihaz, pihafi, cersnatur, O. c?ema^ws,teremnatu,teremnattens,
priifatted, etc.

But

there are also

some forms
is

of the Perf.

and

Perf. Pass. Part, without the a, as

the case with several of

the Latin primary verbs, such as domo, domul, domitum, seed, Thus U. aseceta 'non secta', prusecetu, proseseto seem, sectum, etc. which occurs in 'prosecta', beside Imperat. prusekatu (in prusektu
the same line with prusekatu and in the same meaning, the a is O. ancensto 'incensa' beside Infin. cenomitted by mistake);
saum',

U. muieto muttitum' beside Imperat. mugatu


'

portust

'portaverit' beside Imperat. portatu;

O. upsed

'fecit',

3d PL

uupsens,

Partic.

U.

oseto

(but O.

O. upsannam, Imperat. U. osatu. I].frosetom ha ud3,t^i^ (262,1), uasetom,uasetom viti^tum\Ij.vaco; Present forms are $, s, by 144), pesetom 'peccatum' (144), though
i l
l

upsatuh), beside Gerundive So doubtless O. urust 'oraverit',

lacking.
Conjugation II Present Stem in e

212.

Verbs of

this conjugation
:

comprise the same classes

as in Latin,
1.

namely

Denominatives like L. albed from albus. So O. turumiiad 'torqueatur' from *tormo- (cf. L. tormentum), O. fatium 'fari', See 262, 2. O. putkd'possit'. So U. fatrmtai 'terreto' with 2. Causatives like L. moneo. L. moneo beside memini etc. the regular o-grade (51, 97) as in So O. likitud, 3. Primary Verbs like L. liceo, sedeo, etc.
licitud 'liceto', kasit 'decet';
4

U. habe

'habet', ti9it 'decet', sersitu

sedeto', tenitu 'teneto', ufetu 'adoleto'.


a.

The

relation of the inflection of the Present to that

which belonged

originally to the primary verbs in e on the one hand and the denominatives and causatives in -eio- on the other is similar to what is seen in the First Conjugation
(see 210, a).
etc., see 38,
6.

For the i in O. putiad, U. 1, 39, 1, and 41, 42.

habia, etc.,

and

in O. licitud, U. tursitu,

there are several


is

e or, rarely, I) e or , e (i precise cognates in Latin, of which it impossible to say with certainty whether they belong to the Second or Fourth

Owing

to the ambiguity of the spelling

Umbrian forms, without

213]

Formation of the Moods and Tenses

163

Conjugation.
nepitu
noise,
(cf.

and

To the Second belong probably tremitu (L. tremo), sonitu (L. sonu), L. Neptunus), which are used transitively ("overwhelm with terror, water") and may be modeled after the causative type (tursitu); per-

haps also sauitu in the same passage, but of uncertain meaning and derivation That sonitu is of the Third (early L. sonit etc.) is less likely, for, ('sauciato'?). short vowel is not lost after n (88, 1), we should expect *sonetu. In the though trebeit 'versatur' the ei points to I (48), but may also stand for e (42), and the

meaning rather favors the Second Conjugation.


without

To

the Second belong also,

' doubt, eveietu 'voveto' (148); carsitu, kafetu, kafitu calato' contrasted with L. calo of the First upetu 'optato, deligito', with Perf. Pass. Partic.
;

much

' opeter lecti, choice', of

from

opeto-,

which L. opto represents the iterative formation (opto the same stem as in U. opeter, whence also L. optimus).
Conjugation III

Present Stem in e/

213. 1. Most verbs of this conjugation, as in Latin, show Thus O. acum 'agere', the simple root with the thematic vowel. O. actud, U. aitu, from *agetod (143) O. edum 'edere'; U. emantur 'accipiantur'; O. pertumum 'perimere'; O. deikum 'dicere', dei;

cans,

U. deitu
a.

(143), etc.
in contrast to their

Here

also,

Latin cognates, O. kahad 'incohet',


lavit beside lavat).

U. amboltu 'ambulato', and U. vutu 'lavato' (but also L.


2.

Presents in -no like L. cerno are represented by O. patensins aperirent' from *patno or *pateno (as if L. *patino).
'

Presents with inserted nasals like L. rumpo, vinco, are represented by O. uincter 'vincitur', U. ninctu 'ninguito'.
3.

4.

Reduplicated Presents like L.

sisto,

by U.

sestu 'sisto';

and by *dido, seen

gigno, are represented in O. didest 'dabit', U. tefa,

c?zrsa'det', dirsans (131), teftu, dirstu, titu,

df&w'dato

(132

with

note), tefte'datur' (also Vest, didet'datf, Pael. dida'det').


with loss of reduplication in composition, O. da[da]d 'dedat' from *dad-dido (cf. L. reddo from *re-dido); and U. restef, reste 'instaurans, On account of the meaning this view of U. restef is renewing' from *re-sisto. For the far more probable than connection with U. stahu 'sto' etc. (215, 1).
a.

Here

also,

same reason U.
formation

restatu instaurato, offer' is also best taken as a reduplicated Volsc. sistiatiens, Pael. sestatiens(?) 'statuerunt'), with transfer to (cf. the First Conjugation (see 210, 6), or, less probably, with retention of original
'

*sista- (Grk.
1

Also recognized by Hempl, with great probability, in the Duenos inscription,

See Trans.

Am.

Phil. Ass. 33, 157.

164
5.

Inflection

[213

There are no examples of Presents


is

like L.

cresco, in

confined to the Present System. But there are some forms parallel to L. posed in which the original

which the termination

Present-suffix has
*ponito'(?)

become a part

of the verb-stem.

Thus U. perstu
(145);--U.
eis-

from

*persketdd (146), to

which belongs the Fut. Perf.


erit'

O. comparascuster 'consulta peperscust ; curent 'arcessierint' (29, a).


6.

For Presents

like L. copio, see 216.

Conjugation

IV

Present Stem in

214.
1.

verbs of this conjugation comprise Denominatives like L. finio. So U. persnihimu preca,:

The

tor'

from
2.

*persni-.

See

262,

3.

fakiiad

Primary Verbs like L. 'faciat', U. fa$ia etc.;--U.


;

venio.

So O.

heriiad 'capiat',

used as adverb
the
i

see 202,

19),

with

heris'vel' (2d Sg. Pres. Indie, Fut. heriest, Perf. Pass. Partic.

hereitu, Perf. Subj.


is

herifi. As appears from this last example, not confined to the Present System as in most of the

Latin primary verbs.


3. Denominatives from it-stems, which in Latin follow the Third Conjugation. So at least O. sakruvit 'sacrat', Fut. sakrvist, from *sakru-id (cf. L. statuo from *statu-io).

215.

1.

The

inflection of the

Present

is

that which be-

longs properly to the primary verbs, and to a type of these, to be recognized in other languages also, in which the suffix l
-(i)io-

The length of the i is shown by interchanges with -t-. the absence of syncope and in part by direct evidence of the Thus U. an-ouihimu 'induitor' (cf. Lith. aviii 'wear spelling.
(shoes)'; L. indud, exud,

from *ind-ouo, *ex-ouo, of Conj.


(96);

Ill);

U. pur-douitu'-pOYYicito'
rihmu (L. pario, -perio)
;

--U.

am-paritu conlocato', ampa-

U.

stahu

hereitu, herifi (214, 'sto' from *


1

2).

outside the Present System, Likewise in U. stahitu 'stato', beside


also,
i is

staid,
i

the
i

almost certainly long, and


may

it is

That the

and the

or

of -(i)io-

belong ultimately to the root need not

concern us here.

216]

Formation of the Moods and Tenses


stait 'stat' in spite

165

which may be due to the influence of the regular spelling of the diphthong ai. 2. The Third Plural shows two formations. O. fiiet'fiunt' and staiet 'stant' (ai perhaps due to stait, above, 1; from *staient would come regularly *staent) are like L. veniunt except for the usual substitution of unthematic -ent for -ont (204, 3, a)-, while O. stahint, eestint (89, 2) are as if we had in Latin *venint like amant, monent, and a trace of such a formation is probably to
probably long also in O.
of the
i,

This double formation is be seen in L. prodlnunt etc. (128, 1). in that seen the Future, where we find U. fieriest paralleled by
(like ferest)

and O.
It is

sakrvist (like deiuast),

and

also

by the Latin
the earlier.

Imperfects in -iebam and -ibam.


NOTE.
-int

uncertain which of the two formations

is

The

represent original -inti with vowel-shortening before nt, or -inti (see 216, note), or may be due to the analogy of -ant, -ent (-ant, -ent), of the First and Second Conjugations. The corresponding Slavic verbs end in -etu, which

may

points to -inti or

-inti,

but here again


i

it is

uncertain whether this

is

original or

due

to

an extension of

from the other forms.

(Fut. fuiest) of intervocal retention the *fuiio] /% A /


r

3.

In U.

fuia'fiat'

from
i ^

is

L. fid from of course due to the


*fu-io
(:

analogy of forms like U.

fagia etc.

Forms of
216.

the type of L. capio

In Latin
i

many primary
i,

verbs in

-id,

like capio etc.,

have short

instead of

and

after the thematic


z',

vowel

of

such verbs had so many the Third Conjugation had become forms in common with those of the Third Conjugation that they
are

commonly and conveniently grouped under it. In OscanUmbrian the great majority of the primary verbs have i. See 215. Nevertheless there are some few forms which point to a short i which has been lost by syncope, this bringing about Thus identity with the forms of the Third Conjugation.
O. factud 'facito' from *fakitdd, beside O. fakiiad 'faciat' ; O. hjerrins caperent' beside O. heriiad'capiat'; --U. herter'oportet', U. pis-her 'quilibet', probably from Am'-, beside U. heris,
*

166
hereitu, herifi (215,
1)

Inflection

[216

*hapitod
(see 215,

(218).
1, 2).

with heri-',--U. hahtu, hatu, probably from Whether O. stait, stahint, belong here is doubtful
i

NOTE.

The short

in Latin has been recently explained as having arisen

by iambic shortening (all the verbs of this type have the That the iambic first syllable short), from which it spread to the other forms. shortening has been a contributory factor is altogether probable. But there was already a nucleus of forms with inherited short i, for which there is eviin capis, fugis, etc.

dence in other languages. Otherwise, since iambic shortening is a purely Latin phenomenon, we should have to separate 0. factud from fakiiad and L. /acid and assume for it a different Present Stem.

Irregular Verbs

such as do not conform to and are mainly characterized any by the presence of the unthematic forms, are confined to the two verbs 'to be' and 'to go' given in the paradigm (209). For U. fertu is, in view of the Subj. ferar and Marruc. feret 'fert', ferenter 'feruntur', better taken as thematic, from *feretod; and U. veltu 'deligito', ehueltu, are from *ueletod (105, 2). The Perfect System of U. fertu is supplied, not by a form corresponding to L. tull, but by a form belonging to *dido 'do', at least in andirsafust (210, J), which belongs in use with U. anfe217.

Irregular verbs, that of the four regular types

is

rener 'circumferendi'.

O. sum points to *s0m, whence also L. sum. This is apparently a thematic form with secondary ending, which as an Injunctive has come to be used in place of the original form
1.

of the Present Indicative.

But (Grk. com, etc.). O. 1st, which is the invariable spelling of the Cippus Abellanus (7 occurrences) and so cannot possibly be a mere graphic variation of est, must be a different form. It can represent *est
2.

O.

est,

U.

est,

agree with L.

est

(I

= e, 41)
3.

with

es-

standing in the same relation to the usual


es-

es-

as the ed- in L. est to the usual ed- of edo etc.

As

regards the distribution of the roots

Skt.

as-,

etc.)

and fa- (Grk.

</>o-,

Skt. bhu-, etc.,

(Grk. e<r-, 124), observe

218]

Formation of

the

Moods and Tenses

167

agreeing with L. foret rather than with esset, O.-U. fust contrasted with L. erit, and U. futu contrasted with O. estud,

O.

fusid

L.

esto.

O. amfret 'ambiunt', for which one would expect *amfriiet or *amfrint, is probably a form of the Second Conjugation, into the analogy of which the Present had been drawn by the First
4.

Singular *amfreo, just as in Latin, vice versa, ambio follows the Fourth Conjugation, starting from ambls, ambit, etc. In both
cases the isolation from the simplex
is

due to the

fact that the

prefixes were unusual, making the composition less obvious. U. ambretuto 'ambiunto' etc. may also belong to the Second Conjugation, but here there is no difficulty in assuming the original unthematic inflection, the e corresponding to I in L. ltd and both representing original ei.

Remarks on
218.

the

Forms Connected with

L. habeo

U. habe 'habet', Pres. Subj. habia, Imperat. habitu, But habetu, belong with L. habeo to the Second Conjugation. which a formation the Future U. habiest shows belongs properly This might have arisen by analogy, to the Fourth Conjugation. owing to the resemblance between forms like habia (with i for e, However, the inti39, 1) and those of the Fourth Conjugation. mate relation between io- and ^"-formations is well known, and
habiest

may belong

to a lost present *habio.


etc., in

U.

neifhabas 'ne adhibeant'

Latin advenat, tagam, does not appear.

may be compared with early which the usual Present Stem

The hep- of O. hipid 'habuerit', pruhipid 'prohibuerit', Fut. Perf. hipust, pruhipust (cf. also U. eitipes, 264, 2) is best explained as a contamination of the roots seen in L. habeo and capio, cepl. Present *hapio is also to be assumed with great proba-

bility for

from *hapitod (216) through *haptod, *haftod (121); to which belong further IT. subahtu 'deponito', subotu (?see 35, a), and subator 'omissi' (for the lack
U.
hahtu, hatu 'capito',
.

of the initial h, cf an-ostatu beside an-hostatu etc., 149, a).

168
O.
hafiest 'habebit' is

Inflection

[218

very likely a mistake for *hapiest, formed from *hapio, like U. heriest from *herio. In this case all the Oscan forms would belong to *hapio.
NOTE. L. habeo has often been connected with Gothic haban, Eng. have, on the basis of a root khabh-. But the Umbrian forms point unmistakably to a root ending in 6, not bh, and the Germanic words are probably from the same root as Goth, hafjan, L. capio. 0. hafiest with / stands absolutely alone, and is irreconcilable with U. habe etc., except on the assumption of a by-form of the root. Without further evidence for / it seems more likely that it is a mistake for *hapiest (cf fepacid for fefacid even as it stands hafiest contains one
etc.
,
.

obvious correction, the reading being

hafiert).

Remarks on
219.

the

Forms Connected with

L. faci6

The

Pres. Subj. O. fakiiad, U.

fagia,

Infin. facju, fasu,

Imperat. O. factud, agree entirely with the Latin inflection. But the Umbrian Imperat. fetu, feitu, cannot correspond to O.factud, for we should have *faitu like aitu to O. actud (143).
It

must rather come from

*fek(e)tod or fek(i)tod with the form

of the root seen in L. feel.

The
also

participles
;

U.

aanfehtaf

and

feta, if

belonging here, are

from fek-.
U.
feia

faciat',

beside

fa$ia,

is also,

should expect

*fecia,

but see

144, b,

probably, from /<?&-. on U. peiu.


:

We

NOTE. It is noteworthy that in the Imperative form the spelling with e is far more common than that with ei (fetu 48 times, fetu 52 times, feetu once feitu 20 times, feitu 5 times), while hi all other examples the diphthong resulting from the change of k to i remains unchanged, not only in aitu, but also in -veitu and
deitu (143).

The

The reason for the difference lies in the quality of the first vowel. was an open e in both. -veitu (orig. e) and deitu (open e from ei; see 65), and did not contract with the following i, while in feitu the e was a close e In the same way ie was contracted (orig. e; see 42) and did suffer contraction. only when the e was close (82, 2, with a). Thus the spelling fetu, fetu, repree

sents the contracted form, while feitu, which is nearly as common as fetu in Old Umbrian, is a retention of the old spelling prior to the contraction.

In
is

all

the examples where


'

we have assumed

fek-,

somewhat

easier for feia, but less satisfactory for fetu, feitu.

some prefer fe-. This Moreover it is

probable that in the meaning do, make' the Italic root is always/efc-, fak-, though this, of course, is an extension of an earlier fe-, fa- (Grk. By-, Skt. dha-, etc.), which
is

preserved in L. condo

etc.

and

in O. priiffed, pruftti (see

223 with

footnote).

222]

Formation of

the

Moods and Tenses


Indicative

169

The Imperfect
220.

The only extant form


as in Latin.

is

same formation

of the verb 'to be',

form serving as the past tense namely *bhud-, whence O. /-, L. -bd (124),

O. fufans erant', showing the


'

was added to case-forms in -a, -e, giving a periphrastic formation, and this was then extended to root-forms, as in L. dabam, ibam, with which O. fufans is most closely connected.
The Future
221.
Indicative

of an with the Homeric short-vowel forms of the Aorist Subjunctives. In the Second and Third Singular the e suffers syncope (90, 2), and in the Third Plural the -out is supas Thus O. deiuast -ent, planted by regularly (204, 3). 'iurabit', censazet cQusebnut\ U. prupehast piabit', from -dset, -dsent;
is

This

in origin a short-vowel Subjunctive

s-Aorist, identical

<

'

U.

ferest 'feret'

from

*fereset-,-

*ostendesenter (137,2,156);
furent 'erunt',
*eiset, etc.

O.

U. ostensendi 'ostendentur' from fust, U. fust (fus, 127,3) 'erit',


-

from

*fuset,

*fusent; -

U.

eest,

est 'ibit'

from

properly formed from the VerbStem, the Future has come to follow the Present Stem even where it differs from the former. So O. didest 'fabif with the

Although the

s-aorist is

Present reduplication, U. fieriest (100, 3, e), U. purtuvies 'porricies', Present Stem.


mations, as

(heries, 127, 3) 'volet',


fuiest'fiet',

O. herest
of the

with the

-io-

In the Fourth Conjugation there are two forregards the stem, related to one another as the Latin Imperfects leniebam and lenibam e.g. U. heriest etc.,
;

but O.

sakrvist 'sacrabit' (Pres. sakruvit).

The

latter is analogous

to deiuast.

The Perfect
222.

Indicative

This tense, as in Latin, includes various formations. While the vl- and s-Perfects of the Latin are lacking, their place
is

taken by others specifically Oscan-Umbrian.

The

/-,

tt-,

and

170

Inflection

[222

nki-P erfects (227-229), though having no formal connection with the Latin w-Perfect, resemble it in scope, in that they are mainly confined to the First and Fourth Conjugations.
NOTE.

An

s-Perfect, that

for U. sesust 'sederit', andersesust.


cipial

stem *sesso- with ss by some, but with even less

an s-Aorist in origin, is assumed by some But this is probably based on the partifrom two dentals (138). A w-Perfect is also assumed
is,

justification.

as in other secondary tenses. In illustrating the different types, forms of the Perfect Subjunctive and Future Perfect are included.

The endings

are the

same

223.

U.

dede

(by 131);

Reduplicated Perfect. Examples: O. deded 'dedit', with Fut. Perf. U. tefust, dirsust, from *dedust (131, c), - - U. O. fecerit';
fefacid
4

peperscust 'posuerit'(?);

U. pepurkurent 'poposcerint'; --U. fefure 'fuerint' (128, 2, a); O. pniffed 'posuit' U. dersicust 'dixerit' from *dedikust (by 131); 1 from *pro-fefed: L. pro-didit, con-didit, etc. (for the ff cf.
L. rettull, reppull, for *re-tetuli etc.);
locavit'
etc.

from *man-fefed (80, 2), as if (see 264,2), manafum 'mandavi';

O. aa-manaffed 'mandavit, L. *mandidit like condidit O.


fifikus <decreveris'(?).

is

This a. In all examples but the last the vowel of the reduplication is e. but in after the Perfect of the vowel the original Latin, reduplication, analogy
latter
it was replaced by an i, w, or o, of the root-syllable was the same in both Perfect and Present; e.g. momordl

of tetendl to tendo, etc.,

wherever the

O. fifikus, if connected with cucurrl, etc., but pepull. an example of a similar, though independent, development None of the other Perfect forms is necessarily at variance in Oscan-Umbrian. with such an assumption, for in U. dersicust and fefure there is no identity in
for earlier memordi,

L. flgo, U. fiktu,

is

the root-syllable of Present and Perfect, and for U. pepurkurent the Present

is

unknown.
224.

Simple Perfect without reduplication.

Examples

O. kiimbened 'convenit', O. cebnust (ce- prefix as in L. cedo), O. avafafcer 'dedicaO. dicu st 'dixerit'; U. benust 'venerit'; O. dadid vit' (80, 2), U. fakust 'fecerit'; -- U. habus 'habuerit'
;

1
(

The meaning

of O. pruffed

and

pruftfi

Irk. irporLOrj/ju

than with that of L. prodo.

(244, 1) agrees more nearly with that of In the Latin compounds in -do are merged

forms of the roots dhe- 'put' and do- 'give', and the existence of the former is less obvious in prodo than in condo, which is therefore a more certain cognate of the Oscan forms.

226]

Formation of

the

Moods and Tenses


;

171
O. pertemust
'

'dediderit';

-- U.

' couortus, courtust converterit'

peremust 'perceperit'; procanurent '*proci-eiscurent U. U. nuerint'; 'arcessierint'; portust portaverit' - O. urust 'oraverit'; -- O. comparascuster consulta erit'; O. aflakus 'detuleris'(?).
'peremerit',
; '

U.

a. As in Latin, it is impossible to distinguish always between forms which are in origin simple thematic Aorists, like Grk. e\nrov etc., and those which belong historically to the Reduplicated Perfect, but have lost the reduplication in composition or, by analogy, in the simplex, as L. scidi beside earlier scicidl etc.

Loss of reduplication is most evident in cases like 0. dicust beside U. dersicust or U. fakust beside 0. fefacid. O. dadid and U. procanurent are doubtless exam0. urust and U. portust from verbs ples of loss of reduplication in composition.
of the First Conjugation (see 211) are, of course, not original formations. 6. U. lust 'ierit' is parallel to L. il, and U. purtiius 'porrexeris' is an extension of the same type, like L. audil after il. With purtiius belongs also

U.

heriiei 'voluerit'

(234, note).

Perfect with lengthened vowel in the root-syllable. Examples: O. hipid 'habuerit', hiputt, etc. (218), U. prusikurent
225.

'pronuntiaverint' (cf. also O. sipus 'sciens', 90, 1, 5), with e, like L. cepi, venl, etc.; further O. upsed 'fecit', uupsens, upsens, oi>7ro-ez>?,

with

o (53) in contrast to o of the


a.

Present (upsannam

etc.).
in contrast to
;
:

lengthened vowel a short vowel of the Present.

By

is

meant here simply a long vowel

represents an inherited variation e.g. e a in 0. hipid, sipus, as in L. cepi to capio (see also 218), or e: e in U. prusikurent, as in L. venl to venio. 0. upsed belongs to a denominative of the First ConjuIt

gation, from which one would expect Perf. *upsatted or *upsafed, but is formed after the analogy of Perfects of primary verbs, and the o in contrast to the o of the Present must be due to Perfects like L. eml, odl, etc.
b. Observe that the forms corresponding to L. eml, venl, and feel do not follow this type. Thus O. pertemust (224); 0. kumbened, U. benust (224); O. fefacid (223), U. fakust (224), like fhefhaked of the Praenestine brooch (cf.

L. pepigl beside pegl).

found in Umbrian only, the examples being Fut. Perf. entelust 'imposuerit', 2d Sg. entelus, and apelust 'impendent', 2d Sg. apelus. These are based on
226.
Z-Perfect.

The

This

is

participial
cipial

forms * en-tend-lo-, *am-pend-loin the

(-lo- is
.

suffix

credulus, etc.),

Slavic languages ; cf with the change of ndl through nnl,

a regular partialso L. pendulus,


nl,

to

(135).

172

Inflection

[226

arose in the Future Perfect, which is of participial origin, and as the only examples are in this tense it is impossible to say whether it ever extended to the Perfect,

The type doubtless

If not, its mention here giving such forms as *enteled etc. among the Perfect types is only justified by convenience. 227. The /-Perfect. Examples: O. aikdafed decrevit'(?);4

O.
hafi

sakrafir 'sacrato';

U. andirsafust circumtulerit'
*

U. picehefi

'piatum sit'; O. 'accensum sit';

-- U.

herifi

'

oportuerit' ;

probably U.

fufens 'fuerunt';

U. amprefuus 'ambieris',

ambrefurent 'ambierint'. This /-Perfect is a periphrastic formation like the Imperfect, the second element in this case being *blmom, *bhues,
*bhuet, etc., that
is,

a past tense

with the thematic vowel. tain the same form, but in

formed from the root 'to be' The Latin Futures like amdbo con-

Subjunctive function. 228. The ^-Perfect. This is found in Oscan (with PaeligOscan nian, Marrucinian, and Volscian) but not in Umbrian.
its

examples,
runt';
tur'(?)
;

all of
;

the First Conjugation, are:


dadikatted 'dedicavit'
;

PI. priifattens

priifatted 'probavit', teremnattens 'terminave-

tribarakattins 'aedificaverint'; - - lamatir,

lamatir 'caeda-

djuunated 'donavit'.

Cf. Pael. coisatens 'curaverunt',

Marruc. amatens, Volsc. sistiatiens 'statuerunt'. This formation is probably based on the 0-Participle through the medium of the Future Perfect (cf. the Umbrian Z-Perfect), but so long as the
double
t is

left

unexplained

its

history

must remain

obscure.

NOTE.

It is possible that

a contamination of the to-Participle and

the wes-Participle resulted in a form with tu (e.g. -tuos) which then became U. But it is difficult to support the change of tu to U.
O. angetuzet proposuerint', the etymology of which is wholly uncertain, has sometimes been taken as a ^-Perfect. But without further evidence of a
a.
'

^-Perfect in the Third Conjugation, it seems to the root (get- or gent- with prefix an-).

more probable that the t belongs By any theory the fragmentary


i.

angitu..

if

related,

is

puzzling on account of the

229.

The

w&i-Perfect.

This

is

found in Umbrian only,


combifiamiust 'nuntiaverit',

the examples being Fut. Perf. purdinsiust 'porrexerit', purdinsust,

purdinsus, 2d Sg. purtincus;

231]

Formation of

the

Moods and Tenses

173

disleracombifiansiust, combifiansust, Perf. Subj. combifiansi ; These forms point clearly to a formalinsust 'inritum fecerit'.

tion containing nki (see 144), but


Taking purdinsiust as the
earlier

precise origin is uncertain. formation, one may assume that it is


its

based on an adjectival stem *purdinkio-, again through the medium of the Future Such a form would contain an -inko- based on the O.-U. suffix Perfect (226).
-In- (0. leginum etc.) like L. -iunco- based on the corresponding -ion- (cf. L. ratiuncula to ratio). But neither this nor any of the other explanations is entirely

convincing.

The Future Perfect

For examples, see 205-209 (especially 207) and 223-229. For the omission of final t in U. 3d Sg. habus and couortus, cf.
230.
127,
3.

origin of this formation is disputed, but the most probable explanation is that it is periphrastic, a combination of a

The

short-vowel Subjunctive of the verb 'to be' with an old Nom. Sg. of a Perf. Act. Partic. in -us, a possible relic of which is

O. sipus 'sciens'
-us-ses,

(90,

l, b).

The forms would then be 2d


-us(s), -ust.

Sg.

3d Sg.

-us-set,

whence by syncope

After the
arise beside

analogy of the Future,


-ust the

e.g. after -azent to -ast,

would

3d

PI. in -uzent (O. -uzet, -uset,

U.

-urent).
'

Another possibility is that the type is formed from the Connection Perfect Stem after the analogy of the Future fust erit'. with the Latin vi- and m-Perfect, which is strongly urged by some, seems to the author the least likely view. a. U. uesticos libaverit' (VI b 25) beside Imper&t.uesticatu is taken by some as coming from *uestikaust, but we should expect rather *uesticafust, or *uesticust like portust. It probably stands for uesticos fust, 1 and is a fo-Participle, like
NOTE.
'

U. pihos 'piatus', but used here in the Active sense likeU. cersnatur, L. cenatus.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE
231.

The

Italic

Subjunctive represents a fusion of the old


*

Subjunctive and Optative, which are kept distinct in Greek and


in

Vedic Sanskrit.

1 Such an ellipsis, though perhaps without parallel in Latin, is natural enough where the Future Perfect has been used in a clause immediately preceding, and where the conjunction arnipo donee' prevents any ambiguity. But it is also possible that the omission is a mere error.
'

174

Inflection

[231

The Optative mood-sign was

%e,

I,

for unthematic verbs, as

seen in L. sim, s7s, etc. (early L. siem, sies, etc.), velim, edim, etc., and also in the Perfect Subjunctive in -im etc. In thematic
verbs the mood-sign, including the thematic vowel, was oi, as in Grk. <t>epoL etc., but of this formation there is no trace in Italic.

The Subjunctive mood-sign


tical

for unthematic verbs

was idenThis

with the thematic vowel of the thematic Indicatives.

which may be called the short-vowel Subjunctive, is seen in Latin in ero and in the Future Perfect, and in Oscan-Umbrian in the Future and probably in the Future Perfect (230), but has not survived in any forms which are Subjunctives from the For thematic verbs there were two moodItalic point of view. e. a is seen in Latin in the Present Subjunca The and signs, The e is seen in the tive of Conjugations II, III, and IV. Present Subjunctive of Conjugation I (probably, see below) and in the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive, also in the Future In of Conjugations III and IV except in the First Singular.
type,

general, then, the Italic Subjunctive forms represent either unthematic Optatives with ie, I, or thematic Subjunctives with a or e.

In Oscan-Umbrian their distribution


except in the Perfect Subjunctive

is

the

same as

in Latin

(234).

The Present Subjunctive


232.

For examples, see


i

205-209.

In the First Conjugation

the Oscan forms deiuaid i\lTQt\ acfcra''censeat', sakahiter 'sacrificetur', contain -de-, from which comes L. -e- by contraction.

This -de- from


it

-die- is

probably the ^-Subjunctive of

-dio-,

though

might also be wholly or in part the ^"-Optative of an untheThe Umbrian forms portaia 'portet' etc. matic stem in -a.
represent a departure from the original type and are due to the influence of such forms as U. facia, feia, fuia, etc., of the

Fourth Conjugation. The forms of Conjugations II-I V agree Of the unthematic forms, U. si, sins, entirely with the Latin. etc., show the same generalization of the I as is seen in L. sis etc. (early sies etc.); while O. osii[ns with U for ie shows the

236]

Formation of
ie, or,

the

Moods and Tenses

175

opposite extension of
*si-ent (ending -ent)

with

more exactly, represents the original changed to e under the influence of

forms containing

-ie-.

The Imperfect Subjunctive


233.

The only examples

are O. fusid 'foret', hjerrins 'cape-

rent', patensins 'aperirent'

(with P&e\.upsaseter 'operaretur, fieret'). identical with the e in L. esses, amdres, ageres, etc., and the formation represents an <f-Subjunctive of an s-Aorist. The

The

is

an unthematic formation, would take the short-vowel Subjunctive, and this is preserved in the O.-U. Future (221). But, used as Subjunctives, the forms followed the analogy of
s-Aorist, as

the long-vowel type, which had become characteristic of Italic

Subjunctives.

The Perfect Subjunctive

For examples, see 205-209 and 223-229. The i of O. sakrafir and tribarakattins points to e rather than i, so that the formation is an ^-Subjunctive.
234.
NOTE.

Some maintain
;

that the two Oscan forms with

are not sufficient

evidence to justify us in assuming a divergence from the Latin formation, which is an S-Optative that the i of sakrafir may be a mistake such as is found in the
class of inscriptions to

and that the of tribarakattins may stand As regards the latter point, the Imperf. Subj. forms like hjerrins etc. beside fusid show that before the ending -ns a long vowel was either retained or restored by analogy (78, a), and so we are reasonably justified in assuming from tribarakattins a 3d Sg. *tribarakattid. As for U. heriiei,
which
it

belongs,

for

i,

shortened from

before

nt.

which

same
for

best taken as a Perf. Subj. voluerit' (and heriei, herie vel', which is the form), the spelling ei is otherwise unknown for either e or z, but may stand
is
' '

It must be admitted that the material bearing e, like the ei in nesimei (42). on the question is scanty, but so far as it goes it points decidedly, we think, to an e-Subjunctive.

THE IMPERATIVE
235.

are

probable examples of the Present Imperative U. aserio 'observa' and stiplo 'stipulare', both of the First
c

Two

Here also Pael. eite ite'. Conjugation, with o for final a (34). 236. All other forms are such as correspond to the Latin
Future Imperative.

176
1.

Inflection

[236

The ending

of the

Second and Third Singular


-to,

is

O. -tud,

U.

-tu,

corresponding to L.
205-209.

early -tod, Grk.

-ro>, etc. (53, 54).

For examples, see


Person.

All the Oscan forms are of the Third

In the Third Conjugation the thematic vowel suffers syncope except after n (88, 1). For U. aitu, deitu, -veitu, see 143
for 'U.feitUifetu, 219.
2.

no unquestioned example of a Plural in Oscan, but eituns (nos. 14-18) has often, and perhaps correctly, been As such it is easily explained as formed taken as 'eunto'. from the Singular after the analogy of the Third Plural of other tenses, where -ns corresponds to Sg. -d, e.g. Subj. -am beside -ad, -ins beside -id, etc. It is no objection to this that the Latin and Umbrian formations are different, for both are

There

is

secondary.

In Umbrian a Second and Third Plural has been formed

by the addition of -td (written -ta, -tu, -to see 34), of uncertain So fututo 'estote', aituta 'agunto', habetutu, habituto origin.
;

'habento', tusetutu, tursituto 'terrento', etc.


a.

The form

etatu, etato

'

itatote'

comes from

*etatutu, *etatuto,

by hap-

lology, as L. semestris from *semi-mestris etc.

also a Passive Imperative, ending in Oscan in -mur, in Umbrian in -mu, PI. -mumo. Thus O. censamur 'cen-

237.

There

is

PL persnihimumo eheturstahamu anouihimu 'induito', 'exterminate', etc. (the UmThe history of the ending is brian forms are all Deponents). like that of early Latin -mind, in fruimino etc., which is related
se tor';

-- U.

persnihmu, persnihimu 'precator',

Second Plural (originally an Infinitive form), but modeled after the Active ending -to(d). Similarly O.-U. *-mod was formed after -tod, and in Oscan the d was replaced by the r of the Passive. The Umbrian pluralizing -md is modeled after the -td.
to the -mini of the

NOTE.

This *-mod

may come from *-mnod and

so be almost identical

But, in the absence of other evidence for a change of ran to in Oscan-Umbrian, the possibility must be granted that, while formed in the

with L. -mind.

same way as L. -mino, it started from a by-form with m, perhaps one cases in which an I.E. interchange of mn and m has to be recognized.

of the

238]
a.

Formation of
'

the

Moods and Tenses

177

U. armamu, arsmahamo ordamini' comes from *arsmamumo by hapAnd this has effected a reduction in the following as etato 'itatote'. lology, word, kateramu, caterahamo 'catervamini'.

THE PASSIVE
238.

The Imperative forms have

just been mentioned.

In

the Indicative and Subjunctive only the Third Singular and Third Plural are represented, but two different types of formation are to be distinguished. For omission of the final r in

Umbrian, see
1.

103, 4.

Forms

with
is

-tur.

answering to the Latin formation In Oscan only -ter is found, while in Umbrian -ter
in -ter
-tur,

and

used in primary tenses, -tur in secondary. Indicatives. O. uincter 'convincitur',


'

Examples
;

sakarater 'sacratur',

karanter

vescuntur', comparascuster 'consulta erit' ' 'oportet', tefte <datur'(?), ostensendi osteudentur'
Cf. also Marruc. /erewfer 'feruntur'.

U.
(39,
2,

herter

156).

Subjunctives.

O. sakahiter 'sanciatur';

U. emantur, emantu

'accipiantur', terkantur 'suffragentur', tursiandu 'terreantur' (156). Cf. also Pael. upsaseter 'operaretur, fieret'.
2. Forms in which r alone appears as the ending of the Third Singular. This type is unknown in Latin. The most certain examples are: Pres. Subj. U./erar; Perf. Subj. O. sakrafir, with which belong O. lamatir, lam&tir, U.pihafei, herifi, cehefi,

and probably U.

ier (cf.

Fut. Perf.

iust);

(from *loufer beside Act. *loufet: see 202, 18). For the meaning of forms of this type, see 239. The Future Perfects U. benuso, couortuso, probably belong
here, standing for *benusor

Pres. Indie. O. loufir L. libet; for meaning 'vel',

and *couortusor, though their precise


stands for *herter, and represents a Presfrom those cited under 1 and 2, is to be

origin is doubtful.
a.

The view that U.


still

hertei, herti,

ent Subjunctive of a given up. Though of its use for short


i

different type

ei

usually stands for a long vowel, there are a few instances (29) which, taken in connection with U. ostensendi with i

for e before final r (39, 2), show that it is unnecessary to separate hertei from herter and other forms in -ter. Nor is the Subjunctive demanded by the syntax.

178
6.

Inflection
0. sakraitir 'sacretur', for which one

[238

would expect

*sakraiter like saka-

Or shall we possibly owes its i to contamination with forms like sakrafir. adopt the other possible reading sakrattir in spite of the fact that this would
hiter,

give us a ^-Perfect
c.

and an /-Perfect from the same verb

kaispatar 'caedatur'(?) and krustatar 'cruentetur'(?), apparently If they related to L. caespes and crustus, there is no satisfactory explanation. of the ^-Perfect from of the First denominatives are taken as Subjunctives

ForO.

Conjugation, the -ar instead of -ir cannot be accounted for. It is more probable that they are Present Subjunctives of the Third Conjugation, from *kaispo, *krusto, the -tar in place of -ter being due, possibly, to contamination with the

type of U. ferar.
-aid, in

Another suggestion is that they are from Presents which case they belong to the same type as U. ferar.

in -ato or

is

Passive and Deponent formation characterized by the common possession of the Italic and Celtic languages.
239.
is

This r

unquestionably to be connected with a series of Third

Plural secondary endings containing r, which are preserved in But the precise starting-point Sanskrit (-ur, -ran, -ranta, etc.).

and the various steps in the development are necessarily obscure. The following view seems most probable. 1

We
ending

start

from an Active ending

-r,

parallel to the usual -nt,

and a Middle

-ro parallel to the usual -nto.

The forms in -r, though originally Plural and Active, came to be used the subject was indefinite, and in this way lost their specifically when only Plural force. Cf. Eng. 'they say' or 'one says', but Germ, 'man sagt', Fr. 'on From such a meaning it is but a step to an Impersonal Passive (cf. etc. dit',
subject

and from that again to a fully developed Passive with definite development would be assisted by the existence of other forms containing r which were based on a Middle ending and so had partly Passive In the O.-U. forms in -r the impersonal meaning prevails, force from the outset. there being only one form with subject expressed, namely O. esuf lamatir let him be beaten' (?). In O. Itiviass sakriss sakrafir, avt ultiumam kerssnals 'the loviae are to be consecrated with sacrifices, but the last one with banquets', sakrafir has the Accusative construction which goes with the meaning 'let one O. loufir, U. ier, herifi, benuso, and consecrate', 'let there be consecration of.
Eng.
'it is said'),
;

and

this

'

couortuso are impersonal, while in the case of U. ferwr, pihafei, and cehefi it is impossible to say whether the word or clause to which they refer is to be taken
as Nominative or Accusative.
1 1 follow Thurneysen, K.Z. 37, 92 ff., in his explanation of forms in -ter, but forms like U. ferar I still hold to what is substantially the view of Zinnner, K.Z. 30, 276 if., and this without regard to the question of how far an Active imper-

for

sonal use

is

actually to be recognized in the corresponding Celtic forms.

242]

Formation of

the

Moods and Tenses

179

The forms in -ter sprang from a Third Plural in -ntro representing a contamination of the Middle endings -nto and -ro (cf. Skt. -ranta, a combination of the same elements in the reverse order). After this the Third Singular ending
-to

L. ager,

became -tro and -tro, -ntro, became -ter, -nter, in the same way as U. ager, from *agros (91, 2). The forms in -tur, undoubtedly from -tor, are the most difficult, but per;

haps originated in a combination of -nto with the simple -r, giving -ntor, whence the Singular -tor. All the formations mentioned, though originating in secondary endings, came to be used in primary tenses as well. The distinction of primary -ter and
secondary -tur
in all tenses
;

is

unoriginal and confined to Urnbrian.

In Latin, -tur prevailed

in Oscan, -ter.

The Periphrastic Passive

In the Perfect System of the Passive, periphrastic forms are more common than the r-forms. Thus Perf Indie.
240.
:
.

O. teremnatust 'terminata

est',

pruftuset 'posita sunt', seriftas set

'scriptae sunt', U. screhto est 'scriptum est', screihtor sent, etc.; Perf. Subj. U. kuratu si'curatum sit'; Fut. Perf. U. pihaz fust 'piatus erit', muieto fust 'muttitum erit', cersnatur furent 'cenati Perf. Infin. U. kuratu em 'curatum esse', ehiato erom erunt', etc.
;

'emissum

esse'.

The Present
241.

Infinitive

For examples, see 205-209. The ending was -om, doubtless an Accusative form in origin, with change to -urn in Oscan (50). In the First Conjugation -aum remained uncontracted, and in tribarakavum the v is simply a glide sound. See 83. For the Perfect Infinitive Passive, see 240.

The Supine
242.

The one

certain

aseriato 'observatum',

example of the Supine is U. anzeriatu, showing the same formation and use as
o for -w(m),

the Latin Supine.


a.

On
is

see 57.

U. aso

VI b

50

Perf. Pass. Partic.

("Let the

often regarded as a Supine, but is more probably a same person carry it lighted on the right shoulder").

180

Inflection

[243

The Present Active


243.

Participle

The formation

is

the same as in Latin.


5,

Examples
(262,

are

O. praesentid 'praesente'
reste 'instaurans' (213,

(178,

a),

U.

zefef, serse 'sedens',

4, a),

U.

kutef

'murmurans'

U. restef, For 2).

of an O. staief stans' is altogether doubtful, owing to the uncertainty of the reading and division of words (no. 29).
'

the /, see no, 4. a. The existence

The Perfect Passive


244.

Participle

The formation

is

the same as in Latin.


4

1. -to-.
tos';

O. scn/itos'scriptas', U. screihtor; U. sihitu cincO. pruftu 'posita' from *pro-fa-to- (faO. status 'stati';

reduced grade of /<?-, as in fak- beside fek-); L. pro-di-tus, - - U. daetom con-di-tus, Grk. Trpo-de-ros (see 223 with f ootnote) O. ancensto 'incensa', censtom-en 'delictum' (as if L. *de-itum);
;

'in censum', to

censaum
;

(211).

ing in a dental, see 138


a.

For forms and for U. spefa

in -soetc.,

from roots end3.

see no,

with L. census which

0. ancensto, censtom-en, represent the normal formation, as compared is one of the examples of the analogical extension of -so-. L. censor (O. kenzsur, occurring once, is due to Latin censtur O. Similarly
:

influence).

U. pelsatu

probable example of the analogical -so- is *pelso-, assumed from See 262, 1, a. So also U. sepse, which may well mean 'sane' 'sane sarsite sarteque'), is perhaps an adverb formed from *saipso(sepse
b.

etc.

L. saeptus. Cf. L. lapsus. c. U. aso'arsum' (242, a) is commonly connected with L. assus, which seems to contain *asso- in place of *asto-. But it might also be connected with
L. arsus,
if

That

is, its s

the r of arded, areo, were original and not from s, as is often assumed. might stand in the same relation to the rf of U. trahuorfi (115, 3)

as that of L.

rusum
words

to the restored rs of rfirsum, versus, etc.


is is

This of course

is

impossible

if

L. areo

connected with ara, O.-U. asa-, but the history of this


obscure.
est',

whole

class of

2.

-dto-.

O. teremnatust 'terminata

staflatas

statutae',

ehpeilatas 'erectae';
4

--U.
1
,

pihaz, pilios 'piatus' (35, 137, 2), $ersnatur

cenati', anzeriates
a.

observatis', etc.
if

0. deiuatuns 'iurati

the n

is

not merely a mistake, must owe

its
L').

form to the influence

of agent-nouns in -fin- like L. praedo, O. sverrunei (247,

245]

Formation of
3.
-ito-.

the

Moods and Tenses

181

U. purditom 'porrectum', Amftt 'opt&to', stahmito statutum', persnis precatus' from *persnit(o)s, etc. Like persnis in formation and use is U. uestis, uesteis 'libans', beside uesticatu
4

'

etc.

from an extended stem


above,
36,
1,

*uestikd-.

site 'sarte' (see

5),

as
2).

if

Here belongs also U. sarL. *sarcltus instead of sartus.


tacez,

4. -eto- (see

3,

88,

U.
(212,

tases 'tacitus'

(137, 2),

uirseto 'visum',

opeter comatir 'commolitis' with

'lecti'
-to-):,

(beside 5), further, in the First Conjuga-

maletu 'molitum'

tion,

U.
a.

prusecetu, oseto, etc. (211).


'

U. comohota commota' probably belongs here, coming from *mouetoby syncope and change of ou to 6 (72). L. motus also comes from *moueto-, but independently. For it is not to be separated from votus from *uoueto-, earlier
*uoghyeto-, U. vufetes (152), in which, obviously, the process Latin.
is

specifically

The Gerundive
245.
of

nd

to

The forms correspond nn (135). The origin of


:

to the Latin,

with the change


is still

the formation

unsettled.

Examples O. upsannam 'faciendam', sakrannas 'sacrandae', eehiiaU. pihaner 'piandi', anferener 'circumnasum emittendarum'
' ;

ferendi', pelsans 'sepeliendus'(?).

The Oscan-Umbrian forms bear upon the much-disputed question Gerundive to this extent, that they are unfavorable to any theory which assumes that the original form contained ndh. For there are too
NOTE.
of the origin of the

serious difficulties,

we think, in the way of assuming that the representation of an original sonant aspirate after a nasal by a simple sonant is not only Latin and Umbrian (161) but also Oscan, and so may belong to the Oscan-Umbrian or even the Italic period. See 161, a with footnote, and 264, 2 (O. aa-manaffed from Pres. *man/o), not to mention 0. Anafriss. Otherwise Fay, Trans. Am. Phil.
Assoc. 29, pp. 15
ff.

WORD-FORMATION

DERIVATION OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES


NOUNS
246.
1.
'

-tor- in

agent-nouns (L.

victor).

O. aenstur 'censor',

U.
4

affertur *adfertor, flamen', O.embratur'imperator', O.Regaturei See 180, 1. Rectori' (with -d-tor- after derivatives of a-verbs). a. Derivatives of agent-nouns are regularly formed fr.om the reduced grade

of the suffix (97), like L. victr-lx; e.g. U. kvestretie, uhtretie (251, 1), beside Here belong the Oscan proper names Sadiriis kvestur, uhtur, O. Fuutrei (180, a). 'Satrius' (81, 157, 2; cf. L. sator), Vestirikiitii 'Vestricio' (81; cf. L. Vestorius

with

-tor-), Tintiriis

'

*Tintrius'

(cf.

L. Tintorius with -tor-; Tintirius

is

simply

But the later formation the Oscan form, like Pontius, Popidius, Calamus). with -tor- (cf. L. amatorius, auctoritas) is also represented, e.g. U. speturie 'censores'. '*spectoriae' beside Speture '*Spectori', O. Kenssurineis beside kenzsur
2.
4

-ter- (-ter-, -tr-) in

nouns of relationship
See
180, 2.

(L. pater).

O.

patir

pater',

U.

f rater

'fratres'.

247.

1.

-ion- (-m-), -tion- (-tin-), in abstracts

denoting action,

or, with a transfer to the concrete sense, the result of the action

(L. legio, dctio).


fruktatiuf
'

O. tribarakkiuf aedificium', tanginud 'sententia', fructus', medicatinom 'iudicationem', U. natine'natione'.


'

See

181,
a.

with
of

a.

-ti-,

which

-tion- is

Latin has the extended form.


O. uhftis voluntates'
tid.
'
' :

an extension, is seen in some words where the Thus U. ahtim-em ad caerimonium'(?): L. actio
*
;

L. optio

U. -vakaz, -uacos, from *uakat(i)s


;

L. vaca-

Cf. also U. puntes pentads'

from *span-ti
(110,
3, a).
1

(root span-, Eng. span,

U. spanti 'latiis' from *pomp-ti- (146, 153) Germ, spannen, related to spa- in U. spahatu

tions.

That is, the formation of the word as a whole, irrespective of inflectional variastrictly under this head, such us the formation of adverbs, of the comparative! and superlative, etc., have been treated, for greater convenThere remain, then, Derivation of Nouns and ience, in connection with Inflection. No Adjectives by means of suffixes, Secondary Verbal Derivation, and Composition.

Some matters which belong

attempt is made to present the material in more important formations. 182

full,

but examples are given of

all the

248]

Derivation of Nouns and Adjectives


2.

183

O. sverrunei 'spokesman' U. maron-, name of an see note to C. A. 2 cf L. susurrd) (? For other nouns in -on-, see 181, b. official (see note to no. 84).
-on- in

agent-nouns (L. praedo).


;
.

probably an extension of -on-, and frequent in names of divinities In the parallel names of male divinities, seen in U. Vesune. U. Afmune, Puemune, Uofione, all Dat. Sg., it is not clear whether the suffix is
a.

-ona-,

(L. Bellona),

is

-ono- or simply -on-.

-men- (-mn-) in nouns denoting action or result of the action O. teremniss 'terminibus' (but U. nome 'noinen'; (L.fragmeri).
3.

U. termnom-e

etc.,

like L. terminus beside termen)


cf.

- - U. tikamne

'dedicatione' (from dikd-; form -mento- is seen in

L. certdmen

etc.).

O. tristaamentud 'testamento'.

The extended But

U. pelmner
248.

L. pulmentum.
-Mo-, -tro-, in

-lo-, -elo-, -flo-,

nouns denoting means or

instrument, or sometimes place or result.


-lo-,-elo-(L.vinculum). U. *uislo- (preuislatu^pYaevmcuU. tigel 'dedicatio', Ace. Sg. ti9lu, from lato') from *uinkelo- ;
1.

*dikelo-.
2.

See
-flo-

88, 4, 144.

(L. pabulum-,

orig. -dhlo-,

Grk.

-#Xo-).

*staflo-

(L. stabulum) is implied by O. staflatas 'statutae', U. staflarem 1 Cf the *stabularem', Pael. pristafalacirix *praestibulatrix'.
'
.

adjective suffix -fli- (261, i). 3. -Jclo-, -kid- (L. pidculum


'

orig.
'

-tlo-,

Grk. -r\o-

see 129,

2).

O. sakarakliim templum', U.pihaclu piaculo', U. naraklum 'narratio'; -U. kumnahkle 'inconventu', from *komno- (U. kumne, O. comono), either directly, after the analogy of other forms m-dklo-, or through
a denominative verb-stem *komnd-;--U. ehvelklu 'sententiam' from *ueleklo- (ehueltu,velta' cf. L. vehiculum); U. muneklu 'sportulam' from *moini-klo- (cf. L. perlculum), containing a denom9

inative verb-stem *moinl- (cf. L. munia, communis, O. muini-ku) (Masc.) O. puklum 'puerum', Pael. puclois (Skt. putrd-);U. fikla 'offam' from *fig-kid (L. jingo). For O. pestlum 'templum'

with

-tlo2.

preserved, and U. persclo, belonging probably under


'

1,

see 129,
a.

Is U. aviekla, auiecla

angurali' simply an adjective


(cf.

form of a noun

*auie-klo-,

formed from a denominative verb-stem *auie-

U. auie 'augurio')?

18-4

Word-Formation

[248

an additional adjectival suffix, as in L. perlculosus, piacularis, But on the other hand, a diminutive form *auiekelo-, whether with -kelo-, Cf. U. ar^lataf or from an *auieko- (cf. U. aviekate), would give U. *avie$la. 144. and and struhgla, 249, 1, 2,
etc.

We should expect

4. -tro-)-trd-(L.ardtrum).

U.krematru'*crematra'(L. cremo)-,
kletram 'lecticam' (L. cli-no,
cll-

cringatro cinctum' (39,3);


'

tellae, etc.). transfer to the w-Declension is seen in O. castrous, U. castruo, etc. a.

L. castrum.

249.
1.
tulis'

-Z0-, -elo-, -kelo-,


-?0-, -elo-

in diminutives.

(L. porculus).

U.

Funtler-e, Fondlir-e 'in


arglataf

*Fon-

from *fontelo- (L. fons); from *arkelo- (L. arcus, arculus; see
U. iuka
2.
(cf.
1

U.

154);

'arculatas', derived O. iiiklei probably

'formula of consecration, consecration' from *iokelo- (L. iocus,


'preces').
-kelo- (L. osculum).

O. ziculud

'die',

L. diecula);
250.

U.

veskla 'vascula', struhgla

Ace. PI. djiikulus '*struiculam\ See

88,4,144.
-id-. -io- i-i-}, n / \
si,

>

For the

inflection of the

Neuters in

-io-, *

see 172, 173,


1.

i, 5.

O. kumbenIn primary derivatives (L. studium, fur la). 'monumentum' from O. memnim nieis 'conventus'; *me-men-io-\ O. heriam 'arbitrium, vim'. -U. afkani 'cantum'; In secondary derivatives (L. magisterium, familia). O. meddixud and meddikkiai medicim 'magistracy', Abl. Sg. (100, 3, c),
2.

the meddixship', both derived from meddik- 'magistrate, meddix', the suffix having here the same force as L. -dtus in
'in

iudicdtus, magistrdtus (L. iudicium, vindicia, are primary derivaO. famelo 'familia' from *famelid tives from iudico, vindico);
(100, 3,
Viteliii

O. derived from *famelo- (O. famel, Ij. famulus); 2 * 'Italia' (also Vitelliu, 162, 1) from Uitelid, probably derived
<?),
;

from

*uitelo- (U. vitlu, L. vitulus)

here also probably O. pru5).


tlie

pukid 'by previous agreement' (173,


1

The derivation from a

*ditto-kelo-'Any', though altrjictiveon

side of

mean-

in.tr,

is

on the whole
2

less likely.

From some such form was borrowed

the Grk. 'iraXia, whii-li lircamc the source

of L. Italia.

252]

Derivation of
251.
1.

Nouns and Adjectives


U.
kvestretie 'in

185

uhtretie 'in *auctura',

the

quaestura', beside kvestur, uhtur (see 246, 1, a). a. That these are Locatives of the First Declension and not Ablatives of Fifth with the suffix -itie- (L. durities), is shown by the form of the adjective
(L.
dilritia).

-itid-

agreeing with kvestretie.

-nd- (L. donum, urnd). O. dunum, U. dunu 'donum'; O. fiisnii U. tremnu 'tabernaculo' from *treb-no- (125, 1);
2.
-no-,

'fanum', U.

fesnaf-e,

from *fes-nd-

(99, 1).

O. comono 'comitium',

U. kumne, and O. amnud 'circuitu', amnud 'causa', are formed from the prepositional adverbs kom and am, like L. trdnstrum from trans. For -no- in adjectives, see 255.
a.

-sna-

is

to be

assumed

for O. kersnu 'cena', U. sesna, etc.

See 116,

2.

-ni- is

seen in U. poni 'posca' (po-ni-).


3. -mo-,

O. *tormo-, whence turuO. e^wo'res' (L. eged?); miiad'torqueatur', from* torArW-wo-(H8); - U. arswor'ritus,' whence also arsmatiam 'Titu&lem^arsmahamo 'ordamini', without any certain cognates, but probably coming
-md- (L. armus, spilma).

from *ad-mo-, with a root ad- used of 'orderly arrangement'.


-mo- in adjectives, see 189. 4. -urid-, -erid-, in derivatives
of numerals.
'

For

U.

tekuries,

dequrier 'decuriis' (191, 10);


pumpefias the f
5. -tdt(i)is

O.

piimperiais

*quincuriis' (in U.

probably an error). O. Herentateis 'Veneris' (Pael. fferen(L. bonitds).


'A^/aoStr??? eTrtovv^ov.

tas

cf.

also 'E/ateW?;?

-- Hesychius) from
'

by haplology, like L. voluntds from *uolonti-tdt(i)-. 6. -tu- (L. cantus). U. Ahtu '* Actui' U. afputrati arbitratu' with -dtu-, like L. consuldtus etc., but with this force more
*herenti-tdt(i);

commonly

-io-

(250, 2)

or -dto- (259,

2).

ADJECTIVES i
252.
in
1.
-io-, -iio-

(L. patrius).

This

praenomina and gentiles, for which tives of names of divinities, as O. Mamerttiais


1

especially common see 174-176; also in derivais

'Martiis', O.

Iiiviia

Including

many

substantives of obviously adjectival origin.

186
'loviam', U. luvie, U. beside U. Fiso.
a.

Word-Formation
Cerfie

[252

beside

Cerfe,

O.

Fiisiais,

U. Fisier,

etc.,

Many of these are used as epithets of other divinities, as in U. Prestate Tefre They someluvie, etc. (cf. L. Hercules lovius, Venus lovius, etc.). Qerfie, times stand alone as independent names, e.g. U. luvie (II a 6, 8), Sagi (II blO).
2. -eo(i

(L.

aureus)

from

-eio-.

U.

fasiu,

farsio 'farrea'

from

e,

39, l).
-eiio-, -eiio-.
'

253. *-aiio-,
1. -aiio-.

See

61, 3.
-

O. kersnaiias *cenariae' ; -

U.

peraaiaf 'anticas',

pefaia, pustnaiaf 'posticas', from perne 'ante', postne 'pone'; so in names 'fossam'; persaia 'humi stratas'(?) from perum, per of persons, O. Tantrnnaium, Vesulliais (176, 3), Mamies, Gen. Sg. extended by the suffix -dno-, O. Pumpaiians Maraiieis (176,4);

'Pompeianus', O. Buvaianud'in Boviano'. a. Like Veil etc., Pompeii was named from a
paiius

gens, in this case the *Piim-

(derived from *pompe 'quinque';


2.
-eiio-.

cf. Quintil).

Gen. Sg. vereias, vere/i/Vis from *uero'defense' (see note to no. 4); (? reading uncertain) U. Teteies 'Tetteius'(?). It is doubtful whether U. deueia 'divinam' belongs here, though if it contains the simple -io- suffix
O.
vereiiai 'iuventuti',

(252,

1),

like

O.

Diiviiai,

the spelling ei in both occurrences

is

remarkable.
3. -eiio- (L. plebeius).

O.

Kerriiai 'Cereali', Kerriiuis, etc.

NOTE. The suffixes -aiio-, -eiio-, and -eiio- probably originated in the With -aiio- is addition of the suffix -io- to the Loc. Sg. of a-, o-, and e-stems. to be compared Grk. -cuos (5i'/ccuos); and Grk. -eios (oketos), though coming from
various sources, corresponds in part to -eiio-. Similarly 0. puiiu'cuia', L. like Grk. from TroFos, *quoi-n>-. quoins, cuius, are,

'

*decentarius'

254. -dsio- (L. ordindrius). O. purasiai 'in igniaria', degetasis in substantive use, denoting certain frequent
; '

ceremonies, as O. Fiuusasiais
sakrasias '*sacrariae',

Floralibus', kerssnasias '*cenariae',


'

U. plenasier urnasier *plenariis *urnariis', For the with an added etc.; -iko-, O. miiltasikad 'multaticia'. retention of s in Umbrian, and for U. ezariaf 'escas'(?), see 112, a.
NOTE.
It is

suffix -io- to the

not unlikely that this suffix originated in the addition of the Gen. Sg. of o-stems.

256]

Derivation of
255.
1.

Nouns and Adjectives

187

-wo- in

primary derivatives.
*solno- 1
.

U. plener 'plenis';cf.

O.

sullus 'omnes',

sullu/w,

etc. (L. soll-emnis etc.;

also Pael.

solois

'omnibus'), probably from


2.

For

-no-, -nd- in nouns,

see 251,
2.

primary derivatives. U.fons 'favens', Nom. PL foner, etc. (cf. L. Fones beside Faunus}. U. ahesnes'ahenis'. 3. -no- in secondary derivatives. 4. -dno- (L. Romdnus). O. Abellanus 'Abellani', U. Treblanir
-ni- in
1

Trebulanis', etc.;
O. amvianud
'

with added
detour' would

-io-,

O. Dekmanniiiis, name of a

festival.
a.

seem

to be a derivative in -cmo-, used sub-

stantively,

not for the spelling amviannud, which occurs twice, and is probably the more correct (n for nn can be paralleled, but not nn for n see 162, 163). The form looks like a Gerundive used substantively, as if L. *amm-

were

it

andum, and meaning a 'circuitous


this in Latin.

route'.

But there

is

apparently nothing like

5.

tinus',

-mo- (L. dlvlnus). O. deivinais 'divinis', Bantins 'BanU. cabriner 'caprini', Ikuvins MafJieprLvo 'Mamertina';
-ono-.
\J.

'Iguvinus', etc.
6.

esono- 'sacer'

is

possibly

from

*ais(e)s-ono- (112, a),

though

there

is little

support in Italic for

such an adjective-suffix.
2, a).

The

noun-suffix

-ono-, -ona-, originated in

an extension of -on- (247,

256.
etc.).
4

names of peoples (L. Opscl, Osci, Falisci, U. Turskum, Tuscom 'Tuscum';-- U. lapuzkum, lapusco
1.

-ko- in

*Iapudicum' from *Iapud(i}sko- (cf. lapydes, 'lavruSe?, name of an Illyrian people) - - U. Naharkum, Naharcom *Narcum' (cf
' ;
.

L. Ndr, Nahartes, Ndrtes}?


2. -iko- (L. bellicus).

etc.

- ;

O. muiniku 'communis', muinikam,


'

O. tuvtiks 'publicus', toutico^ U. totcor, etc. - - U. fratreks,


;

fratrexs *f ratricus, magister fratrum'.


3. -ikio- (L. patricius). O. serevkid 'auspicio' probably from *seruikio- (173, 5); O. Kastrikiieis 'Castricii'; - - with syncope O. Iuvkiiui'*Iovicio'.
1

Some

derive from *soluo-, but the change of lu to

is

one which we do not

accept.

The uniform spelling with h in both alphabets shows that the h is not merely a sign of vowel-length, and that L. Ndr is from *Nahar, like cors from cohors.
2

188
4.
-tlcius).

Word-Formation
-ikio- (L. novlcius,

[256

but otherwise rare except in the type


'

O.

Vestirikiiui

Vestricio', Viinikiis

Vinicius'

(-ikioi,

rather

than

-ikio- is

assumed here on account

of the spelling with


(cf.

not i).

5.

-ukio- (oT-ilkio-?).

U. Kastru9iie

O.castrous, U.castruo,

from kastru-) in contrast to O.


6. -ok- (L.

Kastrikiieis.

O. malaks 'male volos' (?);-- U. huntak auddx). 'puteum'C?), probably Ace. Sg. N. of *honddk- meaning 'underground' (cf. hondra 'infra') and used substantively of a 'well'; U. curnaco 'cornicem', curnase: L. comix with -Ik-.
7.

-dko- (L.

merdcus
is

cf.

also Celtic

names

like Teutobodidci

etc.).
8.

U.

Tesenakes, Tesenocir (see 35,

a).

-k-.

O. Vezkei

most easily derived from *Uetes-k- or

*Uetos-k- with -k- beside -ko- in L. vetuscus, yet the connection with the latter word must be regarded as wholly uncertain. 257. 1. -TO- in primary derivatives. O.-U. sakro- 'sacer' U. rufra 'rubra' ; U.vufru 'votivum' (O. a-arcopo, U. sacra, etc.);
(uof-\
2.
cf.

vufetes 'votis').

-ri-

in

(see 187, 2);

L.

pax
3.

etc.);

primary derivatives. O.-U. sakri- beside sakroU. pacer 'propitius', Nom. PL pacrer (pak-; cf. O. akrid (99, 3); U. ocrer (99, 3; for ocar
see 188,
2.

see 91,

b).

For

-era-, -tero-,

4. -dli-, -dri-, in

O.

fertalis

secondary derivatives (L. regalis,populdris). '(ceremonies) celebrated with sacrificial cakes' (L. ferluisarifs (see 138,

tum);

O.

and note

to no. 21);

O. Dekkviarim
(cf.

'Decurialem';

--U.
L.

furu sehmeniar

'forum seminarium'
3.
'

forum

piscdrium
5.

etc.).
(cf.

Cf. also U. disleralimust, 262,


-Ili-

-ilo-

in hostllis etc.).

O.

iuvilu

*iovila', diu-

vilam, iiivilam, etc., is

probably an adjective form used substantively, from *diouilo-, a derivative of Diou- (O. Diiivei etc.).

Cf L. which
.

lulus, lulius,
is

from

*Iouilo-, louilio-

and

luilius (inscr.),

perhaps luilius.
1. -no- in

primary derivatives. O. salavs 'salvus' (80, 1), U. saluom 'salvum', etc. O. siuom 'omnino', U. seuom 'totum', etc., from *se-uo- (15, 12);--U. give'citra' (189, l, a, 190, 1);258.
;

259]

Derivation of Nouns and Adjectives


' '

189

with participial force, O.facus *fak-uo- (cf. L.-mortuus etc.).


2. -uo- in

factus', praefucus praef ectus', f rom

secondary derivatives. U. mersuva'iusta' from *medes-iio (132, a);--U. tesvam, dersua 'prosperam' probably

from *dedes-uo-

(132,

6);

U.

felsva 'holera'(?)

from

*feles-uo-

(L. holus? see 149, b). 3. -uio-, an extension of

-uo-, in

proper names.
also 80,
1
;

O.
O.

Salaviis,

Kalaviis, Helleviis, Heleviieis, for

which see

Akviiai,

U. Piquier.

proper names. O. Kaluvis, Gen. Sg. Kaluvieis U. Fisouie, Grabouie. U. Ikuvinus, liouinur, etc. also implies an Cf. Mars. Cantouios, and Vitrovius, Sal*Igouio-: L. Iguvium.
4. -ouio- in
;

lovius, etc.,

which occur in Latin

inscriptions but are dialectic,

the regular Latin forms being Vitruvius, Salluvius, etc. NOTE, -ouio- is an extension of -ouo-, earlier -euo-, as -uio- is of -uo-. For -euo- beside -uo-, cf. Ion. Kej>e6s from */ce'e/:6s and /cet^s from *Ki>f6s. In Latin the two forms of the suffix become identical. 1
259.
1.
-to-,

the suffix of the Perf. Pass. Partic. (244),

is

Latin (barbdtu*), to form adjectives directly from noun-stems. U. hostatu 'hastatos', mersto 'iustum' (88, 3),
also used, as in
petenata 'pectinatam, comb-shaped', etc.
;

U. ponisiater,
a

punicate,

name

of

an
:

official,

perhaps named from

L. punicus). or ticiples adjectives in -to-,


(*poiniki-ato-

purple costume Cf. also proper names from paras O. Minaz, Pukalatui (*pukldtoofficial

from puklo2.

'puer',

-dto- is

O. puklum etc.), Kluvatiis, Betitis, etc. used in substantives denoting office or

body, like L. -dtu-.

O. senateis 'senatus' (cf. U. fratrecate (Loc. Sg.) 'office of fratrex'; U". maronatei (Loc. of 'office maro' maronato note to no. 84), Sg.) (Abl. Sg.; (see
also L. sendti);
(L. Arplnds). O. Saipinaz Saepinas, of Saepinum', Liivkanateis *Lucanatis' '

see 302).
3.
-ati-

in

derivatives of

names

of

towns
'

pp. 135

For the material see especially Solmsen, Studien zur lat. Lautgeschichte, who, however, goes too far in assuming that all such forms as are cited above in 1, 2, and 3 contain -euo-. not -&ro-. See author's Verb-System, p. 175.
ff.,

190
U.
Tafinate,

Word-Formation
Tarsinate

[259

W Tadinatem,
kalefuf,

of

Tadinum';

used subCasilate,

stantively as
260.
1.

names

of gentes, U. Atiiefiate, Kaselate,

Talenate, etc. (II

b 1-7). -do-. U.

calersu 'with a white forehead'

L. cal(l)idus, Isidorus, Orig. 12, 1, 52), like L. pallidus etc.; (cf. -probably U. sorser 'suilli', sorsalem 'suillam' (see 57).
in proper names (L. Calidius). O. Husidiis, with also Pael. Pupidiis, Caisidis, syncope O. Pupdiis, Apidis ; with added -ino-, O. Tafidins; U. Coredier, KurePael. Popdis ;
2.

-idio-, -edio-,

(Pael. Uibedis)',--^J. Atiersiur, Atiiefiur (but L. Attidium), The reason for O. i (not i) and, in general, the Pael. Ouiedis. relation of the different forms are obscure.
ties

261.

-fli-

(L. amdbilis

orig. -dhli-, the adjective z'-stem

form

of -dhlo-, 248,

2).

U.

facefele (aes facefete) '*facibile, *sacrificabile',

purtifele '^porricibilem'.

Since anaptyxis
surprising.

is

unknown

in

Um-

brian the

first e in -fele is

Nom.

Sg., in

which
91, 2).

-fel

from

-flis

Possibly it is due to the would be regular (cf. pacer

from *pakris

SECONDARY VERBAL DERIVATION


DENOMINATIVES
262. 1. As in Latin, the great mass of denominatives, whether or not derived from a-stems, follow the First Conjugation. Examples: U. kuraia'curet', kuratu (Pael. coisatens) from O. moltaum 'multare' from *molktd (O. molto, *koisd (L. euro)', O. ehpeilatas 'erectae, set up' from *peild L. plla L. multa); O. deiuaid 'iuret', deiuast, deiuatud, etc. from *deiuo- (L. deus U. stakaz 'statutus' from *stdko- (cf. L. ttdgnwri); see 16, 4) O. pruU. pihatu 'piato', pihos, etc. from adj. *plo- (L. pirn)-,
:

fatted'probavit'

O. teremnattens from adj. *profo- (L. probus); 'terminaverunt' from *termen- (O. teremniss, L. termeri);U. vepuratu Testinguito'(?) from adj. ue-pur- fireless' (U. vepurus, O. upsannam 'operandam, faciendam', U. osatu, etc. from 263, 2); -- U. tuderato 'finitum' from *tudes- (U. tuder}\ *opes- (L. opus)-,
'

262]

Secondary Verbal Derivation


etufstamu,

191
*tudes-to(cf.

-U.

eturstahmu 'exterminate'

from

L. modes-ins). There are also examples of the formation from the o-PartiThus U. etaians ciple, corresponding to the Latin iteratives.

from *ei-to-, not from *i-to- like L. ito; U. statitatu 'statuito' from statlto- (U. statita, see below, 3) U. frosetom 'fraudatum' from *frausso- (L. frausus) as if L. *frauso U. preplotatu of uncertain meaning, but perhaps *praeplauditato, strike down' from *plaudeto-.
'itent',

etato,

etc.

'

a.

U. pelsatu, pelsans,
'

etc. is
its
;

probably derived from a Partic. *pelso-, like


etymological connection
is

L. pulso

from pulsus, though

uncertain.

The

meaning bury' (in the trench cf. VI b 40) seems the most probable among various suggestions, and the connection with L. sepelio may be maintained if
take the latter as se-pelio (for se- beside se- cf. solvo from *se-luo, socors from In this case *pelso- will be *pel-so- for *pel-to- with the same analog*se-cors).
ical -so- as in L.

we

pulsus

etc. (see also

244,

1, a, 6).

Denominatives of the Second Conjugation are O. turuO. fatium miiad torqueatur from *tormo- (cf. L. tormentum); from Partic. L. which 'fari' like was *fato- (<aro?), fateor
2.
' :

replaced in Latin by/afo-;--U. kutef speaking low' (kutef pesnimu equivalent to the more- common tacez pesnimu tacitus pre'

cator')

probably as

if

L.

*cauteo
if

(*cautens)
(cf.

O.

piitiad,

putiiad'possit', as

L. *poteo

from cautus potens, potul), from


;
:

poti- (L. potis).


3. Denominatives of the Fourth Conjugation are U. persnihimu 'precator', persnis, etc. from *persni-, *persk-ni- (146) (cf. Skt. prap-nd- from the same root, whence denom. prapnaydmi) 1 - - U. stahmito -U. statita 'statuta' from *sta-ti;

(Grk. ardent)

'statutum', stahmeitei, from the stem of U. stahmei 'statui' O. sakruvit 'sacrat', sakrvist, from *sakru(*std-mo- or *std-mi-): (214, 3);--U. disleralinsust 'inritum fecerit' from an adjective *dis-leisdli- 'off the track' (L. lira, Germ. G-eleise) and so 'wrong,
l

void'.
1

The assumption

of a primary verb with a m-suffix, a type of

which there are

no other

relics in Italic, is altogether less probable.

192

Word-Formation

[263

COMPOSITION
NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES
element is a noun or adjective stem O. meddiss, meddis 'meddix', Gen. Sg. medikeis, (L. armi-ger). 1 etc., from *medos (U. mefs 'ius') and dik-, precisely like L. iadex
263.
1.

The

first

from

ius

and

dik-;

Liganak-dikei,

name

of a goddess, the first part

being a derivative related to L. lex (80, 2; cf. Seo-jMotyopos an epithet of Demeter);-- U. man-trahklu, man-draclo 'mantele'(97); -

U.

tu-plak (192,

1)

II.

drupedibus' U. nuf-pener

(94, 191, 2,
'

du-pursus 'bipedibus', petur-pursus 'quaU. 'bifidum' 2, a, 4,


a);

pondiis',

name

di-fue a); (191, of a small coin, the first part

being obscure, while the second is from *pendo- (cf. L. du-ponO. tribarakkiuf 'aedificatio' U. seu-acni- (159, a). dius 94);
;

and the verb tribarakavum

are probably derivatives of a *trebarkor *trebarkio-, compounded of *trebo- or *treb- (O. triibum 'domum'; see 171, 14) and *ark- (L. arx, arced), and so meaning
4

first

the closing

in, i.e.

the construction
aedificatio.

of,

a building', then

simply 'building', like L.


a.

that

is

U. seuacni-, peracni-, exemplify the same shifting to the i-stem form seen in L. inermis, biiugis, etc.

2.

The
and

first

element

is

an adverbial

prefix.

Most

of these

prefixes are the


(264, l),

are used in the composition of verbs occur separately as prepositions, e.g. O. kiim-bennieis

same which

For examples, see 299-302. But the following occur only in noun and adjective (including participial) com'conventus'.

pounds.
The negative an(L. in-; see 98),

corresponding to L.
'

in-, in

0. an-censto

'non censa', am-prufid 'improbe', amiricatud '*immercato'; U. an-hostatu 'non hastatos', an-takres 'infeegris', aanfehtaf inf ectas' (73, a), ansihitu 'non cinctos', auirseto 'non visum', asnata 'non umecta', asegeta 'non secta' (n omitted in last two examples by 108, 1; for auirseto from an-u- cf. U. co-uertu etc. (300, 2). U. sei- (L. sed-, se-) in sei-podruhpei 'seorsum utroque' (200, 2).
l

O. meddiss

may

be from *mvdcs-dik~ through *m(>df<dik-,

being lost between

two mutes,

or from *medo-dik- with the not infrequent substitution of the o-stem for

the .s-stem form.

264 J
IT.

Composition

93

sontro- 'figmentum'(?)

ven- in ven-persuntra, vem-pesuntres, ve-pesutra 'ficticia' (?) beside peris evidently connected with L. we-, but with a nasal,

1 perhaps representing an added particle ne, and without distinctly negative force. Another probable example of this prefix is U. vepurus, which is best explained

as 'fireless'
fices

(cf.

without
3.

fire' (cf.

U. pir, pure-to, etc.), esunes-ku vepurus meaning 'at the sacriGrk. iepa &irvpa).

Juxtaposition

(L.

sendtusconsultum).
Trare/o);

U.

lupater,

like

L. lupiter from Voc. Sg. *Dieu-pater (Ze> 'duodecim'.

U. desen-duf

a. The juxtaposition of prepositions and adverbs of time and place, as in L. ab-hinc, inter-ibi, etc., is exemplified by U. ap-ehtre 'ab extra, extrinsecus'. For other examples of compound adverbs see 202, passim.

VERBS
264.
1.

The only
first

that in which the

element

extensive type of verbal composition is is an adverbial prefix. Most of

these prefixes are such as occur separately as prepositions, and examples will be given in connection with the latter (299-302).

Those not occurring separately


(L. a, ab).

are

0. aa-manaffed 'mandavit, locavit', U. aha-uendu 'avertito',

See 77, 2. aha-tripursatu, a-tripursatu, ah-trepufatu, a-trepufatu 'tripodato'. The preposition with a case-form does not happen to occur. But cf U. ap-ehtre 'ab extra, extrinsecus' (263, 3, a).
.

For am- and *aw/er-, for which, however, there is a (L. am&-, am-). related preposition, O. ampt (300, 1), see 161 with a. U. an-tentu, an-dendu, with the same meaning as (L. an- in an-helo).
en-tentu, en-dendu 'intendito', am-pentu, a-pentu 'impendito',
itor', an-zeriatu, an-seriato

an-ouihimu 'indu'
'

'observatum', a-seriatu,

etc., an-stintu, a-stintu 'distin-

guito',

an-stiplatu 'stipulator', am-paritu 'conlocato', am-parihmu surgito (in the last four examples connection with L. am-, a?w6-, is possible, but less likely) 0. avafaKer 'dedicavit' (80, 2), probably an-getuzet 'proposuerint' (228, a). Cf. also U. anda, anglaf 'oscines' (155).
(L. dis-).

U. disleralinsust.

(L. por-).
etc.

See 262, 3. U. pur-douitu, pur-.tuvitu 'porricito', pur-din&iust, pur-ditom,


'revisito', re-statu 'instaurato', re-stef, etc. venerit' contains the particle seen in L. ce-do, ce-tte.

See 51.
(L. re-).

U. re-vestu
'

0. ce-bnust

So occasionally

in Latin.

See I.F.

10,

248

if.

94
2.

Word-Formation

[264

is

Juxtaposition. probable parallel to L. animadverto U. eitipes 'decreverunt' from *eitom *hipens (see 84), used like

L. 'ratum habuerunt'.
etc. (218).

For *hipens,

i.e.

*hepens,

cf.

O. hipid

The first part is perhaps from *aiketo- with the same root as Skt. l'have power', Eng. own, etc. (cf. also 0. aikdafed, 264, 3), the phonetic develop-

ment being

*aikto-, *ekto-, *eito- (143).

O. manafum 'mandavi', aa-manaffed 'mandavit,


*manfefom, *manfefed
(8'0, 2,

locavit',

from

belong to a Pres. *manfo, earlier *mandho, whence also L. man-do, which was originally inflected like abdo, condo, etc., but passed over to the First Conjugation
223),

(thus avoiding confusion with mando 'chew'). This *man-dho is formed after *con-dho (L. condo) etc. from man-, seen in U. manf manus' (Ace. PL), L. man-ceps, etc. (If it is viewed thus as an a case-form in man-.) is to assume it not formation, necessary analogical A parallel formation is probably U. hondu 'pessumdato'(P), belonging to a Pres. *hondo, this from *hon-fo, *hom-dhd, horn- being the same element that The phonetic development is the is seen in U. hondra 'infra etc. (L. humus). same as in U. -uendu (161).
1

3.

O. tribarakaviim

'

aedificare'

is

probably, like L. aedificd, a derivative

noun already compounded. See 263, 1. Of O. aikdafed the most probable explanation is that it means decrevit, authorized' and is derived from *aiko-do-,
of a
'

the first part belonging to the root aik- seen in Skt.

'

l$-

have power'

etc. (cf also


.

U.

eitipes,

264,

2).

SYNTAX

USES OF THE CASES

THE GENITIVE
The Possessive Genitive in the various phases of possession and connection is common. Thus O. sakarakliim Here265.
kleis

'templum Herculis'; predicative O.

Herentateis

siim'Veneris

O. L. Pettieis meddikiai 'in the meddixship of L. Pettius'; sum'; U. farer agre Tlatie O. senateis tanginud 'senatus sententia'; 'farris agri Latii'; U. popluper totar liouinar 'pro populo civitatis Iguvinae';

predicative U. pisest totar Tarsinater 'quisquis


Genitive.

est civitatis Tadinati'. 2

The Objective
266.

U.

katleticel 'catuli dedicatio';

arsier frite 'sancti fiducia,

The

Partitive Genitive.

with confidence in (thee) the holy one'. U. mestru karu fratru'maior

pars fratrum';
niae';

O. minstreis aeteis eituas 'minoris partis pecu-

O. idic tangineis 'id sententiae', like L. id temporis etc. The following are bolder than anything in Latin, but may U. iuenga peracrio tursituto 'iuvencas be paralleled elsewhere.

ex opimis fuganto' (VII a 51);


'prepare

U.

struhclas fiklas sufafias kumaltu

some sacrificial cake, etc.' (II The use of the Partitive Genitive

a 41).
as subject,

which

is

found

in Avestan, Lithuanian,

recognized in U. eru be accepted' (Va 8).


1

and rarely in Greek, is probably to be emantur herte '(whether) any of them are to

The treatment

side of the

of the Syntax is brief, not through any intention to slight this grammar, but because the syntactical material is relatively meagre. That

owing met with.


is,

to the nature of the remains only a limited number of constructions are Moreover, in view of the general similarity to Latin syntax, it is needless

to

uses of the parts of speech,

heap up examples of the common constructions, and some matters, such as the etc., may be passed over entirely. 2 These last two examples belong to the class in which it is impossible to draw the line between the Possessive and the Partitive Genitive. 195

196
267.

Syntax

[267

Genitive with Adjectives. O. diuvilam Tirentium Magiium sulum muinikam iovilam Terentiorum Magiorum omnium
'

communem'.
268. in

Genitive of Time.

This Genitive, which

is
1

found

Greek and elsewhere (VVKTOS 'by night', rpiwv fjLrjvwv within three months', etc.),, and which is a natural development of the Possessive Genitive (the time to which an action belongs), is nesimum to be recognized in O. eisucen ziculud zicolom comonom ni hipid 'shall not hold the comitia within the next Cf. L. in diebus Vproxsuthirty days from that day' (T. B. 17). meis in the Latin inscription of the Tabula Bantina.

XXX

is often taken as an Ace. Sg., as if 'from that day day following', but there are serious objections to this, namely 1) the use of the Accusative without a preposition, 2) the use of the numeral signs for the ordinal, 3) the use of nesimum proximum' in such a phrase, as if L. ad diem tricensimum proximum.

NOTE.

The zicolom

until the thirtieth

'

Genitive of the Penalty. O. ampert minstrels aeteis moltaum fo'c#wc?'dumtaxat minoris partis pecuniae multae multare liceto' (T. B. 12, 13), and moltaum licitud, ampert
269.
eituas moltas

mistreis aeteis eituas licitud ' multare liceto,


liceto' (T.

dumtaxat minoris

B. 18). That is, 'one partis pecuniae (a fine of) not more than half the property'.
in apposition, or
last

may

fine

with

In the former passage aeteis may be the Genitive of the Penalty with moltas it may be taken as an explanatory Genitive with moltas, this the Genitive of the Penalty. 1 The preceding ampert, literally nun being

trans,

is not a preposition (in this case, we should expect the Ace.), but an adverb used without effect on the case-construction, just as, frequently, L. plus,

Similarly in the corresponding Latin phrase [dum minoris] taxsat partus familias (T. B. Latin side), partus is Genitive of the Penalty, and

minus, amplius.

not governed by taxsat.


a. noteworthy construction, perhaps containing a sort of detached Genitive of the Penalty, is seen in IT. fratreci motar sins a. CCC

'magistro multae sint asses


L. lovei bovidpiaclum datod

CCC' (VII b
et a.

4),

which

is

paralleled

by

CCC moltai

where moltai must be Gen. Sg. and not Nom.

suntod (CIL. XI, 4766), PL, as is shown by the


is

1 Some take moltas as a Connate Accusative (Plural) and assume that it be understood in the shorter passage. But the Plural is unlikely. See also a.

to

271]

Uses of the Cases

197

The confollowing eius piacli moltaique dicator[ei] exactio est\od]. struction might arise through a contamination of such expressions
as rnagistro a. multa sint (sunto) and magistrum a. multae multato. Cf. the detached Abl. in U. muneklu habia numer prever
(292),

CCC

CCC

and L.

lupiter, tibi bove aurato voveo

futurum (Acta Arvalium).

270.

Genitive of the Matter Involved, in legal phraseology.


. . .

castrous auti eituas zicolom dicust 'siquis alteri capitis aut pecuniae diem dixerit', that is, on a charge involving the death penalty or a fine (T. B. 13, 14 ; on castrous see
altrei

O. suaepis

note to passage), contrasted with dat castrid loufir en eituas 'de Cf. L. quoad vel capitis vel capite vel in pecunias' (T. B. 8, 9).

pecuniae iudicasset privato (Livy 26, 3, 8), beside de capite, etc. bolder example is O. aserum eizazunc egmazum pas exaiscen

seizure involving these matters which are written in these laws' (T. B. 24). Cf. L. eiq(ue) omnium
ligis seriftas set 'to

make a

rerum siremps

lexs esto (T. B.,

Latin side).
of

Note also the

free

use of the Genitive in the


freeman', rw XP
'as is written in

Law Code

Gortyna
77

to denote the

matter or person involved,


V(0
'

e.g. TO> eXevOepco 'in

the case of a

the matter of time',

peKacrrw eypdrrai

each

case'.

Genitives as depending on a noun either expressed Oscan example) or understood, is forced. It is possible, of course, that they originated in connection with a noun and afterwards came to modify the sentence as a whole, thus going through the reverse of the process seen in the case of the Adnominal Dative. But even this assumption is unnecessary, and it is more probable that we have to do simply with certain phases of a broad use of the Genitive denoting the sphere to which an action belongs.
(e.g.

NOTE.

To take such
first

zicolom in the

Free use of the Genitive of a noun with gerundive in agreement. With L. (arma) quae cepit legum ac libertatis subvortundae (Sallust) compare U. uerfale pufe arsfertur trebeit
271.

ocrer peihaner 'the templum where the flamen remains for the more striking example purification of the mount' (VI a 8). is U. sururo stiplatu pusi ocrer pihaner^et him make the same

request as for the purification of the mount' (VI b 48).


NOTE. This Genitive, which obviously modifies the sentence as a whole, and not a noun expressed or understood, belongs historically with the preceding.
See note to 270.

198

Syntax

[272

DATIVE
Dative of the Indirect Object with transitive verbs. O. Anagtiai Diiviiai dunum deded 'Angitiae Diae donum dedit'; U. buftriffetu Marte Grabouei 'boves tris facito Marti Grabovio'.
272.

Dative with certain verbs used intransitively. U. ri esune kuraia 'rem divinam curet' (cf. euro with Dative in early arsferture ehueltu 'flaminem iubeto' (cf. iubeo with Latin);
273.

Dative in Tacitus); persnihmu Puemune supplicate Pomono'. U. prosesetir 274. Dative with prepositional compounds.
'

strusla fida arsueitu 'prosectis struem offam addito (advehito)', U. pir ase antentu 'igneni arae imponito'.

275.

The Dative
tote

of Reference or Concern.

U. aserio

anglaf esona mehe,

lioueine

'observa

oscines divinas

O. piei ex comono pertemest mihi, civitati Iguvinae' (VI a 4, 5); '(the magistrate) in whose case the assembly shall be prevented zicolom dicust O. suaepis altrei in this way' (T. B. 7);
.
.

'siquis alteri
speturie
. . .

diem

dixerit'

(T. B. 13, 14);

U. pune karne
.

naraklum vurtus 'cum carni *spectoriae

nuntiatio
. .

mutaverit' (II a 1);

U. ahauendu
cf.

atero pople 'avertito

malum populo' (VII a 27;


preuendu
O. Maiiui
.

L. sohtitium pecori defendite etc.); atero tote 'advertito malum civitati' (VII a 11);
.
.

Vestirikiiui
. .
.

'Maio Vestricio

et

Maio

inim Maiiufi] luvkiiui ekss kumbened lovicio ita convenit' (C. A. 1 ff.;
.
. .

observe the use of two Datives where Latin has one Dative and

O. ekas iiivilas luvei Flagiui stahint 'hae the Ablative); lovi Flagio stant' (no. 25) ;--(). aasas ekask eestint hurtui these altars are for (belong to) the sacred grove' (T. A.)
*iovilae
'
.

cum with

'NOTE.
e.g.

Several of these Datives might of course be differently classified,

that with O. kumbened and U. preuendu under 274, that with ahauendu under a special class of "verbs of taking away." The last two examples cited are very close to the Dative of the Possessor (276), but this is only a special
variety of the Dative of Reference and in our usual terminology the use with the verb 'to be'.
is

restricted to

Dative of the Possessor. multa flamini sit' etc. 'tanta


276.

U.

etantu

mutu

afferture si

281]

Uses of the Cases


277.

199

pacer

Dative with Adjectives of Relation. U. futu fans O. nessimas pople 'esto favens propitia populo';
.

'proximae stant portae' (but veruis as an Ablative of the Point of View, 288).
staiet veruis

may

also be taken

278.

Dative with Nouns.

The Dative with nouns


is

of verbal

meaning

(L. obtemperatio legibus etc.) 'with a dedication to lovius' (II a 8).


is

seen in U. tikamne luvie


of Reference
in the nature

The Dative

with nouns

found only in brief clauses which are

of headings, as O. Evkliii statif 'Euclo statua' (T. A.).

ACCUSATIVE
279.

The Accusative

verbs and

of the Direct Object with transitive the Accusative with Prepositions (299, 30 1) are of

course extremely common. The Cognate Accusative is seen in U. teio subocau suboco 'te invoco invocationes' (Via 22 etc.;

Note also Agric. 134). U. perca arsmatiam anouihimu 'virgam ritualem induitor' (cf. L. galeam induitor)', O. censamur eituam 'censetor pecuniam'
cf.
te

bonas preces precor, Cato,

De

(cf.

voluisti

magnum

agri

modum

censeri,

cum

te

audisset servos

suos esse censum, Cic. pro Flacco, 32).

LOCATIVE
is

In contrast to its restricted use in Latin, the Locative in Oscan-Umbrian. used It has preserved a distinct widely form in the Singular, at least in the First and Second Declensions, to which nearly all the examples belong, while in the In Plural it is merged with the Dative-Ablative-Instrumental.
280.

Oscan
it is

it is

ordinarily used without a preposition, but in

Umbrian

very frequently, perhaps always (see 169, 7), combined with For the Locative with other prepositions, the postpositive -en.
281.
Tiianei 'at

see 301, 302.

Locative of Place.

1.

OSCAN.

Bansae

'at Bantia',

Teanum',
viai

eisei terei 'in this territory',

comenei 'in the

assembly',

mefiai 'in

the middle of the road', aasai purasiai

200
'on the
tire-altar', liivkei 'in

Syntax
the grove
1

[281

thesavrei 'in the treasury';

with
laws'.
2.

-en, hurtin'in

the grove'

(171, 7), ezaisc-en licfis^in

these

UMBRIAN.

Akefunie,
7,

Acersoniem

'at

Acedonia', tote Touine,

toteme louinem (169,

a] 'in the

city of Iguvium', ocre Fisie,

(169, 7, a) 'on the Fisian mount', destre onse, testre e uze 'on the right shoulder', arven 'in the field', tertie sviseve

ocrem Fisiem

'in the third pot', tafle e 'on the table',

fer ine 'on the stand'(?),

manuv-e'in the hand', Fondlir-e 'at the Springs', fesner-e'at the


fane'.

282.

Locative of Time.

1.

OSCAN.

eizeic zicel[ei] 'on that


2, a),

day', alttrei putereipid akenei'in every other year' (? see 200, piistrei iiiklei 'at the following ceremony' (?), medikkiai 'in the

med-

dixship', Fiuusasiais 'at the Floralia' (similarly eidiiis Mamerttiais, Fiisiais piimperiais, used, in the iovilae-inscriptions, of certain
festivals).
2.

UMBRIAN.
1,

uhtretie (251,

sume ustite'at the last period' (?), kvestretie, 'in the quaestorship' etc., #), fratrecate, maronatei
'

plenasier urnasier,

283.
'is

sehmenier dequrier at the festivals of - -'. Locative of Circumstance is seen in O. eizeic uincter
this'.

convicted of

Cf. L. in hoc scelere convictus beside the

usual Genitive construction.

ABLATIVE(-INSTRUMENTAL)
fusion of the original Ablative and Instrumental was accomplished in the Italic period, so that in Oscan-Umbrian,
284.

The

as in Latin,

they are no longer distinguished in form. Ablative with prepositions, see also 300, 302.

For the

ABLATIVE USES
285.

Ablative of the Place or Time Whence.

O. Akudun-

niad'from Acedonia', Tianud Sidikinud 'from Teanum Sidicinum' O. imad-en 'from the bot(both examples from coin-legends);

tom

up', eisuc-en ziculud

hom

this

day on' (the

-en here is not

290]

Uses of the Cases


to

201

the Ablative force). In Umbrian this Ablative is regularly accompanied by the preposition e, ehe 'ex' or the postpositive -ta, -tu, -to (300, 9), as ehe esu poplu 'from this people',
essential
akru-tu 'from the field', anglu-to

anglom-e somo 'from the lowest to the highest corner', pure-to 'from the fire'. O. eitiuvad miiltasikad, aragetud 286. Ablative of the Source.
.
. .

hondomu

multaspkud] 'from the


NOTE.

money

raised

by

fines'.

Cf. L. (ex) aere

conlato, aere moltaticod.

These examples might also be classed under the Ablative of Means.

287.

Ablative of Accordance.

O. senateis tanginud (once

with dat) 'in accordance with the judgment of the senate', U. afputrati fratru Atiiefiu 'in accordance with the judgment of the Atiedian brothers', O. prupukid svemmei 'spokesman(?) by previous agreement', U. fratru mersus 'in accordance with the customs
of the brothers' (III 6
is
;

cf.

L. (ex) moribus).

NOTE. This Ablative is probably, in part, of Instrumental origin, and not always to be distinguished clearly from the Ablative (Instrumental) of Attendant Circumstances, and of Means.

288.

Ablative of the Point of View.

U. nesimei asa'next
'

to the altar' (L.


altar' (see 307);

proxime ab), testru sese asa'at the right of the so probably U. todceir tuderus seipodruhpei on

both

sides, separately, of the city limits'

(VI a

11).

Ablative after Comparatives. O. mais zicolois nesimais mois 'more than the ten following days'. Although might be used without effect on the following case, as sometimes
289.
L. pltts,

an Ablative of Time seems

less probable here.

INSTRUMENTAL USES
290.
'

Ablative of Means.

O. sakriss
will'

sakrafir, avt

ultiumam
;

kerssnais consecrate

with victims, but the

-O.

tristaamentud deded'gave
cf.

by
-,

with banquets' (Ablative of Source also


last

possible;

L.

(ex) testamento)

with the
litter';

left

hand'; -- U.

U. esu

-- U. mani nertru femftt'hold kletra fertuta 'carry on (by means of) a bue pihafei 'expiate with this ox';--U. vinu

202

Syntax

[290

persnihmu 'make supplication with wine', similarly, with verb understood, tio esu bue 'thee with this ox (I supplicate)'.
U. herie uinu herie poni fetu \el vino vel posca facito' (VIb 19, 20) is to be compared with L. ture et vino fecerunt (Ada, Arvalium), etc. But the Accusative construction is the usual one, as in Latin also, and the use of the
a.
l

is perhaps due to its denoting a subsidiary offering, thus approaching the uses mentioned in 293. 6. With L. quid hoc homine facias compare U. fetu uru pirse mers est do

Ablative here

'

with him what

is right'

(VIb

55).

291.

Ablative of the Route.

U. uia auiecla

etuto 'go

by

O. eksuk amviannud eituns 'let them go(?) by the augural way' ; this detour' (see note to nos. 14-18). O. r[ihtud] amnud 'right around in a circle' (C. A. 16, 17) is to be compared with L. sur-

sum (deorsum)

rivo recto (iugo recto} 'right up (down) the stream (ridge)' (GIL. I 199). 292. Ablative of Measure and Price. O. via teremnattens

perek(ais) III 'laid

out the roads three rods wide'.


habia

Note espe-

cially

U. muneklu

numer prever pusti kastruvuf 'sportulam

habeat

singulis in capita, shall receive a perquisite of a 13). one sesterce for each person' (V a 17, 18 ; cf. also

nummis

This is regularly accomcom. U. com the preposition prinuatir staJiitu stand panied by with the assistants', eru-com prinuatur dur etuto 'let the two
293.

Ablative of Accompaniment.

1 -

go with him', O. com preiuatud actud, con preiuatud urusf-deal (plead) with the defendant', com atrud awm'have a But it also appears without the preposilawsuit with another'. tion where the feeling of accompaniment has become subordinate Thus U. apretu tures et pure 'go to that of means or manner. about (i.e. perform the lustration) with the bulls and the fire' Note the Ablative with and without com in U. eno (I b 20).
assistants

com prinuatir peracris sacris ambretuto 'let him together with the but also assistants go about with unblemished victims' (VI b 56 The Ablative of Accompanietuto com peracris sacris, VI b 52). ment without com, in close attachment to a noun, also appears in U. arvia puni purtuvitu 'offer fruits of the field with sour wine'
;

297]

Uses of the Gases

203

(II a 24)

and U.

persontrum with

persutru vaputis mefa vistica feta fertu 'bring the incense etc.' (II b 13), in which the feeling is

much

the same as in some of the examples given under the See also 290, a. Ablative of Attendant Circumstances (294).
a.

In Umbrian, the Ablative with postpositive

-co(ra), -ku(m),

has devel-

oped a distinctly locative sense, 'at', e.g. asa-ku 'at the altar', termnu-co 'at the boundary', testru-ku peri, nertru-co persi 'at the right (left) foot', vuku-kum, uocu-com 'at the temple', ueris-co 'at the gate', etc. In the sense of 'with' the
postpositive occurs only with pronominal forms, as eru-com (in Cf. L. mecum, quibuscum, etc.

example above).

Ablative of Attendant Circumstances, Manner, etc. U. eruhu ticlu sestu luvepatre 'present to Jupiter with the same
294.

dedication' (lib 22), fetu tikamne luvie offer with a dedication to lovius' (II a 8), arsier frite tio subocau 'with confidence in
'

(thee) the holy one I invoke thee' (VI a 24 etc. ; frite could also be a Locative in form, but probably belongs here rather than in
283),

futu fos pacer pase tua^bQ favorable and propitious with here thy peace' (Via 30 etc.), O. dolud mallud with guile'; also O. medikeis serevkid 'under the inspection of the meddix', pr. meddixud 'under the magistracy of the praetor' (cf. Loc.
i

medikkiai, 282).
a.

out remuneration'

Of the same origin are the adverbial O. ammcatiZ'*immercato, with(cf. L. immerito, inauspicato, etc.), and U. heritu consulto,
'

intentionally' (see 307).

295.

Ablative of Time.

month'

(II a 17),

U. menzne kurclasiu 'in the last(?) pesclu semu 'in the middle of the prayer' (VI b
'

15, 36). 296.

O. toutad praesentid in the presence of the people', U. aves anzeriates 'when the birds have been
Ablative Absolute.
a 1

observed'

(I

etc.).

LOCATIVE USES
of the Ablative (-Instrumental) overlaps that of the Locative at certain points, and in several of the examples already given the Ablative expresses what might

297.

The sphere

of

meaning

204
also be expressed

Syntax

[297

often identical, kuveitu 'bring with the hand', niani tenitu 'hold with the hand' (290), beside manuv-e habetu 'hold in the hand'; -- U. kletra fertuta 'carry by means of a litter' (290),
beside
tafle e fertu
'

by the Locative. and we find U. mani

Thus Means and Place

are

carry on a table'.

The road by which one

goes

is also the road on which one is, and the Ablative of the Route may be used even where there is no word of motion. Cf. L. iam consul via Labicana ad fanum Quietis erat (Livy

4, 41, 8).

The Ablative

of Time, originally an Instrumental

denoting duration of time, comes to be used with much the same force as the Locative of Time. See 295. The Ablative
of

Accompaniment with
See
293, a.

postpositive -co has developed a LocaCf. also the Ablative with op in

tive force.

Oscan

in a strictly local

meaning (300, 5). These and other points of contact in function, together with the identity of form in the Plural which exists in all branches of Italic, have led in Latin to the almost complete absorption of the Locative by the Ablative. And even in Oscan-Umbrian, where in general the Locative preserves its identity, 1 there are examples of the Ablative which can only be viewed as encroachments on the Locative, namely 298. Ablative of the Place Where. U. tremnu serse 'sitting in the tent' (Via 2, 16), sersi 2 pirsi sesusfwhen he has seated himself on the seat' (VI a 5); so also probably anderuomu sersitu (VI b 41), though anderuomu is of unknown meaning, and is taken by some as ander uomu 'inter O. Bvivaianud -'; 'at Bovianum' (no. 46 see p. 43, footnote).
:

1 In consonant-stems in Umbrian the Abl. Sg. and Loc. Sg. are not to be distinguished, both ending in -e, which, like the L. -e, is probably the old Loc. ending -i. In Oscan there are no examples of the Locative in the Third Declension.

Abl. Sg. of an i-stem.


in
-e.

The Loe.

Sg.,

whether of an i-stem or consonant-stem,

would end

299]

Prepositions

205

PREPOSITIONS

(AND THE CORRESPONDING PREFIXES 2)

With
299.
(133,6).
1.

the Accusative only

(). az (L. ad}. (ad-s, like L. ab-s ; 137,2), U. -af, -a O. az hurtiim 'at the grove'; --U. asam-a '(return) to
'

the

altar', asam-af

(offer etc.) at the altar', spinam-af


'

'

(go) to the

column', spiniam-a (pray) at the column'.


CPDS.
(89, 3, 102, 3, U. afpeltu 'adpellito', afveitu, arveitu, arsueitu, etc. 'advehito', affertur, arsfertur, arfertur, etc. '*adfertor, flamen', neifhabas ne adhibeant' (84), af kani *accinium, cantum', afputrati 'arbitratu', ope, appei, etc. 'ubi' (202, 8), arnipo 'donee' For U. af-, ar-, ars-, ar-, see 132 with a. (202, 10).
' '

O. adfust 'aderit', aserum 'adserere' (137, 2), akkatus 'advocati' 139, 1), aflukad, aflakus (?97, a, 139, 1), adpiid 'quoad' (202, 9);

NOTE. U. -af -a, occurs only in Tables III, IV, and II a. Elsewhere 'to' is expressed by -e(ri) (301, 2) and 'at' by -ku(m), -co(w)
,

(293, a).

O. ant 'usque ad' (from *anti; see 92). The (L. ante). only example is ant punttram (no. 3) 'up to the bridge' (i.e. 'up to in front of the bridge', and so 'close up to the bridge').
2.

NOTE.
3.

The meaning

'before' is expressed

by O.

prai,

U. pre (300,

7).

(L. extra).

O. ehtrad

(142, 190, 3).

Thus

ehtrad feihiiss

'outside the walls'.


4.

U. hondra, hutra

'infra' (15,

5,

188, 2).

Thus hondra

esto

tudero 'below these limits', hondra furo, hutra furu 'below the forum'.
a. O. huntrus teras (no. 19, 11) apparently means 'infra terrain' and contains a related preposition, of obscure formation, followed by the Genitive. But

the sentence

is

incomplete, and

it is

not wholly certain that huntrus cannot be

simply Ace.
5.

PI. 'inferos'.

(L. per).

from

*pos-ti).

the column'.
1

post viam 'across the road', U. pert spinia 'beyond Cf. also O. am-pert'not beyond, not more than',
pert,

O.

U.

pert 'trans'

(from *per-ti;

cf.

O.

pert

"Prepositions"

is

used here as a syntactical term and includes the post-

positives.
2 Given here for convenience. For prefixes which have no corresponding forms used as prepositions, see 263, 2, 264, 1.

206

Syntax

[299

which however is used adverbially, not as a preposition (see 269). The same form, joined postpositively to the Ace. PL, appears in the numeral adverbs O. petiro-pert quater', U. triiuper, trio-per
'

'ter'

(192,

for the loss of -, see 127,

3).

The (pert-emest, pert-emust) 'perimere, prevent'. in out' in U. 'stretch 0. also per-emust 'perceperit', per-tentu simple per- appears ('protendito' may be used in translating, since L. pertendo is used only in a
CPDS.
0.

pert-umum

transferred sense, but this per- has nothing to do with -per pro' for U. perne etc. sec 300, 8, a), per-etom 'peritum', per-acni- 'sollemnis' (159, a); with inten'
;

sive force, in U. per-acri- 'opimus, in perfect condition' (in form like L. per-acer, but with the meaning which the root shows in Grk. CLK/AT) etc.).

The meaning 'beyond, across', seen in O.-U. pert, is an of 'through', and traces of a similar use are found development easy Cf. Lith. per tilta'go over the bridge', per trls myles elsewhere.
NOTE.
'over (more than) three miles', etc.

Here, probably, L. perfidus.

6.

O.

perum 'sine'
guile'.

(*per-om

see 201,

5).

Thus perum dolom

mallom 'without
NOTE.
pert.

The meaning

is

Cf.

Eng. 'beyond doubt'

simply a further specialization of that seen in = 'without doubt'.

7.

O.

pustin,

U.

pustin, pusti, posti

'according

to'

(an exten-

O. pustin slagim senateis suveis sion of post, probably *posti-en). vote of the tangimid 'by respective senates according to the territory' (see note to C.
spelt) for

A. 34);

U. posti acnu

'(four

pounds of

each year' (or 'ceremony'; see 159, a), pusti kastruvu or three sestefces) per head, for each person' (or 'estate'; '(one, two, but see note to T. B. 8, 13), pustin ancif 'by turns', pustin ereclu
'(to

Pomonus and Vesuna) on


NOTE.

their respective altars'.

From

a *posti-ne

with

i,

while from *posti-en the

meaning, cf. Eng. after = etc., L. secundum, Germ, in singulos annos' etc.
'

U. post-ne) one would expect 0. *ptistln of ptistin is regular (see 44, b). For the in our 'after their 'after sins', according to, value', nach, etc., and also the distributive force of L. in in
(cf.
i

8. (L. supra). U. subra (157, 1, 190, 3). Thus subra esto tudero 'above these limits'. Elsewhere the form is used adver-

bially (subra screihtor 'written above' etc.).

300]

Prepositions

207

With
300.
1.

the Ablative only

Grk. a^i). O. ampt (see 161, a). Thus eksuk amviannud eituns ampt tribud tuv. ampt Mener by this detour let them go(?) around the Public Building (and) around the
(L. amb-,
'

temple of Minerva'
find, as in Latin,

(no. 18).

Except

for this one

example we

only the prefix.


amb- (Umbrian), and
U. ambr-.
(after anter-), O. arnfr-,

CPDS.
also in

The

prefix appears usually as am-, rarely as

an extended form *amfer-

See 161

with

a.

2.

(L. cum).

O. com, U. com, -co(m), -ku(m).

See 293 with

a.

kumbenniefs 'conventus', comparascuster U. combifiatu 'nuntiato', couertu erit', kujmparakineis 'consilii'; 'revertito' (17, 13), kuveitu 'convehito, congerito' (for co- before u cf. early Latin coventioriid, Yolsc. couehriu 'curia'), comoltu 'commolito', comohota 'com'consulta

CPDS.

O. kiimbened 'convenit',

mota' (17,

Cf. also O. comono conegos genu nixus', kukehes 'incendat'(P). ' 'comitia', U. kumne comitio' from *kom-no- (15, 4, 251, 2).
'

17),

O. dat (190, 3, a). Thus dat eizac egmad 'con(L. de). cerning this matter', dat eiza(i)sc 'concerning these matters', dat sena[teis] tanginud 'in accordance with the judgment of the
3.

senate' (also senateis tanginud, 286 ; cf L. de sententid beside sententid), dat castrid 'in a matter involving the death penalty'
.

(also castrous, 270). CPDS.


dad- for dad-d- (163);
O. dadikatted 'dedicavit', da[da]d 'dedit', dadid 'dediderit', U. da-etom '*de-itum, delictum' (da from *dad
to cpds.).
all

with

by 133,

and extended
4.

There are only two examples, e-asa 'from the altar' and ehe esu poplu 'from this people', the meaning being commonly expressed by the postpositive ~td
(L. ex, e).

U.

e,

ehe.

(below, 9).
CPDS.
'exstat',

eehiianasum'emittendarum' (77,

0. ehpeilatas 'erectae', ehprelvirf (142, a); eestint 'exstant', ee[stit] U. e^we^w'iubeto', ehvelklu 'sen1);
'
'

tentiam',

eveietu 'voveto', efieturstahamu, eturstahmu exterminato', efurfatu Cf. also 0. ehtrad extra' 'expurgato'(?), ehiato 'emissos', ebetraf-e'in exitus'.

and U.

ap-ehtre 'ab extra' (142). NOTE. The conditions under which the e of O. eestint

etc.

arose

are not clear.

See 77,

1,

with note.

208
5.

Syntax
(L. 06).

[300

O. up, op (from *opi- by 92

cf.

Grk.

CTTL,

Skt.

dpi).

Thus

iip eisiid sakarakliid 'at this temple', [tip] slaagid 'at the

boundary', op toutad, op eizois 'in the presence of the people, of these persons', 'apud populum', 'apud eos'.
CPDS. 0. osii[ns'adsint' (122, 2); U. ostendu 'ostendito' (122, ufestne (138, a), perhaps ooserclom (77, 3). ably
6.
1),

prob-

post, U. post, pus (from *pos-ti cf. Lith. 'behind the walls', post eizuc, post exac pas etc.). 'after this';--U. post uerir, pusveres (139,2) 'behind the gate'. In origin this is probably an Ablative Cf. L. posted, posthdc.
(Ij.post).

O.

piist,

O.

piist feihiiis

of the Point of View.


a. In U. postertio pane 'postquam tertium' tertio is not an Ablative after an independent adverb of time, post being here an adverb, forming but post, with pane a conjunction. together

Cf. the derivatives U. postne 'pone'


'posticas'; 0.

(cf.

posmom

'postreinum',

piistiris 'postering', etc.

perne 'ante'), whence pustnaiaf See 139, 2, 188, 2,

189,1.

U. pre, pre (63). O. prai Mamerttiais 'before the Martian festival', U. pre uerir 'before the gate.' As only plural forms occur, the Locative is also possible, but it is
7.

(L. prae).

O.

prai,

far

more probable that the case


CPDS.

is

the same as that used with

pru, post, etc.


U. prehabia praef ectus' 'praehibeat', prepesnimu 'praef ator', preuendu advertito' (used in contrast to ahauendu 'avertito'), etc. Cf. also prepa 'priusquarn' (202, 4) and pretra 'priO. praesentid 'praesente,' praefucus
'
'
;

ores' (188,2).

8.

(L. pro).

for
(L.

-pe,

see 103,

4).

O. pru (53), U. -per, -pe(r) (from -pro, 91, 2; O. pru meddixud 'by virtue of magistracy'

pro imperio etc.), pru medicatud 'in place of judgment', that is 'as if judgment had been rendered' (cf. L. pro ioudicatod, CIL. IX 782); U. tota-per, tuta-per, tuta-pe'for the city', poplu-per
'for the

people', ocri-per 'for


'

the

mount',

fratrus-per 'for

the

brothers', etc.
O. pruhipid 'prohibuerit', prupukid 'by previous agreement' (86, 5, U. 173, 6); prusekatu 'prosecato', procanurent '*procinuerint', prupehast 'ante etc. Note the distinct temporal force of the prefix in O. prupukid, piabit',

CPDS.

U. prupehast.

Cf. also 0. pruter

pan

'priusquain' (188, 2, 202, 4).

301]
'

Prepositions
a.
is
'
'

209
,

In U. perne ante' pernaiaf ant leas' 0. Pernai Prorsae' the perCf. Lith. pernai in the not from pro-, like U. -per, but is original.
, ,
'

previous year', Grk.


9.

irtpva-i, etc.

U.
'

-ta, -tu, -to

skalce-ta

from

see 34), of uncertain origin. Thus the bowl', akru-tu 'from the field', pure-to 'from
(for -td
;

the

fire', etc.

See

285.

With
301.
1.

the Accusative and Locative

no

O. anter (U. anter-, ander-, 98, c, 156 ; (L. inter). Thus O. anter slagim certain example of prepositional use).

[Ajbellanam inim Nuvlanam 'between the territory of Abella and but anter teremniss that of Nola' (C. A.; cf. also nos. 14-17); 'within the boundaries' (that teremniss is an Ablative is much less
likely).

If

we may judge from

the single example, the Locative


of

was used where the meaning is 'within'. In all examples the Accusative the meaning is 'between (two points)'.
Cms.
Ib
O. Anterstatai '*Interstitae'
'
;

U. andersislu intersidito', antermenzaru Mntermenstruarum', anderuacose, antervakaze *intervacatio' (? see note to


'

VI b

47,

8),

anderuomu

(? see

298).

2.

(L. in).

O.

en, -en,

U. -en

(-e,
'

-em, 109,
fine',

once

-i,

39, 5).

With Accusative. O. census'; --U. anglom-e 'to


etc.

en eituas for a

censtom-en 'to the

the corner', fesnaf-e'to the temple',

used where Latin would prefer ac?'to', Frequently and in a few cases even like c?'at'. Thus (Via 10) anglu-to somo uapef-e auiehclu todcom-e tuder'-irom the highest corner at
-en is

the augural seats to the city limits' (uapef-e auiehclu resumes briefly the previous porsei nesimei uapersus auiehcleir est).

With
added
this

Locative. O. exaisc-en

'

ligis

in these laws'

U. manuv-e

'in the hand', etc.

See 280-282.

For O.

hurtin Kerriiin
7.

with -en

to both

noun and

adjective, see 171,

In O. imad-en'from the bottom up', eisuc-en ziculud'hom day on', -en is used adverbially.
CPDS.
O.

isegeles 'insectis' (39, 5).

embratur 'imperator', U. enetu 'inito', endendu 'intendito', Cf. also the derivative 0. Entrai '*Interae'.

210
3.

Syntax
(L. super).

[301

U. super with Locative, super-ne (cf. adverbs Thus per-ne, post-ne, L. pone, super-ne, etc.) with Accusative. adro the white over superne '(place vessels) (on top of) the but super kumne '(let loose the heifer) above the place black';
of assembly', super erecle '(make libation) over the shrine'.
4.

(L. trans).

U.

traf,

trahaf,

traha, tra (110,

4).

Thus

traf Sahatam etu 'go across the Sacred Way' (similarly with couertu return' combifiatu 'announce'); but trahaf Sahate feetu 'sacrifice on the other side of the Sacred Way' (similarly tra
1
',

ekvine fetu).
CPD.
U. trahuorfi 'transverse'.

With
302.
(L.
sub).

the Locative and Ablative


O-VTT

O.

fieBiiciai 'in

but U. su maronato (su by 125, 1) Some assume that maronato no. 84). but more probably
it

meddixship'; 'in the maroship' (see note to

the

is Loc. Sg., from a w-stem, Abl. Sg. of the 0-stem seen in the Loc. difference in construction is more likely than Sg. maronatei. a difference in stem. For both Locative and Ablative are paralis

leled

by the corresponding constructions without the preposition O. meddixud, 294). For (O. medikkiai, U. maronatei, etc., 282
;

the Abl. Sg. in


CPDS.
'set aside,

-o

see 171,

6,

a.

U. subocauu 'invoco' (102, 2), subahtu 'deponito, set down', subator omitted' (218; for force of sub cf. L. subdued 'remove'), sumtu 'sumito' (114, c), sutentu 'subtendito' (su- by 121), probably sufafiaf 'partis
exsertas'
(? cf. faf-

in ex-fqfillatd,

Plautus Mil. Gl.

1180,

and

ef-fqftldtum

'exertuin', Festus ed. Thewrewk, p. 69), and sufefaklu of uncertain meaning. a. In Umbrian, forms of the adjective sopo- are used predicatively
in the sense of 'sub'.

See 306.

With Other Cases


(L. contra). to this' exeic 'contrary

303.

O. contrud
is

(190, 2).

In O. contrud exeic

as a Locative, but is a much more easily understood as Dative, properly a Dative of Cf. L. siti contra pugRelation with contrud used adverbially.

commonly taken

nandum

(Cels. 4, 5 (2)), huic contra

itum (Tac. A. 11, 10).

307]

Adjectives
304.

211

found only with the so-called improper causa' prepositions, as in O. egm\as touti]cas amnud'iei publicae amniid 'circuitu'), U. ocrer pehaner paca 'montis piandi causa' (cf. (paca Abl. Sg. of *pdkd- cf. L. pdetum etc.). Another possible example is O. liimitu[m] pernum 'in front of the boundaries' (C. A. For O. ampert 29), but the reading here is wholly uncertain. mistreis aeteis, where aeteis has been taken as a Genitive after
is
;

The Genitive

ampert, see 269.

ADJECTIVES
of adjectives to denote a part. With L. summits mons etc., cf. U. pesclu semu 'in the half of the prayer' (semu: L. semi-; see 189, l, a), that is, 'in the middle of the prayer, dur305.

Use

O. ejisai viai mefiai 'in the middle of this road'. ing the prayer' 306. Predicative use of adjectives with the force of adverbs. 1
;

With

L. sciens 'wittingly', libens 'willingly', etc., compare O. deil

uatud sipus swe&T wittingly', U.


kutef pesnimu 'pray quietly',
etc.

persnimu 'pr&j silently', Similarly U. postro in sopo postro peperscust 'put the under parts behind' is an adjective agreeing with sopo (cf. pustra, pustru, II a 32, II b 19), but in effect an adverb. U. sopo- is frequently used in the same way, like L. suplnus, Grk. VTTTIOS. Thus persuntru supu erecle (IV 17), where supu, though an adjective agreeing with persuntru, has the
force of 'sub', in contrast to the 'super' of persuntru
erecle
.
. .

tases

super

(IV 19); purom-e (VI b 17 cf. also Vila 38), where sopa, though agreeing with uestisia, goes in sense with the following, sopa purom-e meaning 'beneath, into the fire' and so 'beneath the fire, sub ignem'.
uestisia sopa
;

ADVERBS
Predicate use of adverbs in the sense of adjectives 2 U. porsei nesimei asa deueia esf" which is (L. bene est, etc.). next to the altar of the gods' (but O. nessimas staiet veruis 'stand
307.
1

That That

is,
is,

where an adverbial construction seems more natural to us. where an adjectival construction seems more natural to us.

212

Syntax

[307

U. esuf testru sese asa asam-a purtuvitu 'himnext to the gate'); self standing at the right of the altar he shall place the offering on the altar' (IV 15 cf. also III 23, IV 3), in which sese is prob;

ably an adverb, as if L. vorsum etc.);--U. efek


'let this

*sesse,

meaning

'situated'

(cf.

L. dextro-

prufe si 'let this be approved', literally


;

eretu
etc.)

be (regarded as) properly (done)' 1 U. fetu puze neip in a briefer form, pusei neip Jieritu (VI a 27 4) and, (II not as intentionally (done)'. '(take it)

THE VERB

VOICE
f

308.

The

Passive.

Besides the Passive force, as ,seen for

example in O. uincter 'vincitur', comparascuster 'consulta erit', U. emantur 'accipiantur', ostensendi 'ostendentur', the Deponent

So O. karanter vescuntur', U. terkantur suffrafrequent. gentur', U. ewrsta^77iM' exterminate', U. persnihimu 'precator',


use
is
'
'

persnisfust 'precatus erit', etc. Sometimes, however, the Active form is used in contrast to the Deponent of the Latin, e.g. U. osatu, O. upsed, etc. L. operor U. stiplo, stiplatu: L. stipulor; 44 O. no. is sent upsatuh Deponent 'operati sunt', in contrast (but
:

facta');--O. fatium: L.fateor. Compare the use of Active forms in early and late Latin parallel to
to
oseto 'operata,

U.

Deponents of the
a.

classical period.
iuro,

etc.,

With the Deponent use of L. cenatus beside ceno, iuratus beside compare 0. deiuatuns 'iurati', U. gersnatur furent 'cenaverint', and
a).

also

U. uesticos (fust) 'libaverit' (230,

6. Passive form with distinctly middle force is seen in U. amparihmu 'raise oneself, rise' beside the Active amparitu ' raise, set up (the litter)'. similar relation is sometimes assumed between U. subra spahatu 'spread out

used),

throw on' (VIb 41) with object expressed (the vessels that have just been and subra spahmu (VIb 17, Vila 39), subra spafu (Va 20), with no But the meaning of the latter is probably not 'throw oneobjects expressed. self over, walk over', but 'perform the ceremony of throwing on (the vessels)'.
over,
1

Cf. O. izic

amprufid facus estud

(if

any one has been made


as)

ti-ibune of

Mm

people contrary to this) let

him be (regarded

made

so improperly'.

311]
c.

The Verb
U.
uestis, uesteis
It
'
'

213
'

libans' is parallel to U. persnis

precatus' both in

*uesti-, of which an extension. The *uestika- (U. uesticatu libato') etymology of this group of also libamentum' and probably Uestisier, to which U. vestigia belong words, name of a god, is unknown.

formation and use.

comes from *uestlto-s, with verb-stem


is
'

309.

The frequent impersonal use


noteworthy,
e.g.

of the Passive (L, itur,


'a sacrifice is

itum

est, etc.) is

O. sakarater

made',

U. pur dito fust 'the offering shall take place', muietofust 'a noise shall be made', herter'it is desired, desirable' and so used like L. oportet. Nearly all of the forms in which r alone appears as
See 239. the personal ending are used impersonally. 310. Transitive use of verbs usually intransitive, and vice

U. ninctu, in form L. ninguito, means 'overwhelm with snow'; similarly U. sonitu 'overwhelm with sound', tremitu 'make
versa.

tremble',

though these are not of the same conjugation as L. sono, Cf. also U. nepitu*- overwhelm with water' from a root tremo. U. habe (VI b 54 = I b 18) is used intransiseen in L. Neptiinus.
tively, 'holds himself, remains'.

TENSE
311.
is

The use

of the tenses

shows no variation from what

found in Latin. what is customary

The use
is

of the Present Indicative to denote

ritual.

frequent, as is natural in the language of It occurs with future meaning in some temporal and

conditional clauses cited below.


of the Imperfect Indicative,
it

There

is

only one occurrence

namely fufans

'erant', C.

A. 10, where

simply denotes past situation, as so frequently in Latin. The Perfect Indicative occurs chiefly in dedications and inscriptions
it

on public works, where

has the simple narrative force (HisThe Future and Future Perfect torical or Aoristic Perfect).
are very frequent in temporal clauses, the difference the two being the same as in Latin.

between

clauses depending on an Historical Perfect,


bened
.
.

All 'the occurrences of the Imperfect Subjunctive are in namely O. ekss kum.

puz idik sakara[klum]

fusid,

pun patensins,

214
patensins,
'
.

Syntax
.
.

[311

[hjerrins
. . .

ita convenit,
.
.

ut id templum

esset,

aperirent, caperent' (C. A. 10-54); also Pael. upsaseter coisatens 'fieret curaverunt'. The Perfect Subjunctive is regularly used in prohibitions and occasionally in positive commands and expressions of wish. See 312, 313. It occurs
.

cum aperirent,

also a

few times

in temporal

and conditional clauses

(319, 320).

MOOD
Commands and
312.
Prohibitions
is

The Subjunctive

of

Command

in the passage
l

V a 1-V b 7, where the Atiedian


him furnish
(prehabia)

frequent in Umbrian Brothers decreed

let

the flamen, whoever he shall be, have the care (kuraia) of the
let

ceremony,

whatever

him

receive (habia) certain fees.

When

is necessary. Let the brothers shall have


feia)

feasted, let the magister or quaestor take a vote (ehvelklu to whether the matter has been properly looked after.
it

as
if

And

the majority pronounce it satisfactory let approved (efek a vote (ehvelklu take If let or the not, prufe si). quaestor magister
be
feia)

as to the
let

demand,
ture
si)'.

of the penalty, and whatever penalty they the flamen's penalty be so great (etantu mutu afferlimits of this passage the Imper-

amount

But even within the


twice,

and elsewhere the Imperative is almost The exclusively employed, occurring in hundreds of examples. other examples of the Subjunctive are ene tra Sahta kupifiaia 'then announce across the Sacred Way' (I b 35, in the midst of a series of Imperatives the corresponding clause in VII a 43 has the Imperative combifiatu), and terkantur 'let them approve' (III 9,
ative occurs
;

also in the midst of Imperatives).


NOTE. It is hardly accidental that the series of Subjunctives in Va is Although the clauses are not immediately preceded by eitipes decreverunt. actually dependent, they are so closely attached in feeling that the choice of the Subjunctive rather than the Imperative may well be due to the exclusive use of the former in dependent clauses. Similarly /o.s set, pacer sei be favorable
'

'

'

under 314, always occurs immediately after the phrase teio subocau'I invoke thee', whereas elsewhere the Imperative futu /<* pacer is used. Cf VI a 22 ff

and

propitious', belonging

314]

The Verb
In Oscan
also,

215

the Imperative is nearly always employed in Examples of the Subjunctive are saahtiim positive commands. lamatir tefiirum sakahiter 'let a burnt-offering be made' (T. A.);
sakrafir 'let there be a consecration' beaten' (T. B.); For the use of the Perfect in the last two exam(nos. 29, 30). ples, cf. L. sit denique inscriptum in froute unius cuiusque quid
'let

him be

de re publica sentiat (Cic. Cat. 1, 13, 32), and see 313. With the preponderance of the Imperative in both Oscan

and Umbrian
tions, in

is

to be

many
is

of

compared the usage of early Latin inscripwhich (e.g. the Lex Bantina, Lex agraria) the
(e.g.

Imperative
tia

used exclusively, while in others


a Subjunctive of

the Senten-

Minuciorum)

Command may now and

then

In prohibitions, Umbrian uses the Imperative reguPresent Subjunctive occurring once in neifhabas let the larly, them not furnish' (IV 33). In Oscan, however, the Imperative
'

appear. 313.

never used, but always the Perfect Subjunctive. Thus nep Nuvlanus pidum tribarakattins 'let neither the Abellani nor the Nolani build anything' (C. A. 46 ff.); izic eizeic zicel[ei]
is

Abellaniis nep

him not hold an assembly on this day' (T. B. ne phim pruhipid 'let him not prevent any one' (T. B. 25); 7, 8); nep fefacid 'let him not cause' (T. B. 10), in contrast to the Imperative factud of a positive command in the same sentence
comono ni hipid
'let

nep cemtur fuid, nei suae pr. fust he has been praetor' (T. B. 28).

'let

no one be censor, unless

NOTE. -This use of the Perfect Subjunctive is to be compared with the with the Aorist Subjunctive, and, together with its occasional Greek use of use in positive commands (312) and expressions of wish (314), is to be connected with the energetic force natural to the aoristic function. No temporal distinc-

tion

is

involved.

The Subjunctive

of

Wish

is

314. The Subjunctive of Wish, though of different origin, not always easily distinguished from the Subjunctive of Com-

mand.
tious',

pacer sei'be favorable, propialternating with futu fos pacer (see 312, note), belongs
sei,

But

certainly U. fos

216
here, likewise the

Syntax

[314

Oscan Subjunctives and the shorter curse, no. 20, namely


patar,

in the Curse of Vibia


turumiiad, krustatar, kais-

lamatir'may he be tortured, etc.', and, with the negative, 1 Here also nep piitiad, nep heriiad'may he not be able, etc.' U. pihafei'may it be expiated' (Via 29 etc.). For the use of

the Perfect, as in the case of U. pihafei, O. lamatir (possibly krustatar, kaispatar; but see 238, e), which is also frequent in early
Latin, see 313, note.

The Subjunctive
315.

in Substantive Clauses
is

The Subjunctive

usually introduced by O. puz,

U. jpim'ut' (202, 6), but in certain phrases, as in Latin, it may also stand without any conjunction. Examples are: U. stiplo I observe' a U. etaians deitu 'let that 'demand aseriaia (VI 2)
;

him tell them to go' (VI b 64);--U. combifiatu erus dersa'-lei him give notice to add the ems' (VII a 44) but with an inter;

puse erus vening clause as well as a different verb, carsitu with dersa'let him call out ... to add the ems' (Vila 43); U.. ticit 'decet', herter 'oportet', O. kasit'decet' (in form L. caret},
.
.

as

U.

facia tigit'one

ought to

sacrifice'

(II a 17),

O.

fakiiad kasit

'one ought to sacrifice' (no. 31), U. dirsans herti'ihey ought to fusid O. ekss kiimbened puz idik sakara[klum] give', etc. ; should A. 10 be' etc. (C. ff. ; etc. 'it was agreed that this temple
. . .

U. eo iso ostendu, pusi pir pureto ceJiefi dia (VI a see also 31 1); 20), best taken as 'let him set them out in such a manner (iso)
that (pusi) he cause (dia) one
fire to be lighted from the other', dia on so probably U. pepurkurent ; cehefi depending directly herifi (V b 6) 'shall have urged to be necessary' (as if L. poposceO. factud pous touto deiuatuns tanginom deirint oportuerit) cans let him cause the people to declare their opinion under
;
l

oath' (T. B. 9).

In Greek curses the Optative is used in both the positive and the negative form. For convenience the Subjunctives in Substantive Clauses are grouped together

here, without regard to their specific origin (Volitive etc.).

317]

The Verb

217

noteworthy construction is seen in O. nep fefacid pod pis dat eizac egmad min\8\ deiuaid dolud malud let him prevent any one from swearing falsely in this matter' (T. B. 10 f.), in which
l

nep fefacid is felt as the equivalent of a verb of preventing and followed by pod mins, which is identical with L. quominus in 1 meaning and nearly so in form (202, I)
.

Clauses of Indirect Question

316.
as to

In U. ehvelklu

feia

panta muta afferture

si

'take a vote
si is

what the flamen's penalty

shall be'

(V b

If.),

the

simply

a dependent Subjunctive of Deliberation or Propriety. But an unquestionable example of a Subjunctive in an indirect question of fact, where the direct question would have the Indicative, is

U. ehvelklu
it

feia

sve rente kuratu

si

'

take a vote as to whether

is

has been arranged properly' (V a 23 ff.). Noteworthy, because of the lack of any interrogative word, U. revestu emantur herte 'see whether they are to be accepted'
. .

(V a
still

Since even in Latin the original Indicative may stand in indirect questions of fact, there is no necessity of
8, 10).

taking

herte as a

Subjunctive.

See

238,

2, a.

Relative Clauses

317.

In nearly
is

the relative

the relative clauses occurring, whether or definite indefinite, and whatever the mood of
all
is

the principal verb, the Indicative


eetu*- whoever is
. .
.

used.

Thus U.
f.);
. .

pisest

let
ist,

him
.
.

go' (VI b 53

O. sakarakhim
.

Herekleis [up] slaagid pud

puz idik sakara[klum] the temple of Hercules which is at the boundary


.

fusid 'that

should be'
'

(C.

A. 11 f.);--U.
. .
.

pisi

pumpe

fust

ere ri esune kuraia

who;

ever shall be

let
. . .

O. censamur esuf

after the ceremony' (V ff.) iusc censtur censaum angetuzet poizad ligud

him look

a 3

1 1 cannot understand the objection of v. Plauta (II, p. 482) to this view, nor his assertion that the construction does not correspond to L. prohibeat quominus but to

prohibeat quominus non or prohibeat ut non. 2 Except those of time, for which see 318.

218
'let

Syntax

[317

law by which the censors shall have proposed to take the census' (T. B. 19 f.), etc. (examples of the Future and Future Perfect are very numerous). Hence in U. prehabia pife uraku ri esuna si herte, et pure esune sis 'let him furnish whatever is necessary for the ceremony, and whatever persons are necessary' (V a 5 f .) there is no necessity of taking herte as a Subjunctive (see 238, 2, a), and in the second clause sis probably depends on a herte to be supplied from the preceding, though of course a Subjunctive would also be possible
to the
(cf.

him be rated according

cui iussus

siet,

auscultet, Cato,

De

Agric.

5, 3, etc.).

A reasonably certain

example
'

of a Subjunctive in a descrip. .

tive relative clause is seen in O. siom

idle tangineis

deicum

pod ualaemom touticom tadait ezum (having sworn) that they will render such judgment as they think to be for the best public
good' (T. B. 9
1

f.)

Here may be mentioned, though persei

is

in this case a con-

junction (202, 2), U. persei mersei'so far as is right' (Via 28, 38, 48) beside perse mers est (VI b 31, 55), the main verb each time
Cf. L. quod opus siet, used by Cato even being a Subjunctive. where the main verb is Indicative (e.g. De Agric. 16). The choice of the two expressions, 'so far as is right' or 'so far as may be
right',

has nothing to do with the

mood

of the principal verb.

Temporal Clauses
318. All the temporal clauses which occur refer to future time, and in the great majority of cases, as in Latin, the Future

or Future Perfect Indicative


are O. pon, U. ponne (202,

is

used.

The usual conjunctions

The latter is 3) and U. ape (202, 8). far more common than ponne in the later Umbrian, and with the Future Perfect entirely displaces it (cf. ape ambrefurent VI b 56: puni amprefuus Ib 20, etc.). IT. pure (202, l) and pife,
pirsi (202,
1

2),

also

have temporal force sometimes, as

in pure nuvime
since

in

it

///(/,

Better taken so than as an Indirect Question (Verb-System, is used.

p. 144),

]>o<1,

319]

The Verb

219

ferest

'when he

pirsi

shall bring them the ninth time' (II a 26), sersi sesust'when he shall have taken his seat' (Via 5).

But the Present Indicative with future meaning is also Thus U. ponne oui furfant, uitlu torn trif fetu'when found.
they purify(?) the sheep, sacrifice three bull-calves' (VI b 43 -- U. pune furfant Pres. Indie, of Conj. I, as shown by efurfatu) seste, urfeta manuve habetu 'when you dedicate (the calf), hold the
;
;

U. ponne iuengar tursiandu hertei 'when it is necessary to drive forth the heifers' (VII b 2 Cf. also O. adpiid fiiet 'so long as they for hertei see 238, 2, a). 31 a for occur' (no. adpiid see 202, 9).
orbita in the hand' (lib
f.);
; ;

22

Compare

the Latin use of the Present Indicative with future force after
in relative

antequam and priusquam, and, especially in early Latin,


tional clauses (see also 319).

and condi-

The Present Subjunctive


kahad, nip putiiad

is

also found.

Thus O. pun

far

edum 'when he takes food,


.

may he not

be able
entelust,
is

to eat' (no. 19,


.

8);--U. pone esonome ferar pufe pir


'when that
in

erefertu,poe brought to the ceremony, let him bring


.

which the

fire

has been placed


'
.
.

it,

who

(VI b 50).

This of course

is

the Anticipatory Subjunctive, which

is

frequent enough

in such clauses in early Latin, arid which in Oscan-Umbrian, as in Latin, was not completely displaced by the Future Indicative (itself a Subjunctive in
origin).

The Imperfect Subjunctive occurs

in C.

verbs of the surrounding clauses are also depending on ekss kiimbened. See above, 311. 319. With the Conjunctions meaning 'before',

A. 50, where the in the same tense,


'after', 'until',

nersa

U. prepa (202, 4), post pane (202, 4), (202, 11), arnipo (202, 10), the Future Perfect is the commonest construction, but there is one occurrence each of the Future Indicative and the Perfect Subjunctive, the latter, as in Thus Latin, with the same force as the Future Perfect. Future. O. com preiuatud actud, pruter pam medicatinom didest 'let him treat with the defendant before he gives judgment' (T. B. 15 f.).

namely O. pruter pan

(202, 4),

220

Syntax

[319

Future Perfect. --U. nep andersistu, nersa courtust porsi


angla anseriato iust'one shall not interrupt(?) until the one who has gone to observe the birds has returned' (VI a 6) - - U. postertio pane poplo andirsafust, persnihimumo 'after he has
;
.

performed the lustration of the people the third time, ... let earn mani nertru tenitu, arnipo uestithem pray' (VII a 46 f.)
;

sia uesticos 'let

him hold

it

in the left
;

out the libation' (VI b 24


pesnisfust
'let

f .)

hand until he has poured anderuomu sersitu, arnipo comatir


. .

him

sit in

the

until he has prayed with the

broken cakes' (VIb 41).


Perfect Subjunctive. neip amboltu, prepa desua combifiami 'one shall not go around before he has announced a propitious
bird'

(VI b

52).
Conditional Clauses

320.

sue

(202,

In conditional clauses, introduced by O. svai, suae, U. sve, 14), the commonest construction is the Future or Future

Perfect Indicative, the main verb being usually an Imperative The Tabula Bantina alone furor Subjunctive of Command.

The Future Perfect in both nishes some sixteen examples. condition and conclusion occurs once in Umbrian (VI a 7).
U.
pife,

pirsi

(202, 2),

also,
.

sometimes has conditional force


. .

'in

case that, if, e.g. persei

pir orto
urtu
2, a).

est 'if

fire

has occurred'

(Via 26 etc.), have occurred'

pefe

aiu

fefure 'if

disturbances (?) shall


is

(II a 3

see 128,

The Present

Indicative with future force, which

frequent

in early Latin legal inscriptions

and

is

found occasionally in

Latin poetry (e.g. Verg. Aen. 3, 606), is seen in O. suaepis censtomen nei cebmtst, in eizeic uincter, esuf lamatir 'if any one shall
not have come to the census and
beaten' (T. B. 20
f.).

is

convicted of
'if

it,

let

him be

Cf. also U. svepis habe

any one remains'


.

(Ib 18),
suepo
.

svepis heri 'if

The Present Subjunctive


.
.

uacose

(I

any one wishes' (IV 26). is found in U. svepu vakaze, b 8, VI b 47), according to the explanation
.
.

as *uaco8-se 'vacatio

sit'.

See note to passage.

323]

Agreement

221

The Perfect Subjunctive


also

found

in future or future perfect sense, in Latin, is seen in O. svai neip dadid, lamatir 'if he

does not give

U.

ier (238, 2)

so probably up, let him be beaten' (no. 19, 4) in nosue ier ehe esu poplu, portatu ... 'if one
it
;
.
.

does not go from this people, carry him (VI b 54 f.). of because the lack of Noteworthy, any conjunction, is U. heriiei faciu affertur, facia ticit 'if the flam en wishes to make
.

'

the sacrifice,

it is

proper' (II a 16

f.).

INFINITIVES
321.

AND PAETICIPLES
is

The Present
. . .

Infinitive

used as in Latin.

The

con-

struction with subject Accusative

O. deiuatuns

is already developed, e.g. siom deicum 'having sworn that they will say'

The Supine is (T. B. 9) etc. U. aseriato etu 'go to observe.' The passive force, see 308, a.
e.g.
iuvilas

used exactly as in Latin, e.g. For the -to- Participle without Gerundive is used as in Latin,
to

sakrannas 'the

deded 'had made', etc.

be consecrated', upsannam For the Genitive construction in U. ocrer


iovilae

pihaner, see

271.

AGREEMENT
Agreement of adjectives belonging to nouns of different gender. Agreement with the Masculine is seen in U. peiqu
322.

peica merstu 'pico pica iusto' (VI a 1 ; but elsewhere with adjective repeated, peico mersto peica mersta, etc.). Agreement with
the nearest

noun

is

seen in the recurring passage (VI a 32

f.

etc.) saluo seritu ocrer Fisier, totar liouinar nome, nerf, arsmo, ueiro, pequo castruo,fri salua seritu 'salvum servato arcis Fisiae,

Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus, viros, pecuwra capita, salvas servato', where saluo agrees with the first object fruges nome, and salua with the last, fri.
323.

civitatis

Agreement by

sense.

As

in Latin, the Plural

may

be used with a collective noun or a noun joined to another by com. Thus O. pous touto deiuatuns tanginom deicans 'ut populus

222

Syntax

[323

iurati sententiam dicant' (T. B. 9)

;--U.

sve mestru karu fratru

maior pars fratrum AtieU. com diorum, qui illuc venerint, pronuntiaverint' (V a 24 ff .) com prinuatir eso persnimumo 'cum ambretuto, prinuatir
Atiiefiu, pure ulu benurent, prusikurent 'si
;
. . . . .

legatis sic precantor', 'let legatis ambiunto, men) with the assistants go about, pray' (VI b 56

cum

him
f.).

(the flaCf. also

U. hondra furo sehemeniar hatuto totar pisi heriest 'infra forum

seminarium capiunto
324.

civitatis quisquis volet'

(VII a 52).
to the case of

Attraction.
is

The

attraction of a

noun

the relative pronoun


blanir, porsi ocrer

seen in U. uasor (Nom. PI.) uerisco Tret pehaner paca ostensendi, eo iso ottendu VB8&
. .
.

ad portam Trebulanam, quae arcis piandae causa ostendentur, also in O. eitiuvam paam ea sic ostendito' (VI a 19 f.); deded, ea eisak eitiuvad 'pecuniam quam dedit, pecunia' (no. 4), though In Latin such here the noun is repeated in its proper case.
mainly poetical in the best period (urbem quam statuo vestra est, Verg. Aen. 1, 573), but not uncommon in early damnati sunt, eos omneis etc. Cf. Vituries quei prose.
attraction
is
.

viatores praecones quei ex Tiac lege lectei sublectei erunt, eis viatoribus praeconibus etc. (CIL. I 202, col.n,31f.).

(CIL.

I 199,

43

f.),

OMISSION OF
325.
series

WORDS

Asyndeton. The omission of the connective in a of coordinate words or clauses is, as in Latin and elseNoticeable
is

the frequency of phrases consisting of pairs of words without connective, like Thus U. fans pacer 'favorable and proL. volens propitius etc. pitious', pernaiaf pustnaiaf 'before and behind', antakres kumates

where, extremely common.

'whole and broken',


of the
field', atru alfu

afepes arves 'offerings of fat

and the

fruits

29), dupursus peturpursus 'bipeds and quadrupeds', perne postne 'before and after',
(I

'black and white'

fato
first

fito

'success and good fortune' (as if L.factum fitum, the referring to 'efficiency, successful accomplishment', the

second to 'that which happens, turns out well, good fortune'),

328]

Order of Words

223

sepse sarsite 'together and completely' (cf. L. sane sarteque; for 1 the forms see 244, 1, veskla snata asnata 'vessels wet and 244, 3)
>,
,

and those not for liquids cf. Eng. dry' (i.e. Note also O. pr. censtur 'dry measure' and 'liquid measure').
vessels for liquids
;

In the Iguvinian Tables, as in early Latin prose, the subject is frequently left unexpressed, when it is well understood who is the proper person
to perform the action in question. Thus ape apelust, muneklu habia etc. (V a 17 ff.) 'when one (i.e. the proper person, in this case the flamen) shall have performed certain rites, he shall

'praetor or censor' (T. B. 27). 326. Omission of the Subject.

receive certain fees'.


it

may

be left

Even when Thus unexpressed.

there
in

VI

a change of subject, b 48 ff. there is a series


is

no subject expressed, though some of the actions by the augur and others by the flamen, as is seen from the more detailed statements in VI a 1 ff. 327. Omission of the Verb. The verb subocauu 'invoco' is omitted in U. tio esu hue peracrei pihaclu 'te hoc bove opimo piaculo' (VI a 25 etc.), tiu puni tiu vinu 'te posca te vino' (II a 25), with which compare L. te hoc porco piaculo (Cato, De Agric. 141, 4). Corresponding to eno deitu arsmahamo etc. 'tune dicito " ordinamini" etc. (VI b 56 etc.) the older version has simply enumek armamu etc. 'tune "ordinamini" etc. (Ib 19 etc.).
of verbs with

are performed

'

'

of

The omission of the verb or of the object in course common, likewise of the verb when

dedications
it

is

is

readily

supplied from a preceding clause.

ORDER OF WORDS
no fundamental difference from the Latin order, the resemblance being closest with the style of early The following prose such as that of Cato or the inscriptions.
328.

There

is

points are perhaps worthy of mention.


1 U. sepse sarsite is also taken as separately and together', sepse being explained as from *se-pse. But this is on the whole less likely.
'

224
1.

Syntax

[328

As

in Latin, the adjective regularly follows its noun,


it if

but

may precede

emphatic.

Thus U.

liouina 'pro moiite Fisio, pro civitate Iguvina',

ocri-per Fisiu, tota-per etc., but destru-co

' destram-e persi, nertru-co persi ad dextrum (sinistrum) pedem', In the numerous sacrifices etc. 'in dextram scapulam', scapla

of three victims the

numeral always follows its noun in VI a 22, 58, VI b 1, 3 etc., but always precedes it in the earlier version 14 etc.). Demonstrative pronouns precede, posses(I a 3, 7, 11,
sives follow their nouns, as in Latin.

words or even whole clauses belonging to a subordinate clause are sometimes introduced before the rela2.

As

in Latin,

tive

pronoun or conjunction.

Thus O.

prai Mamerttiais pas set

'which are before the Martian'


in the
[lip]

(no. 27), beside the

normal order

companion inscription
pud
ist

slaagid

O. sakaraklum Herekleis (no. 28) ; 'the temple of Hercules which is at the boun-

In this last passage all the words quoted, dary' (C. A. 11 ff.). together with the succeeding four lines, belong to the clause introduced by puz (1. 17), which depends upon ekss kiimbened

But in this case, owing to the length of the intervening 10). Cf. L. sei relative clauses, the subjects are repeated after piiz. Bacanal ese necesus deicerent sibei esent liabere, eeis utei
(1.

ques

quei

ad pr. urbanum

venirent (SC. de Bacch. 3 ff.). 3. With a series of objects the verb is sometimes placed Thus U. fertu before the first and repeated after the last.
. .
.

Romam

fertu (II a

17
;

ff.),

pihatu

pihatu (VI a 29

f.),

seritu

seritu

(VI a 32

f.

quoted in

322).

COLLECTION OF INSCRIPTIONS
The following
collection contains all the

more important

inscriptions.

Those omitted contain, for the most part, only proper names or mutilated words. Uncertain letters are indicated by a change in type, italic in black-face 1 Obvious mistakes are corrected in the text, the text, rouian in italic text. Where there can be any reasonoriginal reading being given in a footnote. able doubt as to a correction, it is given in the footnote, the original reading Mistakes in the division of words (which is indicated by being left in the text. sometimes dots, usually one, two) are corrected without remark. Restorations
are inclosed in brackets.

The division of the lines is indicated by except where the printed lines follow those of the original. 2 For the sake of convenience, capitals and marks of abbreviation and
|

3 The transpunctuation are supplied in the text, as well as in the translation. lation of the more uncertain words is given in italics, or sometimes omitted entirely yet from the fact that a given translation is not italicized it does not
;

follow that this translation

is

reasonably certain.

few

fictitious

undisputed, but only that the author regards it as Latin words are used for convenience, and

translations of proper na'mes, are notso marked, Latin, except in the Glossary. The brief comments to some of the inscriptions are merely supplementary to the Glossary. For each inscription the corresponding numbers of the collections of
asterisk.

marked with an

But transcriptions and

even when

unknown in

Con way and

v. Planta are given. of one or both of these are based

Some
ff.

slight variations

upon autopsy.

from the reading See the author's Critical

Notes to Oscan Inscriptions, I.F. 12, 13

OSCAN INSCRIPTIONS
The Cippus Abellanus and the Tabula Bantina are given first, as furnishing connected reading of some length and illustrating the spelling in each of the two alphabets. They are also commented upon more fully than the other inscriptions. After these numbers the arrangement is geographical.
1

Many

letters

which are somewhat mutilated, but of which enough remains

to

make
sure

perfectly clear what was intended, are printed without change of type. In the texts of Conway and v. Planta mutilated letters are marked more freely. I am not
it

have been entirely consistent in this matter, but think I have not which are mutilated enough to be really doubtful. 2 In the case of a one-line inscription covering more than one line of printed is added at the end. So nos. 6, 41 b, etc. text, 3 But in some cases where the interpretation is extremely doubtful, notably in no. 19, marks of punctuation are omitted from the text and given only in the translation. 225
I

failed to

now that mark


|

letters

226

Oscan Inscriptions
Cippus Abellanus

[No.

i.

11 inches thick.

limestone tablet about 6 feet 5 inches high, 1 foot 8 inches broad, and Inscribed on both sides. Found in 1745 at Avella in use as

a door-step, and believed to have been brought from Castel d' Avella, the probNow in the Seminary at Nola. Conway no. 95, able site of the ancient Abella.
v.

Planta no. 127.

Maiiui Vestirikiiui Mai. S/r.

Maio Vestricio Mai.

Sz'r.,

prupukid sverrunei kvaisturei

Abellanui inim Maiiu[i Iiivkiiui Mai. Pukalatui

ex antepacto arbitro, quaestori Abejlano, et Maio lovicio Mai. f. Puclato

5 medikei deketasiiii Nuvl[a-

meddici *decentario Nolano


et legatis Abellanis et legatis Nolanis,

nui] inim ligatuis Abell[anuis

inim ligatuis Niivlanuis,

pus senateis tanginud


suveis piituruspid ligatfus 10 fufans, ekss kiimbened.

qui senatus sententia


sui utrique legati erant, ita convenit.

Sakaraklum Herekleis [up slaagid pud ist inim teer[um

Templum

Herculis ad

pud up

eisiid

sakaraklud

[ist

pud anter teremw/ss

e/*[truis

finem quod est, et territorium quod ad id templum est, quod inter termina exteriora
est,

15 ist, pai teremenniu mu[inikad

quae termina communi

tanginud pruftuset r[ihtiid


amniid, puz idik sakar[

klum

sententia posita sunt recto circuitu, ut id templum


et id territorium

inim idik tenim muinijkum


miiinikei terei fusid [inim

commune

in

communi

territorio esset, et

20 eiseis sakarakleis

i[

nim

eius templi et
territorii fructus, fructus

tereis fruktatiuf, fr[uktatiuf] muinikii

putwr[mpid
. .
.

communis utrorumque
esset.
.

fus]id.

Avt Niivlanw

At Nolani
Herculis fanum

25

.... //erekleis fi/[sn .... pispid Niivla;/ ....


. .

g*

No.

1]

Oscan Inscriptions

227

B
Ekkum
[svai pid herieset

Item

[si

quid volent

triibarak[avum terei pud


liimitu[m]

pernum

[piiis

30 Herekleis fiisnii mefifu


ist,

aedificare [in territorio quod limitwm tenus [quibus Herculis fanum medium
est,

ehtrad feihiiss

p[s

extra muros qui

Herekleis fiisnam amfret,

Herculis

fanum ambiunt,

pert

viam

piisstist

pai ip ist, piistin slagim

trans viam positum est quae ibi est, pro finibus

35 senateis suveis tanginiid

senatus sui sententia,


aedificare liceto.

tribarakavm
f

li-

kitud.

Inim

iiik triba-

Et

id aedificium

rakkiuf

pam

Niivlanus
1

quod Nolani
aedificaverint et

tribarakattuset 40 liittiuf

inim
estud.

Nuvlanum

usus Nolanorum

esto.

Ekkum

svai pid Abellaniis

Item

si

quid Abellani

tribarakattuset l iiik tri-

aedificaverint, id

barakkiuf inim

liittiuf

aedificium et usus

Abellanm

estud.

Avt

45 piist feihuis pus fisnam


fret, eisei terei

am-

Abellanorum esto. At post muros qui fanum ambiunt, in eo territorio


lani

nep Abel-

neque Abelthesau-

lanus nep Niivlanus pidum


tribarakattins.
1

neque Nolani quidquam

Avt

the-

aedificaverint.

At

savrum pud
50

esei terei ist,

pun patensins, muinikad t[nginiid patensins,

rum qui in eo territorio est, cum aperirent, communi sententia aperirent, et

inim pid

e[isei

quidquid in eo

thesavrei pukkapid ee[stit

ajittium alttram alttr[iis Avt anter slagim hjerrins.


55 Ajbellanam inim Niivlanam
sjullad viu uruvii ist
ejisai viai mefiai
.

thesauro quandoque exstat, portionum alteram alteri


caperent.

At

inter finis

Abellanos et Nolanos
ubique via flexa est in ea via media termina
stant.
,

edii

tereme-

n]iu

staiet.
l

tribarakat tuset, tribarakat tins.

228

Oscan Inscriptions

[No.

COMMENTARY
Unterital. Dial., 121 ff. Biicheler, Commentationes philoff. Th. 227 honorem Bartholomae, I.F. 6, 307 ff. Monnnseni, logicae v. Planta II, 622 ff. Coiiway, Exempla Selecta, 10 ff.
Cf.

Mommsen,

in

The
of

Nola was situated on the boundaries and owned in common. Such joint ownership of temples was not uncommon in antiquity. One may recall the temple of Artemis Limnatis on Mt. Taygetus which caused endless trouble between the Laconians and Messenians (Pausanias 4, 4, 2), the temple and grove of Juno Sospita at Lanuvium common to the Romans and Latins (Livy 8, 14), and especially the temple which Servius Tullius built on the Aventine for the use of Romans and Latins (Livy 1, 45 For this temple on the Aventine we are told Dion. Hal. 4, 26). that Servius Tullius made regulations and had them inscribed on a bronze stele which was placed in the temple, where it remained "until my time, with letters such as the Greeks once used" (Dion. Hal. 1. c.). The Cippus Abellanus is probably one of two copies, the other having been set up at Nola. 1 The precise date is unknown. The prominence of the senate points to a period after 216 B.C., when the powers of the senate of Nola were notably increased, while it can hardly be later than the Social War, in which Nola was virtually ruined. One may take 150 B.C. as an approximate date.
;

inscription contains an agreement between the cities and Abella in regard to a temple of Hercules, which

The general arrangement of the temple property here is The land immediately one that is well known elsewhere.
1

This was
;

Mommsen's view and


is

is

distinctly favored

by the provenance of
' ;

evident from his explanation of slaagid, 1. 12, as e regione', supposes there was only one tablet, which was set np near the site of the temple and " Conway urges that the cost of erecting such a block and cutting such a long inscription would surely have been too considerable to allow of two copies where one would the tablet
Biicheler, as

But dual copies of even longer inscript ions are well attested. Cf ., for example, 2 Dittenberger, Syll. Inscr. Uraec. no. 20. an inscription of over sixty lines on a marble stele found at Eleusis, another copy of which was ordered set up on the Acropolis at
do."
,

Athens; further, Coll it z, Sammlung


lines,

d. griech. Dialekt-Inschrit'tcn, no. :>45 (over

90

two copies authorized),

Collitz, no. 3624 (325 lines, three copies authorized), etc.

No.

1]

Oscan Inscriptions

229

surrounding the temple formed the sacred precinct proper and was inclosed by walls. Outside of this was the land which was
a part of the temple property but not withheld from secular uses. This was marked off by a series of boundary-stones. Such land

was often used


erable income.

for pasturage

and thus made a source of considproperly sanctioned.

In the case of our inscription, building was to


if

be permitted on this land,

Summary
11.

of Contents, and Notes

Agreed as follows between the quaestor of Abella and the meddix of Nola and the delegates of Abella and Nola,
1-10.

appointed by their respective senates


or to

1. 2. The word sverrunei does not refer to a special kind of quaestorship some other regular office held in addition to the quaestorship, but rather to

a special appointment

made

to the business in hand.

'by previous agreement' (prupukid) with reference According to the very probable connection with Eng.

swear and an-swer (see 96), it may well have some such meaning as 'spokesman.' I. 5. Besides the meddiss tuvtiks which appears in inscriptions of Pompeii,

Herculaneum, Capua, and Bovianum, and seems


of cities, the title
Cf.

to designate the

head of a league

meddix

(see 15, 6)
3.

was

medikeis Piimpaiianeis, no.

At

also applied to municipal officers. Nola (cf. also no. 42, from which it

appears that there were two such officials, and no. 43) the title was defined by a word which corresponds in form to a L. *decentarius. This may be explained
(cf. L. dlcentarius from dlcens) and meaning 'regularly appointed, ordinarius', or as related to L. decem (see 191, 10) and referring to some organization of the city's territory or population of which we

either as related to L. decens

have no precise knowledge.

and the adjacent land within the outer boundaries which have been set around, be held in common, and the income from them be joint income
II.

11-23.

That the temple

of Hercules,

of both cities.
slaagid (perhaps related to O.Ir. slickf- track', slige 'street') means properly 'boundary, border' as here, but the word was also used, like L. finis in
I.

12.

the Plural, of 'territory, district', and this


II.

is

the

meaning

of slagim in

11.

34, 54.

27-48.

If

any one wishes to erect a building on the land

in front of the temple limits, outside the wall running about the fane and across the road, it may be done with the sanction of the

230

Oscan Inscriptions

[Nos.

1-

senate under whose jurisdiction the land falls. If the Nolans the and its income shall to them to the build, building belong
;

inhabitants of Abella, if they build. But behind the wall surrounding the fane, no one shall erect a building. 1. 29. The reading of the second word is very uncertain. The best sense would be given by a word meaning 'inside of, the liimftii- being understood as
So if we equivalent to the teremenniii inclosing the whole temple property. accept perniim it may mean 'in front of looked at from the inside, as in the case of pert vfam, 1. 33.
I.

33.

To understand

pert vfam

we must assume

that a road skirted the

Possibly the road connecting Nola and Abella ran up to the walls and then divided, passing around on each side. II. 34-35. By the vote of the respective senates according to the territory'.
walls.
'

As

sections

the temple was situated on the boundary, the adjacent land would include from the original territory of both cities, each city retaining jurisdiction
its

over

own

section in the matter of granting permission to build.

11.

48-54.

When

they open the treasury which


it

is

in this

territory,
is

they are to open

by common consent, and whatever


are

in the treasury they are to share.


11.

54-58.

The boundary-stones

on the road between

the territory of Abella and that of Nola.


This
precise
last

meaning

sentence defines the locality of the boundary-stones, but the is obscured by the uncertainty of the reading in 1. 56. At the

beginning the^old reading p]iillad taken as 'qua' gives a reasonable sense, but there is no support for such a word, as there is for sjullad. At the end the only certain letters are the while old is out of the questedur really edfi, and, reading
tion, v. Planta's pedu

is

only a possibility.

The

old explanation of uruvti as

'flexa', related to L. urvum, the curved part of a plow (which is then not to be connected with Skt. vrj- 'turn'), is in itself simpler than the connection with Grk. fvpvs, Skt. writ- 'wide', though it must be confessed that either 'qua
. . .

seems a better combination than 'ubique flexa'. 'ubique But the whole line is puzzling. It is not even clear whether the road referred to is one connecting the two cities, or one which itself forms the boundary-line between their respective territories.
flexa' or
.
.

lata'

2.

Tabula Bantina

Fragment of a bronze tablet, about 15 by 10 inches, containing also, on the other side, a Latin inscription (GIL. 1 197). The Oscan inscription was originally in two columns, a few letters of the right-hand column still showing.

The fragment represents the middle portion of the

left-hand column, and probably

Oscan Inscriptions

231

Found in 1793 at Bantia, contains about one sixth of the whole inscription. near the boundaries of Apulia and Lucania. Now in the Museum at Naples. Written in the Latin alphabet. There are six paragraphs, divided by spaces.

Conway

no. 28, v.

PL

no. 17.

... onom ust ... suae


angiiu
. . . .

izic

TU

.
\

is

nus q moltam
1
. . .
|

....

si

... quaestor multam


iurabit

nur

proposuerit

deiuast

maimas
4

carneis senateis
1

maximae
|

partis senatus

tanginud

am

XL osii[ns p]on ioc


'.

sententia [dummodononminus]

egmo Suae comparascuster pis pert1 emust, pruter pan ....

XL

adsint,

cum

ea res

consulta

erit.

Si quis per-

deiuatud sipus comenei perum dolom mallom, siom ioc comono mais egm\as touti-]
\

emerit,prius quam [peremerit], iurato sciens in comitio


sine dolo malo, se ea

6 cas

&mnud pan pieisum


amnud,

comitia magis rei publicae causa quam cuiuspiarri


gratiae aut inimicitiae causa,

brateis auti cadeis

inim idic siom dat sena\teis\ tanginud maimas carneis pertumum. Piei ex comono
\

idque se de senatus
sententia

maximae
Cui
sic

partis

perimere.

comitia
is

pertemest, izic eizeic zicel[ei] 8 comono ni hipid.

perimet (quisquam), comitia ne habuerit.

eo die

Pis pocapit post 2 post exac comono hafiest meddis dat castrid loufir
\

Quis quandoque hac comitia habebit post de capite vel magistratus


in pecunias, facito ut populus iurati sententiam dicant,
se de
iis

9 en eituas, factud

pous deiuatuns tanginom deicans,

touto

siom^ dat eizasc 5 idic tangineis\


1

id sententiae

nur,

ud am,
hafiert.

rut,

from a small fragment now

lost.

2 3
4

Correct form probably hapiest. Probably iox pus, ou being due to following word. 5 Aes stom. Probably for eizaisc.

Aes

See footnote,

p. 40.

232
10

Osccin Inscriptions

deicum, pod ualaemom touticom tadait ezum,

dicere,

quod optimum

publicuni censeat esse,

nepfefacid pod pis


11

dat eizac egmad min[s] deiuaid dolud 2 malud. Suae3

neve fecerit quo quis de ea re minus


iuret dolo malo.
Si-

quis contra hoc fecerit pis contrud exeic fefacust auti comono hipust, molto etan- aut comitia habuerit, multa tanta
\

12 to

estud: n. CDCD. In. suaepis ionc fortis meddis moltaum

esto: n.

MM.

Et

siquis

13

potius magistratus multare herest, ampert minstreis aeteis\ volet, dumtaxat minoris partis eituas moltas moltaum licitud. pecuniae multae multare liceto.
3

eum

Suaepis pru meddixud


altrei castrous auti eituas
14 zicolom dicust, izic

Siquis pro magistratu

comono

aut pecuniae diem dixerit, is comitia


alteri capitis

ni hipid ne pon op toutad petirupert urust


sipus

ne habuerit

nisi

cum apud
oraverit

populum quater
sciens sine dolo

perum dolom
trutum

15 mallom, in.

zico.

malo

et

quartum diem

Petiropert, neip mais pomtis,*

touto peremust.

populus perceperit. Quater, neque plus quinquiens,

com preiuatud actud


16

cum
di-

reo agito

pruter pam medicatinom

dest, in. pon posmom con prei-

quam iudicationem dabit, et cum postremum cum


prius
reo oraverit, ab eo die
in diebus

uatud urust, eisucen ziculud


17

zicolom

XXXnesimum como-

XXX

proximis comi-

nomni hipid.
18 herest

Suae pis con- tia ne habuerit. Si quis contrud exeicfefacustjonc suaepis\ tra hoc fecerit, eum siquis
meddis moltaum,
ampert mistreis
volet magistratus multare,
liceto,

licitud,
,

dumtaxat minoris

aeteis eituas licitud.

partis pecuniae liceto.

Following the spacing on the bronze, some puiictunlc nflrr fio/iitis. Still the division after pc.firupert. The division adopted is the only one which admits a satisfactory interpretation.
others

make

No. 2]

Oscan Inscriptions

233

Pon
19
1

censtur

Cum

censores

Bansae toutam censazet,pis Bantiae populum censebunt, qui ceus Bantins fust, censamur civis Bantinus erit, censetor
esuf
in.

eituam poizad ligud

ipse et
ii

pecuniam qua lege

20 iusc
zet.*

censtur censaum angetu-

censores censere proposu-

Aut suaepis censtomen nei cebnust dolud mallud


\

erint.

At

siquis in

censum

non venerit dolo malo,


et eius convincitur, ipse in comitio caedatur praetoris

21 in. eizeic uincter,

esuf

comenei lamatir pr. meddixud toutad praesentid


22

perum dolum
in.

magistratu, populo praesente sine dolo


allo

mallom,

amiricatud

malo, et *immercato cetera


familia et pecunia omnino quae eius erit, quae incehsa erit,

famelo

in. ei.

siuom paei
\

eizeisfust,pae ancensto fust,


23 toutico estud.

publica esto.

pod
24

Pr., suae praefucus post exac Bansae fust,


\

Praetor, sive praefectus

post hac Bantiae


si

erit,

suae pis op eizois com atrud ligud acum herest, auti pru medicatud manim

quis

apud

eos

cum

altero lege agere volet,

aserum eizazunc egmazum


25

aut pro iudicato manum adserere de eis rebus

pas exaiscen ligis scriftas 5 set, ne phim pruhipid


mais zicolois JT nesimois. Suae pis contrud
\

quae hisce in legibus scriptae sunt, ne quern prohibuerit


plus diebus proximis. Si quis contra

26 exeic pruhipust, molto

hoc prohibuerit, multa


In.

etanto estud: n.

CD.

tanta esto

n.

M.

Et

suaepis ionc meddis mol-

taum
1

herest, licitud,

siquis magistratus multare volet, liceto,

eum

3
4

2 Aes tautam. Aes Sansae. The first two letters are mutilated, but there is no doubt of the reading. 5 For Aes anget uzet. See footnote, p. 144. pirn.

234

Oscan Inscriptions
[dumtaxat] minoris partis pecuniae multae multare
liceto.

[No. 2

27 [ampert] minstreis aeteis

eituas moltas
licitud.

moltaum

Pr. censtur Bansae


28

Praetor censor Bantiae


[ne quis] fuerit, nisi quaestor fuerit, neve censor fuerit
nisi praetor fuerit.

[nepisfu]id, nei suae q. fust, nep censtur fuid, nei suae pr. fust. In. suaepis pr.
in. suae\

Et
q

si-

quis praetor et
q
[quis censor]
]

si-

29
.
. .

~\um nerumfust, izic post


\

virum
ne
tr.

fuerit, is post

eizuctr.pl.nifuid. Suaepis
30 [contrud exeic
izic
tr.

ea

tr. pi.

fuerit.

Siquis

pi.

facus

[contra hoc
erit, is

pi. factus]

amprufid facus f]ust, estud. Idle medicim eizuc


31

esto.

improbe factus Id magisterium eo

[pocapid Bansae']

medicim acumtw

[quandoque Bantiae] magisterium annorum

VI nesimum
32

VI proximorum
|

um pod

quod
.... magisterium.

33

medicim.1

COMMENTARY
Cf. Kirchhoff Das Stadtrecht von Bantia Lange, Die oskische Inschrift der Tabula Bantina; Jordan, B.B. 6, 195 ff. (for the Avellino fragment); Bre"al, Me"m. Soc. Ling. 4, 381 ff.; Biicheler in Bruns, Fontes iuris Romani 6 48 ff.; Moratti, Archivio giuridico, 1894, 74 ff. v. Planta II, 599 ff. Conway, Exeinpla
,
;

Selecta, 2ff.

inscription contains a series of municipal regulations Its date and relation to the Latin for the town of Bantia.
inscription

The

on the other side

of the tablet are matters of dis-

But the probability is that the Latin inscription, the pute. date of which falls somewhere between 132 and 117 B.C., is
1

From

1.

29 on so

much

is

lost that,

even with the help of an inexact copy of a


((-ailed

fragment containing a portion of what is now missing no certain restoration of the whole text can be m;ulr.

the Avellino fragment),

No. 2]

Oscan Inscriptions

235

The quite independent of the Oscan and somewhat earlier. Oscan inscription belongs then to the last quarter of the second
century
B.C.

Translation and Notes


i
11.

1-4.
. .

Only the conclusion beginning with deiuast

is clear.

he shall take oath with the assent of the majority of the senate provided that not less than forty are present when the matter is under advisement."
.

any one by right of intercession shall prevent the assembly, before preventing it he shall swear wittingly in the assembly without guile that he prevents this assembly rather for
11.

4-8.

" If

the sake of the public welfare than out of favor or malice toward any one, and that too in accordance with the judgment of the

majority of the senate.


is

The presiding magistrate whose assembly

way shall not hold the assembly on this day." The verb *pertemo (pertemust etc.) is used in the technical sense of 'prevent by intercession'. The intercession at Rome, while possible to any magistrate of a rank equal to or higher than that of the one in charge, was a prerogative employed
prevented in this
by the tribunes of the people. These officials existed at Bantia, as is seen The intercession could be exercised, among other occasions, against But somecalling together the assembly, no matter for what purpose summoned. times a particular law contained the special provision that no intercession should be allowed. In our inscription the right of intercession is conditioned upon an oath to the effect that the privilege is exercised in the public interest, and with the
especially
1.

from

30.

Compare the voluntary oath taken by Tiberius Gracchus, interceding against the imprisonment of Scipio Asiaticus, that it was not due to any friendship for Scipio Africanus (Aul. Gell. 6, 19); and also the fact
approval of the senate.

when

that even at

Rome,

in the case of

a comitia

summoned

for the election of magis-

trates, the intercession


4, 16, 6).
1.

5.

of the senate (Cic. ad Att. On the general subject of the intercession see Class. Diet. s.v. The phrase sipus perum dolom mallom is simply the reverse of the

was dependent on the sanction

common

Latin formula sciens dolo malo, which occurs with prohibitions, as


guile'.

'

let

him not swear (or act) wittingly with 1. 6. The phrase pieisum brateis

auti cadeis amnud is clearly the equivalent of cuiuspiam gratiae aut inimieitiae causa of Latin legal phraseology, and the Greek ovre xd/srros
1 For brateis (also Fael. bratom, brata, Vest, brat.) no satisfactory etymology has been suggested, while cadeis may well be related to Goth, hatis, Eng. hate.

236

Oscan Inscriptions

[No.

"

Whatever magistrate

shall hereafter hold

an assembly in

a suit involving the death penalty or a fine, let him make the people pronounce judgment after having sworn that they will render such judgment as they believe to be for the best public

good, and let him prevent any one from swearing in this matter with guile. If any one shall act or hold an assembly con-

And if any magistrary to this, let the fine be 2000 sesterces. trate prefers to fix the fine, he may do so, provided it is for less
than half the property of the guilty person."
This and the following section refer to the assembly in its judiciary function as a court of appeal. With dot castrid loufir en eituas (11. 8, 9) and castrous auti eituas (1. 13) compare the Roman indicia capitis l and indicia pecuniae. Cf. Livy 26, 3, 8 quoad vel capitis vel pecuniae iudicasset privato (note also in this passage privato
reo, as in
11.

15, 16).
9, 10,

With

11.

compare iuranto

neque se aliter consilium habiturum

quam ut ex h(ac) l(ege) exque re communi eius municipi censeatfore (CIL. II 1963). 1. 10. For the construction with nepfefacid, see 315, end.
neque sententiam dicturum,

municipum

For
1

11.

12, 13, see 269.

all commentators have taken dat castrid and castrous as 'de fundo', But the objection raised long ago by Lange, Tab. Bant., 21 ff., has never been answered, namely that according to all Roman analogies we have to do with criminal procedure, in which a suit involving real estate would have no place. He translates 'capitis', but with an untenable explanation of the form. Recently Breal,

Nearly

'fundi'.

Mem. Soc. Ling. 11, 5, without recollection of Lange 's view, quotes the '^pinion of a legal colleague that 'capitis', not 'fundi', gives the contrast to be expected, and suggests that castrid, castrous, were inscribed by mistake in place of a word corresponding
But this last assumption is not necessary. For, retaining the formal connection with L. castrum, the meaning 'head', though apparently remote, is more easily explained than 'real estate'. The word is generally connected with L. crr.s-.v/.s-,
to L. caput.

and so would contain the root (s)kat-, s(k)ad-' cover, protect', the cognate nearest in form being Skt. chattra-m 'parasol'. From the meaning 'protection', whence in L. fortress', may come cover' or summit', which frequently interchange with head'. Cf. Skt. kakud mountain-peak' and 'head'; Germ. Germ. Giebel: Grk. /ce0aX^; and especially Germ. Dach 'covering, kopf probably: Eng. cop, Dutch kopje; roof (decken, artya, etc.), used dialectic-ally in sense of 'head'. The Umbrian castruo, kastruvuf, which cannot be separated from the Oscan forms, occur in two often repeated phrases. In Va 13 ff. the perquisite for the performance of certain ceremonies is fixed at so much pusti kastruvuf, commonly taken
' ' ' '
'

No. 2]

Oscan Inscriptions
3
" If

237

any magistrate shall have appointed the day for another

in a suit involving the death penalty or a fine, he must not hold the assembly until he has brought the accusation four times in

the presence of the people without guile, and the people have been advised of the fourth day. Four times, and not more than five, must he argue the case with the defendant before he pronounces the indictment, and when he has argued for the last

time with the defendant he must not hold the assembly within And if any one shall have done thirty days from that day.
contrary to
this,
if

any magistrate wishes to

fix

the

fine,

he

may, but only for less than half the property of the guilty person be it permitted." The Roman procedure, as described in Cic. pro domo, 17, 45, Livy 26, 3,
followed closely except that, according to the usual understanding of the case (otherwise Lange, Tab. Bant., 65 ff.), the interval of the trinundinum at Rome occurred after the third preliminary hearing, the quarta accusatio being
etc., is

immediately followed by the decision of the comitia whereas at Bantia the interval of thirty days (this was also a recognized interval at Rome for certain classes of trials) was between the last hearing, which was the fourth or sometimes even the fifth, and the convocation of the comitia.
;

The op
trutum
1.

toutad,

1.

14, refers to

the informal assembly, the contio.

The

zico., (cf. the die prodicta, Cic. 1. c.), probably means the/our^day, that is the day for the fourth and (usually) final hearing, though trutum is also taken as 'definitum, fixed'. 1

15

"

When

the censors shall take the census of the people of

Bantia, whoever is a citizen of Bantia shall be rated, himself and his property, according to the law under which these
But the meaning 'in capita', 'for each person' more appropriate (cf. in hominem a. II, CIL. VI 820). In the other passage, where the word occurs among a series of objects which the god is asked to preserve (Via 30 etc.), the meaning 'capita' is less attractive, and were it a question of this passage alone we should prefer 'fundos'. But it is possible to take pecuo castruo together as 'pecuum capita', or else to assume that the word was
as 'in fundos', 'for each estate'.
(cf.

Livy

2, 33, 11, etc.)

is

also used for small animals, sheep, goats, etc., in contrast topecuo, large animals, kine. 1 With this meaning there is no nearer connection for trutum than Lith. tvirtas of the

while as 'quartum' its explanation is simple (191, 4). Moreover the analogy accusatio affords a strong presumption in favor of 'quartum', even though the procedure is not precisely the same.
'firm',

Roman quarta

238

Oscan Inscriptions

[Nos.

2-

censors shall have proposed to take the census. And if any one fraudulently fails to come to the census, and is convicted of it,
let him be scourged (?) in the assembly, under the magistracy of the praetor, in the presence of the people, and let the rest of his household, and all his property which is not rated, become public

property without remuneration to him." At Rome there was a formula census or lex censui censenda dicta.

Accord-

ing to the lex Julia municipalis (CIL. I 206) the censors are instructed to find out name, age, financial condition, etc., ex formula census, quae Romae ab eo,
qui turn censum populi acturus
erit,

proposita

erit (cf.

poizad ligud

etc. here).

At Rome,

too, each citizen had to appear in person

(cf.

suaepis censtom-en nei

cebnust here).
at Rome for non-appearance at the census without sufficient dolud mallud (cf. here) was death or slavery of the person and sale or confiscation of his property. Cf. Valer. Max. 6, 3, 4 et bona eius et ipsum vendidit

The penalty

excuse

and Livy

1,

44, 1 censu perfecto, quern maturaverat

metu

legis

de incensis latae

cum vinculorum minis

mortisque,

The meaning
is

occurs also in the Curse of Vibia (no. 19),


1 probable than 'veneat'.

of lamatir, 1. 21, which disputed, but 'caedatur' is more

praetor, or if there shall be a prefect at Bantia after this, in case any one wishes to go to law with another before them, or to make a forcible seizure, as if judgment had been

"

The

rendered, on these matters which are written of in these laws, shall not prevent one for more than the ten succeeding days. If any one contrary to this shall prevent, the fine shall be 1000
sesterces.

And

if

any magistrate wishes


less

to fix the fine

he

may

do

but only for a fine involving shall it be permitted."


so,
. . .

than half the property

The construction is awkward. The subject of pruhipid (1. 25) is Pr. at Yet the beginning, the clause suae fust being thrown in parenthetically. With pru medicatud manim eizois refers to the prefect as well as to the praetor.
aserum compare pro ioudicatod
'

n.

[L.]

manum

iniect[i]o estod (CIL.

IX

782).

1 The translation veneat' (Biicheler) for the passage in the Vibia Curse was thought to receive some support from the presence of 7reirpT)/j.tifos in the Cnidian Curses, but it is now recognized that this is not from irnrpda-Kw, but from Trl/j.wpri(jLi, and means 'consumed with fever' (cf. Rh. M. 49, 39). Accepting the translation 'caedatur', lamatir may be connected with O.Bulg. lomiti' break', Eug. lame and Cf. Danielsson, Pauli's Altit. Stud. 3, 183. (colloquial) lam.

3]

Oscan Inscriptions
6

239

No one shall be praetor or censor of Bantia unless he has been quaestor, nor shall any one be censor unless he has been And if any one shall be praetor, and he shall praetor.
,

"

not become a tribune of the people after this. And if any one shall be made tribune contrary to this, he shall be made so
wrongfully."
praetor

This section treats of the order of magistrates, which here is quaestor censor censor, while at Rome it is usually quaestor praetor, though

sometimes the praetorship precedes the censorship as here; cf. Livy 41, 9, 11. Except for the first sentence, the text is so fragmentary that the precise meaning
is

entirely uncertain.

INSCRIPTIONS OF POMPEII
3-13.
Inscriptions on Public

Works, and Dedications

Most
Social

War,

of these belong to the second century B.C. None is later than the after which Oscan ceased to be used in official inscriptions and, on
;

the other hand, with the exception of no. 9, from a temple believed to belong to the third century, there is probably none earlier than 200 B.C. Within these limits there are no evidences of date beyond the forms of the letters, which

show, for example, that no. 3


the latest.
3.
v.

is

one of the

earliest of this period, no.

4 one of
no. 39,

All of these inscriptions are


tablet,

now

in the Naples

Museum.

Road-makers'

found near the Porta Stabiana.

Conway

PL

no. 28.

M.

Siuttiis

M. N. Puntiis M.
viam terem[naper.
ter-

ajidilis

eka

aediles hanc

M. Suttius M. f. N. Pontius M. viam termina-

f.

tjtens ant^ttnttram Staf[ii-

anam.

Viu te[r]emnatust

verunt usque ad pontem Stabianum. Via terminata est perticis

5 X. Iwssu via

Pumpaiiana

emnattens perek. Ill ant kaila Iiiveis Meeilikiieis. Ekassviass ini via luviia ini Dekkvia-

X. lidem viam Pompeianam terminaverunt perticis III usque ad

aedem lovis Milichii. Has vias et viam loviam et Decurialem meddicis Pompeiani auspicio ab imo fecerunt,
ii-

rim medikeis Pumpaiianeis 10 serevkid imaden uupsens, iusu


2
1

aidilis prufattens.
.

dem

aediles probaverunt.

For topographical matters cf especially Nissen, Pompejanische Studien, and Mau's Pompeii translated by Kelsey (references are to the second edition, 1902). 2 iu[s]su impossible; here and in 1. 5 uncertain whether u or ti, but see 53. a.

240
Cf. Nissen,

Oscan Inscriptions

[NOB. 3-

Pomp. Stud., 531 ff., and Mau, Pompeii, 184. aediles laid out two roads, arid these as well as two others they also constructed or repaired under the direction of the meddix of the city. One

The

inscription was set up, they width as far as the Stabian bridge. The street leading from the same point into the city, and called, from its importance, the Via

road, leading out

from the Stabian gate where the

laid out at a certain

laid out at a certain width as far as the temple or precinct of Jupiter Milichius. The Via lovia was doubtless named from a temple of Jupiter, and the Via Decurialis from some public building. The phrase mam terminare is not used in Latin, but the reference is clearly to the laying out of the road, that is, marking off its exact

Pompeiana (now known as the Strada Stabiana), they

Vfass imad-en uupsens made from the (on the sides). bottom up' corresponds to the Latin mas substruxerunt. 4. tablet found on the site of what is believed to have been a palaestra.

width, delimiting

it

'

Conway

no. 42,

v. PI.

no. 29.

V. Aadirans V. eitiuvam paam


vereiiai

V. Adiranus V.
iuventuti

Pumpaiianai

tristaa-

pecuniam quam Pompeianae testaf. f. quaestor Pomhanc conven-

mentud

deded, eisak eitiuvad

mento

dedit, ea pecunia

V. Viinikiis Mr. kvaisstur Primp5 aiians triibum


nieis

V. Vinicius Mr.
peianus
dedit,

ekak kiimben-

domum

tanginud upsannam

tus sententia faciendam

deded, isidum prufatted.


Cf. Nissen,

idem probavit.

Pomp. Stud., 168

ff.

The quaestor had


ranus
left

this building constructed


vereiia.

by Pompeian young men devoted to athletic and military training like the Greek ephebes. The word is best explained as a derivative with suffix -eiio- (253, 2) from a *uero- 'defense', containing the same root as 0. veru 'portam', Goth, warjan 'ward off', etc. (15, 15), so that the original meaning would be 'defensive body' but the military side of the association may have become (cf Germ. Landwehr)
.

will to the

from the money which V. AdiThis was probably an association of

1 entirely subordinate at the time of this inscription. 5. Inscribed under a sun-dial found at the Stabian baths.

Conway

no. 43,

v.

PL

no. 30.

Mr. Atiniis Mr. kvaiss/ur


eitiuvad
|

Mr. Atinius Mr.

f.

quaestor

multasikad
|

kumbennieis tangi[n.] aamanaffed. With eftiuvad multasikad and aragetud multas[ikud]


L. quaistores aire moltaticod dederont (GIL.
I 181).

pecunia multaticia conventus sententia locavit.


(no.

43)

compare

1 The spelling verehias, no. 30, if indeed this is the correct reading, I regard as a somewhat freakish variant of that seen in vereiiai and not as sufficient ground for preferring connection with O. Verehasiiii.

11]
6.

Oscan Inscriptions
Stamped Con way
.

241
in the

in dots

on the margin of the pavement

temple of

Apollo.

no. 52, v. PI. no. 31.

U. Kamp[aniis

kvaijsstur

kumbennpeis tanginud]
Appelluneis eitiufvad

f. O. Campanius quaestor conventus [sententia]

upsjannu aaman[aff]ed. Doubtless a word for pavement


|

Apollinis pecunia faciendum locavit.


is

to

be supplied before tips]annu.


.

Appelluneis eitiu[vad

compare L. portic(um)

de stipe Dian(ae)

With emendum

[fa]ciendum coeraver[e (GIL.


7.

X 3781).
Conway
no. 44, v. PI. no. 34.
.
,

On

a stone block with cornice.


tiiv.

V. Piipidiis V. med.
passtata ekak upsan.
deded, isidu pnifattd.

V. Popidius V. f meddix tuticus porticum hanc faciendam dedit, idem probavit.


f. q.

Compare V. Popidius Ep.


forum
of

porticus faciendas coeravit, found in the

Pompeii (CIL.

794).

a marble slab formerly attached to a piece of sculpture representing a female head. Conway no. 45, v. PI. no. 35.
8.

On

V. Pupidiis V.

med.

tiiv.

V. Popidius V. meddix tuticus


locavit,

f.

aamanaffed,
isidu

idem
probavit.
a block from the epistyle of a small building thought to be a wellotherwise Nissen, 338). Conway no. 47, v. PI. no. 36.
;

prufatted.
9.

On

house (Mau, 139

Ni. Trebiis Tr. med. tuv.

N. Trebius Tr.
locavit.

f.

meddix tuticus

aamanaffed.
10.

On

a small pedestal.

Conway

no. 48, v. PI. no. 36 a.

Mz. Avdiis Kli.


Dekis Seppiis Upf.
kvaizstur upsens.
11.
.

Mz. Audius

Cle.

f.

Decius Seppius Off.


quaestores fecerunt.

On a
Ma.

stone slab.

Conway

no. 50, v. PI. no. 32.


.

Sjj^uriis

Spurius Ma.

f.

kjvaisstur

quaestor
consilii

kujmparakineis
tajngin. aamanaffed.

sententia locavit.

242
12.

Oscan Inscriptions
On a
stone basis.
aidil.

[Nos. 12no. 40.


f.

Con way

no. 53,

v. PI.

V. Sadiriis V.
13.

V. Satrius V.
Conway
etc.

aedilis.

On a

plaster slab.

no. 59, v. PI. no. 62.


.

Ahvdiu Ni. akun.

CXH
,

Audio N.

f.

an.

CXII

no interpretation being attempted. But the mark of separation is clear. 1 Apparently we have to do with an epitaph, the 2 For the spelling oj: Ahvdiu see 61, 2, a, and 171, 3, a. praenomen being lost.
Formerly read ahvdiuni
14-18.

The Eituns

Inscriptions

These are painted in red on the outside walls of houses standing near For their interpretation cf. Nissen, Pomp. Stud., 497 ff. Conway, I.F. 3, 85 ff. Degering, Mitt. d. deutsch. archaol. Inst., rom. Abt., 13, 124 ff. Mau, ibid. 14, 105 ff. Mau, Pompeii, 240 ff. The usual and more probable view is that they are military notices, dating from the Social War,
street-corners.
;

It is suggested that many of besieged by Sulla (89 B.C.). the important streets were barricaded and that these inscriptions served as guides to the soldiers, pointing out the shortest available route to their respective stations along the city walls. Nos. 14-16 are near streets leading to the

when Pompeii was

until 1897,

north wall, no. 17 is on a street leading to the western wall, while no. 18, unknown is near what at the time of the earthquake was a blind alley, but which at an earlier period probably led through to the region of the "Triangular

Forum"

near the south wall.


is

The

veru Sarinu of nos. 14, 15,

is

not the

as the Herculanean gate. The buildings mentioned in no. 18 were probably in the Triangular Forum, the temple of Minerva being perhaps the well-known Doric temple at that place.

Sarnian gate, but what

now known

The phrase puf faamat means where


'

faamat

L. famulus, see 99, 2


is
;

the officer's

(the officer named) is stationed' (for home is his command). The amvf(to

annud (see 255, a) barricaded streets

not simply 'way', but 'way around, detour'

avoid the

see above). For eituns the common interpretation as Nom. is the difficult to If the form is a noun 'iter' most justify grammatically. Sg. at all it is Nom. PI. of an -on- stem, meaning perhaps 'goers', that is 'patrols'.

But the author is now inclined to favor the old interpretation 'eunto', there being no real difficulty in explaining the form as an Imperative (236, 2).
14. Conway no. 60, Eksuk amvianud eituns
v. PI. no. 47.

Hoc

circuito eunto

anter tiurri XII ini ver.

inter turrim

XII

et

portam

Sarinu, puf faamat

Mr. Aadhiis V.
1

Sarinam, ubi habitat Mr. Atrius V. f.

Dennison, Am. Jour, of Arch. 1898, 399 b, Buck, I.F. 12, 21. Neither the published reports nor my own recollection of the inscription serves to confirm or refute the supposition that it is incomplete.
3

19]

Oscan Inscriptions
15.

243

Con way

no. 61, v. PI. no. 48.


eit.

Eksuk amviannud
veru Sar/nu, puf

Hoc

circuitu eunto

anter tiurri XII ini

inter turrim

XII

et

faamat Mr. Aadiriis V.

portam Sarinam, ubi habitat Mr. Atrius V.

f.

16

Conway

no. 62, v. PI. no. 50.

Zik[s]uk awvianufi? eitu[ns


ini XI, puf anter tiurr]i faama]* T. Fisanis U.

Hoc

circuitu eunto

inter turrim

X et XI,

ubi
f.

habitat T. Fisanius O.

17

Conway

no. 63, v. PI. no. 49.

Eksuk amv[i]anud
eituns an[ter trjiibu

Hoc
Ma.

circuitu

eunto inter

domum
f.,

Ma. Kastrikiieis
Mr. Spuriieis puf faamat

ini

Castricii et

LM

Mr. Spurii L.
ubi habitat

V. Sehsimbms L.
18. Notizie degli scavi 1897,

V. Sexembrius L.
p. 465,

f.

Mitt. d. deutsch. archaol. Inst.,

rom. Abt., 13, 124

ff.,

I.F. 12, 13

ff.

Eksuk amviannud
eituns
tuv.

Hoc

circuitu

ampt

tribud

eunto circum Villam

ampt Mener.

Publicam, circum Minervium.


INSCRIPTIONS OP CAPUA
19.

The Curse
in.
,

of Vibia

On
1

a lead plate about 8f by 3

found in 1876 near a tomb,

Now

in

the Naples

Museum.

Conway

no. 130, v. PI. no. 128.

Keri Arent[ikai manjafum pai pu* [p]i heriam suvam

Cereri Ultrici mandavi, quae

legin[um suvam &fl]akad


2 usurs

quive vim suam, cohortem suam adferat


osores et malevolos

inim malaks nistrus


1

Pakiu Kluvatiu/ Valamais


p[uklui]
1

propinquos Pacio Clovatio Valaemae


oceidionem,

anka</um damia

filio.

damnum

(cf.

277).

Final letter almost certainly For Pakiu see 171, 3, a.

i,

not d as usually read, so Dat. with nistrus 2 Bead Valaimas.

244

Oscan Inscriptions

[No.

19

3 leginum aflukad idik tfei

manafum

Vibiiai prebai

ampu[l]ulum da[da]d Keri


Ar[entikai
4 Valaimas

cohortem adferat, id tibi mandavi. Vibiae ministrum reddat. Cereri Ultrici


(mandavi) [Pacium Clovatium]

PaMmKluvatiium]| puklum inim ulas

Valaemae
cohort!.

filium, et illius

leginei svai neip dadid

Si nee reddiderit,

lamatir akrid eiseis dunte

caedatur acriter eius


et glebis tundatur et cruentetur. Si nee, aut
si
I

inim kaispatar i[nim]


krustatar svai neip avt
svai tiium idik fifikus pust
eis

tu id decreveris post
,

pun kahad avt n...rnum neip putiiad punum kahad


avt
svai

cum

incipiat aut

pid

per|

nee possit, quandoque incipiat, aut si quid perficere


[incipiat

fa
7

nee]

putiiad nip hu[n]truis nip

possit; nee inferis nee

supruis aisusis putiians

superis sacrifices possint, quid-

pidum putiians
ud/.
8
.
.

ufteis
|

quam

optati possint (propinqui)

[Pakiui Kluvatiiui]

[efficere

Pacio Clovatio]
filio
;

Valaimas puklui pun far kahad nip putiiad edum


nip
pi

Valaemae

cum

far

capiat nee possit edere

menvum
humuns
2

limu
|

nee minuere

9 pai

bivus karanter

[quoquam eorum] quae homines vivi vescuntur.

....

famem

suluh Pakis Kluvatiis

Omnino Pacius
Valaemae
|

Clovatius

Valaims
/

puk turumiiad
puh

f.

10 Vibiiai Akviiai svai

[Liberum Vibiae Aquiae sive


detuleris

....

torqueatur.
sit]

aflakus

Pakim Kluvatiium
3

Pacium Clovatium
filium supra

Valaimas puklui
11

supr

Valaemae

inim tuvai leginei inim sakrim svai puh aflakus


2

et tuae cohorti et

hostiam, sive attuleris


8

Re;ul Valaimas.

Read puklum.

No. 19]

Oscan Inscriptions
infra terram infra
|

245

huntrus teras huntrus


a.
. .

[PaMm
2

12 Valaimais

Kluvatiium] puklu avt Keri


3

[(Devoveo)

Pacium Clovatium]
filium aut Cereri

Valaemae
cohort!
|

Aret[ikai] avt ulas


leginei

Ultrici aut illius


trutas
.

tus

.......
La

........

Cf. Bticheler,

Rh. M. 33,

ff.

Bugge, Altitalische Studien (Christiania,

tavola osca di esecrazione (Naples, 1894). On the curseinscriptions in general cf. the convenient summary of contents by Battle, Proceed. Amer. Phil. Assoc. 26, LIV, and especially Wiinsch, Defixionum
1878);

Pascal,

tabellae Atticae (with additions in Rh. M. 55). This inscription, as well as the following and also no. 40, belongs to a class of magical curses of which there are numerous examples among Greek and Latin

Most of them, including the three Oscan, are written on thin lead rolled up and placed in graves, in the belief that they gained which were plates, access thus to the infernal deities invoked. They are written carelessly and Sometimes the natural order of words is often with intentional obscurity. changed, or a meaningless jumble of letters inserted. The curse is sometimes against an unknown person who has committed a wrong, but oftener one or more individuals are expressly named. Sometimes the cause of the curse is
inscriptions.

The curse given, e.g. theft, cheating, assault, infidelity, a lawsuit, etc. be conditional, "if so-and-so does not (e.g. return a stolen object), may he
.

may
.

.".

The introduction in Latin

usually "mando", "commendo","devoveo", "dedico", or a like word, followed by "diis inferis'% "manibusinferis", or the name of some particular infernal deity. The punishments suggested are
inscriptions
is

various, sometimes merely incapacity to eat, talk, or accomplish anything, but generally death with all sorts of tortures.

The person uttering the curse often takes the precaution to add a clause which shall avert from himself or herself any possible evil incidental to the curse. So frequently, in Greek inscriptions, e/xoi 5 foia or faoi 5e Ka.ea.p6v.
no complete interthe trend is clear. The but author of the possible, general curse is Vibia, and its object Pacius Clovatius, and incidentally his relatives, who are also her enemies (1. 2 for usurs inim malaks another interpretation

Owing

to the fragmentary character of our inscription,

pretation of

it is

worthy of consideration is 'mulieres et liberos', connecting usurs with L. uxor and malaks with L. mollis). The appeal is to Ceres Ultrix and her cohort of
spirits (cf. aviepoi
Trdo-cus, Collitz,
.
.

Ad/iar/H, Kotfp^i, nXotfram, deois TOIS irapa Adfj-arpi airatri Kal

In 1. 1 pai probably introduces a relative clause of pur3536). The pose, 'in order that she may direct her force and her cohort upon .'(?) addition of the masculine pui is to be compared with Latin si deus si dea.
.

Read Valaimas.

Read puklum.

246
The cause
a slave
tius to
(1.

Oscan Inscriptions
of the curse
is

[Nos. 19-

3).

If the object is

probably a theft, the object stolen being perhaps not returned (1. 4) Vibia wishes Pacius Clova-

be scourged

(for lamatir see p. 238)


;

and tortured

(precise

meaning

of

kaispatar and krustatar uncertain

for the forms see 238,

c).

But

if it is

other-

So 11. 6-9. " When he either undertakes to may he be powerless, when he undertakes it, or if he wishes to accomplish anything, may he be unable to nor shall (his relatives ?) avail him at all by sacrifices to either the infernal deities or those of the upper When he takes food, may he not be able to eat nor allay his hunger regions. by anything which men eat. In every way may Pacius Clovatius be tortured." But no harm must come to Vibia, in whichever way the curse is effected (11. 10 f.). The entire left-hand margin of the plate is broken off, so that the amount that is missing from the end of each line can only be inferred from restorations.
wise decreed, she will be satisfied
,

if

he

is

incapacitated.

But Pascal's restoration of Pakim Kluvatiium after Ar[entikai in 1. 3 is well-nigh For wherever the text is complete Valaimas puklum (or its variant) is certain.
preceded by this

name

(so in

11.

2, 9,

10).

Biicheler,

who

restored

1.

3 differ-

ently, thought that not over ten or eleven letters were missing. The inscription has no double consonants (note Keri = Kerrl, no. 45), no 1, and probably no u (if it had V, the dot is no longer visible). This, together with the

shows that it is to be ranked among the earlier inscriptions, no. 21 (contrast aisusis, 1. 7, with luisarifs, no. 21), and old as not so though there is no good reason for not dating it well back in the third century B.C.
style of the letters,

20. the Naples


1

On

a lead plate found in the same place as the preceding.

Now

in

Museum.

Conway

no. 131, v.

PL

no. 129.

Steni
Tr.
.

Klum.

Virriis

apiu Virriiis

Stenius Clura. Verrius Tr. Verrius


-

Plasis Bivellis

Plarius Bivellius

Uppiis Helleviis
5 Liivikis

Uhtavis

6 Statiis Gaviis nep fatium nep

Oppius Helvius Lucius Octavius Statius Gavius nee


dicere possint.

fari

nee

deikum putians. Liivkis tlhtavis Nuvellum


|

Lucius Octavius Novellum


Velliam (reddat. Sinon,) nee dicere nee fari possit, nee monumentum nee ollam
capiat.
putians

Velliam
8

nep deikum nep fatium piitiad

9 nep

memnim

nep ulam

sifei

sibi

heriiad.

With the phrase nep fatium nep deikum

compare nee

loqui nee sermo-

nare possit in a Latin curse (CIL. I 818). Since praenomina in -iis are entirely irregular (174), one is tempted to read 11. 3-6 in columns (as Conway does for But against this is Luvkis 11. 3-4), that is, Plasis Uppiis, Liivikis Statiis, etc.

20]

Oscan Inscriptions
1.

247
much doubt a proper

Uhtavis in

7.

In

11.

7-8 Niivellum Velliam

is

without

name, but it an omission.

is

impossible to understand the construction without assuming

21-34.
45, 161

The

lovilae-Dedications
f.,

Cf. especially Biicheler, Rh. M. 39, 315 ff.; Conway, Ital. Dial. 101 ff.

43, 128

ff.,

557

ff.,

44, 321

ff.,

Of these

inscriptions,

some are cut

in blocks or thick slabs of coarse tufa

(see photograph at end of book), while others are stamped on terra-cotta tiles. Many of the tiles bear the same inscription on both sides (nos. 23, 24, 25), and

one of the tufa blocks

is

also inscribed

on both sides

(no. 31); while

many

of

the tufa blocks belong in pairs which stood side by side, with inscriptions referring to the same dedicators and differing only in some details (nos. 27-28, 29-30,

Most of the inscriptions contain the word diuvila-, iuvila-, as the name 32-33). This seems to be connected with the stem of L. luppiter, of the object dedicated. lovis (257, 5), and in one inscription (no. 25) the iovilae are dedicated to Jupiter It was, Flagius there is also mention of loviae or Jupiter festivals (no. 29).
;

then, in

Jupiter offering,

probability the technical name for some well-known and established of just what nature we cannot tell. From the expression 'this iovila', 'these iovilae', we might assume that the stone was either itself
all

the iovila, or else a pedestal for the iovila, which in that case would perhaps be a small statue. But the terra-cotta tiles could not be pedestals, and moreover the inscriptions on some of them seem to point to the iovilae as objects near by

were dedicated by individuals (nos. 22, 25, 26, 32-33), by members of the same family (nos. 27-28), or of the same gens (nos. 21, 29-30, 34). Many of the inscriptions are accompanied by various devices which are undoubtOften the festivals or periods at which edly heraldic emblems or coats of arms. the iovilae were dedicated are mentioned. The ptimperias were probably festivals of certain societies or family groups (cf U. pumperias XII, II b 2 originally groups of five), and of these some were called Fisian and others Martian
.

(nos. 21, 26). The iovilae

(nos. 27-28),
Fiisfais cf.

apparently from the divinity in whose honor they were held (for So too there were Fisian U. Fisio- beside Fiso '*Fiso, deo Fidio').

Other festivals are the loviae (no. 29, Ides (no. 21) and Martian Ides (no. 29). also 24) and, probably, the Vesulliae (nos. 26, 34). Some festivals were celebrated with a banquet, others with a sacrifice (contrast kerssnais and sakriss, no. 29,

and

kerssnasias, no. 27, with sakrasias, no. 28).

Most of these inscriptions, if not all, belong to the third century B.C. The mention of a meddix precludes a later date than the capture of Capua by the Romans in 211 B.C. Nos. 21-24, which lack the i and ti, belong to the beginning No. 21 with its Dat.-Abl. of the third or perhaps the end of the fourth century. PI. luisarifs is one of the very earliest Oscan inscriptions, barring coin-legends. The other numbers have the letters f and ti, but they are used with great carelessness, and, moreover, the reading is often uncertain.

248
21.

Oscan Inscriptions
Conway
no. 101, v. PI. no. 130.

[Nos. 21-

Diuvilam Tirentium

*Iovilam Terentiorum

Magiium sulum muinikam


Fisiais eiduis luisarifs

Magiorum omnium communem


Fisiis idibus lusoriis

sakrvist.

liuk destrst.

sacrabit.

Ea

dextra

est.

It is altogether probable that luisarifs is related to L. ludd, lusus, as if L. *lusaribus, though this connection is rejected by Biicheler. To 'consecrate the iovila at the festival of the Fisian Ides, which is celebrated with games' is

the same as to

'

consecrate with games'.


29.
v. PI.

Cf. the consecration

with sacrifices and

with banquets in no.


22.

Conway
|

no. 102,
|

no. 139.

Ek.

diuvil.
|

Upfaleis

Saidiieis

Hanc *iovilam

Ofelli Saedii

sakruvit
23.
a.

pustrei.

sacratinpostera(consecratione?).
no. 105, v. PI. no. 141.

Conway

Pumperias pustm[as
Kluvatiium.

*Quincuriae postremae Clovatiorum.


*Quincuriae postremae Clovatiorum.

6.

Pum/>erias pustm[as Kluvatiium.


24.

Conway
.
.

no. 103, v. PI. no. 147.

a.

Kluva
Diuvia

Clovatiorum
.

loviae

damu
6.

Kluv

Clovatiorum
. .

damuse
Diuvia
25.
a.
.

loviae
no. 108, v. PI. no. 138.

Conway

Ekas

iuvilas luvei
|

Hae

*iovilae lovi

Flagiui stahint.

Minnieis Kaisillieis
Minateis ner.
6.

Flagio stant. Minii Caesillii

Minati

f.

principis

Minieis Kaisillieis

Minii Caesillii

Minateis ner.

Minati
|

f.

principis

ekas iuvilas luvei Flagiui


stahint.

hae *iovilae Tovi Flagio


slant.

28]

Oscan Inscriptions

249

Flagiuf is probably related to L. flagro and so to be compared with such epithets of Jupiter as Fulgur, Fulgurator, Fulguralis, Fulmen, Fulminaris (Carter,

de deorum
of a

cognominibus, p. 44). Whether ner. is an abbreviation as such Nero, or of a title (cf. ini ner 'quattuorvir') is uncertain, cognomen
is

Roman orum

but the latter


26.

more probable.
no. 109. v. PI. no. 134 a.

Conway

Tr. Virriieis Kenssurineis ekas


iiivilas tris eh-

Tr. Verrii Censorini hae

*iovilae tres

peilatasset Ve5 sulliais.

erectae sunt
sulliis.

Ve-

Fertalis

*Fertales
in *meddicia tutica.

staflatasset

statutae sunt
t.

Mi. Blussii(eis) Mi. m.

Mi. Blossii Mi.


portae in luco.
fertalis is

Nessimas

staiet

Proximae stant

veruis luvkei.
It is

not entirely clear whether

used substantively of certain

ceremonies celebrated with cakes, being then in the Nom. PI. and subject of a new sentence, or as an adjective agreeing with Vesulliais. The spelling -is, not
-is,

would be more surprising


27.

in the latter case than in the

former

(see 178, 7).

Conway
fratrum
|

no. 115, v. PI. no. 131.

Zik. iuhil. Sp.

K|/vieis

Haec
et

*iovila Sp. Calovii

inim

mm nik.
|

fratrum communis

6 est Fiisiais

pumperiais

est Fisiis *quincuriis

pra

Mamerttiais

pas

set.

Kersswasias
|

L. Pettie/ls meddzkia* 10 fufens.

quae prae Martiis sunt. *Cenariae L. Pettii in *meddicia


fuerunt.

28.

Conway

no. 116, v. PI. no. 132.


|

[iuvijl [ek. Sp.]

Kaluvieis

ini'm fratn/m
5 est
|

mifinik.

[*iovila haec Sp.] Calovii et fratrum communis

Fiisiais pum|periais

est Fisiis *quincuriis

pas pr|ai Mamerttiais


set.

quae prae Martiis


sunt.

Sakrasia's L.

*Sacrariae L.

10 Pettieis me'ddikkiai fufiens.

Pettii in *meddicia fuerunt.

250
29.
tipil.

Oscan Inscriptions
Conway
Vi. Pak.
no. 113,
v. PI.

[Nos. 29-

no. 133.

Opilli Vibii Pacii

Tantrnnaium
iwvi/as sakran-

Tanterneiorum
*iovilae sacran-

nas e*dw/s
5 mertt/a/s.

MaPun
me-

dae idibus Martiis.

Cum
ad-

medd/s kapv adfust, Iwviass

meddix Capuanus
erit,

ss/mass i&ief
fud sakriss sa10 krafzr, avt

lovias medioximas -

hostiis sa-

crato, at

ultiumam kerssnais.

ultimam
nis.

ce-

made out

For the reading of 11. 6-9, cf. I.F. 12, 17 ff. Nothing of the word between messimass and sakriss.
30.

satisfactory can be

Conway

no. 114, v. PI. no. 134.

Upil. Vi. Pak.

Opilli Vibii Pacii

Tantmnaif
iiiv//.

Tanterneiorum
*iovilae sacrandae

sakr&nn.

Piimperiais
5 siill

*quincuriis
soil

pun medd. pis


vere/rwjs fust, sakrid

Cum
erit,

meddix quis
hostia

- iuventutis

sakrafir.

sacrato.
no. 117, v.

31.
a.

...

art

Conway ...

PL

no. 135.

kaspt damsenjnias pas


fi/'et

decet -

quae fiunt

pustrei iuklei
5 eehiianasiim,

in postera consecratione

emittendarum,
at hostiam
faciat decet

avt sakrim
fakiiad kasit medikAr. tiivtik.

in *meddicia tutica

Kapv. adpiid
10
fiiet.

Capuana quoad
fiunt.

36]

Oscan Inscriptions
. .

251

6.

ida

....

vi*
-

w/edikid

*meddicio

tuvtik. da/v.

tutico -

sakraitir
6

kas#

sacretur decet

damsennias
pas
fiiet piistr.

iwklei vehiian.

quae fiunt in postera consecratione emittendarum


in *meddicio minore.

medik. minive.
kersnarias.

*cenariae.

of offerings or celebrations are meant by damsennias is not clear, though the word (with damuse, no. 24) is very likely connected with L. damium, name of a sacrifice to Bona Dea, who was called Damia and Dami-

What kind

perhaps an abbreviated form (Loc. Sg. for *minivei ?) if L. *mirmo-, with iv for iuv (31, b). Was there a as from a stem *miniuvu-, 'minor meddix 1 in contrast to the 'meddix tuticus' ? The second letter of avt,
atrix.

Minive in b 8

is

a 6,

is

e corrected to v.

In eehiianasum, a

5,

beside vehiian., b

7,

the error

is

almost certainly in the second form, though some assume the opposite.
32.

Conway
\

no. 106, v.
\

PL

no. 136.

Sepis
Faler.
\

Helevi

piimpe.
\

iuvil. de.

Seppius Helvius *quincuriis Falerniis *iovilam dedit


Verrii in *meddicia.

Virriieis

medikiap].

33.

Conway

no. 107, v.

PL

no. 137.

Sepieis Heleviieis

sum.

Seppii Helvii sum.

Mi. Anni|iei(s) medik;kiai tuv. iuvilam priifts


\

Mi. Annii in *meddicia


tutica *iovilam probaverunt

pumper a
Falenia
s.

*quincuriae
Falerniae.
s serves for the final of

The same
34.

the last two words.

Conway
\

no. 110, v.
\

PL

no. 142.

Viriium

Vesuliais

deivinais.

Verriorum Vesulliis

divinis.

Other Capuan Inscriptions


35.

Painted epitaph.

Conway

no. 134, v.

PL

no. 156.
f.

Upfals patir Miinieis.


36.

Ofellus pater Minii

Painted epitaph.

Conway

no. 135, v.

Upfals Salaviis Minies.

PL no. 157. Ofellus Salvius Minii

f.

252
37.
a.

Oscan Inscriptions
Painted epitaph.

[Nos. 37-

Conway

no. 136, v. PI. nos. 161-162.

Vibi[s] Smintiis

Vibis Smintiis
b.

sum.

Vibius Smintius Vibius Smintius sum.


Vibius Smintius.

Vibis Smintiis.
38.

Gold

finger-ring.

Conway

no. 133, v.

PL

no. 165.

Vibis

Urufiis.

Vibius Orfius. down


as Arafiis Vibis.
v. PI.

This was formerly read upside


39.

Small terra-cotta object of uncertain character,


|

no. 164

a.

perkium

puiieh

sum
p. 145.

cuius

sum ?

See footnote,

INSCRIPTIONS FROM OTHER CAMPANIAN

TOWNS

Several fragments of a lead plate in the possession of 40. Cumae (?). the Naples Museum and believed to have come from Cumae. It is evidently of the same character as nos. 19-20 from Capua. The portion of the text given here is made up of two of the larger fragments. Conway no. 137 c, f, g, v. PI.
no. 119

V (where the

fragments are united).


. .

[Upis?] Mut[ti]lli[s

[Gnaijvs Fuvfdis Dekis Buttis,

Ma

\0ppius] Mutilius Gnaeus Fufidius

Dekis Rahiis Maraheis

niir,

Decius Bottius, Decius Raius Marae


culpa (eius
est),

f.

princeps,

kulupu .Dkuva Rahiis Upfalleis, Marahis Rahiis Papeis,


Dekis Hereiis Dekkieis Saipinaz,

Raius Ofelli f., Marius Raius Papi f.,


Decius Herius Decii
f.

Saepinas

Maras

Rufriis,

Maras

Blaisiis

Marah[ei]s, Dekkieis Rahiieis, Uppiieis


Muttillieis, 10 Dekkieis Heriieis akkatus inim

Maras Rubrius, Maras Blaesius Marae f.,


Decii Raii, Oppii
Mutilii,

Decii Herii advocati et


testes

trstus
sullus inim eisunk uhftis
[sjullas.

omnes

et

eorum voluntates

omnium omnes.

44]

Oscan Inscriptions

253

The akkatus inim trstus, correctly explained by Skutsch (B.B. 23, 100) as 'advocati et testes', shows that the occasion of this imprecation was a lawsuit. Cf. "nee illi hanc litem vincere possint sic nee advocati eorom eo[s from a Latin curse possint," defjendere (non) (Rh. M, 55, 241 ff.).
41.
the Naples

Herculaneum.

On

Museum.
sum.

Conway

a marble table intended for offerings. no. 87, v. PI. no. 117.

Now

in

a. Herentateis
b.

Veneris sum.
L. Stlabius L.
f.

L. Slabiis L.

Aukil

Aucilus

meddiss tiivtiks
Herentatei Herukinai
pniffed.
|

meddix tuticus
Veneri Erycinae
posuit.

42.

Nola.

On

a block of stone said to have been found under the ruins

of a temple.

Now

in the Naples

Museum.

Conway

no. 93, v. PI. no. 124.


.

Nijumsis Heirennis Niumsieis Ka Perkens Gaaviis


. . .

Numerius Herennius Numerii f Ca Percennus Gavius


. . .

Perkedneps

.]

meddiss
.

Percenni

meddices

degetasiiis &raget[u6.

*decentarii argento ....


altar.

43.
no. 125.

Nola.

On

a block of stone, possibly an

Conway

no. 94, v. PI.

Paakul Mulukiis Marai. meddis


|

Paculus Mulcius Mar.


multaticio.

f.

degetasis aragetud

meddix *decentarius argento

multaspkud.
44.
v.

Suessula.

Incised on the inside of a glazed plate.

Conway

no. 97,

PL

no. 175.

Minis Beriis Anei upsatuh


sent Tiianei.
|

Minius Berius Anei. operati


sunt Teani.

by some as

The third letter in the second word is a peculiar character which is read 1. The third word seems to be an abbreviation for another name,
of upsatuh sent, used here with active meaning.

making up the plural subject

254

Oscan Inscriptions
INSCRIPTIONS OF
45.

[No. 45

SAMNIUM AND THE FRENTANI


of

The Dedicatory Tablet

Agnone

A
Now

small bronze tablet (about 11 by 6^ inches), inscribed on both sides.

in the British

Museum.

Conway

no. 175, v.

PL

no. 200.

Status pus set hurtin


Kerriiin
:

Vezkei statif
Kerri statif

(Di) qui erecti sunt in luco Cereali: Vetusci statua,

Evklui
*

statif,

Euclo statua, Cereri


Interstitae statua,

statua,

Futrei Kerriiai statif

Genetrici Cereali statua,

5 Anterstatai statif

Ammai

Kerriiai statif

Ammae
. .

Cereali statua,

Diumpais

Kerriiais statif

Liganakdikei Entrai statif


Anafriss Kerriiuis statif
10

Lumpis Cerealibus statua, dici Interae statua, Leg


Imbribus Cerealibus statua, Matis Cerealibus statua,
lovi Versori statua, lovi Rectori statua,

Maatuis Kerriiuis

statif

Diuvei Verehashii statif


Diiivei Regaturei statif

Hereklui Kerriiui statif

Herculi Cereali statua,

Patanai Piistiai statif


15 Deivai Genetai statif.

Pandae Fidiae Divae Genitae


In ara igniaria

statua,
statua.

Aasai purasiai

saahtum tefurum
piitereipid akenei

alttrei

crematio sancta in altero

quoque anno
sacrificetur.

sakahiter.

20 Fiuusasiais az
sakarater.

hurtum

Floralibus ad
sacratur.

lucum

Pernai Kerriiai statif

Pernae Cereali statua,

Ammai

Kerriiai statif

Ammae

Cereali statua,

Fluusai Kerriiai statif


25 Evklui Paterei statif.

Florae Cereali statua, Euclo Patri statua.

No. 45]

Oscan Inscriptions

255

B
Aasas ekask eestint
hurtui:

Arae hae exstant


luco:

Vezkei
Evkliii

Vetusci,

Euclo,
Genetrici,
Interstitae,

30 Fuutrei

Anterstatai

Kerri

Cereri,

Ammai
Diumpais
35 Liganakdikei Entrai
Kerriiai

Ammae,
Lumpis,

Leg

dici Interae

Cereali,

Anafriss

Imbribus,
Matis, lovi Versori,
lovi Pio Rectori,

Maatuis
Diuvei Verehasiu
40 Diiivei Piihiui Regaturei
Herekliii Kerriiui

Herculi Cereali,

Patanai Piistiai
Deivai Genetai.

Pandae Fidiae, Divae Genitae.


In ara igniaria crematio sancta
in alter o quoque anno.
stait.

Aasai purasiai
45 saahtum tefiirum
alttrei piitereipid

akenei.
Hiirz

Dekmanniuis

Lucus *Decumaniis
Unterit. Dial., 128
ff.

stat.

Cf. especially

Mommsen,

inscription contains an inventory of the statues (A) and altars (B) in a sacred grove devoted to the worship of rural divinities. Kerriiu-, which is

The

used as an epithet of several of the divinities and of the grove

itself,

does not

mean simply
venience.
It

'pertaining to Ceres', though

it

is

translated 'Cerealis' for con-

must have a wider

sense, 'pertaining to the

powers of generation',

such as were Ceres and Cerrus, and might also be translated (with Mommsen) 'Genialis', since Genius was originally, like Cerrus, a personification of the

power

of generation.

Corresponding to the Floralia mentioned in 1. 20, we probably have in Dekmanniuis of 1. 48 the name of a December festival, like the Eoman Consualia
or Saturnalia.
(159, a),

The phrase

alttrei

putereipid akenei, in case

akenei

is

'year'
it

must mean

'in every other year' (see 200, 2, a).

Otherwise

is

256
'at each of the

Oscan Inscriptions

[Nos. 45-

status piis set

two festivals', referring to the Floralia and the Decumania. In means '(the gods) who are set up, i.e. honored with statues'.

Cf. Hor.

Odes
is

4, 1, 20.

the earliest carefully written inscription of any size in the fully developed alphabet and, judging from the style of the letters, tnust be at least a century earlier than the Cippus Abellanus. We may take 250 B.C. as a con-

This

servative date.

46.

Bovianum Vetus.
t.
|

Conway

no. 171, v.

PL

no. 189.

Nv. Vesullia is Tr. m.


ekik sakarakliim

Nv. Vesullieius Tr.

f.

meddix tuticus

Buva[ianud

aikdafed.
3,

hoc tern plum ad Bovianum decrevit.


and 264,
3.

On
47.
no. 190.

the last line, see 61,

Bovianum Vetus.

On fragments of a cornice. Conway no.


,

174, v.

PL

Gn. Staiis Mh. Tafidins metd.


48.
t.

Cn. Staius Mh.

f.

Tafidinus
dedicavit.

dadikatted.

meddix tuticus
Conway
no. 170,
v.

Bovianum Vetus.
meddiss

PL
.

no. 192.
.

Ste
tiiv[tik]s

Stenius

meddix

upsannam
/niifatted.

tuticus faciendam

deded

im'm

dedit et probavit.

49. Bovianum Vetus.


. .

Conway

no. 173, v.

PL

no. 193.
f.

Staatiis L. Klar

... Statius L.
.
.
.

Clar

d pestlum upsann[um]
50. Bovianum Vetus.

templum faciendum
PL
no. 188.
.

Conway

no. 169, v.

.... .... upam iak uin .... injim keenzstur .... Mjaiieis Maraiieis ....
. .
.

p?]*/rtam liis d Safinim sak

... portam ... Samnium sac


. .

... earn un

et censor(es?)

Maii Mareii

p]aam essuf umb


a]vt ptistiris esidu ...

quam

ipse

at posterius

idem
.
.

djuunated
ijnim

fiis

.....
sami ...

donavit fan
et -

leigiiss

10 l?]ufrikunuss fif

liberigenos

So much

is lost

that no certain restoration can be .made.

58]

Oscan Inscriptions
51. Molise.

257

Conway

no. 163, v.

PL

no. 185.
f.

Bn. Betitis Bn.

Bn. Betitius Bn.

meddiss pruffed.
52. Aesernia.

meddix
On
a gold ring.

posuit.

Conway

no. 167, v.

PL

no. 187.

Stenis Kalaviis

Stenius Calvius

Anagtiai Diiviiai

Angitiae Diae

dunum

deded.

donum
About

dedit.

53. Near Agnone.


v.

the neck of a round pedestal.

Conway
f.

no. 176,

PL

no. 201.

Mz. Hurtiis
Her.

Km.

dunum.
Her. for Herekliif or Herentatei ?

Mz. Hortius Cm. Her culi donum.

54. Macchia di Valfortore.

Conway

no. 162, v.

PL

180.

sakara]lum Maatreis
. .
.

templum Matris
. .
.

ras Futrefis

Genetricis
as Futre
.

Known

only from a copy.

The

last

word appears

e.

55. Saepinum.
pis tiu
iiv

Conway

no. 164,

v.

PL

no. 182.

Quis tu?'
cuia?

kuru

piiiiu Baiteis

glans Baeti

Aadiieis A/ifineis.

Adii Aedini.
' ' ' '

on an oval stone and is possibly an inscribed missile like the Eoman We have then a question Who art thou and whose missile ? glandes plumbeae. and the answer "(I am the missile) of Baetus Adius." But iiv is hopeless and
This
is

kuru

is

without

known

connection.

56. Aufidena.

Conway

no. 177, v.

PL

no. 199.

Pk. De. Pk. suvad


eitiv.

PC.

Deems

PC.

f.

sua

upsed.
57.

pecunia
no. 181, v.
\

fecit.

Conway

PL

no. 203.

Mill. Me|tiis

Mb,

Mitulus Mettius Mh.

f.

Fiml. ups.

Fimulus

fecit.

258
58. Near Histoniura.

Oscan Inscriptions
Conway
no. 190, v. PI. no. 204.

[Nos.

59-

Kaal. Husidiis Gaav


Viibis tfhtavis tff
.
.

Cal. Hosidius Gavii

f.

Vibius Octavius Of.


censores patraverunt.

f.

kenzsur

pa#

59. Near Histonium.


v.

On the bottom

of a bronze head.

Conway no.

191,

PL

no. 206.
|

Iiiveis

Liivfreis.

lovis Liberi.
no. 194, v. PI. no. 208.

60.

Conway

Pakis Tintiriis.
61.
v. PI.

Pacius Tintirius.

Anxanum ?

On

a bronze tablet of peculiar shape.

Conway no.

193,

no. 209.

Vereks Luvkanateis
aapas kaias Palaniid.

luventutis Lucanatis
Pallano.

The evidence

for a

town
is

called

Pallanum and a
by Mommsen,

district called

the territory of the Frentani

given
1.

Unterit. Dial. p. 169,

Lucania in Con-

way

p. 210.

The

first

two words of

2 are wholly obscure.

INSCRIPTIONS OF LUCANIA, BRUTTIUM, AND MESSANA


62. Messana.

Conway

no.

1, v. PI.

no.

1.

KaXm?
Mapa?

SraTTt?;t9

Stenius Calinius Statii

f.

IIo/iTrTte? Niu/xo-&77t9

Maras Pontius Numerii


meddices fecerunt et civitas Mamertina.
Apollini sacra
(est).

f.

fieSSeit; ovTrcrevs
eivei/ji

rw pro

Mafjieprivo

A7T7re\\ovvrjL cra/copo.

The text is made up from two fragments, and an early copy from which The Mamertines were of are supplied the letters at the beginning of the lines. is Nom. The last word probably Sg. F. or Nom. PI. N., 'is' Campanian origin.
or 'are' being understood.

But possibly

it is

Nom.

Sg. F. agreeing with

63.

On

bricks in the

museum

at

Messana.

Conway

no. 2, v. PI. no. 2.

Mamertinorum.
64. Bronze plate found in Monteleone (Bruttium).
no. 4.

Conway

no. 5, v. PI.

Fepaopei ravpo/ji.

lovi Versori taurum.

80]

Oscan Inscriptions
65. Bronze helmet of

259
in the

unknown provenance, now


19.

museum

of

Palermo.

Conway

no. 6, v. PI. no.

2. Secrrte? SeSer.
66. Bronze helmet of
no. 7, v. PI. no. 18.

Trebius

S.

f.

.Festius dedit.
at Vienna.

unknown provenance, now

Conway

Ma/jieperaes

Spedius MamerciUs
Saepinus dedicavit.
two
inscriptions, see 24,
&.

avaSa/cer.

For the value

of the character S in these last

COINS
Of the numerous examples of coin-legends the following may serve as
specimens. 67. Aquilonia(?).

Akudunniad.
Aderl.

68. Atella.

69. Ausculum.

a) avt-va-/c\t.,

b) avcnc\iv..,

c]

ava-

K\a.
70. Capua.
71. "Compulteria. 72. Fistelia.

Kapv. a) Kupelternum,
a) Fistelu,
Frentrei.

b)

Kupelternum.
c)

b) Fistluis,

^tcrreXia,

reverse Fistluis.
73. Frentrum.

74. Messana. 75. Lucania.


76. Nuceria Alfaterna.

Ma/JLeprivovfj,.
A.ov/cavo/Ji.

Nuvkrinum Alafaternum.
Tianud Sidikinud.
Tiiatium.

77.

Teanum

Sidicinum.

78. Teate.

79. Italia (coins of the Social War).

a) G. Paapii G. Mutil, reverse


Viteliu.
b) G. Paapi G., reverse Mutil

G. Papius G.

f.

Mutilus

Italia.

G. Papius G.
imperator.

f.

Mutilus

embratur.
80.

Samnium

(coins of the Social

War).

G. Mutil, reverse Safinim.

G. Mutilus

Samnium.

260

Iguvinian Tables

[Val-

UMBRIAN INSCRIPTIONS

THE IGUVINIAN TABLES

Seven bronze tablets, varying from about 16 by 12 inches to 25 by 15 inches, found at Gubbio, the ancient Iguvium, in 1444. Tables I-IV and Va-Vb 7 are in the native alphabet, Vb 7-18 and VI, VII, in the Latin alphabet. See also for the bibliography, see pp. xiii-xvi. 8, 9, and below, p. 309
;

VA, B

A Esuk

frater Atiief iur

eitipes
|

Ita

fratres

Atiedii
*urnariis
f.

decreverunt
*auctura
qui-

plenasier

urnasier

uhtretie

plenariis

3 T.T.Kastruciie. Arferturpisi 4

T. Castrucii T.
erit

Flamen

pumpe
habia

fust eikvasese AtiieI

5 Her, ere ri esune

kuraia, preri

pife

uraku
et

esuna

Atiediis, cumque collegis is rem sacram curet, praebeat quidquid ad illam rem sacram
sit

6 si
7 sis.

herte,

pure

esune

oportet,

et qui in

sacrificiis

Sakreu

perakneu
pure
terte,
|

sint (oportet).

Hostias sollemnis

upetu, revestu,
8 eru

deligito, revisito,

cum

datur,

(ali-

emantur
pune
|

herte,

9 et pihaklu

tribficu fu|

quae)earum accipiantur oportetne, et cum piaculorum ternio fiet,


ex
agro
is

10 iest, akrutu revestu


herte.

emantu

revisito

accipiantur

Arfertur pisi

pumpe

oportetne.
erit,

Flamen
sacrificia

quicumque
sine

11 fust, erek esunesku 12 felsva


13 fiu
|

vepurus

ad

igne

afputrati fratru Atiie|

Tiolera

arbitratu

fratrum
et
-

Atie-

prehubia,

et

nufpener
|

diorum praebeat,
singulis in capita.

pondiis

prever pusti kastruvuf.


14

Frater Atiiefiur esu eitipes


|

Fratres Atiedii ita decreverunt


plenariis

15 plenasier

urnasier

uhtretie

*urnariis

*auctura

K. T. Kluviier.

Kumnah kle

C.

Cluvii

T.

f.

In

conventu
;

1 Table V is given first, as a convenient starting-point for the beginner then VI, VII, and with these are given at the bottom of the page the parallel passages of I, which is an earlier and shorter version of the same material then I in a continuous text, for the sake of greater convenience for reference lastly II-IV.
; ;

These

last, especially III and IV, are so difficult that they might be omitted in a of this kind, were it not for the convenience of having the complete texts for reference.

work

The
in the

translation

is

in the

main that

of Biicheler, but

with not a few departures

rendering of certain words.

Vb

12]

Iguvinian Tables
ukre eikvasese Atiape apelust, muneklu

261
in
arce,
collegia

16 Atiiefie
17 iefier,
|

Atiedio
ediis,

Ati-

ubi impendent, sportulam

18 habia

numer
et

prever

pusti
|

habeat
capita,
erit,

nummis
et

singulis

in

kastruvuf,
19 fust,

ape

purtitu

muneklu habia numer


|

porrectum sportulam habeat nummis


in
capita,

ubi

20 tupler
21 subra

pusti kastruvu, et ape

binis

et

ubi

spafu

fust,

muneklu
pusti
|

habia

numer
1

tripler

erit, superiectum habeat nummis

sportulam
trinis

in
ce-

22 kastruvu.

Et ape
|

frater cers-

capita.

Et
eruiit,

ubi

fratres

23 natur furent, 24 fratreks

ehvelklu feia
kvestur,
|

nati

sententiam
aut
quaestor,
sit.

roget
si

ute
si.

sve

magister
recte

rehte kuratu

Sve mestru

curatum

Si

maior
illuc

25 karu

fratru Atiief iu, pure ulu


|

pars fratrum Atiediorum,qui


venerint,

26 benurent,

prusikurent rehte
|

pronuntiaverint

recte

27 kuratu eru, efek

prufesi. Sve

mestru karu fratru Atiief iu,


28 pure ulu

curatum esse, id probe sit. Si maior pars fratrum Atiediorum,


qui illuc venerint, pronuntiaverint

benurent, prusiku-

29 rent

kuratu rehte neip eru,


fratru
I

curatum
fratrum
aut

recte

non

esse,

B enuk
3
4

II

ehvelklu

feia

turn

sententiam
quaestor,
sit.

roget

2 fratreks

ute kvestur, panta


si.

magister

quanta

muta muta

arferture
I

Panta
mestru

multa

flammi
illuc

Quantam
fla-

fratru

Atiieriu
|

multam fratrum Atiediorum maior


pars,

5 karu,

pure ulu

benurent, af-

qui

venerint,

6 ferture eru
7 rifi,

pepurkurjent hesi.
|

etantu

mutu arferture
Atiersir

mini esse oportuerit poposcerint, tanta multa flamini sit.


Clavernii
fratribus

Clauerniur dirsas
fratrus

Tierti

dent
in
lecti

oportet

posti

Atiediis

10

acnu farer opeter p. IIII agre Tlatie PiquierMartier et sesna homonus duir,
| \

annos
agri et

farris

pondo

singulos IIII
Martii,

Latii

Piquii

11

purifareiscurent,otea.VL herti Clauerni dirsans


\

duobus, qui far arcessierint, aut asses VI. dent Claverniis oportet
fratres

cenam

hominibus

frater Atiersiur sehmenier


12

Atiedii

sementivis
suilli

dequrier

pelmner sorser
1

decuriis
A.QSfrateer with

pulpamenti
first e

Aes

furenf

erased.

262
posti
13

Iguvinian Tables

rvbi2L

I a 1-2

acnu uef
uef
fahe,

X
et

cabri\

ner

V, pretra

toco

in singulos #?m0s partes X, caprini partes V, priores sale (conditas),

postra
ote a. VI.

sesna

posteriores

et

cenam

Casilos dirsa her\

aut asses VI. Casilas det oportet


fratribus

14 ti

fratrus

Atiersir posti

Atiediis
lecti

in

singulos
agri et

15

acnu farer opeter p. Vlagre Casiler Piquier Martier et


\

annos farris
Casili

pondo VI
Martii,

Piquii

sesna

homonus
eiscurent,

duir,
ote
a.

puri
VI.
\

cenam hominibus duobus, qui


far
arcessierint,

far

aut asses VI.

16 Casilate dirsans hertifrateer Atiersiur sehmenier dequ17 rier

Casilati

dent

Atiedii

oportet fratres sementivis decuriis


suilli

\pelmner sorser posti acnu uef cabriner uef

XV
et

pulpamenti annos partes


asses

in

singulos

XV,

18

VII
a.

s.,

sesna

ote

VII semissem,
VI.

caprini partes et cenam aut

VI.

VI
1

A
Istud sacrificium avibus observatis
inito,

^Este persclo aueis aseriater enetu, parfa curnase


dersua, peiqu peica merstu.

parra

cornice

Poei
eso

angla

aseriato
serse
l

eest,

iusto. prospera, pico pica Qui oscines observatum ibit,


sic in

tremnu

arsfer-

tabernaculo sedens flami:

ture ehueltu:
iaia

stiplo aser-

parfa dersua, curnaco


\

nem iubeto 'stipulare ut observem parram prosperam, cornicem


prosperam, picum iustum, picam
iustam, oscines
iustos
divinas'.
:

3 dersua,

peico mersto, peica mersta mersta, auuei, mersta angla esona\ Arfertur eso
\

avis,

iustas
sic

Flamen
ibi

4 anstiplatu:

'ef

aserio

instipulator

'turn

observa

parfa dersua, curnaco dersua, peico mersto, peica mersta,

parram prosperam, cornicem prosperam, picum iustum, picam


tarn,

ius-

mersta aueif, merstaf

iustas

avis,

iustas

IA
1

f Este persklum aves anzer|

Istud sacrificium avibus observatis


inito

2 iates enetu

pernaies pusnaes.

anticis

posticis.

Via
6

15]

Iguvinian Tables

263

anglaf esona mehe, tote lioueine, esmei stahmei stahmeitei\


Sersi pirsi sesust,
\

oscines divinas mihi, civitati Iguhuic statui stavinae,


tute'.

In

sede

cum

sederit

poi angla
sistu,

aseriato

est,

erse

neip mugatu nep arsir ander-

qui oscines observatum ibit, turn nee muttito nee alius *intersidito,

nersa courtust porsi


\

Sue angla anseriato iust. muieto fust ote pisi arsir


ander sesust, 1 disleralinsust.
\

donee revorterit qui oscines observatum ierit. Si muttitum erit aut quis alius

*intersederit, inritum fecerit.

Uerfale
stahmito

pufe
eso

arsfertur

Templum
versatur
arcis
sic

ubi

flam en
id
est:

trebeit ocrer peihaner, erse

piandae,

tuderato est:

statutum
ab

9 angluto

hondomu,
asa
somo,

nesimei

porsei deueia est, porsei


\

angulo proxume ab ara

nnitum imo
divina

qui
est,

anglome
10 est,

nesimei uapersus auiehcleir


eine

usque ad angulum summum qui proxume ab sellis auguralibus


est,

uapefe
tuder,

angluto auiehclu todcome

somo

deinde

ab angulo

summo

asame
11 tuder.

angluto deueia

hondomu
todcome
\

iuxta sellas auguralis usque ad urbicum finem, ab angulo imo iuxta aram divinam usque ad

Eine

todceir
se-

tuderus
ritu.
12
to
|

seipodruhpei

urbicum finem. Turn in urbicis finibus seorsum utroque servato.

Tuder or tot cor : uapersusauieclir ebetrafe,


ooser-

Fines

urbici:

ab

sellis

clome,

presoliafe
\

Nurpier,
tet-

13 uasirslome,

smursime,

auguralibus ad exitus, ad *observaculum, ad Nurpii, ad ad ad


, ,

tome Miletinar, tertiamepraco

Miletinae,

ad

tertiam
;

saesellis

pracatarum; uapersusto
carsome
\

pium
ad
niae,

14 auieclir

Uestisier,

saeptarum auguralibus ad

ab

Vesticii,

randeme Rufrer, tettome Noniar, tettome Salier, carsome

Rubri, ad
Salii,

Noad
Patellae,

15

Hoier, pertome Padellar. Hondra esto tuder o porsei


\

ad ad Hoii,
istos

Infra

finis

qui

Aes andersesusp.

264

Iquvinian Tables

[VI

l-

>-

Ia2-3

subra screihtor sent, parfa dersua curnaco dersua,


16 seritu.

sunt, supra script! parram prosperam, cornicem prosperam


servato.
finis Supra istos iustum, picam iustam

Subra

esto

tudero

peico mersto, peica mersta


seritu.

picum
servato.

17

Sue anclar procanurent, eso tremnu serse combifiatu, nomne car situ: arsferturo
\

Si
sic in

oscines

cecinerint,

tabernaculo sedens nuntiato,

flaminem
'parram

nomine

appellate

par/a

dersua,

curnaco

dersua, peico mersto, peica


18 meersta,
\

prosperam, cornicem prosperam, picum iustum, picam


iustam, oscines
iustas
avis,
tibi,

mersta aueif,merseesona
tefe,

iustas
civitati
sta-

ta

ancla

tote

sacras

liouine, esmei stahmei stahmitei\ Esisco esoneir seueir

Iguvinae,
tuto'.

huic

statui

Ad

haec

sacra
et

omnia
pi-

\Qpopleranfereneretocrerpihaner perca arsmatia habitu.


Uasor
20 porsi

populi

lustrandi

arcis

uerisco

Treblanir

ocrer \pehaner
eo
iso

paca

andae virgam ritualem habeto. Vasa ad portam Trebulanam causa arcis quae piandae
ostendentur, ea sic ostendito, ut ignis abigneaccensussitiaciak.

ostensendi,

ostendu,

pusi pir pureto cehefi dia.


21

Surur Surur

uerisco

Tesonocir.
\

uerisco UeTiieir.

Item ad portam Tesenacam. Item ad portam Veiam.

22

\Pre

uereir

Treblaneir

luue G-ra bouei buf treiffetu.


Esonaratuuesteis:
23
'-teiosub-

portam Trebulanam lovi Grabovio boves tris facito.


Sic

Ante

narrato

libans

'te

in-

ocau

suboco

Dei

Grra-

voco invocationes lovem GraboviumproarceFisia,procivitate arcis nomine, pro Iguvina, nomine favens civitatis sis, pro
;

boui, ocriper -Fisiu, totaper

liouina,

erer

nomne^er,
fos
\

erar
24

nomneper;
sei

sei,

pacer
nomne.

ocre Fisei,

tote

propitius

sis arci Fisiae, civitati

liouine,

nomne, erar Arsie, tio subocau


erer
Treplanes

Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis invoco nomini. te Sancte,


*

fPreveres

luve

Ante portam Trebulanam lovi


Grabovio
tris

Krapuvi

tre buf fetu.

boves

facito.

Via

321

Iguvinian Tables

265

suboco
25 arsier

Dei
frite
tio

Graboue, subocau
\

invocationes
sancti

lovem Grabovium,
te

fiducia

invoco

suboco

Dei
tio

Graboue.
esu

invocationes lovem Grabovium.

Di

Grabouie,

bue

peracrei pihdclu ocreper Fisiu, totaper louina, irer


26

luppiter Grabovi, te hoc bove opimo piaculo pro arce Fisia,

nomneper,

Dei
ose,
est,

erar nomneper. orer Grabouie,


\

pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis nomine. luppiter Grabovi, huius (piaculi)
opere, si in arce Fisia ignis ortus est, in civitate Iguvina ritus

persei ocre Fisiepir orto toteme louine arsmor


\

27 dersecor

subator sent,pusei

neip heritu. Dei Orabouie, persei tuer perscler uaseto


est,pesetom est,peretom
28
est,
\

debiti omissi sunt, (facito) quasi non consulto. luppiter Grabovi,


si

tui sacrificii (quid) vitiatum

frosetom

est,

daetom

est,

tuer perscler uirseto auirseto

peccatum est, peritum est, fraudatum est, delictum est, visum invisum tui sacrificii
est,

uas

est,

Di Grabouie,
esu

persei

vitium
ius

est,

luppiter Grabovi,

si

29 mersei,

bue \peracrei

sit,

hoc
sit.

bove

opimo

pihaclu pihafei.
bouie,

Di GraFisei,

piaculo piatum
bovi,

pihatu
tota

ocre

pihatu
30 Fisier,

louina.

Di

piato civitatem Iguvinam. piato


piter

arcem

luppiter GraFisiam,

luparcis

Grabouie,

pihatu
ueiro,

ocrer

Grabovi,

piato

totar louinar nome,

Fisiae, civitatis

Iguvinae nomen,
viros,
;

nerf,

arsmo,

pequo

principes,

ritus,

pecnum

castruo, fri pihatu ;

futufos
\

capita, fruges piato

esto favens

31

pacer pase tua ocre Fisi, 1 tote liouine, erer nomne, Di Graboerar nomne.
uie, saluo

propitius pace tua arci Fisiae,


civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini,

seritu ocre Fisi,


tota

salua
32 na.

seritu

lioui-

luppiter Grabovi, salvam servato arcem Fisiam, salvam servato civitatem Iguvicivitatis

nomini.

Di

Grabouie,
Fisier,

saluo
totar

seritu

ocrer

luppiter Grabovi, salvum servato arcis Fisiae, civitatis

nam.

liouinar nome, nerf, arsmo,


ueiro,

Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus,


viros,
erlr.

pequo

castruo,

fri
1

pecuum

capita,

fruges

Aes

266
33 salua

Iguvinian Tables
seritu;

[VI a 32-

futufos pacer
Fisi,
tote

salvas servato
pi tius

esto favens pro-

pase

tua

ocre

pace tua arci Fisiae, civitati

louine,

erer

nomne,
G-rabouie,

erar
tio

nomne.
34 esu

Di
\

Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis nomini. luppiter Grabovi, te

bue

peracri
Fisiu,
erer

pihaclu
totaper

hoc
pro

bove
arce

opimo
Fisia,

piaculo
civitate

ocreper
louina,

pro
arcis

nomneper,

Iguvina,

pro

nomine,

nomneper, G-rabouie, tio subocauS


35

erar

Di
\

'Di G-rabouie, tio esu bue peracri pihaclu etru ocreper


Fisiu, totaper louina, erer nomneper, erar nomneper.

pro civitatis nomine, luppiter Grabovi, te invoco.' 'luppiter Grabovi, te hoc bove

opimo piaculo

altero

pro arce

Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, pro

arcis nomine, pro civitatis

nomine,

36

Di
est,

Gf-rabouie,

orer

ose,persei ocre Fisiepir orto


tote

luppiter Grabovi, huius (piaculi) opere, si in arce Fisia ignis ortus


est,

louine

arsmor

in

civitate

Iguvina ritus

dersecor subator sent, pusei


37

neip

hereitu.

Di Crabouie,
peretomest,

debiti omissi sunt, (facito) quasi non consulto. luppiter Grabovi,


si

persi tuer perscler uasetom


est,

tui sacrificii (quid) vitiatum

pesetom

est,

est,

frosetomest, 38 tuer \perscler


rseto

daetomest,
uirseto

aui-

peccatum est, peritum est, fraudatum est, delictum est, tui sacrificii visum invisum
vitium
est,
sit,

uas

est,

Di

G-rabouie,

luppiter

Grabovi,

persi mersi, esu bue peracri Di pihaclu etru pihafi.


39 G-rabouie,
\

si

ius

hoc

bove
sit.

opimo
luppi-

piaculo altero piatum


ter Grabovi, piato

pihatu ocre Fisi,


louina.

arcem Fisiam,
luparcis

pihatu

tota

Di
ocrer

piato civitatem Iguvinam.


piter

Grabouie,
40 nerf,

pihatu
ueiro,

Grabovi,

piato

Fisier, totar liouinar nome,

Fisiae, civitatis Iguvinae

nomen,

arsmo,

castruo, fri pihatu;

pequo futufos
\

principes,

ritus,

viros,
;

pecuum

capita, fruges piato

esto favens

41

pacer pase tua ocre Fisie, tote liouine, erer nomne, nomne. Di erar Gra\

propitius pace tua arci Fisiae,


civitati Iguvinae, arcis

civitatis

nomini.

nomini, luppiter Gra-

bouie,

saluo

seritu

ocre

bovi,

salvam

servato

arcem

VI

a 49]

Iguvinian Tables
salua
seritu

267

Fisim,
liouina.

totam

Fisiam, salvam servato civitatem

Di

G-rabouie, salu-

Iguvinam. IuppiterGrabovi,sal-

uom
42 tar
\

seritu ocrer Fisier, to-

vum
tatis
ritus,

servato arcis Fisiae, civi-

liouinar

nome,

nerf,

Iguvinae nomen, principes,


viros,

arsmo, uiro, pequo castruo,

pecuum
;

frifsaluua seritu; futufons pacer pase tuna ocre Fisi,


43 tote
|

f ruges

salvas servato

capita, esto favens

propitius pace tua arci Fisiae,


civitati Iguvinae,

liouine,

erer

erar

nomne.

Di

nomne, Gra-

arcis nomini,

civitatis

nomini.

luppiter Gra-

bouie, tiom essu bue peracri pihaclu etru ocriper Fissiu,


44 totaper louina,

bovi,

te

hoc

bove
pro
arce

opimo
Fisia,

piaculo

altero

erer

nom-

pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis

neper,
45
l

erar

nomneper,

nomine, pro

civitatis

nomine,

Di Grabouie, tiom subocau.'l Di G-rabouie, tiom esu bue


peracri pihaclu tertiu
ocri-

luppiter Grabovi, te invoco.' 'luppiter Grabovi, te hoc bove

opimo piaculo
Fisia,

tertio

pro arce

per Fisiu, totaper liouina, erer nomneper, erar nom46 neper.

Di
ose,

G-rabouie,

orer

pirse

ocrem

Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis nomine. Grabovi, luppiter huius (piaculi) opere, si in arce
Fisia ignis
tate

pro

civitate

Fisiem pir ortom est, toteme louinem arsmor dersecor


subator
47 heritu.
sent,

ortus

est,

in

civi-

Iguvina

ritus

debiti

pusi

neip

Di

Crrabouie,

perse tuer pescler uasetom

omissi sunt, (facito) quasi non consulto. Grabovi, luppiter si tui sacrificii (quid) vitiatum

pesetom est, peretom frosetom' est, daetom


est,

est, est,

48 tuer rseto

pescler

uirseto

aui-

peccatum est, peritum est, frau datum est, delictum est, visum invisum sacrificii tui
est,

uas

est,

Di

Crrabouie,

vitium
si

est,
sit,

luppiter

Grabovi,

pir si mersi, esu bue peracri


49 Grabouie,

ius

hoc

bove
sit.

opimo

pihaclu tertiu pihafi. Di ocrem pihatu


\

Fisim, pihatu

totam

lio-

luppiaculo tertio piatum arcem Grabovi, piato piter Fisiam, piato civitatem Igu-

uinam.
hatu

Di
ocrer

G-rabouie,
Fisier,

pi-

vinam.
ato

luppiter

Grabovi,

pi-

totar

arcis

Fisiae,

civitatis

268

Iguvinian Tables

a 49[VI L
I

a 3-

liouinar nome, nerf, asmo,


60 uiro,

Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus,


viros,

pequo pihatu; futu fans pacer


pase
tua
ocre
Fisi,
tote

castruo,

fri

pecuwm
;

capita,

fruges
civitati

piato

esto

favens
Fisiae,

propitius

pace

tua

arci

liouine,
51

erer

nomne,

erar

nomne.
uo

seritu

saluam
uinam.

Grabouie, salocrem Fisim, seritu totam lio\

Di

Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis nomini. luppiter Grabovi, salvam servato arcem Fisiam, salvam servato civitatem Igu-

Di

G-rabouie,

sal\

vinam.

uom
52 totar

seritu

ocrer

Fisier,

vum

luppiter Grabovi, salarcis servato Fisiae,

liouinar nome, nerf,

civitatis

Iguvinae nomen, prin-

arsmo, uiro, pequo castruo, frif salua seritu; futufons

cipes, ritus, viros,

pecuwm
;

capita,

fruges salvas servato

esto favens

pacer pase tua ocre Fisi,


63 tote

liouine,

erer

erar

nomne.

Di

nomne, Gra-

propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis nomini. luppiter Grabovi,
te

bouie, tiom esu bue peracri

hoc

bove
pro
arce

opimo
Fisia,

pihaclu tertiu ocriper Fisiu,


54 totaper
\

piaculo

tertio

liouina, erer nom-

neper,

erar
tio

Di Grabouie,
55 haclo
|

nomneper. comohota
1

pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis nomine,


luppiter Grabovi, te commoto ternione bourn opimorum pi-

tribrisine buo peracrio

pi-

ocriper Fisiu, totaper erer liouina, nomneper,

aculorum pro arce

Fisia, pro civi-

erar

nomneper,

Di

tate Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis nomine, luppiter

Grabouie, tiom subocau.' 56 f Tases persnimu seuom.


\

Grabovi, te invoco.' Tacitus precator

totum.
prosecta

Surur purdouitu, proseseto


4

Item

porricito,

fArvia ustentu, vatuva ferinefeitu, hens vinu heri puni,


|

Frumenta

ostendito, exta in

6 ukriper

Fisiu,

tu taper
|

Ikukutef

6 vina

feitu.

Sevum

ferculo facito, vel vino vel posca, pro arce Fisia, pro civitate IguTotum murmurans vina facito.

pesnimu afepes arves.

precator adipibus frumentis.


1

Aes peracnio.

VI b la 13

2] J

Iguvinian Tables
narrate,

269
prosectis

naratu, prosesetir mefa spefa, ficla arsueitu, aruio


57 fetu.

libum

spar-

sum,
facito.

offam
Istud
vel

addito,

frumenta
vel

Este

esono

heri

sacrificium
facito.

uinu heri ponifetu.


ferine fetu. 58 uerir -\Post
\

Uatuo

posca inferculo facito.

vino

Exta

Treblanir

Post

portam

Trebulanam

si

gomia

trif fetu

Trebo

louie

per
fetu,
59

ocriper Fisiu, totaliouina. Persae

sues gravidas tris facito Trebo lovio pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina.

(Sacrificium)

humi

aruio

fetu,

stratum facito, frumenta facito,

pone fetu, tases persnimu. Surur naratu puse pre uerir


Treblanir. Prosesetir strusla,

posca

facito,

tacitus

precator.

Item narrato ut ante portam Trebulanam. Prosectis struem,


offam addito.

fida arsueitu.

VI B
1

\Pre uerir Tesenocir buf trif fetu Marie G-rabouei


ocriper Fisiu, totaper liouina. Aruio fetu, uatuo ferine

Ante portam Tesenacam bo ves


tris

facito

Marti Grabovio pro

arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Frumenta facito, exta in ferculo


facito,

fetu,poni fetu,tases persnimu. Prosesetir farsio, ficla


\

cator.

posca facito, tacitus preProsectis farrea, offam

8 sif

fPusveres Treplanes tref kumiaf feitu Trebe luvie


|

Post portam Trebulanam tris sues gravidas facito Trebo lovio


pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Suppa sumito, frumenta ostendito, posca facito,

ukriper Fisiu,
9 na.
10 tu,
|

tutaper Ikuvi-

Supa sumtu, arvia ustenpuni


fetu,
J
|

kutef
|

murmurans
tris

pesnimu
11

afepes

arves. 1

precator adipibus frumentis.


tre

^Preveres

Tesenakes
I

Ante portam Tesenacam


boves
facito,

12 buf fetu,

Matte Krapuvi

fetu

Marti Grabovio

faci-

ukripe Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina.


13

Arviu ustentu,
fetu,

vatuva ferine
fetu,
|

to pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Frumenta ostendito, exta in

puni

kutef

pesnimu

afpes arves.

ferculo f acito,posca f acito,murmurans precator adipibus frumentis.

Aes afe*arv*es.

270
arsueitu.

Iguvinian Tables

rvib2L

la 14-17

Surur naratu puse


\

addito.

Item

narrate

ut

pre uerir Treblanir. 3 f Post uerir Tesenocir sif


filiu trif
1

ante portam Trebulanam.

Post portam Tesenacam sues


lactentes tris facito Fiso Sancio

fetu Fiso Sansie


Fisiu, totaper liofeitu, persae
\

ocriper uina.
fetu,
4

pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina.

Poni

Posca

facito, (sacrificium)

Surur

fetu. naratu pusi pre uerir

aruio

humi stratum facito, f rumenta facito. Item narrate ut ante portam


Trebulanam. Tacitus precator. Mantele bifidum in dextra habeto. Prosectis offam, struem addito. Ubi suppa retro polibamento et libo sparso patera genu nixus facito Fisovio Sancio pro arce Fisia, pro civitate
suerit,

Treblanir.

Tases persnimu.
desire habi\

Mandraclo difue
5 tu.

Prosesetir ficla,

strusla

arsueitu.

Ape

sopo postro pe-

perscust,uestisia et me/a spefa


scalsie conegos* fetu
6

Fisoui

Sansi\ ocriper Fisiu, totaper louina.Eso persnimu uestisia


uestis:
'tio

subocau suboco
\

libans

Iguvina. Sicprecatorlibamentum te invoco invocationes


4
:

Fisoui Sansi, ocriper Fisiu,


7

Fisovium Sancium, pro arce Fisia,

totaper liouina,

erer

nomocre

neper,

erar
sir,

nomneper,
sir

fons
Fisi,
8

pacer

pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis nomine, favens sis, propitius sis arci
Fisiae,
civitati

tote
\

liouine,

erer

nomne, erarnomne. Arsie, tiom subocau suboco Fisoui


Sansi, asier frite tiom subocau suboco Fisoui tSansi.'

Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis nomini. Sancte, te invoco invocationes Fisovium

Sancium, sancti fiducia te invoco invocationes Fisovium Sancium.'

14 15 sif

fPusveres
feliuf

Tesenakes
|

tref

Post portam Tesenacam

tris

fetu

Fise

Sa$i

sues lactentis facito Fisio Sancio

ukriper
16 vina. 17 arviu
ti$a
|

Fisiu,

tutaper

Iku-

Puni

fetu,

supa sumtu,
Mefa,
|

na.

pro arce Fisia, pro civitate IguviPosca facito, suppa sumito,


f rumenta

ustentu.
ustetu,

vesfetu,

ostendito. Libum,liba-

Fisuvi
|

mentum ostendito,Fisovio facito,


pro arce Fisia facito,
8

ukriper Fisiu fetu,


1

Acs

ocrifer.

Aes confgos.

Aes

fiiuvi.

VIbl6]
9

Iguvinian Tables

271
precator.

Suront\ponipesnimu. Mefa
spefa eso persnimu:
uie Sansie, tiom esa
'-Fiso-

Item
spar so
Sanci,

posca
sic

Libo
4

precator:
te

Fisovi
libo

mefa

hoc
pro
civitate

spefa
Fisiu,
10 erer

Fisouina
totaper

ocriper
liouina,
\

sparso
Fisia,
arcis

Fisovino
pro

arce

Iguvina,
civitatis

nomneper,
Fisouie
ocre

erar

nomtote

pro
dato

nomine, pro
Fisovi
Fisiae,

neper. ditu
louine,
11

Sarnie,

nomine.
arci

Sanci,
civitati

Fisi,

ocrer

Fisie,
\

totar

Iguvinae, arcis Fisiae, civitatis

louinar

dupursus

petur-

Iguvinae

bipedibus

quadru-

pursus fato fito, perne postne, sepse sarsite, uouse auie

pedibus factum fitum, ante post, voto sane sarte, augurio


sacrificio
;

esone;

futu
tua
\

fons,

pacer
tote

esto favens propitius


arci

pase

ocre

Fisi,

pace

tua

Fisiae,

civitati

12 liouine,

erer nomne,

erar

nomne.
uo
totam
13 Sansie,

Fisouie Sansie, sal-

Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis Fisovi nomini. salSanci,


vain
servato

seritu

ocrem
seritu

Fisi,

arcem

Fisiam,

louinam.
saluo

Fisouie
\

civitatem
Sanci,

ocrer

Fisovi Iguvinam. salvum servato arcis

Fisier, totar
nerf,

louinar nome,
uiro,

Fisiae, civitatis

Iguvinae nomen,
viros,

arsmo,

pequo

principes,
capita,

ritus,

pecuum
servato
;

castruo, frif salua seritu; tua 14 futu fons, pacer pase


\

fruges

salvas

ocre Fisi, tote liouine, erer

esto favens propitius pace tua arci Fisiae, civitati Iguvinae, arc is

nomne, erar nomne. Fisouie


Sansie, tiom esa mefa spefa ocriper 15 totaper liouina, erer nomerar neper, nomneper.

nomini, civitatis nomini. libo hoc te Sanci,

Fisovi
sparso
Fisia,

Fisouina

Fisiu,

Fisovino

pro

arce

Fisouie Sansie, tiom subocau,

pro civitate Iguvina, pro arcis nomine, pro civitatis nomine. te Fisovi invoco, Sanci,
Fisovii
fiducia
te

Fisouie frite 1 tiom subocau.'


16

invoco.'
tri-

Pesclu semu uesticatu,


|

atri-

In precatione media libato,


podato.
rexerit,
erite.

pursatu.
dinsust,

Ape

earn

purerus
1

Ubi

id

(libum)

por-

proseseto

prosectorum magmentum

Acs

272
ditu.
17

Iguvinian Tables

rvi b 10L

a 18-

Eno
mefa,

scalseto uestisiar
\

erus

conegos

dirstu.

Eno

uestisia

sopa

Turn ex patera libamenti magmentum genu nixus dato. Turn libum, libamentum sub
dato.

purome efurfatu, subra spahmu. Eno serse comoltu, co18

ignem expurgato, superiacito. Turn sedens commolito, commolitis


precator.

matir persnihimu.

f Capif sacra aitu, purdita dupla


\

Capides
sacras

dupla
19

aitu.

porrectas binas agito.

binas

agito,

\Pre
trif

uerir

Ueliier

buf
fetu

calersu

Uofione
Fisiu,

Grabouie
totaper

ocriper liouina.

portam Veiam boves tris f rontem albam habentis facito Voviono Grabovio pro arce

Ante

Fisia,

pro
in

civitate

Iguvina.

20

Uatuo ferine fetu. Herie uinu herie ponifetu, aruio


|

Exta
facito,

ferculo

facito.

Vel
Pro-

vino vel posca


tacitus
sectis

facito, frumenta

fetu, tases
seseter

persnimu.
spefa,

Proficla

precator.

mefa

arsueitu.

Suront naratupusi
\ \

libum sparsum, offam addito. Item narrato ut


ante portam Trebulanam.

Treblanir. 21 pre uerir Post uerir Uehier habina 22


trif fetu Tefrei loui ocriper

Post

portam

tris facito

agnas Tefro lovio pro arce

Veiam

18

fkapif

purtitaf
etraf
|

sakref,
sakref,

etraf

capides porrectas sacras, alteras


porrectas, alteras sacras, pro civitate Iguvina. Murmurans precator adipibus frumentis.

19 purtitaf,

tu-

taper

Ikuvina.
afepes arves.

Kutef pes|

nimu
20

JPreveres Vehiies tref buf


kaleruf
fetu

Ante portam Veiam


f rontem

tris

boves

Vufiune
Fisiu,

21

Krapuvi

ukriper
|

22 tutaper Ikuvina.
fetu,

Vatuva ferine
heri

albam habentis facito Voviono Grabovio pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Exta in ferculo facito, vel vino vel posca,

heri

vinu

puni,

23 arviu

ustentu,
afepes arves.
|

kutef

frumenta ostendito, murmurans


precator adipibus frumentis.

pesnimu
24

Pusveres Vehiies tref hapiluvie


|

25 naf fetu Tefre

ukriper

Post portam Veiam tris agnas facito Tefro lovio pro arce

VI b
I

271
J

a 29

Jyuvinian Tables
totaper
fetu,
feitu,

273
civitate

Fisiu,

liouina.
fetu,
\

Fisia,

pro

Iguvina.

Serse
23 aruio

pehana
poni

Sedens
tacitus

facito, sepeliendas facito,


facito,

tasis

pesnimu.

fetu, Prosesetir

framenta
struem, narrato

posca

facito,

strusla, ficla arueitu.

Suront
Tre-

precator. offam addito.

Prosectis

Item
Tre-

naratu puse
blanir.
24 dinsus,
|

uerisco

ut

ad

portam

Ape habina pureront

poi

habina

purdinsust,
uestisia et

destruco persi

pesondro sorsom

Ubi agnas poridem rexerit, qui agnas porrexerit, ad dextrum pedem libamentum etfymentum suillum
bulanam.
facito.

fetu.
25 earn

mani

Capirse perso osatu, nertru tenitu,


\

Capidi

fossam
sinistra

facito,

earn

manu

teneto,
libaverit.

arnipo

uestisia

uesticos.
1

donee

libamentum

Oapirso subotu, isec perstico erus ditu. Esoc persnimu


26 uestis:

Capidem deponito,item ad pedem magmentum dato. Sic precator


libans
:

^Tiom

subocau subocriper
liouina,

oco

Tefro

loui,

tiones
Fisia,

Te invoco invocaTefrum lovium, pro arce


'

Fisiu,

totaper

erer

nomneper, erar nomfonsir


\

neper;

pacer

si

civitate pro Iguvina, arcis nomine, pro civitatis pro nomine favens sis propitius sis
;

27 ocre Fisi, tote

louine, erer

arciFisiae,civitati!guvinae, arcis

nomne, erar nomne. Arsie, tiom subocau suboco Tefro


Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina.

nomini, civitatis nomini. Sancte, te invoco invocationes Tefrum


Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina.

Puste
pelsana

Post

26 asiane fetu, zefef fetu,


fetu,

arvia
tacez

ustentu,

puni
afiper

facito,

frumenta ostendito, posca

27 fetu,

pesnim'u

facito, tacitus precator adipibus

arvis.

Api habina
|

purtiius,

fru mentis.

Ubi agnas porrexeris,

28

sufum pesuntru
vesticam

fetu,

esmik
fiktu,

preve

29 Tefri luvi fetu ukri|per Fisiu,

tutaper
pefi kapife

Ikuvina,

testruku

pefum

feit|u.

figmentum suillum facito, ei libamentum singillatim figito, Tefro lovio facito pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, ad dextrum pedem capidi fossam facito.

Probably persico.

'274

Iguvinian Tables

[VIb27-

loui, arsier frite tiom subo-

cau
28 Tefre

suboco
\

loui. Tefro sorsu tiom em Ionic,

lovium, sancti fiducia te invoco invocationes Tefrum lovium.


Tefer
lovi,
te

hoc

smllo
piaculo, civitate

persontru
ocriper

Tefrali

pihaclu
totaper

Fisiu,
erer

jigmento, pro arce

Tefrali
Fisia,

pro
arcis

liouina,

nomneper,
Tefre
\

Iguvina,

pro

erar nomneper. ose orer 29 louie,

pro

civitatis

nomine.

nomine, Tefer

perse

acre Fisie pir orto est, tote liouine arsmor dersecor sub-

lovi, huius (piaculi) opere si in arce Fisia ignis ortus est, in civitate Iguvina ritus debiti omissi

ator sent, pusi neip heritu. 30 Tefre louie, perse toner


\

sunt,
sulto.

(facito)

quasi
lovi,

non
si

contui

Tefer

pesder uasetomest, pesetomest,


est,

sacrificii (quid)

vitiatum

est,

pec-

peretomest, frosetomdaetomest, touer pesder


auirseto

catum est, peri turn est, fraudatum


*

est,

delictum

est,

tui sacrificii

uirseto
31

uas

est, est,

visum
Tefer

invisum
lovi,
suillo
sit.

vitium
si

est,

Tefre louie, perse

mers

ius

est,

esu sorsu persondru pihaclu


pihafi.

hoc

figmento

piaculo

ocre

Fisi,

Tefre louie, pihatu tota liouina.

32 Tefre louie,

pihatu
uiro,

ocrer

piatum arcem Fisiam, civitatem IguviTefer lovi, piato arcis nam.


Fisiae, civitatis

Tefer lovi, piato

Fisier, totar liouinar nome,

Iguvinae nomen,
viros,

nerf,

peqao castruo, fri pihatu; futu


ocre
tote

arsmo,

principes,
capita,

ritus,

pecuim
;

fruges

piato

esto

fons pacer pase tua


33 Fisi,
\

favens propitius pace tua arci


Fisiae, civitati

liouine,

erer

nomne, erar nomne.

Tefre

Iguvinae, arcis nomini, civitatis nomini. Tefer


lovi, sal vamserva to arcem Fisiam,

louie, saluo seritu ocre Fisi,

totam liouinam. Tefre louie, saluom seritu ocrer Fisier,


34 totar

civitatem Iguvinam. Tefer lovi, salvum servato arcis Fisiae,


civitatis

louinar nome,

nerf,

Iguvinae nomen, prin-

arsmo, uiro, pequo fri salua seritu; futu fons pacer pase tua ocre Fisi,
castruo,
1

cipes, ritus, viros,

pecuwm capita,
;

fruges salvas servato


z

esto favens

propitius pace tua arci Fisiae,


Aes pfquo.

Aes uasetomesf.

I a

Vlb40] J
30-34

Iquvinian Tables
erer

275

35 tote

liouine,

nomne,

civitati Iguvinae, arcis nomini,


civitatis

erar nomne.

Tefre liouie,

nomini.
suillo

Tefer

lovi,

tiom

esu

sorm persondru
pihaclu
totaper

te

hoc

Tefrali
Fi&iu,
36 erer

ocriper
liouina,
\

Tefrali
Fisia,

piaculo

figmento arce pro

nomneper, erar

nom-

neper.

Tefre louie, tiom

civitate pro Iguvina, nomine, pro civitatis pro nomine. Tefer te lovi,
arcis

subocau?
atropusatu.
37

Persclu sehemu
\

invoco.'

In

precatione

media

tripodato.
staflare

^Pesondro
truco

ner-

persi fetu.

Suront
suror

Figmentum ovillum ad sinistrum Item pedem facito.


capidi

capirse perso

osatu, sorsu.

fossam
ut

facito,
suillo.

itidem

persnimu puse
38

Ape
\

precator

cum

Ubi

pesondro
seseto

purdinsus,
sorsalir

pro-

figmenta
libamenti

erus dirstu.

Enom
destruco
dirs-

rum magmentum
suilli

porrexerit, prosectodato. Turn

uestisiar

ad

dextrum
da-

persi
tu,

persome

erus

pedem
to,

in fossam

magmentum

pue

sorso
\

purdinuestisiam
persi,

ubi (figmentum) suillum por-

39 sus.

Enom

rexerit.

Turn
ad

libamentum
dato.
in
ibi

staftarem

nertruco

ovillum

sinistrum

sururont erus dirstu.

Enom
\

itidem

magmentum

pesondro sorsalem persome, enden40 puepersnis fust, ife


du,pelsatu.
30

figmejitum suillum ubi precatus erit


nito,
sepelito.

pedem, Turn fossam


impo-

Enom pesondro
purtiius,

Turn figmentum
tune porrexeris, facito ovillum,
infigito,

fApi

efek 1

enuk
2

Ubi

id

sufum pesuntrum
31 uve,
2

feitu staf |lii

esmik vestica afiktu, ukri-

figmentum ei libamentum

pro arce

32 per Fisiu, tu taper Ikuvin|a 3 feitu, nertruku peri

Fisia, pro civitate

kapifeperum
|

33 feitu.

Puni

feitu.
4

rut
34 erus
zefef
1

purtiius,
titu,

Api suenuk hapinaru


|

Iguvina facito, ad sinistrum pedem capidi fossam facito. Posca facito. Ubi figmenta porrexeris, turn agnarum

zefef
5

kumultu,
|

magmentum
lito,
*

dato, sedens

commo-

kumates
2

pesnimu.
iuvesmik.

sedens commolitis precator.


Aes
purtitius,
5

Aes

erel.

Aes

stafli

Aes ikuvinp|a.

Aes kumats.

276
staflare persome,

Iguvinian Tables

rvi b 40L

Ib

1-

pue pesnis

ovillum in fossam, ubi precatus


erit,

fus, ife endendu, pelsatu.

ibi

imponito,

sepelito.

Enom uaso porsepesondrisco


41

Turn vasa quae


habuerit,

ad

figmenta

habus,

serse subra spahatu.


sersitu,

sedens

superiacito.

arnipo comatir pesnis fust. Serse serse comatir pisher comoltu,


42 43

Anderuomu

Inter

sedeto,

donicum

commolitis precatus erit. Sedens quilibet commolito, sedens commolitis precator.

persnimu.

Purditofust.

Porrectum erit.
loviam,

f Uocucom louiu, ponne oui furfant, uitlu torn trif


fetu.

Ad
facito.

aedem
Marti

cum
facito

ovis purgant, vitulos tauros tris

Marte

Horse

fetu

Hodio
Iguvina.

popluper
totaper
44 ferine
\

totar

liouinar,

pro populo civitatis Iguvinae,


pro
civitate

liouina.

Uatuo

Exta

fetu, poni fetu, aruio fetu, tases persnimu. Prosesetir fasio, ficla ars-

in ferculo

facito,

posca facito,

frumenta
Prosectis
dito.

facito, tacitus precator.

farrea,

offam

ad-

ueitu.

Suront naratu puse


\

uerisco Treblanir.
45

torn trif fetu.

\Uocucom Coredier Honde


popluper
totaper
totar

uitlu
Serfi
lio1

Item narrate ut ad portam Trebulanam. Ad aedem Coredii vitulos

tauros tris facito.


facito pro

Honto Cerrio
civitatis

fetu
uinar,

populo

Igu-

liouina.

vinae,
I

pro

civitate

Iguvina.

f Vukukum luviu, pune uvef 2 furfaG, tref vitluf turuf Marte


1
|

Ad
Hodio
Exta

aedem loviam, cum ovis


facito pro

purgant,tris vitulos tauros Marti

Hufie

fetu

pupluper

tutas
|

populo

civitatis

liuvinas,
3

tutaper
ferine

Ikuvina.
fetu,

Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina.


in ferculo
facito,

Vatuva
fetu,

puni

posca

arvia
|

ustentu,

kutep

f acito,f rumenta ostendito,murmu-

pesnimu

afepes arves.

J Vukukum Kureties tref vitlup turup Hunte Cefi feitu pupluper tutas liuvinas, tutaper
1

rans precator adipibus frumentis. Ad aedem Coredii tris vitulos


tauros

Honto Cerrio
civitatis

facito pro

populo
lioiiinnr.

Iguvinae, pro

Aes

VI b 41)1 Ib 11

Iguvinian Tables

277
facito,

46

Uatuo 1 ferine fetu, aruio fetu, heri uinu heri poni


\

Exta in ferculo
facito,
facito,

frumenta

vel

vino

fetu, tases

persnimu.

Pro-

tacitus
,

sesetir tesedi, field arsueitu. 2

sectis

posca Proprecator. offam addito.

vel

Suront naratu puse uerisco


Treblanir.
47

ocar pihos fust. esome esono anderSuepo uasetome uacose, fust ;

^Eno

Item narrato ut ad portam Trebulanam. Turn arx erit. piata


Sive \\orum sacrificiorwm intervacatio
sit,

in

vitiatum

erit;

auif aseriatu, uerofe Treblano


feitu.
48
|

avis observato, ad

portam Tre-

couertu,

reste

esono

bulanam

revertito, instaurans sa-

crificium facito.
heries,

\Pom poplo afero


auif aseriato etu.

Cum populum
avis

lustrare volet,
ito.

Sururo
Erir\

observatum
ut

Itidem
piandae.

stiplatu pusi ocrer pihaner.

stipulator

arcis

Sururont combifiatu.
49 ont

Itidem
finibus

nuntiato.
avis

Isdem
servato.

tuderus
angla

auif

seritu.

Ape

combifiansiust,

Ubi
virgam

oscines

nuntiaverit,
induitor.

perca arsmatiam anouihimu.


6 liuvina.
fetu,
7

ritualem

Vatuva
ustentu,

ferine

civitate Iguvina.
facito,

Exta in ferculo
vel

arvia

tenzitim
|

frumenta ostendito, vel

arveitu,
feitu,

hens vinu hens


kutef

puni
ari-

addito,
facito,

vino

posca

persnimu

murmurans

precator adierit.

pes arvis.
8

flnukukarpihazfust. Svepu esumek esunu antervakaze,


|

pibus frumentis. Tune arx piata


in vitiatum
sit ;

Sive

\\orum sacrifici0rww intervacatio


sit,

vacetumi se
9 verufe
restef
1

3
;

avif azeriatu,

avis observa-

Treplanu

kuvertu,
|

to, ad portam Trebulanam revertito,

esunu

feitu.

instaurans sacrificium facito.

JPune puplum aferum heries


avef
anzeriatu
4

Cum populum
avis

lustrare voles,
ito

etu

pernaiaf

observatum

anticas

11 pustnaiaf.
1

Pune

kuvurtus,

posticas.
3 4

Cum

reverteris,
.

Aes Uatue.
Aesjiclmrsueitu.

Aes vakazevasetumiseavif Aes anzvriatu.

278
I Cringatro
60

Iguvinian Tables
hatu,

rvi b 49L

ibll-

destrame

Cinctum
scapulam
ponito.

scapla anouihimu. Pir enPone esonome 1 dendu.


\

dextram capito, in induitor. Ignem im-

Cum
is

in

sacrificium

ferar,

pufe pir entelust, poe perca arsmatiam habiest. Erihont aso


ere fertu

feratur, id in

quo ignem impo-

ferto qui virgam ritusuerit, alem Idem arsum habebit.

destre onse fertu.


51

Erucom
perca

in

dextro umero ferto.

Cum
virgas

prinuatur dur
ponisiater

etuto,

eo

Jidbituto.

Ennom

legati calatoris

duo

eunto, habento.

Turn

stiplatu par/a desua seso, tote liouine. Sururont com-

stipulator
tiato

civitati Iguvinae.

parram prosperam sibi, Itidem nun-

uapefe auieclu. Neip desua 62 amboltu, prepa combifiansi. Ape desua


bifiatu
\

ad sellas auguralis. Neve ambulato, priusquam prosperam


nuntiaverit.

Ubi
via

prosperam
augurali

oombifiansiust, esonome etuto


sacris.

uia

auieda

nuntiaverit,

com peracris \Ape Acesoniame


\

in sacrificium eunto
hostiis.

cum

opimis
ter-

Ubi
stanto.

in

Acedoniam
Qui
virgam

63 hebetafe benust,

nuco stahituto.

enom termPoi per cam


'pisest

ad exitus venerit, turn ad

minum
ritualem

arsmatia habiest, eturstahmu.

habebit,
:

exterminate.

Eso
64 totar

eturstahmu:
|

Sic exterminate
civitatis

Tarsinater,

trifor

'quisquis est tribus Tadinatis,

f krenkatrum hatu.
12 pir

Enumek
ententu.

cinctum

capito.

Tune

ahtimem
pir

Pune
13

entelus
steplatu

ahtimem,

enumek
tesvam

14

tefe,

parfam tute Ikuvine. Va|

ignem ad caerimonium imponito. Cum ignem imposueris ad caerimonium, tune stipulator parram
prosperam
tibi, civitati

Iguvinae.

pefem aviekluf e kumpifiatu. Vea


15 avieklaesunumeetu. iPrinuvatu

Ad sellas auguralis nun tiato. Via


augurali in sacrificium ito. Legati eunto, virgas habento calatoris. Cum venies in Acedoniam,

etutu, perkaf habetutu punicate.


16.

JPune menes Akefuniamem, tuta etufstamu enumek


|

tune

exterminato

civitatem

17 Tafinate,

trifu

Tafinate,

Tadinatem, tribum Tadinatem,


.

!Aes esonomf ffrar

Iguvinian Tables
Tarsinater, Tuscer Naharcer

279
Tusci
ito
sit

Tadinatis,

Narci

labuscer nomner, eetu ehesu

lapudici

poplu. Nosue ier eke esupohabe esme 1 55 plu, sopir


\

populo.
pulo,
ius
est.'

nominis, Nisi itum

ex

hoc

siquis
facito

restat

ex hoc poin hoc

pople,
est.'

portatu

ulo

pue

populo, (eum) portato illuc quo


est,
illo

mersest, fetu

uru pirse mers

quod

ius

Trioper eheturstahamu. Ifont termnuco com prinu56 atir


|

Ter exterminato. Ibidem ad terminum cum legastato,

stahitu,

eno

deitu:

tis

turn

dicito

uinur\
57

^arsmahamo cater ahamo loEno com prinuatir


sacris

'ordinamini
vini'.

*catervamini

Igu-

Turn
sacris

cum"

legatis

peracris
benurent,

ambretuto.
\

opimis

ambiunto.

Ape ambrefurent, termnome


termnuco

com

ad terminum terminum cum venerint, apud


ambierint,
legatis
taciti:
sic

Ubi

prinuatir eso persnimumo tasetur : ^Serfe Martie, Pre58 stota Serfia Serfer Martier,
\

'Cerre
Cerria

stita

Tursa Serfia Serfer Martier,


totam
Tarsinatem,
trifo

Torra

Cerria

precantor Martie, PraeCerri Martii, Cerri Martii,

civitatem

Tadinatem,

tribum

59

Tarsinatem, Tuscom NaTiarcom labuscom nome, totar


\

Tadinatem,

Tuscum
nomen,

Narcum
civitatis

lapudicum

Turskum, Naharkum numem,


18

Tuscum,
restat,
est,

lapuzkum numem
habe,
est,

'
:
|

svepis

Narcum nomen lapudicum


facito
illo

nomen,
:

'siquis

pue mers feitu uru pefe


purtatulu

mefs
est'.
|

(eum) portato illuc

quo

ius

quod

ius

est'.

19

Pune prinuvatus staheren termnesku,

Cum
minos,

legati

stabunt

ad

ter-

enumek
et

'armamu

2
|

tune

'ordinamini

20 kateramu Ikuvinu'.

Enumek
Puni

*catervamini,

apretu tures

pure.

ambito
4

Iguvini'. tauris et igne.

Tune

Cum
Tune
amter

21 amprefu|us,persnimu.
*

Enumek
am-

ambieris,
itatote,

precator.
Iguvini'. ter precator,
Iguvini'.

etatu Ikuvinus'.
|

Triiuper

Ter

22 prehtu,
*

triiuperpesnimujtriiu'
.

bito,

per etatu Ikuvinus


i

Enumek

'itatote,
2

Tune

Aes/swe.

Aes armanu.

Iguvinian Tables
Tarsinater, trifor Tarsinater,
Tadiiiatis,

[VI b 59L

tribus

Tadinatis,

Tuscer Naharcer Tabuscer

Tusci

Narci

lapudici

nomner nerf
60 tu,

sihitu ansihi\

iouie

hostatu

anhos-

nominis principes cinctos incinctos, iuvenes hastatos inhastatos


terreto tremefacito, pessumdato
aboleto,

tatu tursitu tremitu,

hondu

holtu, ninctu nepitu, sonitu

ninguito inundato, sonato


*praeplauditato *praeCerre Martie, PraeCerri
Cerri
Martii,
Martii,

sauitu,
61 latu.
|

preplotatu Serfe
Martie,

preui-

sauciato,

Pre-

vinculato.
stita

stota Serjia Serfer Martier,

Cerria
Cerria
faventes

Tursa Serjia Serfer Martier, fututo foner pacrer pase


62 tote

Torra
estote

propitii

pace

uestrapopletotarliouinar, ero nerus liouine,


sihitir

vestra populo civitatis Iguvinae, civitati Iguvinae, eoriim principibus cinctis incinctis, iuveni-

ansihitir,

iouies
ero

hostatir

anostatir,

bus hastatis inhastatis,

nomne, erar nomne.'


63 este dersieurent, eno
'etato
\

Ape
deitu

eius nomini.' nomini, istud turn dicito dixerint,


'itatote

eorum Ubi

Iiouinur\ porse perca arsmatia habiest. Ape este


dersicust,
64 euront.
tuso,

ritualem
dixerit,

Iguvini', qui habebit. Ubi

virgam
istud

duti

ambretuto
\

Ape termnome

couor-

iidem.

ambiunto Ubi ad terminum reveritidem


precantor.
dicito,

iterum

sururont pesnimumo.
deitu, etaians dei-

sum
Itidem
cito.

erit,

Sururont
tu.

ut

eant

di-

Enom tertim ambretuto.


termnome
bemiso,

Ape

Turn tertium ambiunto. Ubi ad terminum ventum erit,


precantor,

65 sururont

pesnimumo, surur-

itidem
dicito

itidem

ont deitu etaias.

^Eno
\

pri-

ut
retro

eant.

Turn

le-

nuatur simo etuto erafont


uia, pora benuso.

gati
via,

eunto
erit.

eadem

qua ventum

VII
1

A
Itidem
precantor,

/Sururont pesnimumo, suEno ruront deitu etaias.

itidem

dicito

ut

eant.

Turn

23 |prinuvatuscimuetutu,erahunt

vea cimu etutu prinuvatus.

retro eunto, legati via retro eunto legati.

eadem

VIIa7
]

Iguvinian Tables

281
retro

prinuatur
2 uia, 3

Umo
\

etuto erafont
1
\

legati
via,

eunto
erit.

eadem
facito

pora

benuso.

qua ventum
rufos

^Fondlire air of triffetu


heriei

In Fontulis apros
vel vel

tris

rofu

heriei

peiu.

piceos.

totar

$erfe*Martiefeitupopluper Houinar, totaper


\

Cerro Martio facito pro populo


civitatis

Iguvinae, pro civitate

4 liouina.

poni
tases

Uatuoferinefeitu, aruio fetu, fetu,


Prosesetir
\

Iguvina.

Exta

in ferculo facito,
facito,

posca
tacitus

facito,

frumenta

persnimu.

precator.

Prosectis
addito.

mefa spefa, ficla arsueitu. Suront naratu puse uerisco


TreUanir.

libum

Ape

traha Saha-

ta combifianSust,
dirstu.
6
|

enom erus

Item portam Trebulanam. Ubi trans Sanctam nuntiaverit, turn magmentum


dato.

spar sum, offam narrato ut ad

$Rubine porca trifrofa ote


peia fetu Serfie Martier Serfer popluper to-

In Rubinia porcas

tris

ruf as aut

Pr estate
\

piceas facito Praestitae Cerriae Cerri Martii pro populo civitatis

tar liouinar, totaper louina.

Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina.

Persaia fetu, poni fetu, aruio fetu. Suront naratu

Humi stratas facito,


arvia
facito.

posca

facito,

pusi pre uerir


24

Treblanir.

ut

ante

Item narrato portam Trebulanam.


tris

f Funtlere trif apruf rufru ute peiu feitu Cerfe Marti.


ferine
3

25 Vatuvu
26 ustentu,

fetu,
4

arviu
|

apros rubros aut piceos facito Cerro Martio. Exta in ferculo facito, frumenta
ostendito,

In Fontulis

puni

fetu,
|

tacez

posca facito, tacitus

pesnimu afepe arves.


27

jRupinie
peia

e tre

purka rufra
Cer-

precator adipibus frumentis. In Rubinia tris porcas rubras

28 ute
fie

fetu

Prestate

aut piceas facito Praestitae Cerriae Cerri Martii.


cito,

Marties. Cerfe a

Pefaia fei|

Humi stratas fa-

29 tu,

arviu

ustentu,

kapi

frumenta ostendito, capides

sakra aitu, vesklu vetu atru


30 alfu, puni fetu,
afeper arves.
1
|
|

tacez

pesnimu

sacras agito, vascula dividito atra alba, posca facito, tacitus precator

adipibus frumentis.
VI b
to

Repetition of last sentence of

show connection
4

of

VII with VI.

Aes Seree.

Aes

ferime.

Acs

feiu.

282
8

Iguvinian Tables

[VII a 7-

Tases persnimu. Prosesetir


\

Tacitus
struem,

strusla, ficla arsueitu.

Ape

offam
retro
in

Prosectis precator. addito. Ubi


posuerit,

supo postro pepescus, enom


uesticatu ruseme pesclu 9 Prestote Serfie Serfer Mar\

suppa

turn
libatp

precatione Praestitae
tii

Cerriae

Cerri

Mar-

popluper totar louinar, to taper louina. Enomuesclir


tier

pro populo civitatis Iguvinae,

pro civitate Iguvina.


culis atris in

Turn vasMaratris

adrir ruseme esopersnihimu:


10 'Prestota

sic precator:

Serfer Serfia aduesclir tiom esir Martier,


\

'Praestita
tii,

Cerria
his

Cerri

te

vasculis

popluper totar liouinar, totaper liouina, erer nomrir


11 neper,

pro populo

civitatis

Iguvinae,

nomneper. Prestota Serfia Serfer Martier, preuendu uia ecla atero


\

erar

pro civitate Iguvina, pro populi nomine, pro civitatis nomine.


Praestita
advertito
civitati
nati,

Cerria
via

Cerri

Martii,

omni
tribui

malum
Tadi-

tote Tarsinate, trifo 12 te,


|

Tarsina-

Tadinati,

Tursce Naliarce labusce


totar

Tusco

Narco

lapudico
Tadinatis,

nomne,
trifor

Tarsinater,

nomini,
tribus

civitatis

Tarsinater,

Tuscer
\

Tadinatis,

Tusci

Naharcer labuscer nomner


13

Narci

lapudici

nominis

nerus

sitir ansihitir, iouies

principibus cinctis incinctis, iuve-

hostatir anostatir, ero


ne.

nom-

Prestota Serfia Serfer


totar

nibus hastatis inhastatis, eorum nomini. Praestita Cerria Cerri


Martii, esto favens propitia pace

14 Martier,futufons \pacerpase

tua pople
tote

liouinar,

tua populo
civitati

civitatis

Iguvinae,

liouine, erom nomne,

Iguvinae, eorum nomini,

erar nomne, erar nerus sihi16 tir ansihitir, iouies


\

eius nomini, eius principibus cinctis incinctis,

hostatir

iuvenibus hastatis
Praestita

anostatir.

Prestota Serfia Serfer Martier, saluomseritu

inhastatis.

Cerria
servato

Cerri

Martii,

salvum

poplom
16 serituu

totar liouinar, salua


\

populum
Praestita

civitatis Iguvinae, sal-

totam

Tiouinam.

vam servato civitatem Iguvinam.


Cerria
Cerri
Martii,

Prestota Serfia Serfer Martier,

saluo seritupopler totar


totar

salvum

servato populi civitatis


civitatis

liouinar,

liouinar

Iguvinae,

Iguvinae

VII a 26]
17

Iguvinian Tables
nerf,

283
ritus,

nome,

arsmo,

uiro,

nomen, principes,

viros,

pequo eastruo, frif salua seritu; futu fons pacer pase


tua pople totar liouinar,
18 tote
\

pecuwm

capita,

fruges

salvas

servato; estofavenspropitiapace

tua populo
civitati

civitatis

Iguvinae,

liouine,

erer

nomne,

erar nomne.

Prestota Ser-

Iguvinae, populi nomini, civitatis nomini. Praestita Cerria

fia Serfer Martier, tiom esir 19 uesclir adrer popluper totar


\

Cerri

Martii,

te

his

vasculis atris pro populo civitatis

liouinar,

totaper lorn-no, erer nomneper, erar nomne-

Tguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina,

Prestota Serfia $er20 fer Martier, tiom subocauu, Prestotar Serfiar Serfer
per.
\

pro populi nomine, pro civitatis nomine. Praestita Cerria Cerri

Martii,

te

Praestitae

Cerriae
fiducia

invoco, Cerri
te
in-

Martier foner frite tiom subocauu.'


21 deitu
:
\

Martii
voco.'
dicito:

faventis

Ennom persclu eso ^Prestota Serfia Ser-

Turn precatione sic 'Praestita Cerria Cerri


te

fer Martier, tiom isir uesclir adrir, tiom plener popluper


totar

Martii,
atris,

his

vasculis

te

liouinar,
erer

totaper

civitatis

plenis pro populo Iguvinae, pro civitate

22 liouina,

nomneper,
Prestota

Iguvina,

erar

nomneper.
1

Serfer Martier, tiom 23 subocauu. Prestotar Serfiar


Serfia
\

pro Cerria
Cerri
te

civitatis

pro populi nomine, Praestita nomine.


Cerri
Martii,
te

invoco.

Praestitae

Cerriae
fiducia
li-

Serfer Martier foner frite tiom subocauu. Enomuesticatu, ahatripursatu.


24

Martii
invoco.

faventis

Turn

Enom

bato, in

tripodato.

Turn

ruseme

persclu

uesticatu

Prestate Serfie Serfer Martier popluper totar liouinar, totaper louina. Ennom ues25 clir\ alfir persnimu,

libato precatione Martii Praestitae Cerriae Cerri

pro populo civitatis

Iguvinae,

superne adro trahuorfi andendu, eso


Martier,

pro civitate Iguvina. Turn vasculis albis super precator,


atra

transverse

persnimu: 'Prestota Serfia


26 Serfer

tiom

esir
1

precator: Cerri Martii,


Serfiar.

imponito, sic Cerria 'Praestita


te

his

Aes

1284

Iguvinian Tables

[Vila

26-

uesclir alfir

popluper totar

vasculis albispro populo civitatis

liouinar,

totaper liouina, erer nomneper, erar nomne\

27 per.

Prestota Serfia $erfer Martier, ahauendu uia ecla


atero pople totar liouinar,
tote

Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina, pro populi nomine, pro civitatis nomine. Praestita Cerria Cerri
Martii,
avertito

via

omni

malum populo civitatis Iguvinae,


civitati Iguvinae, populi civitatis

liouine,
\

28 louinar,

popler totar totar liouinar


anihitir,
io-

Iguvinae, civitatis Iguvinae

nerus

sihitir

principibus cinctis incinctis, iu-

uies hostatir anhostatir, era

venibus hastatis inhastatis, eorum


Praestita nomini, eius nomini. Cerria Cerri Martii, salvum
servato

nomne, erar nomne. Prestota


29 Serfia

Serfer Martier, sal-

seritu poplo totar liouinar, salua seritu totam

uom

populum

civitatis

Igu-

vinae, salvam servato civitatem

liouinam.

Prestota Serfia

Iguvinam.
Cerri

Praestita

Cerria

30 Serfer\Martier,saluom seritu

Martii, salvum servato

popler totar liouinar, totar liouinar nome, nerf, arsmo,


31

populi civitatis Iguvinae,civitatis

Iguvinae nomen, principes, ritus,


viros, pecuum capita, fruges salvas servato, esto favens propitia

pequo castruo, frif salua seritu, futu fans pacer pase tua pople totar lio\

uiro,

pace tua populo civitatis Igu-

uinar,

tote

liouine,

erer

vinae, civitati Iguvinae, populi

nomne, erar nomne.


32 stota
|

Pre-

Serfia Serfer Martier, tiom esir uesclir alfer poplutotar liouinar,

Praenomini, civitatis nomini. stita Cerria Cerri Martii,


te his vasculis albis
lo civitatis Iguvinae,

pro popupro civitate

per
33

totaper
\

liouina, erernomneper, erar

nomneper. Prestota Serfia Serfer Martier, tiom subocauu,

Iguvina, pro populi nomine, pro civitatis nomine. Praestita Cerria


Cerri
Martii,
te

invoco,

PrestotartferfiarSerferMar34 tierfonerfrite tiom\subocauul

Praestitae
tii

Cerriae

Cerri
te
sic

Mar-

faventis fiducia

invoco.'

JSnnom persclu

eso persni-

Turn
tor
:

precatione
'Praestita
te

mu:
35 fer,

''Prestota Serfia feerfer


alto-

Cerria
vasculis

precaCerri
albis,

Martier, tiom isir uesclir

Martii,
te

his

tiomplener popluper
\

plenis pro

populo

civitatis

VII a 421
I

b 31-33

Iguvinian Table*

285

tar lion inar, totaper ]'> n in a, erer nomneper, erar nomne-

Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina,

per. Prestota Serfia Serfer 30 Martier,tiom \subocauu,Prestotar Serfiar Serfer

pro populi nomine, pro civitatis nomine. Praestita Cerria Cerri


Martii,
stitae
te

invoco,

PraeMartii
invoco'.

Martier

Cerriae
fiducia
libato,

Cerri
te

foner frite tiom subocauu*.

faventis

JEnom uesticatu,ahatripursa37 tu.


|

Turn
in patera

tripodato.

Uestisa et mefa spefa

Libamentum

et

libum spar sum


facito Fiso-

scalsie conegos

fetu Fisoui
totar

genu nixus

Sansii
liouinar,
38

popluper
totaper

liouina.

vio Sancio pro populo civitatis Iguvinae, pro civitate Iguvina.

Suront naratu puse post uerir

Tesonocir.
ditu.

Uestisiar
uestisia

erus

Enno

39 efurfatu,

mefa spefa sopam purome subra spahamu, traf Sahatam etu. Ape traha Sahata couortus, ennom co\

Item narrate ut post portam Tesenacam. Libamenti magmentum dato. Turn libamentum, libum sparsum sub ig-

nem
trans

expurgato,

superiacito,

Ubi trans Sanctam ito. Sanctam reverterit, turn comprecator. sacras Capides agito. Trans Sanctam vitulas tris
facito

moltu, comatir persnihimu. 40 Capif sacra aitu.


|

molito,

commolitis

41

f Trahaf Sahate uitla trif feetu Turse Serfie Serfer

Torrae

Cerriae

Cerri

Martier popluper totar


uinar,
42

lio-

Martii pro populo civitatis Iguvinae,


,

totaper
fetu,

liouina.

pro

civitate

Iguvina.
facito,

Persaea

poni

\fetu,

Humi stratas facito,


frumenta
Prosectis
addito.

posca

aruio fetu, tases persnimu. Prosesetir strusla, ficlam


arsueitu.

facito, tacitus precator.

Suront naratu pu-

offam struem, narrato ut Item

se uerisco Treblaneir.

Ape

ad portam

Trebulanam.

Ubi

31

fTra Sate tref vitlaf feitu Tuse Cerfie Cerfe Marties.


feitu,

32 Pefaia
tetu,

arviu
tacez

uspes-

Trans Sanctam tris vitulas facito Torrae Cerriae Cerri Martii. Humi stratas facito, frumenta ostendito, posca facito, tacitus pre-

puni
|

fetu,

33

nimu

afeper

arves.

Pune

cator adipibus frumentis.

Cum

286
43 \purdinsiust,

Iguvinian Tables
carsitu,

rviia43Ib33vocato,

pufe

porrexerit,

quo

loco

dbrons facurent, puse erus dersa. Ape erus dirsust,postro

apros
det.

fecerint,

ut
in
det.

magmentum
dederit,

Ubi magmentum
nuntiato

44 erus

combifiatu dersa.

Rubiname,

retro

Rubiniam,

Enem

traha
erus

ut

magmentum

Turn trans

Sahatam
dersa.

combifiatu,

Enem Rubiname poscomatir


couer\

Sanctam nuntiato, magmentum Turn in Rubiniam retro det.


revertito, commolito, commolitis

tro couertu, comoltu,

45

persnimuet capif sacra aitu.

Enom
mu.
46

traha Sahatam

precator et capides sacras agito. Turn trans Sanctam revertito,

tu, comoltu,

comatir persnihi\

commolito, commolitis precator.

Enom pur ditomfust.


pane

Postertio

poplo

andirsafust, parse perca arsmatia habiest et prinuatur

durtefruto Tursaresotasetur\
47

Turn porrectum erit. Postquam tertium populum lustraverit, qui virgam rituet alem habebit legati duo ex rogo Torrae sic taciti
Torra lovia, precantor: civitatem Tadinatem, tribumTa4

persnihimumo^Tursalouia,
tot

am

Tarsinatem,

trifo

Ta-

rsinatem,
48

Tuscom Naharcom
\

dinatem,
dinatis,

Tuscum
tribus

Narcum
TaTadinatis,

lapusco nome, totar


nater,
trifor

Tarsi-

lapudicum nomen,

civitatis

Tarsinater,

Tuscer Naharcer lapuscer nomner nerf sihitu ansihitu,

Tusci Narci lapudici nominis principes cinctos incincvocato, ubi apros ut fecerint, magmentum det. Ubi magmentum dederit, retro nuntiato in

fpurtincus, kafetUjpufeapruf
34 fakurent, puze erus tefa.

porrexeris,

Ape
tefa.
|

35 erus

terust,

pustru

kupifia-

tu

Rupiname,
tra
tefa.

erus

Rubiniam, magmentum det.


trans

Ene
36 erus

Sahta

kupifiaia,

Enu

Rupiname
|

37 pustru kuvertu,

antakre

kukapi

mate pesnimu.
sakra
38
aitu,

Enu
kuvertu,

Sanctam nunties, magmentum det. Turn in Rubiniam retro revertito, integris comTurn capides molitis precator.
Turn
sacras
agito,

vesklu

vetu.

vascula

dividito.

Enu
kre

Satame

anta-

Turn in Sanctam

revertito, inte-

kumate pesnimu.
|

Enu

gris commolitis precator.

Turn

39 esunu

purtitu fust.

sacrificium porrectum

erit.

VII a 54]

Ib45

Iguvinian Tables
hostatu
tremitu,

287

iouie 49 tursitu

anostatu

tos,

iuvenes hastatos inhastatos

hondu
pre-

terreto tremefacito, pessumdato


aboleto,

holtu, ninctu nepitu, sunitu

ninguito inundato,sou&to
*praeplauditato *prae-

sauitu,
uislatu.
50
|

preploliotatu

sauciato,

Tursa louia, futu


tote

vinculato.

Torra

lovia,

esto

fons pacer pase tua pople


totar
ne,

favens propitia pace tua populo


civitatis

louinar, erar nerus

louisihitir

Iguvinae, civitati Iguprincipibus


cinctis
in-

vinae, eius
incinctis,
hastatis,

ansihitir, iouies hostatir an51 hostatir,

iuvenibus hastatis

erom

nomne, erar

eorum
Istud

nomini,
ter

eius
dicito.

nomne.'

Este trioper deitu.

nomini.'

\JEnom
situtOj

iuenga peracrio tur-

Turn iuvencas ex
to,

opimis. fugan-

parse perca arsmatia

te habiestet

\prinuatur. Hondra furo sehemeniar hatuto


pisi
heriest.

ritualem qui virgam habebit et Infra legati.

forum
civitatis
tris

seminarium

capiunto

totar
trif
53

Pafe

quisquis volet.

Quas

promom

haburent, eaf

primum

Acersoniem \fetu Turse Iouie popluper totar liouinar, totaper louina. Suront na-

in

Acedonia

eas ceperint, facito Torrae loviae


civitatis

pro populo

Iguvinae,

ratu puse uerisco Treblanir.


54

Aruio fetu, \persaea fetu,


strusla,ficla prosesetir arsueitu, tases persnimu^ponifetu.\

Item narrafo ut ad portam Trebulanam. Frumenta facito, humi stratas fapro civitate Iguvina.
cito,
to,

struem, offamprosectis addi-

tacitus precator, posca facito.

40

pane puplu fPustertiu 1 iveka atefafust, perakre tusetu


)

lustra verit, iuvencam

Postquam tertium populum opimam f u-

41 super

kumne

affertur, prinuva|

42 tu tuf tusetutu,

hutra furu

sehmeniar hatutu.
43 tre
44 luvie.
fetu,

Eaf iveka
fetu

gato super comitio flamen, legati duas fuganto, infra forum seminarium capiunto. Eas iuvencas tris
loviae.

Akefunie

Tuse
|

Acedoniae

facito Torrae

Arviu
pefaia

ustetu,
fetu,
|

puni
tacez

Frumenta ostendito, posca facito, humi stratas facito, tacitus precator adipibus frumentis.

pesnimu afepe arves.


45
Titis Teteies.

Kvestretieusaie svesu Vuvcis

Quaestura
Tetteius Titif.
tuseiu.

sua

Lucius

Aes

288

Iguvinian Tables

[VII b 1-4

la 1-

VII
1

B
Quisquis quandoque magister Atiediis erit, is suo
portet
hostias

PisipanupeifratrexfratrusAtiersierfust, erec sueso

fratribus

fratrecate portaia seuacne 2 fratrom Atiersio desenduf,


\

magisterio
fratrura

Atiedium
re

duodecim,
par est iuvencae

pifi

reper fratreca parsest


ehiato,

quas pro
esse

collegii

erom
3

ponne iuengar
\

emissas,

cum

tursiandu hertei,

appei ar-

fugentur
Atiediis
rit.

oportet,

ubi

flamen

fertur Atiersir poplom andersafust.

Sue neip portust


est,
a.

Si
uti

populum non

lustrave-

portaverit

issocpusei subrascrehto

4/ratreci motar sins

CCO.

supra scriptum est, magistro multae sint asses CCC.


ita,

I
1

A
Istud sacrincium avibus observatis
inito

Este

persklum aves anzer|

2 iates enetu

pernaies pusnaes.

anticis

posticis.

Preveres

Treplanes

luve

Ante portam Trebulanam lovi


Grabovio
tris

Krapuvi tre buf fetu. Arvia ustentu, vatuva fe4 rinefeitu, heris vinu heri puni,
|

boves facito.
ostendito, exta in

Frumenta

5 ukriper 6 vina

Fisiu,

tutaper
|

Ikukutef

feitu.

Sevum

ferculo facito, vel vino vel posca, pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina facito. Totum murmurans

pesnimu
7

afepes arves.

precator adipibus frumentis.


tref

Pusveres

Treplanes
|

8 sif

kumiaf

feitu

Trebe luvie
Ikuvi-

Post portam Trebulanam tris sues gravidas facito Trebo lovio


pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Suppa sumito, frumenta ostendito, posca facito,

ukriper Fisiu,
9 na.
10 tu,
|

tutaper

Supa sumtu, arvia ustenpuni


fetu,
*
|

kutef
|

murmurans
tris

pesnimu
11

afepes

arves. 1

precator adipibus frumentis.


tre

Preveres

Tesenakes
I

Ante portam Tesenacam


boves
facito,

12 buf fetu,

Marte Krapuvi

fetu

Marti Grabovio

faci-

ukripe Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina.


13

Arviu ustentu,

vatuva ferine
1

to pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Frumenta ostendito, exta in


afe*arv*es.

Aes

I a 30]

Iguvinian Tables
puni
fetu,
|

289

fetu,

kutef

pesnimu afpes arves.


14
15 sif

ferculo facito,posca f acito,murmurans precator adipibus fru mentis.

Pusveres
feliuf

Tesenakes
fetu

tref

Post portam Tesenacam

tris

Fise

Sa$i

sues lactentis facito Fisio Sancio

ukriper
16 vina.
17 arviu
ti$a
|

Fisiu,

tutaper

Iku-

Puni

fetu,

supa sumtu,
Mefa,
vesfetu,
|

na.

pro arce Fisia, pro civitate IguviPosca facito, suppa sumito,

ustentu.
ustetu,

frumenta ostendito. Libum,liba-

Fisuvi
fetu,

mentum ostendito, Fisovio facito,


pro
arce
Fisia
facito,

18 ukriper

Fisiu
sakref,

kapif pur-

capides

purtitaf
19 titaf,

etraf

etraf

sakref,

tutaper

porrectas sacras, alteras porrectas, alteras sacras, pro civitate

Ikuvina.
afepes arves.
|

Kutef

pesnimu
tref

Iguvina.

Murmurans

precator
tris

adipibus frumentis.
buf
|

20

Preveres
kalefuf

Vehiies
fetu

Ante portam Veiam


frontem

boves

Vufiune
Fisiu,

21 Krapuvi

ukriper
|

22 tutaper Ikuvina.
fetu,

Vatuva
heri

ferine
|

albam habentis facito Voviono Grabovio pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Exta in ferculo facito, vel vino vel posca,

heri

vym

puni,

23 arviu

ustentu,
|

kutef

frumenta ostendito, murmurans


precator adipibus frumentis.

pesnimu afepes arves.


24
25 naf fetu Tefre luvie
Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvina.

Pusveres Vehiies tref hapi|

ukriper

Puste
|

Post portam Veiam tris agnas facito Tefro lovio pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina. Post
facito,

26 asiane fetu, zefef fetu,


fetu,

pelsana

arvia
tacez

ustentu,

puni
afiper

frumenta ostendito, posca

27 fetu,
arvis.

pesnimlu

facito, tacitus precator adipibus

Api habina
|

purtiius,

28

sufum pesuntru
vesticam

fetu,

esmik
fiktu,

frumentis. Ubi agnas porrexeris, figmentum suillum facito, ei

preve

libamentum

singillatim

figito,

29 Tefri luvi fetu ukrilper Fisiu,


tutaper
pefi kapife

Ikuvina,

testruku

Tefro lovio facito pro arce Fisia, pro civitate Iguvina, ad dextrum

pefum
2

feitlu.

pedem
enuk

30

Api

efek

purtiius,

Ubi
2

capidi fossam facito. id tune porrexeris,


facito
efel.

sufum pesuntrum
1

feitu staf|lii

figmentum
Aes

ovillum,

Acs

fiiuvi.

290
31 uve,

Iguvinian Tables
esmik 1 vestica
afiktu, ukri2

[I

a 31-

ei

libamentum

infigito,

pro arce

32 per Fisiu, tutaper Ikuvin a

fei-

tu, nertruku peri kapifeperum

33 feitu.
ruf

Puni

feitu.
3

Api su-

purtiius,
titu,

enuk hapinaru
|

Iguvina facito, ad sinistrum pedem capidi f ossam facito. Posca facito. Ubi fiymenta porrexeris, turn agnarutn,

Fisia, pro civitate

34 erus
zefef

zefef
4

kumultu,
|

magmentum
lito,

dato, sedens

commo-

kumates

pesnimu.

sedens coinmolitis precator.

I
1

Vukukum
Hufie
fetu

luviu, pune uvef


|

Ad
Hodio
Exta

aedem loviam, cum ovis


facito pro

2 furfaO, tref vitluf turuf

Marte
tutas
|

purgant,tris vitulos tauros Marti

pupluper

populo

civitatis

liuvinas,
3

tutaper
ferine

Ikuvina.
fetu,

Vatuva
fetu,

puni

Iguviiiae, pro civitate Iguvina. in ferculo facito, posca

arvia
|

ustentu,

kutep

pesnimu

afepes arves.

facito,frumentaostendito,murmu. rans precator adipibus frumentis.

Vukukum Kureties tref vitlup


5 turup

Ad
tauros

aedem Coredii

tris

vitulos

Hunte

^e|fi

feitu

pu-

Honto Cerrio
civitatis

facito pro

pluper tutas liuvinas, tutaper


6 liuvina.
fetu,
7

populo
facito,

Iguvinae, pro

Vatuva
ustentu,

ferine

civitate Iguvina.

Exta

in ferculo

arvia

tenzitim
|

frumenta ostendito, vel

arveitu, heris vinu heris


feitu,

puni
afi-

addito,
facito,

vino

vel

posca
adi-

kutef

persnimu

murmurans precator
erit.

pes arvis.
8

Inuk ukar pihaz fust. Svepu esumek esunu antervakaze,


vacetumi se
6
;

pibus frumentis. Tune arx piata

Sive

liorum sacrinciorww intervacatio


sit,

avif azeriatu,

in vitiatum sit ; avis observa-

9 verufe
restef
10

Treplanu

kuvertu,
|

to,
to,

adportamTrebulanamrevertiinstaurans sacrificium facito.

esunu

feitu.

Pune puplum aferum


avef

heries,
f

Cum populum
avis

lustrare voles,
ito

anzeriatu

etu

pernaia

observatum

anticas

11 pustnaiaf.

Pune

kuvurtus,

posticas.

Cum
capito.
6
6

reverteris,

krenkatrum hatu.
1

Enumek
3

cinctum

Tune
.

Aes Aes

stafli

iuvesmik.

ikuvinp|a.

Aes purtitius. Aes kumats.

Aes vakazevacjetumiseavif Aes anzvriatu.

Ib29]
12 pir

Iguvinian Tables

291

ahtimem
pir

ententu.

Pune
13

entelus
steplatu

ahtimem,

enumek
tesvam

14

tefe, tute Ikuvine.

parfam Va|

ignem ad caerimonium imponito. Cum ignem imposueris ad caerimonium, tune stipulator parram
prosperam
tibi, civitati

Iguvinae.

pefem avieklufe kumpifiatu.

Vea

Ad sellas auguralis nuntiato. Via


augurali in sacrificium ito. Legaeunto, virgas habento calatoris. Cum venies in Acedoniam,
ti

15 avieklaesunumeetu. Prinuvatu

etutu, perkaf habetutu punicate.


16

Pune

menes

Akehmiamem,
tuta
Tafinate,

enumek
17 Tafinate,

etufstamu
trifu
|

tune

exterminate-

civitatem

Tadinatem, tribum Tadinatem,

Turskum, Naharkum numem,


18

Tuscum,
restat,
est,

lapuzkum
babe,
est, feitu

numem

' :
|

svepis

Narcum nomen lapudicum


(eum) portato
illo

nomen,
:

purtatulu

mefs pue uru pefe mers est'.

illuc

quo

'siquis ius
est'.

facito

quod
.

ius

19

Pune prinuvatus staheren termnesku,

Cum
minos,

legati

stabunt

enumek
et

'armamu

1
|

tune
et

ad ter'ordinammi

20 kateramu

IkuvinuV

Enumek
Puni

*catervamini,

Tguvini'.
igne.

Tune

apretu tures

pure.

ambito tauris
ambieris,
'itatote,

Cum
Tune
amter

21 amprefu|us,persnimu.
4

Enumek

precator.
Iguvini'. ter precator, Iguvini'. retro eunto,

etatu Ikuvinus'.
|

Triiuper am-

Ter

22 prehtu,

triiuperpesnimujtriiu-

bito,

per 'etatu Ikuvinus'.

Enumek]

'itatote,

23 prinuvatus cimu etutu, erahunt

legati

Tune eadem

vea cimu etutu prinuvatus.


24

via retro eunto legati.

Funtlere

trif

apruf
Cerfe

rufru
|

ute peiu
25

feitu

Marti.

In Fontulis tris apros rubros aut piceos facito Cerro Martio.

Vatuvu

ferine

fetu,
3

arviu
|

Exta in ferculo
ostendito,

facito,

frumenta

26 ustentu,

puni

fetu,
|

tacez

posca facito, tacitus

pesnimu afepe arves.


27

Rupinie e tre
peia
fetu

purka rufra
|

precator adipibus frumentis. In Rubinia tris porcas rubras

28 ute
fie

Prestate

Cer-

Cerfe Marties.

Pefaia fei|

aut piceas facito Praestitae Cerriae Cerri Martii. Humi stratas facito,

29 tu,

arviu

ustentu,

kapi

frumenta ostendito, capides


3

sakra aitu, vesklu vetu atru


1

sacras agito,vascula dividito atra


Aes
f crime.

Aes armanu.

Aes

feiu.

292
30 alfu, puni fetu,
afeper arves.
31
|

Iguvinian Tables
tacez

[I

b 29-45

pesnimu

alba, posca f acito,tacitus precator

adipibus frumentis.
vitlaf
feitu
|

Tra

Sate tref
Cerfie feitu,

Trans Sanctam tris vitulas f acito Torrae Cerriae Cerri Martii.

Tuse
32 Pefaia
tetu,

erfe

Marties.

arviu
tacez

uspes-

Humi stratas facito, frumenta


cator adipibus frumentis. porrexeris, vocato, ubi
fecerint, ut

os-

puni
|

fetu,

tendito, posca facito, tacitus pre-

33

nimu

afeper

arves.

Pune
|

Cum
apros

purtingus, kafetu, pufe apruf


34 fakurent, puze erus tefa.

Ape
tefa.
|

magmentum

det.

Ubi

35 erus

tefust,

pustru

kupifia-

tu

Rupiname,
tra
tefa.

erus

magmentum dederit, retro nuntiato in Rubiniam, magmentum det.


Sanctam nunties, Turn in Rubimagmentum niam retro revertito, integris commolitis precator. Turn capides
trans
det.

Ene
36 erus

Santa

kupifiaia,

Turn

Enu

Rupiname
|

37 pustru kuvertu,

antakre

kukapi

mate pesnimu.
sakra
38
aitu,

Enu

vesklu
kuvertu,

vetu.

sacras

agito,

vascula

dividito.

Enu
kre

Satame

anta-

Turn in Sanctam

revertito, inte-

kumate pesnimu.
|

Enu
puplu

39 esunu

purtitu fust.

Turn gris commolitis precator. sacrincium porrectum erit.


lustra verit,iuvencam

40

Pustertiu

pane

1 atefafust, iveka perakre tusetu

Postquam tertium populum opimam fu-

41 super

kumne

affertur, prinuva|

42 tu tuf tusetutu,

hutra furu

ti

gato super comitio flamen, legaduas fuganto, infra forum

sehmeniar hatutu.
43 tre
44 luvie.
fetu,

Eaf iveka
fetu

Akefunie

Tuse
|

seminarium capiunto. Easiuvencas tris Acedoniae facito Torrae


loviae.

Arviu
pefaia

ustetu,
fetu,
I

puni
tacez

Frumenta ostendito, pos-

pesnimu
45

afepe arves.

ca facito, Tiumi stratas facito, tacitus precator adipibus frumentis.

Kvestretieusaie svesu Vuvgis


Titis Teteies.

Quaestura
Tetteius Titif.

sua Lucius

Acs

tuseiu.

II a 1-17]

Iguvinian Tables
II

293

Pune karne
aviekate
estu

speturie Atiiefie
|

Cum carni*spectoriae Atiediae


auspicatae nuntiatio mutaverit,
ista sacrificia facito

naraklum
fetu

vurtus,

esunu

fratrusper
|

pro

fratri-

3 Atiiefie.

Eu
'pefe

esunu
karne

esu

bus Atiediis.
nuntiato:
'si

Ea

sacrificia sic

naratu
4 tie

spetu|

carni *spectoriae

Atiiefie

aviekate
fetu

aiu

Atiediae auspicatae

urtu fefure,
5 eretu'.

puze
Sace
|

neip
sa-

agitationes ortae fuerint, facito quasi non

Vesti9e

consul to'. Vesticio Sancio hosti-

kre,

luvepatre

bum
erietu

perakne,
restatu.
|

Speture
6 luvie

perakne

am, lovi patri bovem sollemnem, hostiam instaurato. Spectori


lovio

unu
fetu.

sakre

unum

arietem sacrificum
facito.

pelsanu
7 tu,
|

Arviu

ustenpes-

sepeliendum

Frumenta os-

puni
afepe
I

fetu,

tacez

nimu
tru

arves.

Pune
pesuluvie,
fetu.
1

tendito, posca facito, tacitus precator adipibus frumentis.

Cum

8 purtiius,

unu

sufu

fetu
|

tikamne
pefu
preve
sufu,

porrexeris, tum facito

unum

suillum jigmenlovio,

dedicatione

9 kapife

capidi fossam singillatim facito.

Ape
10 tetu.

purtiius

erus

kumaltu, kuAhtu luvip. mate pesnimu.


peraknem
arviu
|

Enu

Ubi porrexeris suillum, magmentum dato. Turn commolito, commolitis precator. Actui lovi patri

11

uve
fetu,

pefaem
puni
|

ovem sollemnem humi stratum


frumenta ostendito, posca facito. Actui Marti aprum sollemnem facito,f rumenta ostenfacito,

ustentu,

fetu.

Ahtu

Marti

abrunu

12 perakne
tu, fasiu
13 pefae
fetu,

fetu,

arviu

uste|

prusecete afveitu,
fetu,

dito, farrea prosectis addito, (sac-

puni
fetu.
)
|

tra

ekvine

14 15

Acetus perakne fetu.

humi stratum facito, posca facito, trans equinum facito. Ancitibus hostiam facito.
rificium)

Huntia katle

ticel
|

stakaz
anterHeriiei

Hontia catuli dedicatio statuta


est

16 est

sume

ustite
cersiaru.
|

summa

tempestate intermen-

menzaru
17

struarum *cenariarum. Voluerit


facere flamen, avibus observatis

faiu

affertur, avis

anzeriates

menzne kurclasiu

facia ticit.
1

mense ultimo
Aes
purtiiusuru.

faciat decet.

294
18

Iguvinian Tables
Huntia
fertu

[II a 17-

katlu,

ar-

Hontia

ferto

catulum,

fru-

via,

struhcla,
1

fikla,
|

pune,

19 vinu, salu klu,

maletu,

mantrahasnata,
|

menta, struem, offam, poscam, vinum, salem molitum, mantele,

veskla
fertu,

snata

20

umen
tentu.

Pir

ase

an-

vascula umecta non umecta, unguen ferto. Ignem arae imSacrificium posca f acito. Honto lovio impendito catu-

Esunu puni

feitu.

ponito.

Hunte luvie ampentu


21 tlu,

ka-

sakre sevakne, Petrunianatine


|

per

fratru

Atiiefiu.

lum, hostiam sollemnem, proPetronia natione fratrum Atiedium.


Sacrificium

22

Esunu
Katies

pefae

futu.
sufafiaf

humi stratum

esto.

supa
|

hahtu,

Catuli suppa capito, partis ex ser-

23 supaf hahtu.

Berus aplenies
krematra

prusecia
24 aplenia
tu.
1

kartu,

tassuppascapito. Veribus iriipletis prosicias distribuito,*crematra

sutentu.

Peru

seri-

impleta supponito.
to.

Pedem servali-

Arvia puni purtuvitu vesti-

Frumenta posca porricito,


tripodato,
in

25"katu ahtrepufatu, pustin ancif


vinu. Nuvis ahtrepufatu, *tiu
26 puni tiu vinu'
frehtef
fertu.
|

bato, vino.

vices
'te

Noviens
te

tripodato,
dicito,

teitu, berva

posca
fricta
feret,

vino'

verua,

Pure nuvime
|

ferto.

Cum

nonum
ferto.

27 ferest, krematruf

sumel fertu.
persnihmu.
|

*crematra simul

Vesticia

pefume
tuva

28 Katies

tefra,

terti

erus

prusekatu.

Isunt
Struhcla
|

Libamento in fossam precator. Catuli duo carnes cremandas, tertmmmagmentumproseczio. Item


Struem, prosecato. offam addito. Catulum porricito,
precator,

krematru prusektu.

*crematra

29 fikla afveitu. Katlu purtuvitu,

ampefia persnihmu,
30 karne

aseceta

non

secta

persnihmu,

venpersun-

carne

precator,

tra 2 persnihmu.
31 pertentu.

Supa spantea
vufetes

ticia precator.

fic(carne) lateralia Suppa

Veskles

protendito.
precator,
to,

Vasculis
libato,

votis

persnihmu vestikatu ahtrepu32 fatu


|

tripoda-

arpeltu statitatu.
perstu.

Supa
erus

admoveto,

statuito.

pustra

lepru

retro ponito.

Suppa magmen-

mani kuveitu.
1

tum manu
8

congerito.

expressed by the san Aes eenpersuntra.

(25, a).

II b 3]

Iguvinian Tables
etu.
fertu.

295
ito.

33

Spinamaf
kapifus

Tuvere
Berva,

Ad

columnam

Duabus

in

pune

34 klavlaf ajanfehtaf, vesklu sna-

capidibus poscam ferto. Verua, clunis non coctas, vascula umecta

tu asnatu,
35

umen

fertu.
|

Kapife Hunte

luvie vesti-

non umecta, unguen ferto. Capide Honto lovio libato

katu Petruniaper 1 natine fratru


36 Atiiefiu.

Berus

sevaknis

pro Petronia natione fratrum Atiedium. Veribus sollemnibus

persnihmu pert
37 klavles

spinia.
|

Isunt
Veskles

persnihmu.
asnates

Item precator trans columnam. clunibus precator. Vasculis


umectis non umectis sollemnibus ad columnam precator, libato,
tripodato.

snate

sevaknis
|

spiniama persnihmu vestikatu


38 ahtrepufatu.

Spina

umtu,

Columnam unguito,
sollemni
ara lavito.
precator.

umne
39

sevakni
|

persnihmu.

unguine

Manf easa

vutu.
kuvertu.

Manus ex
Asaku
|

Asama
40 Esuf

Adaramrevertito.

Apudaram

vinu sevakni tacez persnihmu.

vino sollemni tacitus precator.


Ipse
oportet, magmentum dato. Vinum, poscam congerito, dato. Struis, offae, partis exser-

pusme
teftu.

herter,

erus

quem

kuveitu
41 teftu.
fias
|

Vinu,

pune

Struhclas, fiklas, sufa-

kumaltu.
|

Kapife punes

tae

42 vepuratu.

Antakres
2

kuma-

Capide poscae (ignem)restinguito. Integris commolitis


precator.

commolito.

tes persnihmu.
statita

Amparihmu, Esunu subahtu.


|

statuta

deponito.
esto.

Surgito, Sacrificium

43 purtitu

futu.
I

Katel

asaku

porrectum

Catulus apud
esto.

pelsans futu.

aram sepeliendus
Quaestura
Tetteius Ti. f.
II

44
cis

Kvestretie usace svesu Vuv-

sua

Lucius

Ti Teteies.

B
Sementivis decuriis suem, caprum deligito. Decuriales familiae

Semenies tekuries sim ka-

prum

upetu.

Tekvias

famefi-

as pumpefias XII.
3 etre
Atiiefiate,
|

'Atiiefiate,

*quincuriaeXII. 'Atiediati,
Atiediati,

Klaverniie,

alter!

Claverniis,

etre Klaverniie, Kureiate, etre


1

alteris Claverniis, Curiati, alteri


2

Aes petruniapert.

Aes persmhniu.

296
4

Iguvinian Tables
Satanes, etre Satane,
Tale-

[II b 3-

Kureiate,

Curiati, Satanis, alteris Satanis,


Peiediati, alter! Peiediati, Talenati,
alter!

Peiefiate, etre Peiefiate,


5 nate,
|

etre Talenate, Museiate,


|

Talenati,

Musiati,

6 etre Museiate, luieskane,

etre

alter! Musiati, luiescanis, alteris

luieskanes, Kaselate, etre Kase7 late,

luiescanis, Casilati, alter! Casilati,

tertie Kaselate,

Peraz-

tertiae

Casilati,

Peras-

nanie' teitu.

naniis' dicito.

Afmune
8 Si

luve

patre

fetu.

pera|kne,

sevakne

upetu
naratu.

Admoni lovi patri facito. Suem sollemnem, hostiam deligito, voveto.

eveietu.

Sevakne
|

Hostiam nuntiato.

Arviu

ustetu,
1

eu

naratu

Frumenta

ostendito, ea nuntiato

puze fa^efele
10

sevakne.

Heri

puni

heri vinu fetu.

Va-

quasi *sacrificabilem hostiam. Vel posca vel vino facito. Ture (su-

putu
11

Saci

ampetu.

Kapru
ampetu,
Ife

em) Sancio impend! to.


veto, nuntiato. in

Caprum

perakne, sevajkne
ietu,

upetu, eveive

sollemnem, hostiam deligito, voCitra impendito,

naratu.

12 fesnere
tafle e

purtuetu.

fertu,

fano porricito.

Eo

ferto,

pir fertu, kapres pru|

in tabula

ignem
libo,

ferto, capri pro-

13 sec,etu

ife afveitu.

Persutru
feta

secta

eo

addito.

Figmentum
facto
ferto

vaputis,
14 fertu.
|

mefa,
Sviseve

visti^a

turibus,
ferto.

libamento

fertu

pune,

In

sino

poscam,

etre sviseve vinu fertu, tertie

in altero sino
tio

vinum

ferto, in ter-

15 sviseve

utur

fertu.

Pistu
|

sino

aquam
ferto,

ferto.

Pistum
ferto.

niru fertu, vepesutra fertu,


16
17

- ferto,
mantele

(carnem) ficticiam ferto,

mantraklu

fertu,

pune
|

fertu.

poscam
veneris,

Pune

fesnafe benus,

kabru

Cum

in

fanum

caprum
Jovi

purtuvetu.
18 patre

Vaputu

Saci luve|

porricito.

Ture

Sancio

prepesnimu.

Vepesu-

tra pesnimu, veskles pesnimu,


19 atrepufatu,
|

patri praefator. (Carne) ficticia vasculis precator, precator,

afpeltu,statitatu.

tripodato,

admoveto,
retro
ponito,

statuito.

Vesklu pustru

pestu,

ranu

Vascula
precator,

20 pesnimu, puni pesnimu, vinu


21

posca precator,

vino

pesnimu, une pesni'mu.


eras tetu.

Enu

precator,

aqua precator.
dato.

Turn

magmentum
1

Acs facefete.

Ill 14]

Iguvinian Tables
vufru pune heries

297

Vitlu
22 fagu,

eruhu

ticlu

sestu
urfeta

Vitulum votivum cum voles facere, eadem dedicatione sistito


lovi patri. in maim habeto.

23 luvepatre.

Pane
'

seste,

Cum

sistis,

orbitam
pieces
tibi
sisto'.

manure
24 habetu
:
|

habetu.

Estu
Sace,

iuku
tefe
|

Istas

lupater

habeto:

'luppiter
ter

Sanci,

estu

vitlu

vufru

sestu'.

istum vitulum votivum


*Porricibilem

25 Purtifele triiuper teitu, triiu26 per

dicito,

ter

vufru naratu,

fetu

lu-

votivum

nuntiato,

facito

lovi

vepatre Vuciiaper natine fratru


27 Atiiefiu.

Pune anpenes,
e

kri-

patri pro Lucia natione fratrum Atiedium. Cum impendes, cinc-

katru
28

testre

uze

habetu.
atentu.
e

tum

in

dextro

umero

habeto.

Ape

apelus,

mefe
testre

Ape purtuvies,
29 habetu
tetu,

uze

krikatru.
fetu.

Arviu us-

Ubi impenderis, libo imponito. Ubi porricies, in dextro umero habeto cinctum. Frumenta ostendito, posca facito.

puni

Ill,

IV
Sacrificium fiat oportet

III

Esunu
siaru.

fuia herter

sume
|

summa

2 ustite

sestentasiaru

urna-

4 pehatu.
5 puntis

Huntak vuke prumu Inuk uhturu urtes


| |

tempestate sextantariarum*urnariarum. Puteum in aede primum


piato.

Turn auctorem, surgenti-

frater
|

ustentu-

6 ta,
7

pure
|

fratru

mersus

bus quinionibus, fratres ostendunto, quomodo fratrum ex

fust

kumnakle.

Inuk
sistu.
teitu,

moribus
sidito.

erit in

conventu.

Turn
di-

uhtur vapefe

kumnakle
uhtur
|

auctor in sella in conventu con-

9 Sakre,

uvem uvem

Hostiam, ovem auctor

puntes
10 sakre,
11 fratrum
|

terkantur.

Inumek
puntes

urtas
|

upetuta.

Inumek
|

via mersuva arvamen etuta.


12

Erak

pir

persklu
|

ufetu.
fertuta
|

13 Sakre,

uvem

kletra

cito, quimonessuffragentur. Tune hostiam, ovem surgentes quiniones fratrum deligunto. Tune via solita in arvum eunto. Ea ignem cum precatione adoleto. Hostiam, ovem lectica fe-

aituta.
14 amparitu.

Arven

kletram

Eruk esunu

futu.
1

runto, agunto. In arvo lecticam conlocato. Illic sacrincium esto.


Aes
feiu.

298
15 Kletre

Iguvinian Tables
tuplak

[III 14-

prumum

an|

tentu, inuk cihcefa ententu,


16 inukkaziferimeantentu.
17 fefehtru
|

Isunt

Lecticae furcam primum imponito, turn cancellos imponito, turn imponito. Item

antentu, isunt sufeSeples


|

imponito, item
imponito.
tribus
alteris tribus

18 faklu antentu.
tris

ahesnes
fefehtru
astintu,
|

Simpulis
distinguito,

ahenis

kazi
|

astintu,

19 etres tris

ahesnes

20 sufefaklu tuves ahesnes


stintu.
21

an-

ahenis distinguito, duobus ahenis distin-

Inenek vukumen esu|

numenetu. Ap vuku kukehes,


iepi

persklumaf kafitu.
|

Vuke
Sakre
|

22 pir

ase

antentu.

sevakne
23

upetu.

luvepatre
testru
|

Turn in aedem in sacrificium ito. Ubi aedem incendet, Hi ad precationem vocato. In aede ignem arae imponito. Hostiam sollemnem deligito. lovi paguito.
tri

prumu ampentu
fratrusper
ahtisper

sese

24 asa

Atiiefies,

primum impendito dextrorsus ab ara pro fratribus Atiediis, pro

eikvasatis,
|

tutape
liuvina.
teitu.
|

25 liuvina,

trefiper

caerimoniis collegialibus, pro civitate Iguvina, pro tribu Iguvina.

Ti$lu
26
27

sevakni

Inumek uvem sevakni upetu. Puemune Pupfike apentu.


|

Dedicationem sollemnem dicito. Tune ovem sollemnem deligito.

Pomono Publico impendito. Dedicationem sollemnem narrate.


Preces solitas apud

Ticlu
28 luka

sevakni

naratu.

mersuva uvikum habetu


|

ovem habeto

29 fratruspe
30 eikvasatis,

Atiiefie,

ahtisper
|

tu taper

liu|

pro fratribus Atiediis, pro caerimoniis collegialibus, pro civitate


Iguvina, pro tribu Iguvina. Hostiam in extari ferculo facito, cum

vina, trefiper liuvina. 31 vatra


ferine
feitu. feitu,

Sakre

eruku
|

32 aruvia

Uvem
feitu.
|

pe-

ea frumenta facito.

Ovem humi

faem
33 tuva

pelsanu
tefra

Ererek

spantimaf

stratum sepeliendum facito. Eius duo carnes cremandas ad latus


prosecato, turn
in fossam porstruem addito. Tune ricito, alterum ad latus duo carnes cremandas prosecato, turn ad

prusekatUf efek pefume purtu34 vitu,


|

stru^la afveitu.

Inumek
tefra
|

etrama

spanti

tuva

35 prusekatu,

efek
||

ere9luma
purtuvitu,

IV Puemune Pupfike
erarunt
struh^las

sacrarium
ricito,

Pomono Publico
struis

por-

eskamitu

eiusdem

IV

22]

Iguvinian Tables

299

2 aveitu.

Inumek tertiama
prusekatu,
|

addito.

Tune

tertium

ad

spanti triia tefra


3 efek

supru

sese
|

erecluma
Pupfices
petenata
l

latus tils carnes cremandas prosecato, turn sursus ad sacrarium

4 Vesune

Puemunes
struhcla
afveitu.

Vesonae
porricito,

Pomoni
struem

Public!

purtuvitu,
5 isek
|

pectinatam

Ererunt
|

ka-

item addito.

6 pifus

Puemune,

Vesune pur]

tuvitu.
7

Asamaf ereclumaf 2
karnus,
|

Ad

asecetes

iseceles

et

Pomono, aram ad sacrarium non sectis carnibus, insectis et


suppis sanis protendito,
supplicato,

Isdem capidibus Vesonae porricito.

8 vempesuntres, supes sanes per9 tentu, persnimu, afpeltu,


titatu.
|

ficticiis,

sta-

Veskles snates asnates


|

Vasculis
tis

admoveto, statuito. umectis non umec-

10 sevakne

erecluma

Puemune
11

persnimu Pupfike, Vesune


|

12

13

Puemunes Pupfikes. Klavles 3 persnihmu Puemune Pupfike et Vesune Puemunes Pupfikes


|
|

sollemnibus ad sacrarium precator Pomono Publico, Vesonae Pomoni Publici. Clunibus


precator

Pomono

Publico

et

Vesonae Pomoni Publici


gulis sacrariis.

in sin-

pustin
14 9lu

ereclu.
|

Inuk

ere-

Tune sacrarium

umtu,

putrespe

erus.

unguito, utriusque
(dato).

Inuk
15 Purtupite

vesticia,
|

mefa
kunikaz
sese
|

magmentum Tune libamentum, libum

skalgeta

16 apehtre esuf testru

asa

Porricienti ex patera genu nixus extrinsecus ipse dextrorsus ab

asama
17 sukatu.

purtuvitu,
|

sevakne
4

ara ad

aram

porricito, sollemne

Inumek
supu
skalceta

veste$a,

persuntru
18 sevakne

eresle

Hule

kunikaz
5

Tune libamentum, sub sacrario Hulae figmentum sollemne ex patera genu nixus
declarato.

19 purtuviOu.

Inumek

vesticia

persuntru Turse super erecle kunikaz skalceta 20 sevakne


purtuvitu.

Tune libamentum, Torrae figmentum super sacrario sollemne ex patera genu nixus
porricito.
porricito.

Inumek tehtefim
arclataf

Tune
Tune

tegumentum
figmentum imvasis
porricito.

21 etu veltu, efek persuntre an-

ito deligito, turn

22 tentu.

Inumek

vasus
|

ponito.

arculatas

ufestne

sevaknef

purtuvitu.

operculatis
4

sollemnis

Aes

erererunt.

Aes ere9lamaf

Acs

pupfikes.

Aes vesveca.

Aes inuntek.

300
23

Iguvinian Tables
pruzufe kebu sevakne
|

[IV

Inumk
Inumek

Tune Tune
nae

praestante cibo

sollemni
Publico.
votis

24 persnihmu

Puemune
1

Pupfice.
|

precator
sollemnibus,

Pomono
precator
Public!.
escas

25

kletra, veskles
|

vufetes

lectica,

vasculis

26 sevaknis, persnihmu

Vesune

Veso-

Puemunes Pupfces.
27 svepis
heri,
|

Inumek
antentu.
|

Pomoni
vult,

Tune

ezariaf

siquis

imponito.

28

Inumek
Inumek

erus

tacez

tertu.
|

kumaltu,

afkani

Tune magmentum tacitus dato. Tune cantum commolito,


canito,

29 kanetu,
30

kumates
|

persnihmu.
tapis-

commolitis

precator.

Esuku
habetu.

esunu

ufetu,

Cum hoc sacrificium adoleto, caldariolam habeto, poscam calidam


habeto.

31 tenu

habetu,

pune
itek

frehtu
fakust,
pifi

Ap
|

Ubi
esto.

ita

fecerit,

32 purtitu

futu.

Huntak
|

porrectum
ante

Puteum cum
illis

33 prupehast,

efek

ures

punes

piabit,

turn

poscis

neifhabas.
1

ne adhibeant.
Aes persihmu.

Brief Commentary on

the

Iguvinian Tables

301

BRIEF COMMENTARY

ON THE IGUVINIAN TABLES

V a 1-13.
ever
is

First Decree.

The flamen
and

essential for the ceremony,


urnasier.

to provide whatselect the victims.


is

Va2.

But it is not certain are distinguished from whether the adjectives refer to the capacity of the vessels used, or to the time In the latter case plenasier would refer of year at which the festivals were held.
end of the year, and sestentasiaru to those occurring end of one sixth of the year, that is two months from the beginning. V a 2-3. uhtretie etc. The uhtur, as appears from III 4-8, was not a regular official like the kvestur or fratreks, but one selected for a special occasion,
to those occurring at the

Probably 'Festival of the Urns'. the sestentasiaru urnasiaru (III 2).

The

plenasier urnasier

at the

perhaps a sort of chairman.


eikvasese, perhaps related to L. aequus (29, a), but of obscure ' suffix-formation, probably means members of the brotherhood', equivalent to
fratrus, or else,

Va4.

taken as Gen. Sg., denotes the brotherhood itself. In the Acta Arvalium we find both magister fratrurn Arvalium and magister conlegi fratrum
Cf. also eikvasatis III 24, 29.
7

Arvalium.

ff. "Let him select the sacrificial victims, and when they are given over let him inspect them to see if (see 316) they (lit. any of them ; see 266) are to be accepted, and in case of a triple offering let him inspect them

Va

in the

country to see

if

they are to be accepted.

' '

pure tefte

is

best taken as an

impersonal construction, pure being the conjunction 'quod, cum' (202, 1). Vail, felsva, if connected with L. holus (149, 6), might denote the
'garlands', or,
ings' (263, 2), that is those

more probably, the vegetables used in the case which were not burnt-offerings.
See 263,
1,

of 'fireless offer-

Va

13.

299,

7,

footnote p. 236.

V a 14-b 7.

Second Decree.
.

Statement of the fees for the

the banquet performance of certain rites (cf CIL. VI 820). of the brotherhood takes place (cf. the banquets of the Arval
Brothers), the magister (fratreks) or quaestor
(cf.

When

magister collegi

and quaestores collegi, CIL. Ill, p. 925) is to take a vote as to whether the banquet has been properly arranged, and, in case the majority of those present declare that it has not been properly arranged, a further vote must be taken to determine
the penalty for the flamen.
1

rely on the translation

Hardly more than a summary of contents. For most points the student must and the glossary, with the references there given.

302

Brief Commentary on

the Iguvinian Tables

Va
Va
and
in II

15-16.
;

kumnahkle and ukre


is

may

be Loc. Sg., or Dat. Sg. with the

following verbs eikvasese 1. 4) with ukre. (see note to


17.

Dat. PI. with the following verbs, or Gen. Sg.


is

apelust.
is

This verb, as
initial

clear

from the succession of events here

b 27,

used of the

ing of the victim upon what the ceremony referred to

ceremony in the sacrifice, preceding the laythe altar (purtitu 1. 18). But it is not clear precisely
is,

whether the formal devotion of the victim


.

to the god, or its preparation, or even the actual slaughter (cf inter caesa et porrecta, Cic. Att. 5, 18, 1), though this last gets no support from the use of

L. impendo.

The
ff.

V a 20. V a 23
b

object expressed or understood subra spafu, see 308, b.

is

1 always an animal.

See 312, 316

on prufe

si

1.

27, see

307

on pepurkurent

herifi

5, 6, see 315.

Statement of contributions to be made regularly by certain gentes to the Atiedian brothers, and of portions of flesh to be awarded them by the brothers on the occasion of the
V. b 8-18.

decurial festivals.

the ten

The two gentes mentioned here are among (making up the decuria) enumerated in II b, and this

passage is doubtless only the conclusion of a decree fixing the contributions and allotments of flesh for all ten, the main part being on one of the lost tables.

VI, Vila, and I

Purification of the Sacred

Mount
b 9

VI

VI b

47

a 1-2). Introductory Auspices. The sacrifice is to be preceded by the taking of auspices (so in I and VI). Further details (only in VI) the formulae passed between the

VI a

1-21

(I

augur and flamen warning against interruption boundaries of some the templum' formula of announcement of the auspices
;
; ' ; ;

general prescriptions applicable to

all

the following

sacrifices.

Via 6-7. It is quite possible that arsir is not 'alius', but Dat.-Abl. PI. In this case the subject of mugatu as of arsie 'sancte', meaning 'ceremonies'. well as of andersistu is indefinite, and the use of pisi in 1. 7 and not in 1. 6 is due
to the

change from the passive impersonal construction.


1

The meaning would

In II b 10 vaputu
si
'

better to understand

is commonly regarded as the object of ampetu, but it is suem' and take vaputu as Abl. Sg. used like vaputis II b 13 (293).

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables

303

then be " One shall not make a noise or interrupt the ceremonies until the augur returns. If there is a noise or any one interrupts the ceremonies, it will make
the sacrifice void".

VI a

8-11.

In spite of the most exhaustive discussion and comparison of

passages in Latin authors bearing on the same subject, as Livy 1, 18, 6-9, there is the widest divergence of opinion as to the relations of the points mentioned.
It

seems clear however that

1.

10

means not 'from the uppermost corner


limits',

to the

augural seats (and further) to the city

For 1. at the aiigural seats to the city limits'. VI a 12-14. The words designate buildings
naturally, are for the

but 'from the uppermost corner 11, see 288.

and

localities in the city

and,

most part obscure.

VI a

20.

See 315.

VI a 22-57 (I a 2-6). First Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three oxen to Jupiter Grabovius in front of the Trebulan gate. A sort of preamble or opening prayer is followed by three long prayers in identical words for each of the three offerings, and
these again by a brief general prayer in conclusion.

All these

Then come prescriptions for prayers are given only in VI. For the various rites connected with the sacrifice (also in I). those the of prayers compare given by Cato, De phraseology
Agric. 132, 134, 139, 141 ; e.g. luppiter, te hoc ferto ommovendo bonas preces precor, uti sies volens propitius mihi, domo, liberisque
meis, familiaeque

meae mactus hocferto.


The
interpretation 'invoco invocationes' (279)

Via
is,

22.

sobocau suboco.

in spite of the

unusual order, far more probable than 'invocavi invoco', which

involves various grammatical difficulties. Via 26. orer ose. The interpretation

is very doubtful. It has been taken as 'his (donis) macte', going with the preceding, as 'illius anni' going with the following, and as 'cuiuspiam opere' 'by any one's work'. This last

suggestion gives the easiest solution for ose (cf. osatu 'operator') and suits well the context (if, by any one's doings, through any one's fault, etc.). But one
hesitates to separate orer

from the pronominal forms uru,

ures, etc., for

which
'

The translation given in the text the meaning 'any' cannot be maintained. for orer the meaning illius' ose with but retains the of opere, adopts comparison
This could only refer to the piaculum, and the or in this case better 'hums'. phrase would be an anticipation of what is given at the close of the sentence, But no great confidence in this view is entertained. esu bue etc. pir orto est. The Arval Brothers institute a piaculum if the trees of the
sacred grove are struck by lightning. VI a 27. pusei neip heritu. See 294,
a.

304

Brief Commentary on

the Ignrintau
is

Via
more

30.

For castruo the usual translation 'fundos'


f.

in

this passage

attractive than 'capita', but see footnote, p. 236

VI a VI a

32. 54.
56.

See 322. See 17,


17.

(see 110, 3 with a), for which mefa alone is used in the older tables, may mean simply 'libation cake,' but more probably 'cake besprinkled (with salt ?)'. Cf. L. mola salsa.

Via

The mefa spefa

of the frequently recurring uatuo ferine fetu is the translation very uncertain, given representing only one of several possibilities (for ferine see 178, 6, note). Where the phrase is used, the victims are
67.

VI a

The meaning

oxen, bull-calves, or boars.

VI

a 58-59

(I

a 7-10).

Second

Sacrifice.

Sacrifice of three

pregnant sows to Trebus lovius behind the Trebulan gate. prayers used in the first sacrifice are to be repeated.
'

The

The sacrifice is to be made persae, a word which probably means stretched on the ground (cf persom solum, fossam'), referring to the manner in which the victims were slain. It is used of sows, sucking pigs, heifers, and heifer-calves, also of a sheep, a boar, and a dog. An accompanying operation in such cases was the removal of the sopo 'under parts' (Grk. virna), the mention of which
' '
.

is

etc.).

nearly always preceded by the statement that the sacrifice is to be persae (pefae Cf. especially II a 22-32. But one act implies the other, and VI a 58-59
I

has only persae fetu, while the parallel

a 7-10 has only supa sumtu.

VI b

1-2

(I

a 11-13).

Third

Sacrifice.

Sacrifice of three

oxen to Mars Grabovius in front of the Tesenacan gate. The prayers used in the first sacrifice are to be repeated. VI b 3-18 (I a 14-19). Fourth Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three
sucking pigs to Fisus Sancius behind the Tesenacan gate. Then comes an Prayers of the first sacrifice to be repeated.
offering of cakes etc. to Fisovius Sancius, accompanied by a prayer differing in some phrases from those used before. This
is

followed by some further special ceremonies. VI b 4. mandraclo etc. At Rome the flamen sacrificed
;

to Fides with

hand wrapped in white cloth (Livy 1, 21, 4 Serv. ad Aen. 1, 292). Some Umbrian coins of Tuder bear the device of a right hand wrapped with a band about the wrist and base of fingers, crossing on the back (see Lepsius, Insc. Umbricae et Oscae, table xxix). The difue doubtless refers to the manner of binding. VI b 6. For sopo, see above, on VI a 58 for the use of postro, see 306. VI b 11. See 325. VI b 16. erus. This denotes a supplementary offering by which the ceremony was completed. Sometimes it is used alone, sometimes with a Genitive
the right
;

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables

305

designating the kind of offering to which it forms the complement, as here. Cf especially VI b 38 ff and VII a 43 ff with notes. The word is probably
. .

from

*aisws, related to 0. aisusis 'sacrifices', U. escmo-, etc.

lack of rhotacism in the final


the preceding
r.

may

See 112, a. The be attributed to the dissimilating influence of


of efurfatu (and

VI b 17. uestisia sopa purome. See 306. The meaning furfant VI b 43) is uncertain, but some such sense as 'purify'
is

or 'consecrate

'

probable.

There

is

no plausible etymology.

a 20-23). Fifth Sacrifice. Sacrifice of three oxen with white foreheads to Vovionus Grabovius in front of
(I

VI b 19-21

the Veian gate.

Prayers of the

first sacrifice

Sixth (la 24-34). three lambs (?) to Tefer lovius behind the Veian gate. Prayers Then follow supplementary of the first sacrifice to be repeated.
offerings,

VI b 22-42

to be repeated. Sacrifice. Sacrifice of

animals,
rites

consisting probably of cakes made in the form of with the usual prayers and various accompanying

with the cups, the trench, etc. VI b 22. pelsana. The most probable explanation is that this word refers It is used also of a ram (II a 6), to the burial of the remains of the victims. a dog (II a 43), and a sheep (III 32). And in VI b 40 the offerings called
is

pesondro are to be put in the trench and buried. For the form see 262, 1, a. VI b 24 ff. pesondro sorsom. The first word, the etymology of which

wholly obscure, is most plausibly explained as referring to a symbolic offering, a sort of 'animal cracker' offered as a substitute for the animal itself. Cf. Et sciendum, in sacris simulata pro veris accipi. Unde cum de animations,
l

difficile inveniuntur, est sacrificandum, de pane vel cerafiunt et pro veris Tauri verbenaeque in commentdrio sacrorum accipiuntur, Serv. ad Aen. 2, 116 Festus ed. Thewrewk, p. 548. significant ficta farinacea,

quae

b 12, 17, while sorsom (sufum) is probably the same word as sorser 'suilli', the contrasting staflare (VI b 37) refers to some animal kept in a stall, probably a sheep (cf. staflii uve I a 30 *). But the gingerbread pig' was the favorite form
'

so that in I a 30 sufum pesuntrum is used as a the term to equivalent simple pesondro of VI b 40, the kind of animal to be generic not a pig, being shown by the following adjectives. this case in represented, 33 is used substantively, equivalent to pesondro Ace. la PI. sufuf Similarly
of the symbolic offering, so

much

VI b

37, of the

which,

was

in the

sense, as in

two kinds of cakes which had been mentioned, only one of form of a pig. The term sorsom is also found in its specific VI b 37, 38; but in VI b 38, 39, we find also the extended form
with staflarem.
correct this to staflare esmik
is

sorsalir, sorsalem, contrasted


1

Aes

stafli

iuvesmik.

To

entirely unnecessary,
*tertio- (91
,

for staflii can be Ace. Sg. of a

stem *stafliio-, like tertim, terti, from

172)

30G

Brief Commentary on

the

Iguvinian Tables

The

order of events in
is

this,

the most complicated series of

ceremonies,

as follows.

Sacrifice of the lambs with the usual prayers. Offering of the pesondro sorsom at the right foot, with accompanying libation. Making trench for the cup.

Offering of the libation and the erus.

Prayer to Tefer lovius.


Offering of the pesondro stqflare at the left foot. Making trench for the cup.

Prayer repeated.
Offering of the erus of the prosecta (of the lambs). Offering of the erus of the libation accompanying the pesondro sorso, in the trench at the right foot, where the pesondro sorso was offered. Offering of the libation accompanying the pesondro staflare at the left
foot,

and

offering of its erus.

Placing the pesondro sorsalem in the trench. Placing the pesondro staflare in the trench. Throwing on the vessels used in connection with the pesondro. Breaking of cakes with prayers.

VI b 43-44

(Ibl-4).

Seventh
at

Sacrifice.

Sacrifice

of
(?).

three bull-calves to

Mars Hodius
Eighth

the Jovian temple

Prayers of the first sacrifice repeated.

VI b 45-46
bull-calves to

(I

b 4-7).

Sacrifice.

Sacrifice of three
(?)

Hontus Cerrius
(I

at the temple

of Coredius.

Prayers of the first sacrifice repeated.

VI b 47

b 7-9).

Conclusion.

Then

shall the

Mount

be purified. In case of any omission the ceremony is vitiated and one must return to the Trebulan gate and begin anew.
The sentence suepo esome etc. is perfectly clear in its general meaning, but the exact construction is difficult. The most natural translation would be 'If this ceremony through any omission is vitiated, take auspices, etc.', taking
tion of uacose as

anderuacose as a compound in the ablative. But there is no reasonable explanaan ablative. This is rather to be taken (with Brugmann, Ber.

sachs. Gesells. 1890, 217 ff.) as uacos-se 'vacatio sit', uacos being Norn. Sg. from *uakati-s. uasetom-e will then be an adverbial phrase 'in vitiatum', like L.

incassum. The corresponding phrase in I b va?etumise is probably to be separated va^etum-i se, the only difference being that the Present Subjunctive instead of the Future Indicative is used. But some take ise as a form of the verb to go'.
'

esome esono (esumek esunu)


'

is

ing a compound intervacatio'. by the following ander.

probably Gen. PL, ander going with wacos, makBut it has also been taken as Ace. Sg. governed

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables


Lustration of the People

307

VI b
Compare

48

VII a 54

= Ib

10-45

the description of the

Roman

Lustration, Dionys. Hal. Antiq.

4, 22, which we quote here from the Latin translation of the Didot edition Tune igitur Tullius, censu perfecto, postquam iussit omnes cives cum as follows armis adesse in carapo, eorum qui sunt ante urbem maxima, et equites in turmas scripsit etpedites in acie collocavit, et milites levis armaturae in suis quosque cen-

Rom.

turiis,

lustrationem instituit tauro, ariete,

et hirco.

Has
sacer

hostias

postquam

ter

circa exercitum circumagi iussit Marti, cui

campus

is

est,

immolavit.

a 2 (I b 10-23). Introductory Ceremonies. Circuit of the People. The auspices Expulsion of the Aliens. are taken in the same way as for the Purification of the Sacred

VI

b 48

VII

Mount. After assuming the proper paraphernalia, the flamen and two assistants march with the victims by the Augural Way to the suburb Acedonia. Proclamation is made expelling the aliens. The Iguvinians are ordered to form in companies. The flamen and assistants march about them three times with the At the end of each circuit a victims (bulls) and the fire. prayer is made invoking misfortune upon the aliens and blessings

upon the Iguvinians.


VI b
shall carry

49-50.

"One

shall put

on the

fire.

When

it is

carried to the cerfire.

emony, the one with the


it

carry the receptacle for the " As stated in I b 20 the fire on his shoulder. lighted right
official staff shall

He

is

carried

about the people. VI b 54-55

(I

18).

nosue

ier, etc.

There are widely different interpreta'

tions of this passage. Some take habe as meaning has possessions' and assume a concession to the metics or resident foreigners, who are to remove to a certain

place
sion.

and perform separate ceremonies. But in I b the proclamation begins with svepis habe, and it is more natural to take this as a threat than as a conces-

The

translation given in the text seems best suited to the

two

versions.

of

VI b 56 (Ib 19-20). arsmahamo caterahamo. Compare the disposition the Roman people in the passage quoted above. VI b 60. For the verbs, some of which are obscure, see the Glossary.

VII

a 3-5

(I

b 24-26).

Sacrifice of three bulls to Cerrus

Martius at Fontuli, accompanied by the prayers used at the Trebulan gate. VII a 5. The erus is not to be added until announcement is made of the
third sacrifice.
Cf.
1.

43.

308

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables

b 2T-30). Sacrifice of three sows to Praestita Cerria at Rubinia, with the prayers used at the Trebulan Ceremonies with the black vessels and the white vessels. gate. With the former the prayer is to bring misfortune to the aliens, with the latter to avert misfortune from the Iguvinians. Offering to Fisovius Sancius accompanied by the prayer used behind the Tesenacan gate.
(I

Vila 6-40

atero clearly means ruin, though of uncertain etymology. 11, 27. from *ap-terom (by 121), a 'rubbing away' (L. tero), and so 'destrucPerhaps
tion'.

VII a

Cf. L. deled 'rub off, destroy'. 1

VII a 41-45 (I b 31-39). Sacrifice of three calves to Torra Cerria across the Sacred Way, with the prayers used at the Trebulan gate. When this is completed the order is given to
add the erus at the place where the boars were
at Rubinia, then across the Sacred
sacrificed,

then

Way. Then they return to Rubinia and pray with the broken cakes, after which they come back to the Sacred Way and do the same.
as

VII a 46-51. Prayer to Torra lovia in the same words that made at the end of each circuit. To be repeated three
VII a
46.
tefru-to.
'

times.

From

(the place of) the burnt-offering', that


1.

is,

the

place where the

sacrifice

mentioned in

41 took place.

VII
heifers.

a 51-54

(I

b 40-44).

Pursuit and

sacrifice

of the

In the older version three heifers are


the assistants,

twelve

cf.

let loose, one by the flamen, two by and then caught and sacrificed. In VII more than three (apparently VII b) are let loose and the first three caught are sacrificed.

VII b
Provision that the magister shall provide the victims. VII b 1-2. seuacne The general word for ehiato. desenduf
.
.

vic-

used in the masculine (cf. ehiato) in spite of the fact that the heifers He shall furnish the twelve victims which are to be let (iuengar) are meant. out on the occasion of the pursuit of the heifers.'
tims
is
'

f.

I.F. 11, 14.

Brief Commentary on the Iguvinian Tables


II II a 1-14.
Sacrifices to be

309

made

in case of unfavorable

auspices.
II a 1-2.

naraklum vurtus.
Parallel with

Cf extorum mutatio, Cic. de


.

div. 2, 35.

II a 3

f.

VI a 26

etc.

See 128,

a.

Hontus was Dog-sacrifice to Hontus lovius. doubtless a divinity of the lower world and the rite one of
II a 15-43.
purification.
krematra, krematruf, II a 23, 20, probably denote some sort of vessels used But in II a 28 krematru as object of roasting the meat (cf. L. cremo). must be used of the meat itself. prusektu
in

II b.
families.

Sacrifices at the decurial festivals of the federated

Ten

gentes

are

named, some subdivided, making

twenty
II

families.
sviseve evidently denotes some sort of vessel for holding with L. slnum is attractive. The latter might be

b 14-15.

liquids, so that connection

from

*suit-s-,

*s(u)it-s-no- (cf. also situld), and the first part of U. sviseve but the suffix is wholly obscure.

might be from

III-IV
private annual ceremonies of the brotherhood, like the festival of Dea Dia among the Arval brothers. Owing
to the great

The more

number

the meaning

of technical terms not occurring elsewhere, of a considerable portion of these tables is obscure.

Relative Chronology of the Tables

The

universally adopted

numbering

of the Tables is that of

Lepsius, though opinions vary as to the correctness of this order for I-IV. The probability, however, is that these tables

were actually inscribed in this order. For in the form of the letters III and IV occupy a position midway between I and II on the one side and a-b 7 on the other. But, as some or all

may be copies of older inscriptions, this does not necessarily mean the same order of composition. Judging by orthographical peculiarities there is some evidence that III and IV are

310

Brief Commentary on

the

Iguvinian Tables

copies of inscriptions earlier than I and II, and that II a (dog-sacrifice) is earlier in composition than II a 1-14.
I

15-end Within

and II various divisions are to be noted, corresponding to subject-matter, namely I a-b 9 (Purification of Sacred Mount), I b 9-end (Lustration of People), II a 1-14 (offering in case of bad omens), II a 15-end (dog-sacrifice), II b (ceremonies of the
order of composition is possibly, though by no means certainly, III-IV, II a 15-end, I a, b, II a b 8-end, VI, VII. a-b 7, 1-14, II b,
Festivals).

Decurial

The

MINOR INSCRIPTIONS
82.
no. 292.

Tuder.

On

a bronze statue of a warrior.

Conway

no. 352, v. PI.

ahaltrutitis

dunum

dede.
f,

Tr. Titius V.f.


c.

donum

dedit.

For S
83.

d not

see 27, 131,

Helvillum.

On a bronze tablet found at Fossato di Vico, near the ancient Conway no. 354, v. PI. no. 295. Cubrar Matrer bio eso; Bonae Matris sacellum hoc;

oseto cisterno n.

O^lV
IIII

facta cisterna n.

CLVIIII
f.

su maronato

U. L. Uarie T. C. Fulonie.
84.
no. 296.

sub *maronatu V. Varii L. f., T. Fullonii C.


Conway no
et

On

a limestone block found near Assisi.

355, v. PI.

Ager emps
termnas oht

et

Ager emptus
C. Vestinii V.
in

terminatus auct.
f.,

C. U. Uistinie Ner. T. Babr.

Ner. Babrii T.

f.

maronatei
Uois. Ner. Propartie T. U. Uoisiener.

*maronatu
f.,

Vols. Propertii Ner. T. Volsieni V. f.

Sacre stahu.

Sacrum

sto.

Cf. CIL. XI 5390 Post. Mimesius C. /., T. Mimesius Sert. /., Ner. Capidas C.f. Ruf., Ner. Babrius T. /., C. Capidas T.f.C. n., V. Volsienus T.f., marones murum abfornice ad circum etfornicem cisternamq. d. s. s. faciundum coiravere. Maron- was an official title among the Umbrians and Etruscans.

GLOSSARY AND INDEX


OSCAN2
aa-'ab-'.

77,2,264,1.

Aadiieis 'Adii', gen. sg., gent., no. 55. 174.

akrid acriter', no. 19 4. 99, 3, 190, actud 'agito', imperat., no. 2 15 32,
'

4. 1,

143;
a.

infin. acwra, no.

224; 159,

Aadirans '*Adiranus', gent. no. 4.


,

81.

Aadiriis, Aadiriis 'Atrius', gent., nos.

14,15. 81,174. aamanaffed 'mandavit,


locavit',

(faciendum)
8, 9,

Akudunniad, name of a Samnite town, abl. sg., no. 67. 144, a (nn by 162, For the question of the identi1).
fication with Aquilonia or

nos.

5,

6,

11.
3,

Cf.

modern
172.

manafum.
264,
1, 2.

77, 2, 80, 2, 88,

223,

Lacedogna see acwra, see actud.


'

Conway,

I, p.

aapas, meaning uncertain, no. 61. aasai 'in ara', loc. sg., no. 45 16, 44

acunwm, akun., see akenei. Akviiai Aquiae', dat. sg., gent,


no. 19io.

f.,

33. aasas, no. 4526. Abellanii- 'Abellanus', no. 1. Dat. sg.


pi.

nom.
m.

258,

3.

ad- 'ad-'.
68.

299,

1.
'

-niii,

ace. sg.

-niis,

gen. pi.

-nam, nom. pi. m. m. -nwm, dat. pi. m.


f.

Aderl. 'Atella' or

Atellanorum', no.
1. 9.
;

[-niifs].

91,2, 103,3, 157,1, 255,4.


pi.,

91, 2, 103, 3, 157, 2. adfust'aderit', no. 29. 299,

akkatus 'advocati', nom.


'

no. 40,

adpiid' quoad', no. 31.

202,

89, 3, 102, 3, 139, 1. akenei in anno' (?), loc. sg., no. 45 is, 47;
gen.
pi.

aeteis 'partis', gen. sg., no. 2 12, 18, etc.

gen.pl. [ajittium, no. 1 53

162,

1.

acumm,

no. 2ai;

abbr.

16,

1,
'

62, 187,

1, a.
,

akun., no. 13.

81, 159, a.

Afaries

Af arius'

gent.

174.

1 The references with "no." refer to the numbers of the preceding collection. Where no number is given, the form is from some fragment not included in the The references in black type are to the sections of the grammar. Where collection.

several inflectional forms are included under one heading, references for the particular forms, when given, are put after each, while the references to the word as a whole are

put at the end of the article. But it is not intended, of course, to give references for each inflectional form, except in special cases. References inclosed in ( ) refer to the particular form immediately preceding. Under compounds are sometimes given And occasionally references to sections in which only the simplex is mentioned. elsewhere reference is made to a section in which the word itself is not mentioned,

but where parallel examples are given. Besides the abbreviations used elsewhere, note praen.
gent.

= gentile.

= praenomen,
;

and

2 Alphabetical order as in Latin, but with k under c. u is given under o likev is given after wise u u, o, when forms with u or o also occur, otherwise under u. u, but consonantal u is given with v, and au and av, ou and uv, are treated as identical.

311

312
aflukad 'deferat,
against'(?),

Glossary and Index


adferat, direct
fut.
10,

Oscan

[aflukad-

amviannud
17.

'circuitu, detour', abl. sg.,

no.

193;

perf.

nos. 15, 18,

amvianud, nos.
163, 255, 4, a.

14, 16,

2 sg. aflakus, no. 19


97, a, 139,
1.

11

224.

161,

a,

an2.

'in-',

negative prefix.
i.e.

98, 263,

Ahvdiu, see Avdiis. aikdafed 'decrevit'(?), no.


264,
2;
3.

46;

227.

a^aSaxer,
66.

avafaKfr 'dedicavit', no.


37.

aidil 'aedilis', noin. sg., no. 12; 119,

24,6, 80, 2, 224, 264, 1. Anafriss 'Imbribus'(?), no. 45


80, 2, 98,
'

9,

nom.

pi. aldilis,

no. 3

178,

7.

6.

21, 62.

Anagtiai Angitiae', dat.


gen.
sg.,

sg.,

no. 52.

A//'fiefs'*Aedini', 136. no. 55.

cogn.,

80, 2.

ancensto 'incensa', no. 2

22.

98, 211,
abbr.
of

aisusis 'sacrificiis', no.

19

7.

15, 3,

244,
Anei,

1, a,

263,
44.

2.

182.

no.

Probably

Alafaternum 'Alfaternorum', no.


80,
1,

76.

proper name.
angetuzet 'proposuerint', no. 2 20 ? fut. perf. 3 sg. angitu[st, no. 2
;

124.

allo 'alia, cetera',

nom.

sg. f.,

no. 222.

2.

32,

1,
*

100,

3, c.

228,
dat. sg.
loc. sg.

a,

264,
'

1.

alttram alteram', no. 1 53; m. altrei, no. 2 13; 187, 1, a;


alttrei, no.

Anniiei(s)
33.

Annii', gen. sg., gent., no.

45 n,

46
;

abl. sg. atrud,

no. 224; 105, 2, a

nom.pl.alttr[us,
1,

ant 'usque ad', no. 3 (twice). 32, 1, 92, 299, 2.


anfkrt</ujn, no. 19
2.

17, 6,

no. 1

53.

88, 4, 162,

188, 2,
a.
32, 45.

a.

Possibly a cpd.
cado,

am-'amb-'. 89, 1, 161, amfret 'ambiunt', no. 1


217, 4. amiricatud
'

connected with L.
161,
'

meaning
14,
1.

'destruction, ruin', anter inter' nos. 1 14,


,

54,

15;

*immercato, without re22.

an[ter, no. 17.

98,

c,

301,

muneration', adv., no. 2


80,
1,

38, 2,

190,

2.

Anterstatai'*Interstitae', dat. sg., no. 45 5 V 31. Doubtless a protectress of

Ammal '*Ammae,
33.
'

Matri', no. 45
'A/j,/j.dsij

6, 23,

boundaries
of streets

cf.

L. Stata, protectress
places.

Cf.

Hesych.

T/>o06s

and public

32,

3.

Apr^tSos, Kal

i} /j.T?iTi)p.

Germ.
1 17

Amme

Appelluneis 'Apollinis', no. 6;


ATTTreXXovj/Tjt,
'

dat.
3.

'nurse', also, dialectic, 'mother'.

no. 62 (24).
abl.

21, 162,
no.

amnud 'circuitu', amnud 'causa', no. 26;


no.
ftn. p. 70,

291;
16,2,

aragetud argento',

304.
2.
12, 18.

161,

a,

251,

sg., 43, no. 42. 80, 1, 108, 2. arag*tf[ud, Arkiia 'Archias'. 169, 12.

ampert 'dumtaxat', no. 2

15, 9,

Arentika[i, Arent[ikai, Aret[ikai, etc.

269, 299, 5. amprufid 'im probe', no. 2

'*Arenticae, Ultrici', dat. sg., no. 19.


so.

86, 6,

21, 108,

2.
24.

102,

2,

190,

1,

263,

2.

aserum 'adserere', no. 2


161, a, 300,

137,

2,

ampt
1.

'circum', no. 18.

299,

1.

ampu[l]ulum'anculum,ministrum'(?),
no. 19
3.

Atiniis 'Atinius', gent., no. 5. 174. Aukil '*Aucilus', cogn., no. 41. 68,

161,

a,

171,

1.

censtom-en\

Glossary and Index


10,

Oscan

313

Avdiis 'Audius', gent., no. 174 Ahvdiu, A/r5etes


; ;

also
13,

no.

probably dat. sg. 171, 3, a). 61, 2,


.

(-u
a.

for -ui;

see

'caedatur, glebis tundano. 19 5. 238, 2, c. tur'(?), Kalaviis Calvius' gent. no. 52. 80,1,

kaispatar
'

258,3.

AVO-K\LV. 'Ausculinorum', 'Ausculanorum',no. 69. 61,

KaXim

'Calinius', gent., no. 62.

Kaluvis '*Calovius,
gen. (fragment) 27-28. 258, 4.
;

Calvius',

gent,

2, a.

sg. Kaluvieis, nos.

auti 'aut',

no.

(passim).

68,

92,

202, 17. avt 'at, autem', nos.


aut
'

1 (passim), 29,

31

(corrected from aet), 50 (a]vt); avt aut', at, autem', no. 2 20


' ;

no. 19 (passim). az' ad', no. 4520.

68, 92, 202, 17.

Kamp[aniis] Campanius', gent. no. 6. Kapv. abbr. for Kapv(ad) Capua', abl., or Kapv(anum) 'Capuanorum', no. 70 for Kapv(anai) or (anei), loc. sg., no. 31; for Kapv(ans) 'Capua, '

'

137,2,299,1.

nus',
tain).

no. 29 (but reading not cer-

Baiteis 'Baeti', gen. sg., praen., no. 55. Bansae 'Bantiae', loc. sg., no. 2 (passim).
'

karanter 'vescuntur', no. 199.


caria panis' caria quam
.

97.

'

' '

Carensis, pistoribus a

100,

3, c.
,

Oscorum lingua panem


Placidus ed. Deuer97.

Bantins Bantinus' no. 2

19.

47, 25 5 , 5.

esse dicunt."
ling, p. 25.

Beriis 'Berius', gent., no. 44.


Betitis'Betitius',gent.,no. 51. 259,1. Bivellis 'Bivellius', gent., no. 20.
bivus'vivi', nom.pl., no. 199. 101,151.
Blaisiis 'Blaesius', gent., no. 40.
Blussii(eis) 'Blossii', no. 26.

carneis 'partis', no. 23, 7. 17,3, 181, c. kasit 'decet', no. 31. 17, 1, 78, 3, 112,

204,7, 212,3. " Casnar senex Oscocasnar 'senex'.


rurn lingua."
p. 33.

gen. sg., gent.,

Festused.Thewrewk,
significat in Atellanis

"Item

Bn., abbr. praen., no. 51. Buvaianud 'ad Bovianum',

aliquot
no.
46.
29.

Pappum senem quod

Osci
7,

casnar appellant."
114.
'

Varro L. L.

61, 3 with a and ftn., 253, 1, 298. brateis 'gratiae', gen. sg., no. 2 6. See
p.

Kastrikiieis no. 17.

Castricii', gen. sg., cogn.,

235 with

ftn.

174,256,3.

Buttis'Bottius', gent., no. 40.


-c, -k.

castrid 'capite'(P), no. 2 8; 59; gen. 17, 2, sg. castrous, no. 2 13; 71.

201,

1.

Kaal., abbr. praen., no. 58. cadeis 'inimicitiae', gen. sg., no. 2

32, 1, 138, 184, 248, 4, a, p. 236. cebnust ' venerit', no. 2 20. 88, 3, 224,
6.

264,
fut.

1.

See

p.

235 with

ftn.
6, 8 (in
1.

censaum 'censere',
6 prob1, a.

infin., no.

220;

kahad
kaias,

'capiat', no. 19
'

pi. censazet,

ably incipiat'). 99,

3,

149, 213,

imperat.

no. 2 19; 221; pass, censamur, no. 2 19;

meaning

uncertain, no. 61.


3.

kaila 'aedem, templum', ace. sg., no. L. caelum(?).


Kaisilliefs 'Caesilii', no. 25 a, b.

237, 279. 210, 3. Kenssurineis 'Censorini',


'

gen. sg.,

gent.,

gen. 21, 246, 1. cogn., no. 26. censtom-en in censum', no. 2 20.
1, a.

sg.,

244,

314
'

Glossary and Index


;

Oscan
sg.

[censtur-

nom. pi. censtur censor', -no. 2 27, 28 2 no. is, 20, kenzsur, no. 58 censtur,
(21); 90, 1, 117; keenzstur, no. 50;

ace.

neut.;

loc.

sg.

comewei,

no. 2
ftn.,

5, 21.

15, 4, 81, 107, 2 with


'consilii', gen. sg., no.

nom.
162,
1, a,

sg.
2.

or

pi.
6,

251,2.
81, a, 97, .1^5,1.
'

41,

kujmparakineis
11.

53,73, 110,1, 244,


(passim).
Kerrfiii'

246,1.

Kerri'Cereri', no. 453,32, Keri, no. 19

comparascuster consul ta
224.

erit',

no. 24.

115,

2,

186,

b.

16, 3, 81, a, 97, 116, 1,145,1,213,5,


no.
45.
.

Cerealis,

Genialis',
;

Dat.
-iiai;

sg.

m. m.

-iiuf , -iiul

dat. sg. f

loc. sg.

m.
;

-liin;

171,

7;

contrud 'contra', no. 2 (passim). 188,2, 190, 2, 303.

dat. pi.

-fiuls

dat. pi.

f . -iiais.

61,3, 253,3.
kersnariavS '*cenariae',

nom.

pi.,

no.

kuru'glans, missile'(?), no. 55. Kerreies Cottii', fragment. 64. no. 19 krustatar 'cruentetur'(P),
'

5.

31

b.

253,1.

238,

2, c.
'
1

kersnu 'cena', nom. sg. (fragment beabl. pi. longing with no. 40);
kerssnais,
no.
29.

kulupu culpa (?), no. 40. 80, 1. Kupelternum, -lim 'Compulterinorum'


no. 70.

114,

116,

2,

162,2, 251,2, a. kersswasias '*cenariae', nom. 27, 116, 2, 162, 2, 254.


cews'civis', no. 2
19.

kvaisstur 'quaestor
pi.,

1 ,

nos. 4, 5, 6, 11,

no.

/c/rcu<r[To/>],

[Kf]ai<?Top (fragments);

dat. sg.
pi. q.,
2.

64, a. 174. Kiipiis'Cipius', gent. abbr. Kli., praen. ('Clemens' or 'Clitus' ?), no. 10.

nom. kvaisturei, no.l2; abbr. kvaizstur, no. 10 162,2; no. 22,28,29. 21, 53, 62, 162,
;

Klum., abbr. cogn.(?), probably 'Clumenus', no. 20.


Kluvatiis
Clovatius', gent. no. 19 9 dat. sg. Kluvatiu/, no. 19 2 (p. 244, ace. sg. Kluvatiium, no. 19 ftn.);
, ;

da(d)-'de-'.
no. 19 3

163,300,3.
pres.
subj.,
4
;

da[da]d 'dedat, reddat'.


;
.

'

perf subj. dadid. no. 19


3.

213,4, a, 300, dadikatted 'dedicavit',


163. 210, 3 and
6,

224.

no.

47.

44,

10;

gen. pi.

Kluvatiium, no. 23

a, b.

228.

174, .259,1. Km., abbr. praen. ('Comius'?), no. 63. kuiniks 'xom', fragment. 21.

damia. 'damnum'(?), no. 192. damu damudamsennias, no. 31


; .
.

se

no. 24.

See note,

p. 251.

com, con cum', prepos., no. 2 293.


'

15, 16, 23.

da'de', no. 2 (passim).


300,
3.

190,

3, a,

com-, kiim- 'con-'.

300,

2.
10.

Z>kuva, praen., no. 40.


151,
nos.
1,

Form unex,
,

kumbened
224.

'convenit',
'

no. 1

plained.

Dekkviarim Decurialem' no. 3. 3 1


'

a,

kumbennieis conventus', gen.


4, 5,

sg.

kumbenn[iefs], no.
1.

6.

162,

102, 1, 162, 1, 191, 10, a, p. 240. deketasiui *decentario, ordinario'(?),


'

250,

dat. sg., title of the


ace. pi. neut., no. 2

comono 'comitia',
(passim)
;

no.

1 5
;

also comonom, 1.17, probfor comono, otherwise mistake ably

172
108,

meddix at Nola, nom. sg. degetasis, no. 43 nom. pi. degetashis, no. 42.
158. 191, 10, 254, p. 229.

2,

eiseis]

Glossary and Index


praen.,
nos.
10,

Oscan

315

Dekis 'Decius',
(passim);
(passim).

40

ekak

'hanc', nos. 3, 4, 7, abbr. ek., no.

gen. sg. Dekkieis, no. 40

162,

1,

174.

Dekmanniuis '*Decumaniis', probably


of a festival, no. 4548. 88, 3, 9 162, 1, 191, 10, *5, 4, p. 255. deded, see didest.

name

ace. sg. n. ekik, 22; 108, 2, a; no. 46; 196, a; nom. pi. f. ekas, nos. 25 a, b, 26, ekask, no. 45 26 ace. pi. f ekass, no. 3 abbr. ek.
;
.

for

nom.
5.

sg.

f.,

no. 27.
41.

196.

ekkum
201,

'item', no. 1 27,

139,

1, a,

degetas-, see deketasnii. deicum 'dicere', infin., uo. 2


no. 20;

10,

deikum,

pres. subj. 3 pi. deicans,


f ut.

eksuk

ekss'ita, sic', no. lio, ex, no. 2 7. 196,6. 'hoc', abl. sg. n., nos. 14-18;
abl. sg.
f.

no. 29;
'

perf 3 sg. dicust, no.


.

exac, no. 2 8,23;

loc. sg.

214; 45, 224. 64, 95. Deivai Divae', dat. sg., no. 45
64.

n. exeic, no. 2 (passim); dat. abl. pi.


15,43.
f
.

exaisc-en, no. 2 25.

145,
36,

3,
1.

196.

edum'edere', no. 19s.


ee-,

deiuatud 'iurato', imperat., no. 25; pres. subj. 3 sg. deiuaid, no. 2 11;

eh-

'e-'.

77,

1,

142, a, 300,

4.

232;
221;

fut.

sg.

deiuast, no.
partic.
9
;

2s;
pi.

eehiianasum 'emittendarum', no. 31 a, vehiian., no. 31 b (D by mistake


for 3).

perf. pass,

nom.
244,

77,

1,

149, 163.

deiuatuns 'iurati', no. 2

2, a,

16, 4, 262, 1. 308, a. deivinais 'divinis', dat. pi.

eestint 'exstant', no. 4526; ee[stit 'exstat',no. 152. 41,6,77,1,89,2,

f.,

no. 34.

215,2.

47, 64, 101, 255, destrst * dextra est', no. 21.

5.

egmo
84, 89,
1,

'res',

nom.

sg., no.
;

gen. sg.

145,1, 188,2. dicust, see deicum.


didest 'dabit', fut. 3sg., no. 2 16;

egm[as], no. 2 5 2 10; gen. pi.


270.

abl. sg.

egmad, no.
24;

egmazum, no. 2 16,5,251,3.

45,

ehpeilatas 'erectae, set up', perf. pass.


partic.

221, 213, 4;

perf. 3

sg.

nos. 4, 7, 48, 52, 8e5er, no. 65 djiikulus, see zicolom.

deded, 223.
;

nom.

pi.,

no. 26.

64, 142,

a,

262,1.
142, a. ehpreivu/. ehtrad extra', no. 1
'

Difviiai 'Diae', dat. sg., no. 52.


ftn. p. 52.

95, a,

31.

142, 188,

2,

190,

3,

299,
'

3.

Diiivef, Atou/ret, see Iiiveis.

e/*[truis?

Diuvia

see luviass.

eidiiis 'idibus',

exterioribus', no. 1 14. name of a festival, no.

diuvilam, see iuvilam.

29, eiduis, no. 21.

171, 14, p. 247.

Diumpais 'Lumpis'. dolom 'dolum', ace.


dolum, no. 2
2
11, 20.

56.
sg.,

etm/i, see inim.

no.

5, 14,

eiseis 'eius', no. 1 20, eiseis, no. 194,


eizeis,

21

abl. sg. dolud, no.

no.

2 22

loc.

sg.

n. efsei,

duniim 'donum',

ace.

sg.,

no.
1,

53,

no. 1 51, esel, mistake for eisel, no. 1 49, eizeic, no. 2 7, 21

no.

1 46, e[lsei,

dunum,
2.

no. 52.

53, 107,

251,
4.

loc. sg.
eisiid,

f.

e]isaf, no. 1 57; 1 13,

abl. sg. n.

no.

eizuc,

no. 2
f.

29, so,

dunte.
228.

meaning

uncertain, no. 19
50.

eizuc-en, no. 2i6;

abl. sg.

eisak,

djuunated 'donavit', no.

53,

no. 4, eizac, no. 2io; gen. pi. m. 40 no. eisunk, gen. pi. f. eizazunc,
;

316
no.

Glossary and Index


2 24
;
;

Osaut

[eitiuvam-

abl.

pi.

m.

eizois,

no.

famel 'famulus'.

2 23

abl. pi. f . eizasc,

mistake for
See also

eizaisc,
izic.

no.

29.

195.

"Famuli origo ab Oscis dependet, apud quos servus famel nominabatur, unde et familia
Festus
Cf.

vocata."
eituam, gen. sg. eituas, no. 2 (pas4,

ed.

Thewrewk,
famel inim
36, 2, 91,

eitiuvam 'pecuniam', no.


no. 2 19
;

p.

62.

also Pael.
liber'.

loufir
2, a,

'famulus et
119,
2.

sim);

eitiuvad, nos. 4, 5, eltiu[vad], no. 6, abbr. eitiv., no. 66 (31, b); ace. pi. eituas, no. 29;
abl. sg.

famelo 'familia', no 222.


250,
2.

100,

3, c,

abbr.

ei.

for

nom.

sg.,

no. 222.

far 'far', no. 19s.

117, 182.
no.
2.

16, 6, 56.

fatium'fari',

infin.,

20.

38,

1,

eituns 'eunto'(?),nos.!4,17,18,eitu[ns, no. 16, abbr. eit., no. 15. 236, 2,


p. 242.
eizeis, eizeic, etc., see efseis.

99, 2, 212, 1, 262, feihuss 'muros', no.


fefhufs,

1 31

abl.
7,

pi.

no.

1 45.

16,

64,

95,

136, 149.
89, 2,
fertalis,

embratur
157,
1,

'

imperator', no. 79 b.
1.

ceremonies

celebrated with

246,

sacrificial
pi.

en

'in', no.

Entrai '*Interae', dat.


188,
2,

29, postpos. -en. 301, 2. no. 45s, 35. sg.,


2.

cakes (L. fertum), nom. or dat. pl.(?), no. 26. 178, 7,


4, p. 249.
'

257,
Seo-rtes

301,

Festius' , no. 65.

Also taken
19s.

esei, see efseis. esidum, see isfdum.

as 'Sestius'.

24,

b.

fifikus'decreveris'(?), no.
19, 21.

223
2.

essuf ipse',
110,
6,

no. 50, esuf, no. 2


5.

with

a.

122, 2, 197,

fiiet, filet 'fiunt',

no. 31

a, b.

215,

est, estud, estud, see

sum.
f.,

Fiisiais '*Fisiis', adj., no. 28, Fiisiais,

etanto 'tanta',

nom.

sg.

no. 2

11, 26.

no. 27, Fisiais, no. 21.

137,
1 32,

1,

252,

1.

201,
70.

7.

fffsnu'fanum', nom.

sg., no. 1 so;

Evkliii, dat. sg., no.

45

3, 25, 29.

21,

ace.

sg.

fffsnam, no.
fil...,

fisnam,
fffs...,

no.l45;
eksuk.
no. 50.

no

1 24,

ex, exac, etc., see eks,

41,99,1,114,136,251,2.
2, a.

ezum, see sum.


f

Fiml. '*Fimulus', no. 57. 91, Ffsanis '*Fisanius', no. 16.


tendit,

aamat
204,

'

habitat,
242.

holds com99, 2,

mand', nos.
7, p.

14, 15, (16), 17.

Fistluis Fistelu'*Fistelia', no. 72 a; '*Fistulis', no. 72 b, c (0tcrreXia, no. 72 c, Greek, not Oscan).

im44, a ; fakiiad'faciat', no. 31 a no. 29; 143, 216; perat. Ssg.factud,


;

Fiuusasials 'Floralibus', name of a festival, no. 4520. 105, 1, a, 254.

perf. subj. 3 sg. fefacid, no. 2io;


perf. 3 sg. fefacust, no. 223. 32, 1, 99, 1, 136, 2il,n; 214, 2, 219.
;

223

f ut.

Flagiuf '*Flagio', dat. See note, p. 249.

sg., no.

25

a, b.

FluusaP Florae',
53, 105,
1.

dat.

sg.,

no.

4624.

facus 'factus', no. 2


Falenias, no. 33.

30.

91,

1,

258,

1.

/orfris'potius', no. 2

12.

91,

1,

146,

Faler. Talerniis', no. 32;

nom.
2, a.

pi.

