Preparation of Gases in Laboratory Aims: To prepare oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas in laboratory. Problems : 1.

How to prepare oxygen gas in laboratory? 2. How to prepare carbon dioxide gas in laboratory? 3. How to prepare hydrogen gas in laboratory? Hypothesis:
1. Oxygen gas can be prepared in laboratory by using manganese dioxide (MnO2) and

hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
2. Carbon dioxide gas can be prepared in laboratory by using marble chips (CaCO3) and

dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl).
3. Hydrogen gas can be prepared in laboratory by using zinc metal and diluted hydrochloric

acid (HCl). Variables:
a) Manipulated b) Fixed

: Materials used to produce gas : Concentration of hydrogen peroxide (6% ), concentration of hydrochloric acid (5M of HCl) : Gas produce (oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas)

c) Responding

Operational definition:
a) Manipulated : Material that been use to produce oxygen gas is hydrogen peroxide

(H2O2), meanwhile material that been use to produce carbon dioxide are marble chips (CaCO3) and dilute hydrochloric acid (HCl). Hydrogen gas is prepared by using zinc metal and diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl).
b) Responding : Gases produced in this experiment were oxygen, carbon dioxide and

hydrogen gas. Reaction between manganese dioxide (MnO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was produce oxygen gas. Reaction between marble chips (CaCO3) and dilute

hydrochloric acid (HCl) was produce carbon dioxide gas. Meanwhile reaction between zinc metal and diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) was produce hydrogen gas. Apparatus :

Round-bottomed flask, dropping funnel, gas jar, rubber tube , test tube, wooden splinter, retort stand, glass basin, glass rod, filter funnel, measuring cylinder (500 ml and 250 ml) and volumetric flask (500 ml). Materials :

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 6%, manganese dioxide (MnO2), hydrochloric acid (HCl), 5M, marble chip (CaCO3), zinc metal and calsium metal. Procedure :

Preparation of Gas in Laboratory A) Oxygen gas a. The volume of hydrogen peroxide is calculated to find the dilution factor from the stock solution used. b. Hydrogen peroxide was measured 100ml using measuring cylinder and added distilled water until 500ml. c. Manganese dioxide then was put into round bottom flask. d. After that, put dropping funnel that filled with hydrogen peroxide on the round bottom flask.
e. The rubber tube was put into the gas jar to collect the gas. f.

Then, the hydrogen peroxide was dropped on manganese dioxide.

g. The gas collected was tested with glowing splinter. h. The observations were recorded. i. The procedure e until i repeated to get the pure oxygen gas. Precaution: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is corrosive.

B) Carbon dioxide gas
a. Calcium carbonate (marble) chips were put into round bottom flask.

b. The dilute hydrochloric acid then titrated on marble chips. c. The water tape was put into the gas jar to collect the gas. d. The reaction was observed. e. The gas collected was tested with burning splinter. f. The observations were recorded. g. The procedure c until g repeated to get the pure carbon dioxide gas. C) Hydrogen gas a. Volume of hydrochloric acid need was calculated by referring the stock solution. b. The 500ml volumetric flask was filled up with distilled water until half of it. c. 207 ml of the hydrochloric acid (stock solution) was measure and transfer it into volumetric flask. This step done in fume cupboard. d. Distilled water was added into volumetric flask until mark level. e. The flask was shaken few time and it ready to use. f. The dilute hydrochloric acid then titrated on zinc metal.
g. The rubber tube was put into the gas jar to collect the gas.

h. The reaction was observed. i. The gas collected was tested with burning splinter. j. The observations were recorded. k. The procedure g until k repeated with using the calcium to get the pure hydrogen gas. Observation Gas Oxygen Reaction Hydrogen peroxide react with manganese Carbon dioxide dioxide Dilute hydrochloric acid react with marble chips. Observation Bubble gas formed. The glowing splinter ignited. Bubble gas formed. The burning splinter turns off the light. Carbon dioxide gas formed Inference Oxygen gas formed

Hydrogen

Dilute hydrochloric acid react with zinc / calcium metal. Reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid with calcium metal is more reactive than using zinc metal.

