Rev. 0.

1 31 December 2011

Modern Indoeuropean
A Practical Course

By Mario Basile

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Rev. 0.1 31 December 2011

Change Record

Issue.rev 0.0 0.1

Date 2nd June 2011

Change Description First issue of lessons 1-7 L2: dvótera -> dwótera Revision of document format, correction of typos Added Lessons 8,9 Added Vocabulary

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Rev. 0.1 31 December 2011

A PRACTICAL COURSE

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but please refer to the grammar. constructive comments are really welcome. For instance the pronunciation section is still missing.com page 4 of 62 . The creativity is a very important point because somehow clarify the scope of this document: the language of this course is NOT an academic reconstruction of the original IE.wlkos_at_gmail.1 31 December 2011 Introduction This course is mainly based on “A Grammar of Modern Indoeuropean” by Carlos Quiles and Fernando Lopez-Menchero. 0. but a development of a modern language based on the reconstructed IE grammar. The derivation of any new word is explained in the vocabulary. Usage of creativity is unavoidable. Please feel free to post your comment to: atros. MIE can be generated only when the rigorous study of the ancient language meets the modern needs.Rev. However clear rules must be followed and identified in order to preserve the peculiarity and personality of the language. The grammar is available in www. Since this course is after all an experiment. for instance to introduce new words that could not be in usage when indoeuropean was spoken.org This course is in development and is still very incomplete. like “computer”. or for the formation of any word from the roots.dnghu. Please refer to the grammar for more details.

Without their material I could not write this book.1 31 December 2011 Acknowledgements Many thanks to Carlos Quiles and Fernando Lopez-Menchero for the huge work they did for Dnghu and the MIE grammar. 0. page 5 of 62 .Rev.

0. 0.1 31 December 2011 What’s new In this Rev.1 we have added the lessons 8 and 9 with the perfect tense. page 6 of 62 .Rev. the vowel ablaut and a vocabulary at the end of the book.

.......................................................................................... 13 4: Qétwrtā Legtjōn ......... 10 3: Tritjā Legtjōn ..... 24 7: Septmā Legtjōn – Qid dhakjesi edjēw? .......................................... 5 What’s new ....... 0....................................................................................... 16 5: Penqtā Legtjōn ..................................................................................................An ámeikāns widējete? .................................................................................. 8 2: Dwóterā Legtjōn ....................... 40 page 7 of 62 ....................................................... 6 1: Prāmā Legtjōn ............ 4 Acknowledgements ...........................................................................................................Rev....................................................................................... 20 6: Sekstā Legtjōn – Eími peqtum tebhei perisentjām widējontjāi ..........................Sgholām eími ................................................................... 30 9: Neunā Legtjōn – Dhēs esti! ...............................................................................................1 31 December 2011 Table of Contents A Practical Course .... 1 Introduction.................Didkskō Eurōpājóm . 34 VOCABULARY ....................................................... 29 8: Oktowā Legtjōn – Kompeutrom nēdom dhorbha ............................Anā Karolās ammām mimdeti ...............................Petnābhi epistolām skreibhō......................

I am learning European. Ana: Goodbye! Vocabulary Āla = hallo Wlējō = I am fine (cfr valeo) Didkskō I learn Eurōpājóm = European Slwej’ = Goodbye Grammar At this stage you don’t need to memorize all the rules that are hereby presented. -ja/ī. you go. he goes) and the other persons (I go. 5. The second part of the book will deal with the details. Slwēj’ 8. prijēsna. -ē). 3. 5 Questions can be formulated in the same form as positive sentences. Goodbye! 8. and wlējesi = you are fine. in MIE you do not need express the person explicitly. Eurōpājóm didkskō. 4 In MIE (Modern IndoEuropean) the termination of the verbs change with each person. Ana: I am fine. Karolā: Wlējesi? 4. Karolā: Āla Ana! 2. Ana: Hallo Karla! 3. 3. Karola: I am learning European as well. Karola: Hallo Ana! 2. 5. 7. the present active tense of the thematic verbs and of some athematic verbs. 4. Karolā: Eurōpājóm didkskesi? 6.Rev. 0. Being the person identified by the verb termination. In English we have only the difference between the third singular person (i. Ana: Yes 7. Anā: Wlējō. The preferred verb position is at the end of the sentence. Anā: Āla Karola! 3. Anā: Slwēj’ 1. just with a question mark. Just read and listen to the dialogues when available. Karola: How are you? 4. Karola: Are you? 6. Anā: Jāi. For now just notice that wlējō = I am fine. page 8 of 62 . they go).Didkskō Eurōpājóm During the first week (lessons from 1 to 7) we learn the first declination (nouns in -ā. Karolā: Egō-qe Eurōpājóm didkskō.e. thanks.1 31 December 2011 1: Prāmā Legtjōn . Komtloqjom 1.

legere <= PIE *leg.1 31 December 2011 7 –qe means “and and is postponed to the second word. 0.Rev. with infinitive suffix -tu. For instance “Karolā Anā-qe” means “Karola and Ana” Etymology Lesson = MIE Légtjōn. => legtu. page 9 of 62 . légtjonos Lesson from Lat Lectio from lectum . => jōn/jonos suffix is added for word formation similar to existing Latin word.

Ana: Today we learn European. being –āns the termination for the plural accusative. Mimdeti. 2. 2. Ámeikās Eurōpājóm didkskonti. An ámeikāns widējete? 1. 8. Anā: Āla Karola. Grammar page 10 of 62 . how are you (are you fine?) 3. Karola: I am fine. Anā ámeikām mimdeti. 5. prijēsna. thanks. Ámeikās = nominative plural of ámeikā (girlfriends). 5. Karola: I don’t know European. 7. The girlfriends study European.1 31 December 2011 2: Dwóterā Legtjōn . Karolā: Eurōpājóm nē gnōskō. Anā: Edjēw Eurōpājóm didkskomos. 7. Ana meets her friend. he. Karolā: Wlējō. 6. Ana ask questions. 2nd plural person of widējō (I see).Rev. it meets) Edjēw = today Widējō = I see Gnōskō = I know Nē = Negation (for instance nē gnōskō = I don’t know) Prkskā = question Prkskō = I ask ámeikā = girlfriend Notes 1. 4. Ana: Karola. 8. Do you see the girlfriends? Vocabulary Mimdō = I meet (mimdeti = she. it is the third singular person of the verb mimdō = I meet. “an” can be used to introduce a generic question. 4. wlējesi? 3. Didkskomos = 1st plural person of the verb didkskō = I learn 6. Widējete = you all see.An ámeikāns widējete? Komtloqjom 1. Note that in the line 8 we find ámeikāns. 0. 6. 8. Anā prkskāns prksketi. 4.

1 31 December 2011 Declension: Let’s review the declination in ā we have met so far with ameikā as example: Singular Nominative Accusative Vocative Ameikā Ameikām Ameika Plural Ameikās Ameikāns Ameikās Conjugation: We have met the active present indicative of the thematic verbs (-ō). 8) Karola. 3) The girlfriends don’t know Karola. 2) Ana knows the girlfriends.Rev. 2) Prkskesi prkskām 3) Ana ameikāns nē widējeti 4) Karolām gnōskō 5) Karolā gnōsketi 6) An Anām widējete? 7) Anā Karolām gnōsketi. 6) Karola sees Ana 7) Ana doesn’t know Karola 8) We ask questions. 4) Do you know Ana? 5) I meet Karola. 0. an Anām gnōskesi? B – Translate into MIE 1) They don’t see Ana. page 11 of 62 . We conjugate widējō: -ō verbs: active present indicative Widējō Widējesi Widējeti Widējomos Widējete Widējonti I see you see he/she/it sees we see you all see they see Exercises A – Translate into English: 1) Didkskonti.

Rev. 0. 6) Do you see Ana? 7) Ana knows Karola. page 12 of 62 .1 31 December 2011 Solutions A 1) They learn. 8) Prkskāns prkskomos. 4) An Anām gnōskesi? 5) Karolam mimdō 6) Karolā Anām widējeti 7) Anā Karolām nē gnōsketi. 2) Ana ámeikāns gnōsketi. 2) You ask a question 3) Ana doesn’t see the girlfriends 4) I know Karola 5) Karola knows. 8) Karola. do you know Ana? B 1) Anām nē widējonti. 3) Ameikās Karolām nē gnōskonti.

9. Cenām dáwētā ameikābhos sterlāns kēlājeti. The women’s torch hides the stars to the girlfriend Vocabulary Ammā = mother Louksnā = Moon Sterlā = star Cenā = woman Dáwētā = torch Drktā = light Kēlājō = I hide Lukējō = I shine Cemjō = I come Selō = I buy Esti = (it) is Atqe = and page 13 of 62 . The light of the torch hides the stars to the women. Karolā Anās ámeikā esti. Anāi dáwētā esti. Dáwētās drktā cenābhos sterlāns kēlājeti. Cenās sterlāns gnōskonti. Karola’s mother knows Ana The women know the stars. 7. 7. Karolā Anāi dáwētām seleti. Karolā cemjeti.Anā Karolās ammām mimdeti Komtloqjom 1.1 31 December 2011 3: Tritjā Legtjōn . 5. 0. 4. 11. 3. Ana has a torch. 9. Sterlās lukējonti. 10. 11. Anā atqe Karolās ammā louksnām sterlāns-qe widējonti. The stars shine. Karola comes. 2. Karolās ammā Anām gnōsketi. Karola buys a torch for Ana. 8. 1. 4. Ana meets the mother of Karola Ana and Karolas mother look at the Moon and at the stars. Anā Karolās ammām mimdeti. 10. 8. 2. 3. 6. 6.Rev. 5. Karola is friend of Ana.

genitive case.Rev. 3) Louksnā sterlās-qe kēlājonti 4) Anā cenām ámeikā esti 5) An widējete dáwētām drktām? 6) Anā Karolās ammām mimdeti.e. So to say the torches of the women you better say: “cenām dáwētās” and not “dáwētās cenām”. which is athematic. The sentence literally means: “For Ana there is a toarch”. the verb to be and dative of the possessor: instead of “Ana has the torch” it is possible to say “the torch is to Ana” (Anāi dáwētā esti). to be. 0. 2) Karolāi dáwētām nē selō.e. between the words to be united. Ana has a toarch. i. while the plural form of the genitive is identical to the singular form of the accusative. The usage will help to define the correct case. ámeikāmos ámeikābhjos. exactly like the saxon genitive in English. Note that the genitive generally precedes the noun it possesses. Note that in the –ā declension the singular form of the genitive is identical to the plural form of the nominative. i. So you can say: Anā Karolā-qe OR Anā atqe Karolā. We will see athematic verbs later. while –qe after the last word.Karolās = “of Karola”. A way to express possession is to use nominative for the item possessed. Grammar In this lesson we present two more cases of the ā declension: the genitive and the dative: 1st -ā declension Nominative Accusative Vocative Genitive Dative Singular Ámeikā Ámeikām ámeika Ámeikās Ámeikāi Plural ámeikās ámeikāns ámeikās ámeikām ámeikābhos. Exercises A – Translate into English: 1) Anās dáwētā lukējeti. Atqe is used like “and” in English.1 31 December 2011 Notes 1. 6 Esti is the third singular person of the verb “estum”. however the latter is not wrong. 7) Cemjō 8) An cenām ámeikām gnōskesi? B – Translate into Eurōpājóm page 14 of 62 .

8)Karolā kēlājeti. 7) I come. 2) I don't buy Karol a toarch. 3) Anās ammās ámeikā Karolām nē gnōsketi. 3) The girlfriend of the mother of Ana doesn’t know Karola.Rev. 4) An cemjesi? 5) Sterlās lukējonti 6) Karolā Anā-qe prkskās prkskonti. 2) Ana sees the moon. 2) Ana louksnām widējēti. page 15 of 62 . 0. Solutions A 1) The torch of Ana shines. 7) Cenās prkskām nē gnōskomos. 4) Do you come? 5) The stars shine 6) Karola and Ana ask questions 7) We don’t know the question of the woman 8) Karola is hiding. 3) The Moon and the stars hide 4) Ana is friend of the women 5) Do you see the light of the torches? 6) Ana meets Karola’s mother. 8) Do you know the friend of the women? B 1) Dáwētām drktām nē widējonti.1 31 December 2011 1) They don’t see the light of the torches.

5.1 31 December 2011 4: Qétwrtā Legtjōn . 10. ā. qotā wlējesi? Karolā: Wēsrom ēsúm Ana. wlējō sū. 7. 10. 6. 6. how are you? Carol: Good Morning Ana. Ana goes to the fountain and there she meets Carol. 9...alright! Ana: thanks! Vocabulary ekwā = mare awā = fountain aqā = water sgholā = school nertos. 8. Ana: What do you do at school? Carol: I learn European. Anā: Qid sgholāi dhakjesi? Karolā: Eurōpājóm didkskō. 2. Anā: Qid dhakjesi kei? Karolā: aqām pibō jodqid trsējō. 3. 2.Rev.tagtei! Anā: Prijēsna! 1. Anā: Wēsrom ēsúm Karola. ndha sgholām ékwābhi eími. 4. 11. 5. prijēsna. I am fine.Sgholām eími Komtloqjom 1. 11. 14. 3.. 8. Ana: do we go together to the school by the mare? Carol: .. 7.. 13. 14. Anā: An ekwā nertā esti? Karolā: ita sntējō ma. ndha sgholād ékwābhi awām ghighējō.. 12. 13. 0.. 12. Ana: is the mare strong? Carol: I think so but. and then I come back to the fountain from the school with the mare. Anā awām eíti atqe idhei Karolām mimdeti. Ana: Good morning Carol. om = strong page 16 of 62 . 4. thanks. What are you doing here? Carol: I am drinking water because I am thirsty then I go to school by the mare.. 9. Anā: An imés sm ekwābhi sgholām? Karolā: .

a. Adjectives takes the gender. Ablative case can express the place of origin 10.Rev. sgholām = to school. 0. om. Awām eíti = she goes to the fountain. ékwābhi = by the mare. the ablative and the locative: page 17 of 62 . Instrumental case can express the means. Grammar In this lesson we present the singular and plural forms of the last three cases for the ā declension: the instrumental. case and number of the nouns they relate to. See also line 6.1 31 December 2011 mimdō = to meet eími = to go esmi = to be dhakjō = to do pibō = to drink trsējō = to be thirsty ghighējō = to come back idhei = there kei = here jodqid = because sm = together ndha = then qid? = What? qotā? = How? wēsrom ēsúm = good morning qotā wlējesi? = how are you? wlējō sū = I am fine prijēsna = thanks Notes 1. sgholād = from school. nertā is the nominative singular feminine of the adjective nertos. 7. The accusative case can express the destination toward which a movement is oriented . 6.

however it is better to avoid it because is the same as nominative. In this lesson we meet the active present indicative of two athematic verbs: to be: I am = esmi You are (Thou art) = esi He. ámeikābhjos.1 31 December 2011 1st -ā declension Nominative Accusative Vocative Genitive Dative Locative Instrumental Ablative Singular Ámeikā Ámeikām ámeika Ámeikās Ámeikāi Ámeikāi ámeikābhi/ámeikāmi * Ámeikād Plural ámeikās ámeikāns ámeikās ámeikām ámeikābhos. it goes = eíti We go = imés You go = ité They go = jenti As pointed in the notes.Rev. 0. ámeikābhjos. she. some cases are related to motion: Accusative: motion TO Ablative: motion FROM Instrumental: motion THROUGH Locative: Being IN Place page 18 of 62 . ámeikāmos * Also the instrumental form ámeikā is possible. it is = esti We are = smes You are = ste They are = senti Esti = there is to go: I go = eími You go = eísi He. ámeikāmos ámeikāsu ámeikābhis/ámeikāmis ámeikābhos. she.

Solutions A 1) Good morning (girl) friend. 2) Sgholād awām widējomos. 3) Aqā nertāi ekwāi esti. 10) In the fountains there is water. qotā wlējesi? 2) Sgholām nē eími . 2) We see the fountain from the school. 4) The girlfriends do not drink water because they are not thirsty. 9) The (girl)friends do not go to school by mares (instrumental). B – Translate into Eurōpājóm 1) They go to school.1 31 December 2011 Exercises A – Translate into English: 1) Wēsrom ēsúm Ámeika. 3) Is the Karola's mare strong? 4) I go by the mare of Carol from school to the fountain. 6) Ana and Karola go back together to school. 3) An Karolās ekwā nertā esti? 4) Sgholād Karolās ekwābhi awām eími 5) Nē trsējō ma aqām pibō 6) Anā Karolā-qe sm sgholām ghighējonti. 10) Sgholāsu ámeikās senti. 5) Awāi aqā nē esti. page 19 of 62 . 5) There is no water in the fountain. 9) Ámeikās sgholām ekwabhis nē jenti.Rev. 6) Ghighējesi ndha pibesi. 8) Qid dhakjete kei? 9) Dáwētābhis widējomos. 3) There is (esti) water for the strong mare (use Dative). 6) You come back and then you drink 7) Are you at school? 8) The mare of Carol drinks the water of the fountain. 7) Ana and Carol are friends. 5) I am not thirsty. 10) Awāsu aqā esti. 7) An sgholāi esi? 8) Karolās ekwā awās aqām pibeti. 4) Ámeikās aqām nē pibonti. jodqid nē trsējonti. 10) There are (girl)friends in the schools (locative) B 1) Sgholām jenti. but I drink water. 8) What do you do here? 9) We see by the torches. 7) Anā Karolā-qe ámeikās senti. 0. hoe are you? 2) I don't go to school.

9.. Karolā: Anā. Carol: thanks! Vocabulary epistolā = letter potnja = mistress kapsā = box kattā = cat kselwā = forest maqā = girlfriend lapsā = lamp dómūnā = landlady wlewā = leon auqslā = pot page 20 of 62 1. Ilonā moksi kām cemjeti. Karolā: Ilonām nē gignōskō. Ilona writes sweet letters. 12. . Ilona lives in Rome and studies European..Rev. Ilonā skreibheti swadwjans epistolāns. 10. Ilona this summer is coming here. 7. Ana: it is not a secret: the box contains a small lamp. Ilonā Rōmāi cejweti atqe Eurōpājóm didksketi. 2. 5. There is also a box and a small lamp for you. 8. Epistolām paulām-qe kapsām tesjāi sontējō kom. Karolā: Qid kapsā rtējeti? Anā: Rounā nē esti: kapsā paulām lapsām rtējeti. Anā ámeikās Ilonās swādwjans epistolāns ghndeti. 0.1 31 December 2011 5: Penqtā Legtjōn . 9. 11. prijēsna. 5.. 12. Ana: now I write her a letter with a pen. 8. 3. 4. Carol: I don't know Ilona. An tebhei petnām dídōmi? Anā: Dā. 10.Petnābhi epistolām skreibhō Komtloqjom 1. Egō-qe Ilonāi epistolāns sontējō jodqid sā maqā ēswjá ámeikā esti. I also often send Ilona letters because that girl is a good friend. 4. Karolā: Prijēsna! Ana receives pleasant letters from her friend Ilona. Do I give you a pen? Ana: Yes please. qori smejesi? Anā: Smejō jodqid gaudhējō. I send her the letter with a small box (I send her together a letter and a small box). 2. Esti atqe kapsā paulā-qe lapsā tebhei. 7. Carol: So I can know her. Karolā: .. Anā: nū petnābhi epistolām tesjāi skreibhō. Carol: What does the box contain? 11. 6. 3.ita Ilonām gignōtum moghō. Carol: why are you smiling? Ana: I am smiling because I am happy. 6.

sā = that (feminine) 7. There are few words following the jă/ī declension. 9. gignōti is the infinitive form (to know). adjectives in -nts/ -ntja/ -nt and -us/ -wja/ -u): see for instance the feminine accusative plural form in “swadwjas epistolās” in the dialogue. kām = hereto. Kom “with” is a preposition and can follow some verbs with the meaning of “together”. Some verbs as moghō “can” are associated to infinitive. Qid. gignōtum moghō = I can know. page 21 of 62 .thou) meaning “to you”.1 31 December 2011 rounā = secret Rōmā = Roma qori? = why? moksi = soon kom = with (with Instrumental) ēswjá = good (feminine) swādwja = pleasant (feminine) paulā= small (feminine) pibō = to drink trsējō = to be thirsty sontējō = to send ghndō = to receive skreibhō = to write timējō = to be afraid cejwō = to live Notes 2. as a special case of the first declension.Rev. Qori = why 5. 8.e. 0. Grammar In this lesson we introduce the jă/ī declension. interrogative pronoun “what”. tesjāi = her. dative case of sā (see note 5). however we meet some important feminine forms of the adjectives (i. Tebhei = dative form of pronoun “tū” (singular you .

Rev. 0.1 31 December 2011

1st -jă / -ī declension Nominative Accusative Vocative Genitive Dative Locative Instrumental Ablative

Singular potnja / potnī potnjam / potnīm potnja / potnī Potnjās Potnjāi Potnjāi potnjā/potnjābhi/potnjāmi Potnjād

Plural potnjas / potnīs potnjans / potnīns potnjas / potnīs potnjām pótnjabhjos, pótnjabhos, pótnjamos pótnjāsu pótnjabhis, pótnjamis pótnjabhjos, pótnjabhos, pótnjamos

Note that the plural form of the ablative is identical to the dative's one. In this lesson we meet the active present indicative of another athematic verb: to give: I give = dídōmi You give (Thou givest) = dídōsi He, she, it gives = dídōti We give = dídames You give = dídate They give = dídanti Etymology letter, epistle = MIE epistolā Epistle from Lat epistola from Gr ἐπιστολή from ἐπιστέλλω. στέλλω <= *stel, ἐπι = *epi. Vocal change e-o: Another translation can be from Slavic: letter = MIE peikmom Russ. Письмо, (Slovenian Pismo) verb писа́ ть *pik (to write): pik -mo-s Considering ἤλεκτρον (amber) <= ēlektronikós, the email could be ēpeikmom email = MIE ēpeikmom Exercises A – Translate into English: 1) Anā potnjāi epistolām petnābhi skreibheti. 2) Māqās dómūnāi auqslām dídanti. 3) Kattām wlewā nē timējeti. 4) Anāi Karolāi-qe paulām lapsām dídames. 5) Māqās sgholāsu didkskonti. 6) Rōmād swādwjas epistolās menghom ghndete. 7) Sgholāsu maqābhjos patnāns dídames. 8) Anās kattā trstējeti. page 22 of 62

Rev. 0.1 31 December 2011 B – Translate into Eurōpājóm 1) The mistress receives a letter of (her) (girl) friend from Rome. 2) In the pots there is water of the fountain. 3) Lions live in the forest. 4) Why do they smile? 5) The mistress goes by mare to the fountain and drinks water. 6) Is there (any) water on the Moon? 7) The girls write letters to the friends at school 8) You (thou) see the kats of the (girl)friends from the schools. Solutions A 1) Ana writes a letter with a pen for the mistress. 2) The girlfriends give a pot to the landlady. 3) The leon does not fear the cat. 4) We give to Ana and Carol a small lamp. 5) The girls learn in the schools. 6) You often receive sweet letters from Rome. 7) We give pens to the girlfriends in the schools. 8) Ana's kat is thirsty. B 1) Potnī (Potnja) ámeikās epistolām Rōmād ghndeti. 2) Auqslāsu awās aqā esti. 3) Wlewās kselwāi cejwonti. 4) Qori smejonti? 5) Potnja ekwāmi awām eíti aqām-qe pibeti. 6) An Louksnāi aqā esti? 7) Maqās ámeikābhjos epistolāns sgholāi skreibhonti. 8) Ámeikām kattāns sgholād widējesi.

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Rev. 0.1 31 December 2011

6: Sekstā Legtjōn – Eími peqtum tebhei perisentjām widējontjāi

Komtloqjom

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Karolā Anām mimdeti. Karolā: Wēsrom ēsúm Ana. Qid dhakjesi? Anā: Widējō perisentjām kselwābhi dhalnābhi dē. Karolā: Perisentjās spekjēs swādwja esti. Anā: Jāi perisentjā swādwja widējetoi. Karolā: An torpējesoi koupām aqās glaghjē? Anā: Jāi prijēsna, trsējō alkējōqe, mō toqe perisentjām weistum torpējai. Karolā: An reidhom nē esti? Perisentjām widējontīs edstum moghesi! Anā: Edstum jāi, mō peqtum nē... Karolā: Jāi, jāi, peumi... eími peqtum tebhei perisentjām widējontjāi. Anā: Prijēsna, ámeika!

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Carol meets Anne. Carol: Good morning Anne, what are you doing? Anne: I am watching a programme about the vegetation of the forest. Carol: The programme looks good. Anne: It does, the programme looks good. Carol: Would you like a cup of water with ice? Anne: Yes please, I am thirsty and hungry, but I also want to see the programme. Carol: Isn't it easy? You can eat while you watch the programme! Ana: I can eat, but not cook... Carol: Yes, yes, I understand... I go cooking for you while you watch the programme. Thank you my friend!

Vocabulary bhidhēs = trust spekjēs = aspect glaghjēs = ice wēmā = beautiful reidhom = easy tebhei = for you (dative of you) mō = but perisentjā = (TV) programme dhalnā = vegetation page 24 of 62

1 31 December 2011 koupā = cup qawā = caffee mimdō = to meet trsējō = to be thirsty alkējō = to be hungry torpējō = to want peqō = to cook. peqtum = infinitive dhakjō = to do peumi = I understand edstum = to eat (infinitive) of edmi weistum = to see (infinitive of widējō) dē = about (+instr) Notes 3. dhalnābhi dē: dē with instrumental express the topics of the programme: a programme of (about) the vegetation.. 0. 6 glaghjē is instrumental. tebhei . 4. By the letter is: the aspect of the programme is pleasant.widējontjāi: the participle has to concord with tebhei in dative. Dative means the complement of advantage. so glaghjē = with ice. in this case “for you that are watching”. 5. page 25 of 62 . so it means I can eat but I cannot cook. “moghō” is not written but is auxiliary for the two infinitive. It is expressed the same concept of the previous sentence but with the medio-passive form of the verbe widējō. The instrumental case can express accompaniment... 10. Grammar In this lesson we introduce the last type of the first declension for the nouns that present -ē ending.Rev. Note also the genitive of aqā to express the content of the cup (a cup of water).. Only the singular form is in use. 9.

modal. dste They eat = denti to understand I understand = peumi You understand (Thou) = peusi He. page 26 of 62 . it understands = peuti We understand = pumes You understand = pute They understand = punti Middle-passive.1 31 December 2011 1st -ē declension Nominative Accusative Vocative Genitive Dative Locative Instrumental Ablative Singular Spekjēs Spekjēm Spekjē Spekjēs Spekjei Spekjei Spekjē Spekjēd Note the nominative in -s. The participle stands often as a secondary sentence. We already have met the declination of feminine form -ontja/-ontī. that could be causal. temporal. -ontja/-ontī for the feminine. relative. *** In this lesson we meet the active present indicative of two more athematic verb: to eat: I eat = edmi You eat (Thou) = edsi He. 0.Rev. she. it eats = esti We eat = dmes You eat = dte. The active present participle of the thematic verb is formed by adding to the present theme the suffix -ont for masculine and neuter. she. The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European show an intense reliance on participles.

The passive in English is: “The book is read by Tom”: in MIE the book is in nominative. exactly like “eími kselwām” means “I go to the forest” Etymology Programme = Transmission Eng Transmission from Lat Trans+mission L Trans. The latter can have also termination for pure passive: we will see details along the course. For the moment it is sufficient to note that the form “edstum” (to eat) is like an accusative. пере <= MIE peri page 27 of 62 . while the “doer” is expressed in Instrumental. “I see myself” and I seem. The active form is the most used and the object is expressed in accusative. Tom in instrumental. Note that the verb torpējō = to want can have both active and middle passive voices with the same meaning. Moreover some verbs have no active form but only middlepassive. The Middle-passive has an aspect between active and passive.<= MIE teraGr παραλλαγή aGr παραʆ δοσις. In the particular case of Widējō.Rev. For instance the active form is “Tom reads the book”: in MIE Tom is in nominative. the active form means “I see”. The Passive form is when the object of the verb is the grammatical subject. the verb in Passive form. Russ переда́ ча para-. *** The infinitive form is used as a name. I seem you seem he/she/it seems we seem you all seem they seem Passive conjugation will be given later. the middle “I see for myself”. “Eími edstum” means “I go to eat”. The middle-passive termination are different from the active one. and means: “doing something for himself”. the passive “I am seen”. it is used in reflexive form.1 31 December 2011 In MIE we have two “Voices”: Active and Middle-passive. the book is in accusative and the verb in active form. 0. -ō verbs: middle-passive present indicative Widējai Widējesoi Widējetoi Widējomesdha Widējedhwe Widējontoi I see for myself. requiring MIE nominative. and can be flexed.

3) Maqās sgholām jenti potnjam weistum. 4) Eurōpājóm didkskontja. B – Translate into Eurōpājóm 1) The programme about the vegetation of the forest looks pleasant. 6) Today there is ice in the fountain of the school. 7) Do you understand the letter of the (gilf)friends? 8) Anne gives to Karol a cup of water with ice because she is thirsty (being thirsty). 0. 6) Edjew glaghjēs sgholās awāi esti 7) Ekwābhi kselwām eísi paulām awām weistum 8) Án edstum torpējedhwe? page 28 of 62 . 6) Maqās sgholāi epistolās skreibhonti. Television or radio Programme = perisentjā.-ti programme = perisentjā We add a peri to give the idea of broadcast. 2) The coffee in the cups of the (girl)friends looks pleasant. 4) Do you want a cup of coffee? 5) I am hungry. I understand. 2) In the forest there is a beautiful species of vegetation. 7) You (thou) go by the mare to the forest to see the small fountain 8) Do you (pl. B 1) Kselwās dhalnās perisentjā swādwja widējetoi. 7) An pute ameikām epistolām? 8) Anā Karolāi trstējontjāi koupām aqās glaghjē dídōti. 2) Kselwāi wēmā dhalnās spekjēs esti.Rev. 3) I go to cook for the girlfriends 4) As I study European (by studing European).1 31 December 2011 δο <= PIE *dō-σις <= -ti <= MIE peridōti Ger. 2) Qawā ámeikām koupāsu swādwja widējetoi. 5) I watch the programme with Anne. peridōtis ___ coffee from arabic qahwa > MIE qawā Exercises A – Translate into English: 1) Anāi perisentjām widējontjāi koupām qawās dídōti. Sendung *sent. 3) The girls go to school to see the mistress. 6) The girls write letters at school. 4) An koupām qawās torpējesoi ? 5) Alkējō. mō perisentjām weistum torpējai. 3) Eími pektom ameikabhos. but I want to watch the programme. 5) Anābhi perisentjām wideijō.) want to eat? Solutions A 1) He gives Anne a cup of coffee while she is watching a programme. peumi.

Anne: Ilona's mother is coming here to eat.. 4. 9. 5.Rev. Qid dhakjesi ndha? Karolā: Kselwām ekwābhi eími. What are you doing here? Anne: I am writing a latter to my friend Ilona Carol: I don't know Ilona. 2. ja/ī. because we are coming back again and again on the first lesson matters. We met the basic usage of all the cases. Anā: An ekwā nertā esti? Karolā: ita sntējō ma. Ilonās ammāi epistolām dídōmi. This first set of lessons has provided us with all the first declension of the nouns in -ā. 7. 10. 10. 9. 2. Komtloqjom 1.okay. Anā: Ilonās ammā kām edstum cemjeti. 3. 6. ē.. Anne: Is your mare strong' Carol: I think so but. 4.. to see if you can understand the dialogue without the help of the translation. All the sentences have been taken from the previous lessons with no or little modification: if you wish you can read again all the lessons.. IT IS REALLY A LOT! However do not try to memorize all. We learnt the present active conjugation of the verbs in -ō and of several verbs in -mi. We have also learnt some vocabulary that is useful for the next komtloqjom. 11.. 0. 8. what are you doing then? Carol: I go to the forest with the mare. and lately also the middle-passive form. 7. I give the letter to the mother of Ilona Carol: Can I cook for you and the mother of Ilona? Anne: Thank you! Carol. Anne: Do we go together to the forest with the mare' Carol: . 8. 11.. page 29 of 62 . 5.. Karolā: Ilonām nē gignōskō. Carol: Hi Anne.. just the chance to read back the whole work done till here.tagtei! 1. Anā: An ndha ekwābhi kselwām imés sm? Karolā: . 3.1 31 December 2011 7: Septmā Legtjōn – Qid dhakjesi edjēw? This is the seventh lesson. Karolā: An tebhei Ilonās-qe ammāi peqtum moghō? Anā: prijēsna! Karolā. Karolā: Āla Ana! Qid dhakjesi edjēw? Anā: Ameikāi Ilonāi epistolām skreibhō. 6.

2. Frank is the uncle of Carol. with fear: are the question so difficult? Frank the teacher. An dherbhtum moghomos? Aléqsios: Jāi. Have you studied? Alex: Yes teacher. 8. ōkinós esmi. mā bhāskreibhjāns nkejō. 9. laughing: no. Vocabulary dokós = teacher from *dok (doceo) lubhros = book bhāskreibhjā = photography lāurā = stonework page 30 of 62 . 6. 12. I am ready. Let's start please! Frank the teacher: wait a moment. 11. The name of the teacher is Frank. pavējont: An senti prkskās ita smogās? Prángiskos Dokós. why do you need the computer? Frank the teacher: because I have written the questions in the computer. 14. 3. Aléqsios. 7. wēsrom ēsrúm. the questions are rather simple. 12. wrisdējont: Nē. Eghsagmen dhorbhe. 0. 10. doke. Dherbhōmos chedhō! Prángiskos Dokós: Welpe mēqom. 14. The photos are about stoneworks.Rev. Aléqsios: Ngōdhi. 11. Kompeutrom dherbhetoi et Prángiskos prāmām bhāskreibhjām deiketi. 5. Alex is examined at school on art.1 31 December 2011 8: Oktowā Legtjōn – Kompeutrom nēdom dhorbha Komtloqjom Aléqsios sgholai artī dē eghsagmenejētor. Dokós kluwejeti Prángiskos. Alex. 1. The examination has started. 13. 5. Ghlonsdha an? Aléqsios: Jāi. 4. 10. doke. Prángiskos Karolās áwontlos esti. The computer starts and Frank show the first photo. Prángiskos Dokós: Aléqsie. prkskās gar reidhās senti. 9. O have studied the whole book! Frank the teacher: Well! Can we start? Alex: Yes. but I need the photos. 4. 8. Bhāskreibhjās lāurābhis dē senti. Kompeutrom nēdom dhorbha. 3. Frank the teacher: Good morning Alex. qori kompeutrom nkējesi? Prángiskos Dokós: jodqid prkskāns kompeutroi skroibha. 1. ghlondha solwom lubhrom! Prángiskos Dokós: Tagtei. 2. 13. I have not yet started the computer Alex: Excuse me teacher. 6. 7.

7.Rev. “Welpe” is the 2nd person of the present active imperative of welpō and means “wait”. 10 kompeutroi is the locative of kompeutrom and means “in the computer”. pawōja = to fear wrisdējō. Preposition dē following a noun in instrumental case means “about”. to examine. The subjunctive can be used for the imperative missing forms. Dherbhōmos is the active subjunctive form of the 1st singular person and means: let's start. Artī is the instrumental form of the noun Artis. 0. dhorba = to start moghō = to be able chedhō = to ask (chedhō means also “please”) welpō.wolpa = to wait nkejō = to need skreibhō. 2nd declension Masculine Sing Nominative Accusative Vocative Wlkos Wlkom Wlke Plu Wlkōs Wlkons Wlkōs Neuter Sing Jugóm Jugóm Júgom Plu Jugā Jugā Jugā page 31 of 62 . Grammar 2nd declension In this lesson we introduce the second declension in -os. 8. of the 3rd declination: we will learn the third declination next week.1 31 December 2011 kompeutrom = computer solwos = whole ita = so jāmi = already smogós = difficult ghlendhō. skroibha = to write pawējō. In the same way we have “wrisdējont” meaning “laughing”. 11 pavējont is the present participle of pavējō and can be translated as “fearing” or having “fear”. Artī dē = about art. glondha = to study eghsagmenejō = to examine dherbhō. wroisda = to laugh legō. -om. eghsagmenētor: this is the third singular person of the present of the passive voice of the verb eghsagmenō. The only difference with the present tense of thematic verbs is that the thematic vowel is lengthened (dherbomos => dherbhōmos). the complement of argument. loga = to read Notes 1.

*d+dh.Rev. showing more examples. Some consonants changes when they meet. Some more useful phonetic consideration for the formation of the singular forms. -e. 0. On the next lesson we will learn the plural form. BUT *dh+t. glonsdha. kékane = he has sung. In this case the action was performed in the past and is not related to the status in the present. The endings for the singular active forms are: -a. *t+dh. kékantha = you (singular) have sung. Since there are no rules that can automatically provide the perfect stem from the present one. Active perfect of thematic verbs 1/2 Perfect tense is used when an action made in the past has the consequences in the present. one more example: bindhō = I bind => perf. The neuter present the same form for nominative. glondhe = he/she/it has studied. we have the following rules: *d+t. “Have you already watched this film?” is a question related to the presenta status of “having watched” the film. When two “dental” consonants meet. *t+t → st. so we have: Verb kanō. In this case in MIE the perfect tense is used. bondhe Don’t worry. *dh+dh →sdh. it is better to learn the verbs form by heart. *dh+th →sdh (application of the Ley of Bartholomae. bonsdha. like English.1 31 December 2011 Note the masculine nominative in -s and the accusative in -m. For instance: ghlendhō. *dh+d → sd. Different is to say: “Last week I saw a nice film”. we are coming back on this issue soon. -tha. *d+d. From now on we are providing the perfect stem together with the present stem. like in the first declension. ghlondha = to study where the second form is the 1st person of the singular perfect. kékana = sing kékana = I have sung . accusative and vocative: only the vocative accent can change and be anticipated. So. ghlondha = I have studied. *t+d. = you have studied. Exercises A – Translate into English: page 32 of 62 . so the consequences of having or not studied are experienced in the present time! To make a perfect we have to find the perfect stem. In the dialogue the question is in the perfect tense because the subject is under exam. bondha. for instance dh+t => d+dh=> s+dh). In MIE the aorist tense is used.

7) Edjēw Aléqsios sgholai dokóm woite. 5) Why do you need a photo? 6) Today Alex has sung in the school. 3) Prángiskos kselwābhis dē lubhrom skroibhe. 2) Prángiskos ámeikāi epistolām skroibhe. B 1) Anās lubhrom loga. 3) Anne.Rev. 5) Prángiske. 4) Alex has already read the whole book about the forests.1 31 December 2011 1) Anās kompeutrom nē dherbhetoi. 8) Dokós Aléqsiom artī dē eghsagmeneti. 2) Frank has written a letter to his girlfriend. do you understand the book of Anne? 8) Can they start? Solutions A 1) Anne’s computer does not start. 3) Ana. 8) The teacher examins Alex on Arts. 3) Frank has written a book about the forests. 5) Qori bhāskreibhjām nkējesi? 6) Edjew Aléqsios sgholai kekane. 7) Áleqsie. 5) Frank. ghlosdha jāmi solwom lubhrom? 6) Karolās áwontlos Prángiskos kluwejeti. 2) Anā Karolās bhāskreibhjāns weistum nē moghesi. have you already studied the whole book? 6) The name on the uncle of Carol is Frank. 7) Alex. 0. glosdha solwom lubhrom? 4) Prángiskos dokós atqe Aléqsios derbhtum torpējontoi. 7) Today Alex has waited for the teacher at school. 2) Anne cannot see the pictures of Carol. B – Translate into Eurōpājóm 1) I have read the book of Anne. 4) Aléqsios solwom kselwābhis dē lubhrom jāmi loge. Anās lubhrom peusi? 8) An dherbhtum moghonti? page 33 of 62 . have you studied the whole book? 4) Professor Frank and Alex want to start.

3. Antonios: An esti wifi ghostiljoi? 14. Toto is used to the house. 5. 10. as they have already taken care of him. jāmi séwijā adoja! Nosbhos dhēs esti! Antonios: Larā egō-qe jāmi woghnom crumé. 11. 2. mō kompeutrom ghostiljom nē portājō.Rev..1 31 December 2011 9: Neunā Legtjōn – Dhēs esti! Komtloqjom Qelibhanom klngeti. 2. 8. Kelarā: Nē gnōskō. Clare: Have you already done all? Anthon: No. are you ready to leave? Clare: Yes I am. 10. Clare: Have your parents-in-law already taken care of him? Anthon: Yes. 0. 5. Anton: I am sorry too. Antonios: Totom egō-qe skrbjō. we have to give the dog to my parents-in-law. 7. tom skrbjō. Kelarā: Jos nē eíti. Mari sáweljom-qe torpējai atqe kompeutrom swékurobhos sontējō! The telephone rings.. Kelarā: . Clare: I don’t know.. mō dwāi dekṃ horās ambhírēmosjo esmōi abhrodhlngās senti! 12. 4. 9. 11. it’s Clare Anthon: Hallo Clare. 8. Kelarā esmi. I have already prepared my luggage. Kelarā: An jāmi solwā dhakté? Antonios: Nē. Clare: .mō nē nosbhos! Tropikosjo tríjatos nōns welpeti! Stlokosjo wedhrom abhroēsú esti. so Totos swékurōm domōi jāmi swēdhwe. Clare: I am sorry that he doesn’t go. Anthon answers 1. 9. Antonios: Alā? Kelarā: Alā Antonie. 7. Antonios antiswereti. 6. I want the sea and the Sun and I send the computer to my parents-in-law! Vocabulary page 34 of 62 . but I am not bringing the computer to the hotel. Antonios: Alā Kelara. 13. an linqtum ōkinā esi? Kelarā: Jāi. Kelarā: An swékurōs twōs im jāmi tutōs senti? Antonios: Jāi. but twelve hours of travel are too long for him. Anton: Is there Wi-Fi in the hotel? 14. 12. jom swékurōs jāmi tutōs senti. kolignom swékurobhos dídōtum skelejomos. We are in vacation! Anthon: Lara and I have already loaded the car. 1.. 13.but not for us! The tropical sea is waiting for us! The weather of the place is very good. 3. 6. Anthon: Hallo? Clare: Hallo Anthon. 4.

i.. nosbhos: translate as “for us”. To be translated as “ready to leave”. whom my parents-in-law already has taken care for. reflexive). dwāi dekṃ horās: twelve hours. Grammar 2nd declension In this lesson we introduce the genitive and the dative of second declension in -os. 4. like to say. Jom works like a relative pronouns and is correlated with so Totos. Notes 2. Note that in English the third person is used: “it is Clare”. The form “tutōs senti” is a perfect passive with here an active meaning: “they have taken care of”. “Linqtum” is the accusative form of the infinite of “linqo”. 12. Esmōi = for him (dative of is. 3. and is the possessive adjective used only when the subject is the same as the possessor (i. luggage.). 2nd declension Masculine Sing Nominative Accusative Vocative Genitive Dative Wlkos Wlkom Wlke Wlkosjo Wlkōi Plu Wlkōs Wlkons Wlkōs Wlkōm Wlkobhos Neuter Sing Jugóm Jugóm Júgom Wlkōm Wlkobhos. 11. Linqtum ōkinā. but in MIE the first person is used. is already used to the house of my parents -in-law. Toto. Note the usage of neuter plural to express “all the things”.e. Séwijā is the neuter plural form of séwijos. Note the prefix abhro. In this case it should be translated as: “I have prepared my things”. 8. 13. ghostiljoi: locative of ghostiljos. “I am Clare”. id).e.Rev. It has a clear causative meaning that we can translate as: “Toto is already used to the house of my parents -in-law.so is a correlative construction. to be translated as “in the hotel”.to be traduced as “very” (see grammar section). We will see the numbers later. -om. Tutōs senti: the verb tewai has an active meaning but is always in passive form.1 31 December 2011 From this lesson on please refer to the vocabulary provided in section VOCABULARY. 0. jom (acc.. jugomos abhro- page 35 of 62 . 9. wlkomos Plu Jugā Jugā Jugā Jugōm Jugobhos. Literally sounds like: He. because they have already taken care of him”.

drunk”. In the plural we have again the zero grade: “pepumé”.1 31 December 2011 The particle abhro prefixed to an adjective has the meaning of “very”. The practice will clear the meaning of this important table. both in declension like in conjugation. where the change of the vowel characterized different verb forms. for instance e-ē-Ø (zero length means no e vowel). drank. for instance “peumi” has the perfect singular as “pepowa” (eu => ou.ablaut In MIE and in many European Languages some vowel changes can occur in the same word to differentiate various forms. In MIE the vowel change presents a regular sequence for the five usual vowel sounds called thematic: e/ē/o/ō/Ø (Ø means no vowel) or their composition with i. as shown by the following summarizing table: Vowel Grade e/o – Ø – ē/ō je/jo – i – jē/jō we/wo – u –wē/wō ei/oi/ai – i – ēi/ōi/āi eu/ou/au – u – ēu/ōu/āu au/ai – u/i – āu/āi ā/ē/ō – a – ā/ē/ō ēi/ōi – ū/ī – ēi/ōi Full F domdjeukwonbheidbheudpaustāpōi Zero Ø dmdiwkunbhidbhudpustapī Lengthed L dōmdjēukwōnbhēidbhēudpāustāpōi In a word is possible to have a change not only in the length of the vowel. u. This is an example of quantity change. vowel changes . We found an example with dhlngos=long and abhro-dhlngos= very long. For instance we have in English “drink. Can be written both with and without hyphen (-). 0.Rev. Let’s see an example. where u is written and read as w before another vowel). but “pumes” in the 1st plural. but also a qualitative change for instance from e to o. so we have “peumi” for the 1st singular. the grade are defined as follows: e: e full grade ē: lengthed e grade o: o full grade ō: lengthed o grade Ø: zero grade Vowel change is not limited to e/o. The athematic flexion of the active present is characterized by full grade in the singular and zero grade in the plural. Active perfect of thematic verbs 2/2 We have seen that the endings for the singular active forms are: page 36 of 62 . Another example: generally the perfect is obtained changing the e grade in o grade.

Introduction to personal pronouns The last grammatical effort of this lection is the introduction of personal pronouns: for the moment we shall limit to the nominative case. Since the verb already express the person. and are applied to the perfect stem. isn’t it? Let’s take it easy. The terminations for the plural are: -mé -té -é(r) applied to the zero grade of the perfect stem (see previous table). *d+d. the nominative case is used only to add enfasis to the sentence. more and more exercises and some good komtloqiom will help to get used to MIE. *t+t → st.1 31 December 2011 -a. to show doika doiktha doike dikmé dikté dikér For the second plural form remember what we said in the previous lesson: *d+t. So for instance we have: PERFECT of thematic verbs loutum. -tha. to wash lōwa lōutha lōwe loumé louté lower deiktum. BUT *dh+t. 2nd plural) A lot of stuff. So: sontējō => sōnta (1st sing) => sonsté (sont-té. *t+dh. page 37 of 62 . 0. *dh+d → sd. *dh+dh →sdh. *d+dh. for instance dh+t => d+dh=> s+dh). *t+d. *dh+th →sdh (application of the Ley of Bartholomae. -e.Rev.

5) You have sent letters to the friends. B – Translate into Eurōpājóm 1) We have read the book of Anton. 2) The parents-in-law have already cooked for the holiday.1 31 December 2011 Thre is no personal pronoun for the 3rd singular and plural person. 2) Swékurōs dhei jāmi pepker. have you read the book of Anne? 8) Can we start? Solutions A 1) Alex’ girlfriend has cooked food for the dog. 0. 6) Nē wejes. 3) Ámeikōs. have you studied the whole book? 4) We want to start to cook. 2) Eurōpājom sgholāsu dedkér. tod wejes juwes ejes. 6) Not we. id so. she. 5) Today we have seen the teacher at school 6) The dog is already used to the house of the parents-in-law. 3) Friends. B 1) Antonosjo lubhrom lgmé. tā. nominative I you (thou) he. 7) Alex. ja/ī. 4) Edjēw kselwāi swékurōm kolignom modmé. geglosdhté page 38 of 62 . we have learned. tod”. 2) They have learned Europajom in the schools. but they have sent Frank the box containing books. 7) Have you seen the computer of Alex? 8) We have seen the tropical sea. sā. mō toi Prángiskōi kapsām lubhrons rtejontjam sontér. jāi toi. Their usage will be detailed later. id” or by the demonstrative “so. ja/ī. 7) An Aleqsiosjo kompeutrom wisté? 8) Tropikosjo tríjatom widmé.Rev. 3) An Eurōpājóm dedokté? . it we you they egō tū is. tāi Exercises A – Translate into English: 1) Aleqsiosjo ámeikā kolignōi westām pepoke. 4) Today we have met in the wood the dog of the parents-in-love. sā. 3) Have you learned Europaiom? – Yes. dedokmé.Jāi. which are given by the anaphoric pronoun “is. ja/ī. 5) Ameikomos epistolāns sonsté.

6) Kolignos swékurōm domōi jāmi swēdhwe 7) Áleqsie.1 31 December 2011 solwom lubhrom? 4) Peqtum derbhtum torpējomesdha. Anās lubhrom logtha? 8) An dherbhtum moghomos? page 39 of 62 . 5) Edjēw sgholai dokóm widmé. 0.Rev.

u. p. e (e. ch. 0. w. ph. c.1 31 December 2011 VOCABULARY In this vocabulary the words used in each lesson are added.Rev. o (o. k. i (i. t. dh. g.ā). bh. th. h. ē). l. ī). j. Note: the following alphabetical order for MIE is used a (a. This is also true for the verbal forms presented for each verb. d. n. b. q. kh. s. z page 40 of 62 . f. gh. So currently only the present and the perfect forms have been provided. r.ō). m.

osjo ámeikā. ās MIE notes pref.1 31 December 2011 MIE – English. ENG very hallo be hungry (to) travel girlfriend mother ITA molto ciao fame (aver) viaggio amica madre ES muy hola hambre (tener) viaje amiga madre DEU sehr hallo Hungar (haben) Reise Freundin Mutter page 41 of 62 . Spanish. German MIE A abhroāla alkējō.Rev. ās ammā. 0. Italian. ōlka ambhírēmos.

Gespräch' (*sermō) ist unklar. antiswora MIE notes su̯ er-1 (auch ser-?) English meaning to speak German meaning `sprechen. swōr `schwören'. sverrunei `dem Sprecher. svarъ `Zank' (Hinund Widerrede). 712. Bürgschaft leisten'. ahd.Rev. Worƞührer'. `Schwur.. and-svar `gerichtliche Entscheidung'. `Antwort'. pentola fontana agua y vasija. Vasmer 2. aisl. swerren ds. sermō. ās B water and pot fountain acqua e barattolo. ags.. reden' Grammatical comments General comments Derivatives Material Lat. olla fuente Wasser und Topf Brunnen page 42 of 62 . ENG answer ITA rispondere ES contestar DEU antoworten aqā. mhd.. got.`surren' auf artikuliertes Sprechen. reden' ist vielleicht (aber nicht sicher) eine Anwendung von su̯ er. ōnis `Wechselrede. aisl. swuor `Schwur'. as. aksl. II 521 f. osk. ags. svara `anworten. svarъ `Kampf'.`sprechen. bekämpfen'. Verantwortung'. 0. ssóra `Zank' aus *sъsora? *su̯ er. ant-swōr `Antwort. Pl. svǫr Pl. Eid'. and-swaru `Antwort'. russ. II 527. swerian. ās awā. References WP. sveria. sø̄ ri Nom. WH. aisl. Unterhaltung. as.1 31 December 2011 MIE antiswerō. svariti `schmähen. swerien. swaran. ās atqe auqslā. Trautmann 296 f.

dhorba dhleghistos dhḷnghos. ósjo dómūnā.1 31 December 2011 MIE Bh bhāskreibhjā. apprendere dare professore signora luce secondo (aggettivo) fare vegetazione iniziare lunghissimo lungo ES fotografía confianza vuelo vivir llegar mujer pedir entorcha de aprender dar profesor señora luz segundo hacer vegetación empezar larguísimo largo DEU Fotografie Verlass Flug leben. ēs bhougā. 0. cojwa cemjō. ās dwóteros. ās bhidhēs.Rev. ā. ās Ch chedhō. wohnen kommen Frau fragen Fackel um lehrnen geben Lehrer Frau Licht zweiter machen Vegetation anfangen längst lang prep + instr today oggi hoy heute page 43 of 62 . ās dherbhō. dedoka dídōni. ās drktā. ās C cejwō. ās dē didkskō. om Dz E edjēw MIE notes ENG photography thrust flight live (to) come (to) woman ask (to) torch about learn (to) give teacher landlady light second do (to) vegetation start (to) very long long ITA fotografia fiducia volo vivere venire donna chiedere torcia riguardo imparare. dedōka dokós. cēma cenā. ā. om Dh dhakjō. dhāka dhalnā. chodha D dáwētā.

hospes. ās epistolā. 0. Latin: hostis. `Fremdling.. osjo Proto-IE: *ghost-i. f. estum. ghogha MIE notes examen L examen <= ex – agere <= eghs – ag + men => eghsagmen to examine = eghsagmenejō ENG eat (to) examine (to) ITA mangiare esaminare ES comer examinar DEU essen prüfen go (to) mare letter be (to) European laguage ice know (to) come back (to) andare cavalla lettera essere europeo (lingua) ghiaccio conoscere ritornare ir yegua carta ser européo (idioma) hielo conocer volver gehen Stute Brief sein Europaisch Eis kennen zurückgehen. -is m.Rev. ghoda ghostiljom. eghsagmona eími ekwāā. with doubt) Slavic: *gostь. stranger Hittite: kasi. umkehrnen lehrnen erhalten Gasthouse ghlendhō. zurückfahren. (ge)glodha ghndō. *gospodь Germanic: *gast-i.'Besuch' (Tischler 534 nach Ivanov 1971.m. чужак References: WP I 640 f study (to) receive (to) hotel studiare ricevere albergo estudiar recibir hotel H I page 44 of 62 . `Gastfreund' Russ. itis m.1 31 December 2011 MIE edmi. meaning: гость. Eurōpājóm G glaghjēs. der feindliche Fremde. ēs Gnōskō. Gh ghighējō. ās esmi. Kriegsfeind'.(*ghos-t-) Meaning: guest. eghsagmenejō.

Tageszeit. 'Jahr' Old Greek: hṓrǟ f. Stunde Proto-IE: *yōr. rechte Zeit. celare suonare con computer caja gato cafè aquí esconder sonar con ordenador Kiste Katze Kaffee hier verstecken klingen mit Rechner page 45 of 62 . -ia. ās kattā. osjo prep. Reiferzeit' Slavic: *jārā. kōla klngō kom kompeutrom. Germanic: *jēr-a. весна References: WP I 3. -a `heurig' (< *hō-i ̯ōrino-) Russ. meaning: год. ās MIE notes ENG there so already because hour ITA là così già poiché ora ES ahí así ya porque hora DEU dort so schon weil Uhr. Blütezeit. + INST computer from L. 105 K kapsā. ās kei kēlājō. *jārъ(jь) BalƟc: *jār-iā̃ f.m. Stunde. 0. ring (to) with computer cassa gatto caffè qui nascondere. Jahr.1 31 December 2011 MIE idhei ita J jāmi jodqid jōrā. *jārь.(Gr h-) Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology Meaning: year. `Jahreszeit. spring Avestan: yārǝ n.computare cum+putare cum <= kom computo = puwējō kompéutrom box cat coffee here hide (to) sound (to).n. LaƟn: hōrnus. ās qawā..Rev.

om nkejō. légtjonos MIE notes ENG conversation cup wood ITA colloquio. abfahren Mond Buch glänzen Freundin treffen aber können bald denn nicht starker brauchen page 46 of 62 . ās Kh L lapsā.legere <= PIE *leg. tazza bosco.1 31 December 2011 MIE komtloqjom koupā.Rev. lampada muratura lezione linterna mampostería lección Lanterne Mauerwerk Lektion legō. ās lubhros. osjo lukējō. with infinitive suffix -tu. partire luna libro splendere amica incontrare ma potere presto poi non forte bisogno (aver) ler dejar. salir luna libro brillar amiga encontrar pero poder pronto luego no fuerte necesitar lesen lassen. conversazione coppa. => legtu. linqtum louksnā. ā. moksi N ndha nē nertos. onka read (to) leave (to) moon book shine (to) girlfriend meet (to) but can soon then not strong need leggere lasciare. ās kselwā. moda mō moghō. selva ES conversación copa bosque DEU Gespräch Tasse Wald from Lat Lectio from lectum . ās lāurā. 0. ās mimdō. ās légtjōn. loika M maqā. lamp stonework lesson lanterna. loga linqō. => jōn/jonos suffix is added for word formation similar to existing Latin word.

0. ā. ā. pawōja penqtos. om pawējō. om peqō. potnjās nom also potnja understand (to) drink (to) carry (to) mistress comprendere bere portare signora enteder beber llevar señora verstehen trinken bringen Frau page 47 of 62 . pepoka.-ti programme = perisentjā We add a peri to give the idea of broadcast. ās MIE notes ENG ITA ES DEU small fear (to) fifth cook (to) over. Sendung *sent. peridōtis peumi.Rev. Television or radio Programme = perisentjā. пере <= MIE peri δο <= PIE *dō-σις <= -ti <= MIE peridōti Ger.1 31 December 2011 MIE O P paulos. pepōja portājō potnī. too transmission piccolo temere quinto cucinare troppo trasmissione pequeño temer quinto cocinar demasiado transmisión klein fürchten fünfter kochen zu Sendung Programme = Transmission Eng Transmission from Lat Trans+mission L Trans.<= MIE teraGr παραλλαγή aGr παράδοσις. Russ переда́ча para-. peqtum per perisentjā. pepowa pibō.

wieso wie interrogative interrogative easy Rome secret contain (to) sun buy (to) school facile Roma segreto contenere sole comprare scuola facil Roma secreto caber sol comprar escuela einfach Rom Geheimnis einhalten Sonne kaufen Schule page 48 of 62 . sola sgholā. ās rounā. ās rtejō. ā.om qid qotā Qh R reidhos. om Rōmā. rtoja S sáweljom. osjo qétwrtos. osjo selō. ās prkskō.Rev. pedir DEU Erst danke Frage fragen enclitica tele => qeli phone => bhā suffix => nom and telephone fourth why how e telefono quarto perchè come y telefón cuarto por qué cómo und Telefon vierter warum. om prijēsna prkskā. domandare ES primero gracias pregunta preguntar. ā. peproka Ph Q qe qelibhanom. ās MIE notes ENG first thanks question ask (to) ITA primo grazie domanda chiedere.1 31 December 2011 MIE prāmos. ā. 0.

Germanic: *skarp-a. om Proto-IE: *skArbNostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology Meaning: emaciated.1 31 December 2011 MIE skrbjō. sad Slavic: *skъrbētī. печальный References: Fraenkel 822 ENG ITA regret (to). sad Slavic: *skъrbētī.Rev.adj. ēs sterlā. *skъrbь BalƟc: *skur̃b-/*skur̂b. sōnta spekjēs. *skur̃b[a]. печальный References: Fraenkel 822 sad triste triste traurig sm smogós.vb. meaning: изможденный. *skur̃b[a]. Germanic: *skarp-a.adj. ā. intr. swēdhjóm. *skurp= Russ. ā.adj.. ās stlokos sū swēdhskō.. ā. *skъrbь BalƟc: *skur̃b-/*skur̂b. skorbja MIE notes Proto-IE: *skArbNostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology Meaning: emaciated. (1). swēdhwa. (1). om sontējō. be sad (to) dispiacere ES lamentar DEU bedauern skrbos. *skurp= Russ. meaning: изможденный.vb. swēdhsō T adj together difficult whole send (to) kind star place well become accustomed (to) insieme difficile tutto mandare specie stella posto bene abituarsi juntos dificil todo enviar especie estrella lugar bien acostumbrarse zusammen schwierig alles schicken Stern Ort gut gewöhnen page 49 of 62 .adj. óm solwos. 0. intr.

om MIE notes ENG ITA observe (to). 0. take care guardare. osjo tritjos.1 31 December 2011 MIE tewai. prendere (to) cura fear (to) want (to) sea third temere volere mare terzo ES cuidar temer querer mar tercero DEU beobachten fürchten wünschen See dritte also in middle form page 50 of 62 .Rev. toima torpējō. ā. tetoirpa tríjatos. tutós timējō.

trep. nicht `fulmina torquens'. garstig' (`*wovor man sich abwenden muß'. dor. verändere'. Bildung wie got. lat. trapā́ f. WH. ἐντρέπομαι `wende mich jemandem zu. 0. `drehe mich um. trápatē `schämt sich. τρέπω. turpis (*tr̥pis) `häßlich.dialektisch. auch sich vor Scham abwenden' Derivatives: tropā `Wendung' Material: Ai. -urstatt -or. 719. to bow the head (of shame) German meaning: `wenden. drehen'? ENG tropic ITA tropico ES trópico DEU Tropik trsējō. `Wender'). II 702. τρόπος `Wendung'.Rev. osjo MIE notes Root: trep-2 English meaning: to turn. sondern zu τέρπειν. See also: Idg. von ter-3 `reiben.. -εσθαι als `der Blitzfrohe'. Verlegenheit'. τροπή `Umkehr'.1 31 December 2011 MIE tropikos. kehre um'. Mayrhofer 530. τρόπις `Kiel. τράπω `wende'.τερπικέραυνος trotz τερπώμεθα τρεπώμεθα Hes. `Scham. tetora Th Ts U W be thirsty (to) sete (aver) sed (tener) Durst (haben) page 51 of 62 . εὐτράπελος `beweglich'. gr. wird verlegen'. schäme mich vor jemandem'.`wenden' Erw. Med. I 756 f. trepit `verƟt'. drehend reiben. τρωπάω `wende. brūks `brauchbar'). References: WP. Grundbalken des Schiffes' (eig. ion.

osjo welpō. woida. ās widējō. 0.wolpa wēmos. wola wlewā. weistum wlējō. ās wrisdējō. om westā. ā.1 31 December 2011 MIE wedhrom.Rev. wroisda MIE notes ENG weather wait (to) beautiful food see (to) be fine (to) lion laugh (to) ITA tempo atmosferico aspettare bello cibo vedere star bene leone ridere ES tiempo atmosférico esperar bello comida ver estar bien león reirse DEU Wesser warten schön Essen sehen gut gehen Löwe lacheln page 52 of 62 .

osk. aksl. ahd. swuor `Schwur'. II 527. Trautmann 296 f.`sprechen. reden' Grammatical comments General comments Derivatives Material Lat.. got. svara `anworten.1 31 December 2011 English – MIE. sverrunei `dem Sprecher. ags. sermō. Gespräch' (*sermō) ist unklar. aisl. sø̄ ri Nom. and-swaru `Antwort'. Italian. II 521 f. Bürgschaft leisten'. and-svar `gerichtliche Entscheidung'. swerren ds. reden' ist vielleicht (aber nicht sicher) eine Anwendung von su̯ er.. Worƞührer'. as. ags. svarъ `Zank' (Hinund Widerrede). aisl. aisl. svarъ `Kampf'. References WP. 0. bekämpfen'. Unterhaltung.Rev. WH.`surren' auf artikuliertes Sprechen. swōr `schwören'. swerian. `Schwur. ōnis `Wechselrede. Vasmer 2. `Antwort'. svǫr Pl. as. ant-swōr `Antwort. Verantwortung'.. Pl. Spanish. russ. ssóra `Zank' aus *sъsora? *su̯ er. svariti `schmähen. antiswora MIE notes prep + instr enclitica su̯ er-1 (auch ser-?) English meaning to speak German meaning `sprechen. ITA riguardo già e e rispondere ES de ya y y contestar DEU um schon und und antoworten page 53 of 62 . swaran. German ENG about already and and answer MIE dē jāmi atqe qe antiswerō. 712. Eid'. sveria. mhd. swerien.

chodha prkskō. umkehrnen Rechner computer kompeutrom.computare cum+putare cum <= kom computo = puwējō kompéutrom computer ordenador page 54 of 62 . portājō kattā. swēdhsō lubhros. ōlka trsējō. ā. ghogha ITA chiedere chiedere. ās qawā.1 31 December 2011 ENG ask (to) ask (to) be (to) be fine (to) be hungry (to) be thirsty (to) beautiful because become accustomed (to) book box but buy (to) can carry (to) cat coffee come (to) come back (to) MIE MIE notes chedhō. pedir ser estar bien hambre (tener) sed (tener) bello porque acostumbrarse DEU fragen fragen sein gut gehen Hungar (haben) Durst (haben) schön weil gewöhnen libro cassa ma comprare potere portare gatto caffè venire ritornare libro caja pero comprar poder llevar gato cafè llegar volver Buch Kiste aber kaufen können bringen Katze Kaffee kommen zurückgehen. cēma ghighējō. om jodqid swēdhskō. swēdhjóm. osjo kapsā.Rev. sola moghō. wlējō. wola alkējō. tetora wēmos. ās cemjō. 0. osjo computer from L. domandare essere star bene fame (aver) sete (aver) bello poiché abituarsi ES pedir preguntar. zurückfahren. swēdhwa. ās mō selō. peproka esmi.

ās qétwrtos. dhāka pibō. ās awā. pawōja timējō. pepōja reidhos. Eurōpājóm eghsagmenejō. peqtum koupā. om prāmos. ā. estum. eghsagmona pawējō. ā. ā. ās maqā. 0. ās westā. ā. óm dhakjō. ā. toima penqtos. tazza difficile fare bere facile mangiare europeo (lingua) esaminare ES caber conversación cocinar copa dificil hacer beber facil comer européo (idioma) examinar DEU einhalten Gespräch kochen Tasse schwierig machen trinken einfach essen Europaisch prüfen examen L examen <= ex – agere <= eghs – ag + men => eghsagmen to examine = eghsagmenejō fear (to) fear (to) fifth first flight food fountain fourth girlfriend girlfriend give go (to) hallo temere temere quinto primo volo cibo fontana quarto amica amica dare andare ciao temer temer quinto primero vuelo comida fuente cuarto amiga amiga dar ir hola fürchten fürchten fünfter Erst Flug Essen Brunnen vierter Freundin Freundin geben gehen hallo page 55 of 62 .om ámeikā. om bhougā.1 31 December 2011 ENG contain (to) conversation cook (to) cup difficult do (to) drink (to) easy eat (to) European laguage examine (to) MIE rtejō. om edmi.Rev. dedōka eími āla MIE notes ITA contenere colloquio. conversazione cucinare coppa. ās dídōni. pepoka. rtoja komtloqjom peqō. ās smogós.

1 31 December 2011 ENG here hide (to) hotel MIE kei kēlājō. 'Jahr' Old Greek: hṓrǟ f. *gospodь Germanic: *gast-i.(*ghos-t-) Meaning: guest. -a `heurig' (< *hō-i ̯ōrino-) Russ. ās ora hora Uhr.m. apprendere cómo hielo conocer linterna señora reirse aprender wie Eis kennen Lanterne Frau lacheln lehrnen page 56 of 62 . `Gastfreund' Russ. Kriegsfeind'. hospes. 105 hour jōrā.m. celare albergo ES aquí esconder hotel DEU hier verstecken Gasthouse Proto-IE: *ghost-i. with doubt) Slavic: *gostь. ās wrisdējō. ēs Gnōskō. stranger Hittite: kasi. Blütezeit. lapsā. LaƟn: hōrnus. spring Avestan: yārǝ n. 0. Stunde how ice know (to) lamp landlady laugh (to) learn (to) qotā glaghjēs.. wroisda didkskō. Reiferzeit' Slavic: *jārā. весна References: WP I 3. Germanic: *jēr-a.(Gr h-) Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology Meaning: year. -is m. -ia.. lampada signora ridere imparare. *jārъ(jь) BalƟc: *jār-iā̃ f. Latin: hostis. osjo MIE notes ITA qui nascondere. meaning: год. rechte Zeit. kōla ghostiljom.n. itis m. f.Rev. ās dómūnā. Stunde. Jahr.'Besuch' (Tischler 534 nach Ivanov 1971. *jārь. Tageszeit. meaning: гость. `Jahreszeit. `Fremdling. чужак References: WP I 640 f Proto-IE: *yōr. dedoka interrogative come ghiaccio conoscere lanterna. der feindliche Fremde.

ās stlokos auqslā. ās cejwō. ās wlewā. linqtum légtjōn. om ekwāā. => jōn/jonos suffix is added for word formation similar to existing Latin word. 0. onka nē tewai. ā. cojwa dhḷnghos. loga ghndō.1 31 December 2011 ENG leave (to) lesson MIE linqō. ās mimdō. moda potnī. ghoda nom also potnja lettera luce leone vivere lungo cavalla incontrare signora luna madre bisogno (aver) non guardare. pentola domanda leggere ricevere carta luz león vivir largo yegua encontrar señora luna madre necesitar no cuidar demasiado fotografía lugar vasija.Rev. ās legō. ās ammā. too photography place pot question read (to) receive (to) epistolā. wohnen lang Stute treffen Frau Mond Mutter brauchen nicht beobachten zu Fotografie Ort Topf Frage lesen erhalten page 57 of 62 .legere <= PIE *leg. ās nkejō. ās prkskā. ITA lasciare. tutós per bhāskreibhjā. with infinitive suffix -tu. légtjonos MIE notes from Lat Lectio from lectum . ās drktā. prendere cura troppo fotografia posto barattolo. partire lezione ES dejar. olla pregunta ler recibir Brief Licht Löwe leben. salir lección DEU lassen. take care (to) over. => legtu. abfahren Lektion letter light lion live (to) long mare meet (to) mistress moon mother need not observe (to). potnjās louksnā.

*skurp= Russ. *skъrbь BalƟc: *skur̃b-/*skur̂b. sad Slavic: *skъrbētī. ās skrbos. ās widējō. meaning: изможденный. (1). loika paulos.vb. sad Slavic: *skъrbētī. weistum sontējō. meaning: изможденный. be sad (to) skrbjō. *skurp= Russ. sōnta lukējō. *skъrbь BalƟc: *skur̃b-/*skur̂b. печальный References: Fraenkel 822 Roma triste Roma triste Rom traurig school sea second secret see (to) send (to) shine (to) small so soon sgholā.Rev.adj. ā. intr. ās tríjatos.adj.adj.adj. intr. om ita moksi scuola mare secondo (aggettivo) segreto vedere mandare splendere piccolo così presto escuela mar segundo secreto ver enviar brillar pequeño así pronto Schule See zweiter Geheimnis sehen schicken glänzen klein so bald page 58 of 62 . skorbja MIE notes Proto-IE: *skArbNostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology Meaning: emaciated.. woida. Germanic: *skarp-a. osjo dwóteros. om rounā.1 31 December 2011 ENG MIE regret (to). *skur̃b[a]. ā. om Proto-IE: *skArbNostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology Meaning: emaciated.. Germanic: *skarp-a. (1). 0.vb. ā. *skur̃b[a]. печальный References: Fraenkel 822 ITA dispiacere ES lamentar DEU bedauern Rome sad Rōmā.

ring (to) star start (to) stonework strong study (to) sun teacher telephone thanks then there third thrust today together torch MIE klngō sterlā. 0. ās nertos. ā. ās MIE notes ITA suonare stella iniziare muratura forte studiare sole professore telefono grazie poi là terzo fiducia oggi insieme torcia ES sonar estrella empezar mampostería fuerte estudiar sol profesor telefón gracias luego ahí tercero confianza hoy juntos entorcha DEU klingen Stern anfangen Mauerwerk starker lehrnen Sonne Lehrer Telefon danke denn dort dritte Verlass heute zusammen Fackel tele => qeli phone => bhā suffix => nom page 59 of 62 .Rev. osjo dokós. (ge)glodha sáweljom. ósjo qelibhanom. om bhidhēs. ā. ēs edjēw sm dáwētā. osjo prijēsna ndha idhei tritjos. om ghlendhō.1 31 December 2011 ENG sound (to). dhorba lāurā. ās dherbhō.

Russ переда́ча para-. Television or radio Programme = perisentjā.-ti programme = perisentjā We add a peri to give the idea of broadcast. пере <= MIE peri δο <= PIE *dō-σις <= -ti <= MIE peridōti Ger. peridōtis ITA trasmissione ES transmisión DEU Sendung travel ambhírēmos.<= MIE teraGr παραλλαγή aGr παράδοσις. 0. ās MIE notes Programme = Transmission Eng Transmission from Lat Trans+mission L Trans. Sendung *sent. osjo viaggio viaje Reise page 60 of 62 .Rev.1 31 December 2011 ENG transmission MIE perisentjā.

τρόπος `Wendung'. ion. Med.dialektisch. Grundbalken des Schiffes' (eig. `drehe mich um. τρέπω. I 756 f.τερπικέραυνος trotz τερπώμεθα τρεπώμεθα Hes. garstig' (`*wovor man sich abwenden muß'. nicht `fulmina torquens'. 0. Verlegenheit'. εὐτράπελος `beweglich'. verändere'. trápatē `schämt sich. trepit `vertit'. gr. pepowa dhalnā. τροπή `Umkehr'. osjo MIE notes Root: trep-2 English meaning: to turn. dor. τρόπις `Kiel. schäme mich vor jemandem'.1 31 December 2011 ENG tropic MIE tropikos.Rev. Mayrhofer 530. See also: Idg. `Wender'). ἐντρέπομαι `wende mich jemandem zu. ās abhrodhleghistos welpō. τρωπάω `wende. τράπω `wende'. drehend reiben. comprendere vegetazione molto lunghissimo aspettare enteder vegetación muy larguísimo esperar verstehen Vegetation sehr längst warten page 61 of 62 . References: WP. -urstatt -or. von ter-3 `reiben. WH. wird verlegen'. to bow the head (of shame) German meaning: `wenden. brūks `brauchbar'). kehre um'. auch sich vor Scham abwenden' Derivatives: tropā `Wendung' Material: Ai. trep.`wenden' Erw. turpis (*tr̥pis) `häßlich. -εσθαι als `der Blitzfrohe'. drehen'? ITA tropico ES trópico DEU Tropik understand (to) vegetation very very long wait (to) peumi. 719. trapā́ f. II 702. Bildung wie got.wolpa pref.. sondern zu τέρπειν. `Scham. lat.

+ INST ITA volere acqua tempo atmosferico bene tutto perchè con donna bosco.Rev. om qid kom cenā.1 31 December 2011 ENG want (to) water weather well whole why with woman wood MIE torpējō. ās MIE notes also in middle form adj interrogative prep. wieso mit Frau Wald page 62 of 62 . ās wedhrom. ā. tetoirpa aqā. osjo sū solwos. ās kselwā. 0. selva ES querer agua tiempo atmosférico bien todo por qué con mujer bosque DEU wünschen Wasser Wesser gut alles warum.

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