188,

1.

103,

fratrum 'fratrum',nos. 27,28. 33, 124.

luviia]

G-lossary

and Index

Oscan

317

f ruktatiuf 3,

Frentrei'*Frentri', loc. sg., no. 73. f ructus' no. 1 21 58,88,


'

Heriieis, see Hereiis.

153, 247,

1.

Herukinai Erycinae', dat. sg., no. Epithet of Herentatei. 21, 149,


'

41.
a.

fufans, fufens, fvid, fusld, fust, see

hipid, hipust, see haftest.

sum.
Fuutref 'Genetrici', dat.
Futrei, no. 454;
sg., no.

Hurtiis 'Hortius', gent., no. 53.

45

so,

hiirz 'hortus, lucus', no.


sg.

45 48;
;

ace.

gen. sg. Futre[is],


40.

no. 54.

58, 180, a with ftn.

Fuvfdis 'Fufidius', gent., no.

dat. sg. hurtiim, no. 45 20 loc. sg. hurtin, hurtiii, no. *45 27 no. 45 i; 41, a, 82, 1, 171,7. 49,
;

149.

Gaaviis 'Gavins', gent., no. 42, Gaviis,


no. 20
;

Husidiis 'Hosidius',

gent.,

no.

58.

gen. sg.

Gaav

praen.

260,

2.

no. 58.

humuns
sg., no. 45
is, 43.

Genetai Genitae', dat.


'

'

36,3. Gnaivs Gnaeus', praen. (on fragment belonging with no. 40), [Gnaijvs, no.
40;
abbr. Gn., no. 47.

90, 1, hu[n]truis 'inferis', no. 19

'homines', nom. 149, 181.


2.

pi.,

no. 199.

7.

15,

5,

149, 188,

huntrus

'infra'(P), no. 19 11

299,

4, a.

147,

2.

iak, see izic.


hafiest 'habebit', no. 2 8 (probably for
-ic, -ik, enclitic.

201,

2.

hapiest); 218, note

perf. subj. 3sg.


; ;

idle, idik, see izic.


leiis.

fut. perf.

hipid, no. 2 (passim) 41 , 218, 225 3 sg. hipust, no. 2ii; 225.

176,

1, 3.

iiv, no. 55.

? ?

99,1, 218. Hefrennis Herennius'(?), gent., no. 42;


'

imad-en'ab imo', no.


189,
1.

3.

47, 114, d,
nos. 3,

cf. praen. Heirens. no. Helleviis 'Helvius', 20, gent., Helevi., no. 32 gen.sg. Heleviieis, no. 33. 80, 1, 162, 3, 174, 258, 3.
;

fnim'et', no. 1 (passim),

ini,

14-17, inim, nos. 27, 28, inim, nos. 19 (passim), 40, inim, no. 2 6, eim/i, no. 62 (44), abbr. in., no. 2 (passim).
16, 8, 202, 16. ioc, iuk, see izic.
iuklei
'

Her., no.

53,

abbr. for Hereklui or

Herentatei.

Herekleis 'Herculis', no. 1 (passim); dat. sg. Hereklui, no. 45 13, 41. 21,
78, a, 80, 1. Hereiis Herius', gent., no. 40
'

the formula of consecration', consecration' (?), loc. sg., no. 31 a, b.


'

249,
;

1.

gen.
dat.

Iuvkiiui'*Iovicio', dat. sg., gent., no.


14.

sg. Heriieis, no. 40.

Herentatefs Veneris',

'

no.

176, 41

5.
;

174,256,3.
nos.
3,

Iiiveis 'lovis',

59;
Diiivei,

dat. sg.

15,1,251,5. sg. Herentatei, no. 41. herest 'volet', no. 2 (passim). 100, 3, c,
221.

luvei,

no.

25

a, b,

no.

45

(passim), Aiou/ret, no. 64 (24).

101,
of a

heriam'vim', no. 19

1, 250, 1. imheriiad 'capiat', no. 20; 44, a;


i.

15,

134, 183 with a. Iwviass '*Iovias', ace.


festival,

pi.,

name

no.
.,

perf. subj. 3 pi. hjerrins, no.

154;

Diuvia.

29; no. 24 a,

here
b.

probably
252,
1.

115,2,216,233.

149,214,2.

luviia 'loviam', adj., no.

3.

318

Glossary and Index


liimitu[m] 'limitum', gen.
47.
liis.., no. 50.
? ?

[iuvilampi., no. 129.

iiivilam '*iovilam', no. 33, iuvil, no. 32, older diuvilam, no. 21, diuvil., no.

nom. sg. iuvilu (on two fragments not included), iuhil., no. 27 nom. pi. iiivilas, (h by mistake);
22
;

limu 'famem', no. 19s.

21.

nos. 25
/as,

a, 26, iuvilas, no. 25 b, i//vino. 29, iuvil, no. 50. 134, 5, p.

l?]ufrikunuss '*liberigenos'(?), no. 50. Formation and meaning uncertain.


'

AovKavofj.

Lucanorum'
'

no. 75.

24, 71.
.

257,

247.

Luvkanateis *Lucanatis', no. 61


195,/.
sg.

71,

ip'ibi', no. 134.

isidum 'idem',

nom.

m., no.

4,

259, 3. luvkei'in luco',


104.

loc. sg., no. 26.

71,

isidu, nos. 7, 8, et<m5o^ (fragment),

esidum (fragment), esidu[m], no. 50 nom. pi. m. iwssu, i#su, 44, c; no. 3; 53, a, 139, 1, a. 44, c, 50,
ist,

Luvkis 'Lucius', praen., no. 20 kis, 1. 5, probably mistake);


sg.

(Liivi-

Luvcies; 64, b;

195, 201, 5. see sum.

iwssu, see isidum.


izic'is', no. 2 (passim);
ioc, no. 2
4,

17, 27-28, 41, 49. toM/ir'ver,no. 2s. 16,9,71,96, 104, 124, 202, 18, 238, 2, 239.

gen. abbr. L., nos. 71.

nom.

sg.

f.

iuk, no.

1 37, 42,

iiuk, no.
t'dic,

Luvfreis 'Liberi', gen. 104, 136.

sg., no. 59.

71,

21; 31, a;
no. 2
6, 9, 30,

nom.
ace.

ace. sg. n.
17, is,

idik, no. 1
sg.

idik,

luisarifs 'lusoriis'(?),no. 21. 178, 9, 257, 4, p. 248.

124, 138,

no. 19s,5;

m.

ionc, no.
f.

12,

n,

26

49

ace. sg.

iak, no.

50; 108,
no. 220;
25.

2,

a;

nom.

pi.

m.

iwsc,

M., abbr. praen. (Mais?), no. m., see meddikkiai.

3.

nom.

ace. pi. n. ioc, no.

See also

eiseis.

195.

Ma., abbr. praen. (Mais?), nos. 11, 17. Maatiiis '*Matis', dat. pi., no. 45 10, 38.
Cf. L. Matuta.

L., see Luvkis.

lamatir 'caedatur'(?), no. 221, lamatir, no. 194. 228, 238, 2, 239, p.
238.

Maatreis'Matris', no. 54. Maesius mensis Maius'.


'

33, 81.

"Maesius
Festus
a.

" lingua Osca mensis Maius.


ed.

AaTrom 'Lamponius'. 108, 2, a. leginum legionem, cohortem', no. 19s,


'

Thewrewk, p. 109. 147, 3, Magiium 'Magiorum', gent., no.


174, 176, 1. Mahii[s' Maius'.

21.

legin[um, no. 19
no. 194, n,
lefguss,
12.

dat. sg. leginei,

176,1.
7.

181.
no. 60.

maimas
114,

'maxirnae', gen. sg., no. 23,

meaning uncertain,

6,

147,

3, a,

189,

3.

licitud 'liceto', no. 2 (passim), likitud,

no. 136.

41, 44, 104, 212,

3.

Liganakdikei,

name

of a goddess, dat.

mats 'magis, plus', adv., no. 2 5, 15, 25. 91,1, 147,3, 188, 1, 289. Mais, Mais 'Maius', praen. (fragments)
dat. sg. Maiiui, no. 1 1,3;
;

80, 2, 263, 1. dat. pi., no. 1 6, 7; ligatufs 'legatis', nom. pi. ligat[us], no. 1 9. 41.

sg., no. 458,35.

gen.
,

abbr. Mai. sg. [MJaiieis ?, no. 50 no. 1 1, 4/Mh., nos. 47, 57 176, 1.
;

ligud 'lege',

abl.

sg.,

no.

19,

24;

Here
3,

loc. pi. ligis, no. 225.

41, 104.

perhaps M. and Ma. 91,1, 147,3, 176, 1,3.


also

61,

Mitl.]

G-lossary
no. 192.

and Index
178,
22

Oscan

319

malaks 'malevolos'(?),
10,

meddiss 'meddix',

256,
'

6.

nos. 41, 48, 51, nos. meddis, 29, 43, meddis, no. 2

mallom malum',
no. 2
11.

ace. sg., no. 2

5, 15,

abl. sg. mallud, no. 2 20,

malud,

gen. sg. medikeis, (passim); 145,2; no. 3 dat. sg. medikei, no. 1 5 ;
;

100,

3, c.

nom.

M.a/j.pKies 'Mamercius', gent., no. 66. Cf. praen. Mamercus quoted under

pi. meddiss, no. 42, ,ue55et, no. 62 (24); 90, 1,145, 2; abbr.medd.,

no. 30, metd., no. 47, med., nos. 7-9.

Mamers.

Mamers
tis,

'

80, Mars'.

1,

174.

15,6, 44, 163, 263,

1, p.

229.
16.

"

Mamers Mamertis
Mars MarSicilia

medicatinom 'iudicationem', no. 2


15,6, 163.

facit, id est

lingua Osca

unde

et

Mamertini in

medicatud 'iudicato',
15,6, 163.
'

abl. sg., no. 2 24.

dicti,

qui Messanae habitant.

Ma-

mercus praenomen est Oscum ab eo quod hi Martem Mamertem dicunt." Festus ed. Thewrewk, pp. 98, 99. M.a/j.eprivo 'Mamertina',adj. nom. sg.f., no. 62 Mamertino~M.a/j.epTivovfji
' ;

medicim *rneddicium, magistracy', nom. ace. sg., no. 230-33; 172;


abl. sg.
3, c;

meddixud, no. 2
abl.
sg.

13, 21; 100, w/edikid, no. 31 b;

173,5.

15,6,163,250,2.
3.

rum', no. 63 (24). 47, 255, 5. Mamerttiais 'Martiis', adj., nos. 27-29.
.

Meeilikiieis 'MetXtxfou', no.

21.

162,1, 252,

1, p.

247.
3.

mefi[u] 'media', nom. sg. f.,no. 130; loc. sg. f. mefiai, no. 1 57. 36, 1, 136.

manafum

'mandavi', no. 19
2.

204,

5,

memnim monumentum', no. 20.


'

172,

223, 264,

250.
ace.
sg.,

manim 'manum',
185,3.

no. 224.

Mener. <Minervio'(?), no.

18.
8.

21.

menvum
no. 29.
ftn.).

'minuere', no. 19

44,

c.

Marahis 'Marius'(P), praen., no. 40; gen. sg. Marahieis (fragment), abbr. Marai. no. 43 (implying a spelling
,

mess/mass 'medioximas, midmost' (?),


86,
1,

138,

a,

189, 1 (with

Maraiieis, as Mai. for Maiiefs


foil.).

cf.

176,

4.
;

Metiis 'Mettius', gent., no. 57. Mh., see Mais.

Maraies <Marius'(?), gent, (fragment)


gen. sg. Maraiieis, no. 50.

Mi. abbr. praen.


,

(cf

the two following),

61, 3,

no. 26.

176,4,253,1. Maras '*Maras', praen.,


no. 62
;

Minaz 'Minatus', praen. (fragment);


no. 40, Mapas,

gen. sg. Minateis, no. 25.

259,
;

1.

gen. sg. Maraheis, no. 40 (and fragments) abbr. Mr., nos. 4, 14, 15, 17. 169, 12, 176,
?
;

Minis 'Minius', praen., no. 44


sg.

gen.

Minnieis, Minieis, no. 25, Miib.

nieis, no. 35, Minies, no. 36.

4.

minive, no. 31
'

See note,

p. 251.

Markas. 169, 12. meddikkiai *in meddicia, in the meddixship', loc. sg., no. 28, medd/kia/, no. 27, medikkiai, no. 33, medikia[i], no. 32 <TVTT peSiKMi (fragment), 302 ;
;

min[s] 'minus', adv., no. 2 315.

10.

90,

1,

minstrels 'minoris', gen. sg. m., no. 2 12, 27, mistreis, no. 2 18 (108, 2, a).

89,1, 187,1,
a.

a,

188,3.
91, 2,

abbr. medik&., medik., no. 31, m.,


no. 26.

Mitl.'Mitulus', praen., no. 57.

15,6, 162,

1.

320
mulniku 'communis',

Grlpssary
adj.,

and Index

Oscan
7, 8.

[miiiniku-

nom.

sg. f.,
;

nip 'neque, neve', no. 19 138,

202., 20.
2.

no. 1 22, abbr. m//inik. , nos. 27-28 abl. ace. sg. f. muinikam, no. 21;
sg.
f.

nistrus 'propinquos', no. 19


a,

38, 4,
21.

188,

2.

mufnfkad, no.
,

1 50
;

nom.

sg.

Niumeriis 'Numerius', gent.

n.

muini[kum]

no. 1 is

loc. sg. n.

Nijumsis 'Nurnerius', praen., no. 42;


O-SITJIS,

miiinikei, no. 1

19.

66,187,1,256,2.

miiltasikad 'multaticia',adj.,abl. sg. f., no. 5; abl. sg. n. multas Likud],


no. 43.

gen. sg. Niumsieis, no. 42, no. 02 (24, c); abbr.


;

Nivfj.-

nos. 9, 13

abbr. N., no.


1

3.
,

Ni., 21, 56.

49, 254.
no.

Nuvkrinum 'Nucerinorum
2
(passim).

no. 76.

moltaum 'multare',

210, 1, 262, 1. molto 'multa', nom. sg., no. 2 n, 26; gen. sg. moltas, no. 2 13, 27 269
;
;

Nuvellum'Novellum', praen., no. 20. Nuvlanu- 'Nolanus', no. 1. Ace. sg. f. nom. dat. sg. m. -[nui] -nam m. -num pi. m. -niis gen. pi.
;
; ; ;

moltam, no. 2 2. see Maras. Mr., Mulukiis 'Mulcius', gent.,


ace. sg.

49, 146.
no.
43.

dat.-abl. pi. -niiis.

Uf

.,

see Upfals.
58.
8.

80,

1.

Uhtavis 'Octavius', gent., nos. 20,


cogn.,
nos.

Mutil 'Mutilus',

79-80.

142, 191,
liin
. . .

119,2, 171,

1.

no. 50.

Mut[ti]lli[s] 'Mutilius', gent, no. 40; gen. sg. Muttillieis, no. 40. 171,1.

uittiuf usus', no.


162,
1.

40,

43.

53, 66,

Mz. 'Mettus', abbr. praen., nos.


53.

10,

Cf. gent. Metiis.

ulam 'ollam', no. 20. rowed from rustic


should expect O. av Latin aul(l)a), not vi.

Perhaps borLatin, for we earlier (cf. the

N.
n.

see Niumsis. 'nummi', no. 2


nisi
1

12, 26.
14, 25.

ultiumam ultimam',
'

no. 29.

49, 56,

ne 'ne,

no. 2

202, 20.
neip,

86,

1,
.
. .

189,
,

1.

nei 'non', no. 2 20, 28.

202, 20.
no. 2
15,

umbn
17,

no. 50.
1

?
13,

neip 'neque, no. 19 4, 5,


1 46-47, 20.

neve',
6.

lip'apud', no.
7,
'

op, no. 2

14,

23.

202, 20.
io,28,

49, 300,

5.
;

nep 'neque, neve', no. 2

nep, nos.

Upfals Ofellus', praen., nos. 35-36


.

92, 202, 20. ner., nerum, see niir.

gen. sg. Upfalleis, no. 40, Upfaleis, abbr. Upf no. 10 here no. 22
; ,
;

nessimas 'proximae', nom. pi. f., no. 2(5 gen. pi. nesimum, no. 2 n, 31
;

perhaps Uf
'

.,

no. 58.

119,
;

2.

Upils
Upil.

Opillus'

(fragment)

abbr.
29,
30.

dat.-abl. pi.

nesimois, no. 2

25.

for
2.

Upil(lels),

nos.

15,8, 86, 1, 138, ni'ne', no. 2 (passim). Ni., see Niumsis.


'

a, 189,1, ftn. p. 134.

119,

202,20.

Uppiis 'Oppius', praen., no. 20


sg.

gen.

Uppiieis, no. 40;

OTrtes,

cogn.

niir vir, princeps, procer,' title of rank,

upsannam 'operandam,
nos. 4, 48
;

faciendam',

no. 40 (and fragments) gen. pi. abbr. ner. for nerum, no. 2 29, 32
; ;

upsan., no. 7,
49,

upsanno.

ner(efs), gen. sg., no. 25.

15,

7,

97,

n[um], no. 135, 245


;

[iips]annu,

6f

perf. pass, partic.


r,

nom.

180,

2, c.

1>1.

upsatuh, no. 44; 113.

308;

-pid]

Glossary and Index

Oscan

321

perf. indie. 3 sg. upsed, no. 56, ups., no. 57, 3 pi. uupsens, no. 3, upsens, no. 10, ovirvevs, no. 62 (24); 225 with
a.

Perkens '*Percennus', praen., no. 42;


gen.
sg.

Perkedne[is],

no.

42.

135,

a.

17, 4, 49, 88, 3, 99, 8, 122, 3,


1,

perkium, meaning uncertain, nom.


n., no. 39.

sg.

211, 262,

308.

osii[ns] 'adsint', no. 24.

122,

2,

232.

Paakul'*Paculus', praen., no. 43;


gent. Pakulliis'Paculius'.

perek., per., abbr. for perek(ais) 'permeasure of length, ticis', no. 3. of about five feet. Cf. probably

A
'

119,

2,

Umbrian perca

staff, rod'.

139,

1.

171, 113,

1.

Paapii, Paapi 'Papius', gent., no. 79.


c.

peremust 'perceperit', 2 15. 224, 299, 5.

fut.

perf., no.

perf[kium

?] 'perficere',

no. 19

6.

Pakis 'Pacius', praen., nos. 199, 60; dat. sg. Pakiu, no. 192; 172;
171, 3, a; 19 10; 172;
(ieis),

Pernai '*Pernae, Prorsae', dat. 45 22. 300, 8, a.

sg., no.

ace.

sg.

Pakim, no.

?pernum,
pert-,
-pert,

no.

1 29.
33.

304,

p. 230.
5.

abbr. Pak. for Pak-

pert 'trans', no. 1

15, 9, 299,

nos. 29, 30;


'

abbr. Pk., no.

299,
192,
'

5.

56.

174.

2,

299,

5.1
,

.,

Paqui' gen. sg. praen. Cf 24. ? no. 31 b.


,
.

pertumum perimere, prohibere', infin.


;

pai, pae, etc., see

under

pui.

no. 2 7; 86, 2; fut. 3 sg. pertefut. perf. 3 sg. pertmest, no. 2 7

Palanud 'Pallano', no.

61.
6,

pan

'quam', conj., no. 2

also in pru-

299, 5, p. 235. perwra'sine', prep., no. 25, 14, 21. 201,


4
;

emust, no. 2

224.

terpan.

135,190,6,202,4.

5,

299,

6.

Papeis 'Papi', gen. sg., praen., no. 40. Cf. gent. Paapii.
passtata 'porticum', no. 7. 21, 162, 2. Patanai 'Pandae', dat. sg., no. 45 14, 42.
81.

pestlum 'templum', ace. sg. n., no. 49, peessl[um] (fragment). 76, 2, 114,
116,
15.

3,

139,

2,

162,
'

2.

petiropert, petirupert
' ' '

quater'., no. 2 14,

patensins 'panderent, aperirent', 1 50, 51. 99, 4, 213, 2, 233. dat. patir 'pater', no. 35 78, 2
;
;

no.

c, 150, 192, 2.1 Petoritum et Galpetora quattuor' licum veliiculum esse et nomen eius

34, 81, 100, 3,


.

sg.

Paterei 'Patri', no. 45 25


1,

81.

32,

dictum esse existimant a numero IIII rotarum alii Osce, quod hi quoque
;

97, 246,2. pa/..., no. 58, perhaps pa#[rafens

petora quattuor yocent, alii Graece, Festus ed. sed cu'o\i/cc3s dictum."

Pk.

'patraverunt'. see Pakis.


,

Thewrewk,
Pettfe/s,
1
56.

p. 250.

191,

4.

Pettieis 'Pettii',

gen.

sg.,

?^edu
per-.

'pedes', ace. pi. n., no. See p. 230.

gent., nos. 27-28.

pid,

pidum, see

pis,

*pisum.
201,
4.

299,

5.

-pid '-que', indefinite particle.

1 Mention should perhaps have been made of another view, which has been revived several times in recent years, namely that -pert is not to be compared with L. -per in still regard the comparison semper etc., but with Skt. -Tcrt in sakrt 'once' etc.

We

within the Italic as more probable.

322

G-lossary
40.

and Index
'

Oscan

[Piihiui-

Piihiui'Pio', dat. sg., no. 45


83, a, 102,
21.
pis, pid'quis, quid'.
2.

48,

puiiu cuia', nom. sg. f., no. 55. For puiieh see pui. 199, b.
poizad, see pui.

61, 3,

Piistiai 'Fidiae', dat. sg., no. 45

14, 42.

Pumpaiians 'Pompeianus',
gen. sg.
dat. sg.
f
.

no.

4;

Interrogative, Indefinom. sg. m. pis, no. 55. 2 (passim), nite, nom. sg. m. pis, no.
;

m. Pumpaiianeis, no. 3
.

;
;

Piimpaiianai, no. 4 ace. sg. f Piimpaiiana, no. 3. 61,3,


253,
1.

^is, no. 30 no. 225;


no. 1
41,

ace. sg. m. pirn (phim), nom. -ace. sg. n. pld,


6.

*pompe 'quinque'.
'

pid, no. 19

Indefinite
pis, no. 2
8,

Relative,
]9;
'

nom.
m.

sg.

m.

dat. sg.

piei, no. 27.


;

199.
pitpit

37, 150 with a. name of a *quincuriis', pumperiais festival, loc. pi., no. 30, pumperiais, nos. 27-28, abbr. pumpe., no. 32 ;

pispis
'

quisquis'

(fragment)

nom.
no. 23

pi.
a,

(or gen. sg.?)

pumperias,

quidquid'.

"

Pitpit Osce quicquid.


p. 263.

"

nom.

pi.

pumper(i)as,

Festus ed. Thewrewk,

200,1.

no. 33.
247.
IIo/iTTTies

37, 150, 191, 5, 251, 4, p.


1

*pisum, pidum 'quisquam, quicquam'. Ace. sg. n. pidum, no. 1 47, pidum, no. 197; gen. sg. m. pieisum, no.
26.
pi. in

'Quintius,

Pontius',

gent.,

no. 62, Puntiis, no. 3.

146, 153,
2

199,200,1,201,5.
tr.

174, 191,
29.

5.

pi. 'tribunus plebis', no. 2

pomtis 'quinquiens',
146, 153, 191,
no.
5,

no.

15.

37,

Plasis'Plarius', praen., no. 20. pukkapid 'quandoque', no. 1 52, pocapit, no. 2 8 (127,
1,

192,

2.

pun 'cum', conjunction,


30,

a),

[p~\ocapid
1,

pun,

19

6,

8,

nos. 1 50, 29, pon, no. 2


3.

(Avellino fragment). 202, 13.

139,

201,

4,

(passim).

92, 135, 190, 5, 202,


3.

pitnttram 'pontem', no.

162,1.
1,

pod,

conjunction,

in

pod

min[s]
. .

' Piipidiis Popidius, Cocidius', nos. 7-8.

pod

suae. 'quominus',no. 2io; 315; 'sive', no. 2 23, svai pun 'sive',

Cf. Pupdiis, fragment.

89,

260,

2.

?[p]rtam
posmom,

'portam', no. 50.


19

no. 19io, 11(133, a). 190,6,202,1. pu/'qui', nom. sg. m., no. 19 1
;

see pustm[as].
5,

pal, no. pae, paei, no. 2 22


sg.
f.

nom.

1 34,
;

pai, no. 19 1, nom. -ace. sg.

pust'post', no. 1 45, pust, no. 300, 6. post, no. 2 8, 23, 29.

n. pud, no. 1 12, 13, 14, 49, pod, no.

pusstlst'positumest'(?),no. 1 33. 84, a, 162,2. Also taken as 'post (ad v.)est'.


pvistin 'according to', prep., no. 1 34.

2 10

gen. sg. m. puiieh, no. 39


o,

61, 3, 64,
sg.
f.

113,

c,

199, 6;

ace.

15, 10, 299,


'

7.

paam,
no. 1 38

no. 4,
;

p]aam,
f.

no. 50,

piistiris

posterius', adv., no. 50.


1,

44,

b,

pam,

abl. sg.
;

poizad,

81, 88,4, 91,

188,

1,

190,6.

no. 2 19;

199, d
;

pus, no. 1 8, 45 nos. 27, 28, 31


pal, no. 1
is,

a,

nom. pi. m. nom. pi. f pas, nom. pi. f. b;


.

pustm[as] 'postremae', nom. pi. (or adv. posgen. sg.?), no. 23 a, b;

mom,

no. 2 16; 190,

5.

114,139.2,

pai, no. 19

9.

199.

189,1.

1 Quintius is the genuine Latin form, while Pontius is the latinized Oscan form found on inscriptions of Campania and Samnium. Cf. 246, 1, a.

sakrasias]

Glossary and Index


loc. sg.,

Oscan
'

323
filium', ace. sg., no.
11.

pustrei'in postero',
81, 88,4, 188,2.

no. 31

a, b.

puklum puerum,
for

pustrei, no. 22, abbr. piistr., no. 31


piiterefpfd 'in utroque',
loc.

19 4 (and so to be read in
;

10, 12,

sg.,

no.

45

18, 46

nom.
pi.

pi.

piituruspid, no.
1 22.

puklui, puklu) (?)dat. sg. abbr. puk., nom. puklui, no. 19s; sg., no. 19 9. 16, 10, 81, 248, 3.

1 9;

gen.

putwr/i[mpid],no.

puf

'ubi', nos. 14-17.


5.

55, 92, 200, 3,

81, 88,4, 188,2, a, 200,2. piitiad 'possit', no. 20, putiiad,


196,
7,

202,
no.

puh, see pod.

piitians 'possint', no. 20, 38, 1, 262, 2. putiians, no. 19 7. pows, see puz.
8
;

punum'quandoque', no. 196.


202,
3.

201,

5,

pr., abbr. 'praetor', no. 2 (passim); for gen. sg., no. 2 21.

purasial'in igniaria', loc. sg. 4516,44. 15,11,55,99,6.

f.,

no.

puz

'ut', conj., no. 1

n, pous, no. 2
2,

9.

prae-'prae-', 300,

7.

55 with ftn., 137,


23.

200,

3,

202,

6.

praefucus 'praefectus', no. 2 258, 1.


praesentid
'

86, 5,
q.,

abbr., 'quaestor',

no. 2

2, 28-29.

praesente', abl. sg., no. 2 21.


7.

Cf. kvaisstur.

62, 178,5, a. prai 'prae', nos. 27-28.

62, 300,
dat.

Rahiis

prebai, meaning uncertain, no. 19 3.

sg.,

Raius', gent., no. 40; 176, 2. sg. Rahiieis, no. 40.


'

'

gen.

preiuatud 'reo', abl.


17, 10, 64.

sg., no. 2

is, 16.

Regaturei Rectori', no. 45 103, 1, 246, 1.


'

12, 40.

53,

prufatted 'probavit', nos. 4, 8, 48, priifattd, no. 7 (e omitted for want of


space); prufattens 'probaverunt', no. 3, abbr. prufts., no. 33. 102, 2,

r[fhtud] 'recto', abl. sg., no. 1 16. Rufriis Rubrius', gent., no. 40.

saahtiim 'sanctum', nom. 45 n, 45. 73, 142.

sg. n., no.

228, 262,
'

1.

priiffed posuit', nos.

41

b,

51 88, 3, 223
;

sakahiter 'sanciatur, sacrificetur', no. 45 19. 210, 3, 232.

pniftu 'posita', no. 1 16; 89, 244, 1. Ftn. p. 170. pru 'pro', no. 2 13, 24. 53, 300, 8.
pru-, 17, 8, 300,
8.

2,

sakaraklum 'sacellum, templum', nos.


1 11,
1 20
;

46

abl. sg.

gen. sg. sakaraklefs, no. sakaraklud, no. 1 13.

pruhipid 'prohibuerit', perf.'subj. 3 sg., f ut. perf no. 2 25 3 sg. pruhi;


.

81, 248, 3. sakarater sacratur', no. 45 21 subj. 3 sg. sakra/tir, no. 31 b


' ;

pres.
;

pust, no. 2

26.

Cf.

hipid, hipust.

2,

b;

perf.
;

subj.

238, 3 sg. sakrafir,


2,
pi. f saA'/'an.

218.

nos. 29, 30
'

227, 234, note, 238,

prupukid ex antepacto, by previous


agreement', no.
1 2.

239

gerundive nom.

17, 8, 86,

5,

173,5, 250,

2.

nas, no. 29, abbr. 81.


<ra/v>o' sacra',

sa#ran., no.
sg.
f.

30.

pruter pan (pam) 'priusquam', 2 4, 16. 188, 2, 202, 4.

no.

nom.

(?),

no. 62.

Pukalatuf 'Puclato', dat.


no. 1
4.

sg.,

cogn.,

81, 257, p. 258. sakrasias '*sacrariae',


28.

nom.

pi. f.,

no.

81, 259,

1.

254.

324

Glossary and Index


a,

Oscan
'

[sakrim-

sakrim 'hostiam', no. 31


no. 19 11
;

sakrim,
30;
81, 187,
fut.

abl. sg. sakrid, no.

Slabiis Stlabius, Labius', gent. no. 41. 114.


,

2,

abl. pi. sakriss, no. 29.

slagim regionem,
abl. sg. [up]

'

finis',

no. 1

34, 54

257, 2. sakruvit 'sacrat', no. 22


sakrvist, no. 21.

slaagid 'ad finem', no.


a, b.

3 sg.

31,

6,

214,

3,

221,
81,

1 12; 300, 5. 114, p. 229. Smintiis 'Smintius', gent., no. 37

262,
157,

3.

174.
?s]iillad, see sullus.

Sadiriis 'Satrius', gent., no. 12.


2,
'

246,

1, a.

sum
nos. 50, 80.

Safinim Samnium',
p. 3, 81,

Ftn.

'sum', nos. 33, 39, 41 a; 217, 1; pres. indie. 3 sg. est, nos. 27-28,
no. 1 (passim); 217, 2; pres. 3 pi. sent, no. 44, set, nos.
;

125,

1, a,

172.

1st,

Saidiieis'Saedii', gen. sg., gent., no.


22.

indie.

174.

Saipinaz 'Saepinas', no. 40. 259, 3. SatTrii/s '*Saepinus', cogn., no. 66.
Salaviis 'Salvius', gent., no. 36 80, 1, 258, 3; 0-aXa/rs, salavs 'salvus' or
; '

26-28, 45 1, set, no. 2 25 imper. 3 sg. estud, no. 1

108, 2

;-

40, 44, estud,

no. 2 (passim); 217, 3; irnperf. indie. 3 pi. fufans, no. 1 10 102,


;

2,

220;
;

imperf. subj. 3 sg. fusid,


;

Salvus' (fragments).

80,

1,

258,

1.

Santia.

169, 12.

Sarinu, Sar/nu '*Sarina', name of a gate at Pompeii, ace. pi. n., nos. 1415.

1 19 217, 3, 233 fut.3sg. fust, nos. 29, 30,/wsZ, no. 2 (passim); 221 perf. indie. 3 pi. fufens, nos. 27-28

no.

227
29
;

perf. subj. 3 sg./uwZ, no. 2 28fut. perf. 3 sg. fust, no. 2 28-29;

scriftas 'scriptae',

nom.

pi.,

no. 2

25.

pres. infin.
1, 2, 3.

ezum, no. 2
sg.

10.

217,
56;

121.

Sehsfmbr.s'*Sexembrius', gent., no.


17.

siivad'sua',
ace. sg.
sg. a.
f.

abl.

1,

no.
i
;

suvam, no. 19
1 9, 35.

senateis 'senatus', gen. sg., no. 1 8, 35, 259, 2. senateis, no. 2 3, 6. Sepis 'Seppius', praen., no. 32;174. gen. sg. Sepiefs, no. 33. Seppiis Seppius', gent., no. 10. 174.
'

m. suveis, no.

gen. -194 with

Sp., abbr. praen., 'Spedius' or 'Spurius', no. 27.

27re5ts 'Spedius', praen., no. 66.

serevkid 'auspicio,'
80, 1, 173, 5, 256,
Secrnes, see

abl.
3.

sg.,

no.

3.

S]^urifs 'Spurius', gent., no. 11; 174. gen. sg. Spuriieis, no. 17.
Staatiis, see Statiis.

set, sent, see

under F. sum.
20

Staf[ii]anam 'Stabianam', no.


staflatas 'statutae',

3.

Sidikinud

'Siclicino', abl. sg., no. 77.


; ;

nom.

86, 3, 193 with a ace. sg. siom, no. 2 5, 6, 9 193 with c. sipus 'sciens', no. 2 5, 14. 90, 1, 6,
' sffef sibi', no.
;

pi. f.,

no. 26.

136, 248, 2. Staffs 'Staius', 2,3.

gent.,

no.

47.

176,

99,

1,

225, 306,

p. 235.
1.

stait 'stat', no. 45 48

pi.

stahint,

S/r., abbr. cogn., no. 1

stahint, no. 25
3.

a, b,

stafet, nos. 1 58,

Siuttiis 'Suttius', gent., no.

56.

2(i.

99,
a.

2,

215,

1, 2.

siuom 'omnino', no. 222.


5,

15,12,190,

staff f 'statua', no. 45 (passim).

99, 2,

258,

1.

181,

touto\

Glossary and Index

Oscan
'.

325
no. 64.

praen., no. 20; 64 STdTTt^is, no. 62 99, 2. gent. Staatiis, no. 49. status 'stati, erecti', nom. pi., no. 45
Statiis 'Statius',

61,

2, a,

68.
n.,

gen.

sg.

teer[um] 'territorium',
no. 1
i.

nom.

sg.

12,

terum, no.
;

terefs, no. 1 21
1 19, 46, 49.

gen. sg. loc. sg. terei, no.


1.

1 18;

99, 2, p. 256.

76, 4, 115,

Stenis 'Stenius', praen., no. 52, Srem,


no. 62, Steni, no. 20, Sten
.

tefurum 'burnt-offering', nom.


no. 45
17, 45.

sg. n.,

no. 48.

15, 13, 81, 118.


?),

sullus'omnes', nom.pl. m., no. 40 n; nom. pi. f. [sjullas, no. 40 12; gen.
pi.

teras Herrae', gen. sg. (or ace. pi. no. 19 n. 115, 2, note.

sullum, no. 40 12, sulum, no. 21

teremenniii 'termina', nom.

pi. n.,

no.

adv. suluh 'omnino', no. 199; 133, a, 190, 2; ?[s]ullad'ubique', no. 156;

115,57; 162,
pi.
1,

1, 178, 12; teremw/ss, no. 1 14 178,


;

dat.-abl.
12.

80,

190, 3, p. 230.

"Sollum Osce totum


"
"Sollo Osce

88, 4, 103,

1,

247,

3.
;

etsoldum
dicitur id

significat.

" quod nos totum vocamus.

teremnattens 'terminaverunt',no.3 te[r]emnatust 'terminata est', no. 3


84.

Festus ed. Thewrewk, pp. 412, 426.

262,
a.

1, p.

240.

255,1.
crinr'sub'.

tfei'tibi', no.

19s.

86, 3, 124, 193


ace.

302.
pi.,

with
no. 197;
10.

supruis 'superis', dat.-abl.


188,
2.

thesavrum 'thesaurum',
no.
no. 1
1

sg.

n.,

supr. 'supra' (?), no. 19


suveis, see siivad.

55,

48-49;

loc.

sg.

thesavref,
loc.

52.

21, 68.
abl. sg., no. 77
;

Tianud 'Teano',

svai'si', conjunction, no. 1 41, svai, no. 19 (passim), suae, no. 2 (passim).
62, 102, 1, 202, 14.

38, 1. Tiiatium 'Teatinorum', no. 78.

sg. Tiianei, no. 44.

38,

1.

sverrunei 'arbitro, spokesman' (?),dat. 37, a, 96, 115, 2, sg., no. 1 2.


247, 2, p. 229.
T., abbr. praen., t., see tuvtiks.
'

tiium'tu', no. 19s, tiu, no. 55. with c.


Tintiriis 'Tintirius',
gent.,

193
60.

no.

38,
Titus' (?), no. 16.
21.

3,

246,
2.

1, a.

Tirentium 'Terentiorum', praen., no.


38,

tiurri'turrim', nos. 14, 15.


10.

21, 56,

tadait 'censeat', no. 2

127,
no.

1, a,

232.

Tafidins*'Tafidinus', cogn.,

47.

109, tuvtiks publicus' ('tuticus' in Livy see 15, 6), no. 41; 145, 2; tuv' ;

2.

260, Tanas.

2.

[tfk]s, no.

48

abbr.
;

tiiv.,

nos. 7-9,

169,

12.
9
;

t.

nos. 46, 47

nom.

sg. f . toutico,

tanginom 'sententiam', no. 2


sg. tangineis, no. 2 9;

abl. sg.

gen. tan-

no. 2 23;

2 10

(passim), tanginud, no. 4, tanginud, no. 2s, 7, abbr. tangi[n]., no. 5, [ta]ngin., no. 11.
giniid,

no.

ace. sg. n. touticom, no. gen, sg. f [touti]cas, no. 2 5 ; loc. sg. f., abbr. tuvtik., no. 31 a,
. ;

abl. sg., no. 33, t, no. 26; abbr. tiiv., no. 18, tiivtik.,no.31b(?).
tiiv.,

16, 11, 98, a, 181, 247,


29, 30.

1.

15, 2, 6, 44, 71, 187,


nos.

1,

256,
2

2.
9,

Tantrnnaium '*Tanterneiorum',
61,
3,

touto 'civitas,
,

91,

2,

253,

1.

populus', no. 62; 24, 61, 2, a;

no.

is,

ace.

326
sg.

Glossary and Index


toutam, no. 2 19;
14, 21.

Oscan
ii.

[tr.-

abl. sg. tou-

Upfals, Upils, see under

15, 2, 71. r., abbr., 'tribunus', no. 2 so. Trebiis 'Trebius', gent., no. 9.
T/>e/3ts

tad, no. 2

upsed, uupsens, etc., see upsannam.


Urufiis'Orfius', gent., no. 38. 174.

80,

1,

'Trebius', praen., no. 65, abbr. Tr., nos. 9, 26, 46.


f.,

tribarakkiuf 'aedificium', nom. sg.


no. 137,42.

urust 'oraverit, egerit', fut. perf. 3 sg., no. 2 14, 16. 17, 16, 21, 211, 224.

15,14,53,162,1,247,1,
1 28,

uruvu'curva,
no. 1
56.

flexa'(?),
1,

nom.
pi.,

sg.

f.,

263,

1.

80,

p. 230.

triibarak[avum] 'aedificare', no.

usurs 'osores'(P),

ace.
10.

no.

19

2.

tribarakavwm, no.
1 48;

36; 50,

83;
perf.
39, 42.

117, a, 138, 178,

perf. subj. 3 pi. tribarakattins, no.

228,

234, note;

fut.

ualaemom 'optimum',
2
10.

ace. sg. n., no.

pi.

tribarakattuset, no. 1
1,

97, 189,

2.

15, 14, 32, 3, 80,

263,
sg.

1.
f.,

Valaimas 'Valaemae',
no. 4,
tribud,

triibum 'domum', ace.


[trjlibu,

19

4, 8, 10

no.

17;

abl.

sg.

9, 12,

gen. sg., no. so to be read in 11. 2, (and for Valamais, Valaims, Valai-

no. 18.
tris'tres',

15, 14, 94, 171, 14.

nom.

pi.,

no.

26.

41, a,
abl.

mais). vehiian. see eehiianasum.


,

82,1, 191,3. tristaamentud 'testamento',


no. 4.

Velliam 'Velliam',
sg.,

gent.,

no.

20.

91,

2,

247,

3,

290.
no. 40.

trstus 'testes',

nom.

pi.,

91,

2.

169, 12. no. 45 n, Verehasiui '*Versori'(?), no. 45 39 Verehasiu, (171, 3,


a).

trutum 'quartum'(?), ace.

sg., no. 2 15;


12.

Cf.

Atou/ret

Fe/wro/set,

no.

64,
1,

trutas, case uncertain, no. 19

and Grk.
149.
vereiiai
'

Zeus

Tpoirouos.

80,

191,4, p. 237. turumiiad torqueatur, suffer torture', no. 199. 38, 1, 80, 1, 146, 212, 1,
'

iuventuti' ( ?) ,

no.

gen

sg.vereias,no.61,vereM*s(?),no.30.
61,
3,

262,2.
tuvai'tuae', dat. sg., no. 19 n.
no. 19
7.

194.

Fep<ropei

253, 2, p. 240. '* Versori' no. 64.


,

With Acou/rei

ud/.

kium

'efficere',

but

Possibly for ud/[avery doubtful

Fepvopei compare Grk. Zei>s fpo-rraios. 101, 115,3, 138. veru 'portam', ace. pi. n., no. 15, ver.,

(prefix wd-, Skt. ud-, not otherwise known in Italic).

no. 14

dat. abl. pi. veruls, no. 26.

15, 15.

ufteis 'optati, voluntatis', gen. sg., no.

Vestirikiiui 'Vestricio', dat. sg.,no.

1.

19?;
l,a.

nom.

pi.

wishes', no. 40.


ulas'illius', no. 19

uhf tis voluntates, 121 with note, 247,


'

81, 174, 246,

1, a,

256,

4.

Vesulliais '*Vesulliis', probably the name of a festival, no. 26, Vesuliais,


no. 34. 107, 3, p. 247. Vesulliafs '*Vesullieius', gent., no. 46.

4, 12. 197, 3. -wm, enclitic particle. 50, 201, 5. " ungulus anulus'. Ungulus Oscorum Festus ed. Thewlingua anulus."
'

176, 3, 253, 1. Vezkel'Vetusci'(?), no. 452,28.


8.

256,

rewk,

p. 570.

am-\

Glossary and Index


dat.
sg.,

Umbrian
1

327
,

Vibiiai'Vibiae', no. 19 3, 10.


'

praen.(?),

Virriis, Virriiis 'Verrius

20

Vibis Vibius', praeu., nos. 37-38, Viiabbr. V., nos. 4, 7, 8, bis, no. 68;
12, 14, 15, 17
;

gent., no. gen. sg. Virriieis, no. 26, Virriieis, no. 32; gen. pi. Viriium,
;

no. 34.

38,

2,

174, 176,
a,

5.

geri. sg.,

abbr. Vi.,
4.

Viteliii' Italia', no. 79

Vitelliu also
1,

nos. 29, 30.


'

174.
21,

found.

5, 39, 6,

162,

250,

2.

Vilnikiis Vinicius', gent., no.

174, 256,

4.

zicolom 'diem', no. 2


no.
2
21.

14, zico.,

no. 2 15;

uincter 'convincitur',

44,

143, 213,
viii 'via',

3.

abl. sg. zicel[ei, no. 2 7; no. 2 16 nom. or ace. sg. ziculud,


loc.
;

nom.

sg., no. 1 56, viu, no.


1 33, 3, via,

ace. sg.

viam, nos.

no.

djifkulus (fragment) zicolom, no. 2 17 268;


pi.
;

gen. pi.
abl. pi.

3; 109, 2;

loc. sg. viai, no. 1 57;

zicolois, no. 2 25.


c,

81, 88, 4, 100, 3,

ace. pi. viass, no. 3.

31, a, 101.

134,

a,

249,

2.

UMBRIAN
a.,

abbr., 'asses', v b

10 etc., vii

4.

aha-, ah-, a- 'ab-'.

77,

2,

264,

1.

aanfehtaf 'infectas, non. coctas'


iia
33.

(?),

abrof 'apros',
157,
1,

73, a, 263, 2. vii a 3, apruf,


a.
;

aMripursau'*abstripodato,tripodato', vii a 23, 36, atripursatu, vi b 16, atropusatu, vib 36 (86, 7), ahtrepufatu, ii a 24 etc. atrepuratu, ii b is. 51, a,
,

24, 33.

171, 11,

ace. pi. abrunu 'aprum', ii a n abrons, vii a 43. 157, 1, 181, b. Acesoniam-e in Acedoniam (Aquiloniam ?), a district of Iguvium, vi b 52
' '

264,

1.

ahauendu

'avertito', vii a 27.


1.

Cf.

16,

21, 161, 264,

(131,

6),

Akefuniam-em, ib
vii
i

16;
1),

loc. sg.

Acersoniem,

a 52 (109,

ahesnes 'ahenis', iii is, 19. 255, 3. ahtim-em 'ad caerimonium'


29.

83, 114,

(?),

ib
iii

12;
24,

Akefunie, b 43. 54, 144, a. under O. Akudunniad. acnu 'annos' (?), ace. pi. n., v b
159, a,

See

ahtis-per 'pro caerimoniis',

247,

1, a.

8 etc.

Ahtu '*Actui, deo Agonio',


184, 251,
6.

iia

10,

n. a

299,

7.

akrutu, see ager. adro 'atra,' ace.


i

ai^'agito', imperat.
pi. n., vii

sg., vi

is, vii

25, atru,

40, 45, aitu,

ib29,

37, pi.

aituta,

iii 13.

29

dat. -abl. adrir, vii a 9 etc.,


is.

143.

adrer, vii a
afero,

157,

2.

aiu agitationes, disturbances' (?),

'

ii

a 4.

aferum, see anferener. See an- and afiktu infigito', i a 31.


'

147,
alfu
'

3.

alba', ace. pi. n.,

ib

29

dat.-

fiktu.

abl. pi. alfir, vii


;

25, 26, alfer, vii

ager 'ager', no. 84 91, 2, 117 gen. abl. sg. akru-tu, sg. agre, v b 9, 14
;
;

32, 34.

124.
'
.

va
\J

9.

32,

1.

am-, an-, a-, ambr-, ampr-, apr- amb-' 89 1 161 with a.

for o is put uuder o

Alphabetical order as in Latin, hut with k under c; f, rs, after r; 5, s, after when forms with o are also found, otherwise under u.

s,

328

Glossary and Index


52.

Umbrian
10; 108,
1.

[amboltu-

amboltu 'ambulato', vib


1, a.

161, 213,

a,

aferum, ib 217.
'

161,

a,

164,

ambrefurent, ambretuto, see amprehtu.

anglaf oscines', ace.

pi., vi

5,

angla,
pi.
1.

amparitu'conlocato, setup', imperat.,


iii
'

vial

etc., ancla,
16.

via

18;

nom.

imperat. pass, amparihmu surgito, raise oneself ', ii a 42. 215,


;

14

anclar, via

16, 12, 155, 264,

1,

264,

1,

308,
ii

b.

ampentu 'impendito'
perat. sg. ,
10, 11,

(see p. 302),
23,

im-

ananglom-e 'ad angulum', via 9; glu-to 'ab angulo', vi a 8, 10. 155. anhostatu 'non hastatos', vi b 60, anostatu, vii
vii
15.

20,

iii

apentu

iii

27 (cf. 108, 1,
ii

fut. 2 sg.

anpenes,

ampetu, ii b 135) b 27 (n from


;

48

dat. pi. anhostatir,

28, so,

anostatir, vi
3,

62, vii
2.

13,

98, 99,

149,
1.

a,

263,

nd by 135);
ii

fut. perf.

sg.

apelus,

anouihimu
215,
1,

'induitor', vi

49.

16, 13,

27,

sg. apelust,

v a

17.

107,

3,

237, 264,

135, 226, 264, 1. ampefia, a portion of the victim, perhaps the 'part about the foot', abl.
sg., iia 29.

anpenes, see ampentu. anseriato 'observatum', supine, vi a 6, aseriato, vi a i, 6, anzeriatu, i b 10


57, 242
;

161,

a. sg.,
i

pres. subj. 1 sg. aseriaia,

amprehtu 'ambito', imperat.

21,

vi vi

a a

2
4
;

pres.
;

imperat. sg. aserio,


sg. ase-

apretu, ib20 (cf.l08,l),pl.am&rewfo, vi b 56, 63, 64 fut. perf. 2 sg. am;

riatu,

235 fut. imperat. vi b 47, azeriatu, i b 8

perf.

prefuus,

20,

pi.

ambrefurent,
1.

vib
an-,

56; 227.

an-, a- 'in-',

161, 217, 4. verbal prefix. 264,


negative
prefix.

pass, partic. abl. pi. aseriater, via i, anzeriates, ia i, iia 17. 102,4,108,
1, 110, 1, 210,6, 264, 1. anstintu 'distinguito', iii 20, astintu,
iii

a2.

'in-',

98,

263,

18, 19.

146, 153, 264,

1.

andendu 'intendito, imponito',


antentu,
ii

vii

25,

anstiplatu 'stipulator', vi a

3.

264,

1.

20,

iii

is etc., iv 21, 27,

anpif, in pustin anpif, probably

'in

atentu, iib
ander-,

28. 135, 156, 264, 1. anter- 'inter-'. 98, c, 156,

301, 1. andersistu '*intersidito, intervenito', fut. perf. 3 sg. andervi a 6 114;


;

vices, by turns', ii a 25. 144, 299, 7. ansihitu 'non cinctos', vi b 59, ansihitu, vii a 48 dat. pi. ansihitir, vi b 62,
;

vii

13 etc.

73, 144, 263,


abl.
pi.,

2.
ii

antakres 'integris',
antakre,
i

42,

sesust, vi

a
'

7.

222, note.

anderuacose *intervacatio, intermissio i b 8. 35, sit'(?),vi b 47, anter vakaze,


247,
41.

Always phrase antakres kumates with the whole and the broken (cakes?)'.
36, 38.
'

in the

1, a, p.

306.
',

32, 3, 263, 2, 325.


abl.
sg., vi

anderuomu
298.
'

'inter

antentu, see andendu. anter, see ander.

andirsafust circumtulerit, lustraverit', vii a 46, andersafust, viib3, aterafust,

antermenzaru 'intermenstruarum',
16.

ii

110,

1.

131, 161, a, 164, 217, 227.


i

40.

a,

210,

6,

antefafust, see andirsafust. anzeria-, see anseriato.

anferener 'circumferendi, lustrandi', 135 infin. o/ero, vi b 48, vi a 19


; ;

ape 'cum, ubi' (always temporal), vib 5 etc. (17 times), ape, i b 34 etc.

asnata]

Glossary and Index

Umbrian
via
17.

329
132 with
a,

(8 times), api, i a 27, 30, 33, ap, iii 20, iv3i, oppei, viib 3. 16, 14, 139, 1,

sg. arsferturo,

246,
27

1.

202, 8. apehtre 'ab extra, extrinsecus', adv., ivis. 142, 188,2, 263, 3, a, 264, 1.
apelust, apentu, see ampentu. aplenia 'impleta', ace. pi. n., ii a 23
dat.-abl. pi. aplenies, iia 23.

arsie 'sancte', voc. sg., vi a 24,


;

vibs, b 27, asier, vi b 8. Probably from the same root as arsmor 'ritus'.
gen. sg. arsier, vi a
24, vi
6, 7.

arsir 'alius'(?),via
a.

106,
vi

a, p. 302.

161,

arsmahamo 'ordinamini',

56,

ar-

apretu, see amprehtu. apruf, see abrof.


ar-, ar- 'ad-', see

mamu, ibi9(132,
251,
ars-, a?-.
25, 41. 3.

a).

16, 15, 237, a,

under

arnipo 'donee, until', vi b 10, 319.


'

202,

arsmatiam 'ritualem, official', vib 49,50, arsmatia, vi a 19 etc. 16,15,251,3. arsmor 'ritus', nom. pi., via 26 etc.
(4 times),

arp lataf arculatas, circular cakes', iv 22. Cf. " arculata dicebantur circuli

171, 13
3.

ace. pi. arsmo,

vi

so etc. (10 times),

asmo, vi a

49.

qui ex farina in

sacrificiis fiebant."

16, 15, 251,

Festus ed. Thewrewk, p.


249,
1.

12.

154,

Afmune '*Admono'
2, a.

or '*Admoni', epiii

thet of Jupiter, dat. sg.,


'in

7.

247,

arvam-en
'

arvum',

iii

11;

loc. sg.

Perhaps from the same root


'

arven, iii 13. arvia *arvia, frumenta, fruits of the


field', ace. pi. n.,
i

as arsmor.

as

etc. (7 times),

af peltu adpellito, admoveto', iib 19, iv 8. 132.

iia

32,

arviu, ia 12 etc. (12 times), aruvia,


iii

31

(31, 6), arwio, vi a 56 etc. (12


abl.
pi.

afputrati'arbitratu', va 12. 59,251,6. arsueitu 'advehito, addito', vi a 56 etc.


(11 times), afveitu, ii a 12 etc. (5 times), arueitu, vi b 23, arveitu, i b 6

times);

arves,
27,

(11 times), arvis,

ia

ia 6 etc. ib7 (173, 5).


a,

31, a, 102,1.
ars-, af- 'ad-'.
-a?, -a 'ad'.

132 with
iv 28.

299,

1.

(132, a), aveitu, iv 143, 160.

i.

132 with
asa,
38,
iii

a,

133,6,299,1.
32, 3, 250,
1.

asa 'ara',

abl.

sg.,

vi

9,
ii

23,

afkani 'cantum',
'

iv 16, e-asa 'ex ara',

a
;

asa-ku

af epes adipibus, fatty portions', abl.


pi.,
i

'apud aram',

ii

39, 43

asam-af

6 etc.,

aripes,

7,

afpes,

i b 30, 33, af