Bubble gas formed. The burning splinter giving a ‘pop’ sound.

Hydrogen gas formed

Calculation Preparation 500ml of 6% of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 Note: Dilution factor (DF) = ratio of final volume / aliquot volume (final volume = aliquot + diluents) Aliquot = a measured sub-volume of original sample Diluents = material which the sample is dilute The stock solution for hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 is 30% Dilution factor = ratio final volume / stock solution = 6 : 30 = 1:5 Determine the volume of stock solution by dividing the final volume with Dilution factor. = 500ml / 5 = 100ml Determine the volume of distilled water that used to dilute the stock solution. = Final volume – Volume of stock solution = 500 ml – 100ml = 400ml Thus, to prepare hydrogen peroxide, H2O2,6%, we need 100ml of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 30% and dilute with 400ml of distilled water. Preparation of hydrochloric acid (HCl), 5M

The molarity for stock hydrochloric acid (HCl) = 12.08 M The volume for 5M of hydrochloric acid (HCl) = 500ml M1V1 = M2V2 12.08 M (V1) = 5M x 500 ml V1 = 2500 / 12.08 = 206.95ml ≈ 207 ml Discussion Oxygen Gas
1. The reaction is immediate and one can observe bubbles of oxygen gas liberated in the

flask. As more hydrogen peroxide is added more oxygen gas is formed. The oxygen produced is collected in an inverted gas jar by the downward displacement of water. The test for oxygen gas will ignited the glowing splinter due to the presence of the oxygen gas.

2. In this reaction, manganese dioxide acts as a catalyst. Catalyst used to accelerates the rate

of chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.
3. The purity of the oxygen gas much better after first time of collection process in the gas

jar. But the purity of oxygen gas almost reaches 100% in the third time collection. The purity of oxygen gas can be proved by observation the flame of the glowing splinter become brighter. Carbon Dioxide Gas
1. The reaction is immediate and one can observe bubbles of carbon dioxide gas liberated in

the flask. As more dilute hydrochloric acid is added more carbon dioxide gas is formed. The carbon dioxide produced is collected in an inverted gas jar by the downward displacement of water. The test for carbon dioxide gas will varnished the burning splinter due to the presence of the carbon dioxide gas.

2. The dilute hydrochloric acid will react with marble chips to form carbon dioxide gas. 3. The purity of the carbon dioxide gas much better after first time of collection process in

the gas jar. But the purity of carbon dioxide gas almost reaches 100% in the third time collection. The purity of carbon dioxide gas can be proved by observation the flame of the burning splinter become vanished. 4. When the burning splinter put in test tube contain with carbon dioxide gas, the flame will light off and when take out from the test tube, the flame will be ignited. Thus, it show that carbon dioxide gas does not take part in combustion. Hydrogen Gas 1. In the laboratory preparation of hydrogen, zinc is preferred, as it reacts smoothly with either hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid to produce hydrogen gas.

2. Besides using the zinc and acid, other methods in preparing hydrogen are like using

metals like zinc, lead and aluminium react with alkalis to yield salt and hydrogen or using cold water by using highly electropositive metals like potassium, calcium and sodium combine with cold water, even ice-cold water to give their respective hydroxides and hydrogen or steam by using metals like magnesium and zinc will burn in steam, to form their respective oxides and liberate hydrogen. 3. The purity of the hydrogen gas much better after first time of collection process in the gas jar. But the purity of hydrogen gas almost reaches 100% in the third time collection. The purity of hydrogen gas can be proved by comparing the sound ‘pop’ when tested with burning splinter. The third time collection is better than the second collection.
4. The hydrogen gas is inert and light than other gaseous. When we did not hold the gas jar,

it will drop because the jar gas is filled with the hydrogen gas and it pushed the gas jar.
5. The addition of the reactant like calcium in zinc will increase the production of the

bubble gas. Conclusion

Oxygen gas can be formed using reaction between hydrogen peroxide with manganese dioxide. Meanwhile carbon dioxide can be produce by react dilute hydrochloric acid with marble chips and for producing hydrogen can react between dilute hydrochloric with zinc metal. The hypothesis was accepted.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful