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Dassia May 12/12/2013 BIO 100 Paper 3 Freshwater Biodiversity and Humanity Introduction: A substantial decline in freshwater biodiversity

poses a threat to life in regards to the environment, certain species, and its inhabitants. Biodiversity in freshwater contains original elements and species which contribute a variety of factors to life on earth and the lives of humans. This article educates on freshwater, biodiversity, its decline, the causes of it, and how these causes affect the human race. Biodiversity in Freshwater: Biodiversity in freshwater has changed greatly. Biodiversity is the amount of biologic variety of species in a given area. The amount of biodiversity in each area can be measured depending on its potential for supporting a number of species and the size of the area. Freshwater ecosystems could be considered the most endangered ecosystems in the world (Dudgeon 164). This is alarming as it is our main source of survival and only about 0.01% of water on the earth is fresh water (dudgeon 165). This proves assessing the decline in freshwater biodiversity and how the climate changes affect the water ecosystem and humanitys resources and health is critical for comfortable survival. Endangered environment: The environment for freshwater species is endangered and affects the species living in it. Natural and artificial obstacles change a species environment. Natural barriers include temporary structures such as beaver dams, seasonal dryings or warming of waterways. The obstacles that cause climate change, inhibited by human-engineered structures, include hundreds of thousands

of dams, diversions and culverts, which all exist globally (Olden 43). The human race causes these artificial barriers that change the species environment which leads to a decline in biodiversity as less species are able to adapt to or survive these sudden changes. Endangered Species: Species are being greatly affected by climatic changes of freshwater. Rapidity of climate change exceeds the ability of many species to adapt or disperse to more favorable environments (Olden 41). Movement barriers have isolate river basins and lakes where distinctive species lineages have been preserved (Olden 42). This means that the species found in bodies of freshwater are not like many other species, and become isolated therefore specific to their body of water. When a species becomes specific to their body of water, and the climate or elements of that body changes, the species either has to adapt or die. Movement to other freshwater bodies is too difficult, in most cases, for species to accomplish. Over 10,000 fish species, approximately 40% of global fish, and one third of all vertebrate species in the world are confined to freshwater (Dudgeon 165). Specie endangerment is inevitable when the climate changes so the causes of these changes must be addressed. Humans and Freshwater: Human dependency on freshwater develops the need to conserve the freshwater ecosystems. The factors affecting human health based on freshwater biodiversity causes an even greater need for the care and consideration for the affected bodies of water. Freshwater biodiversity provides a broad variety of valuable goods and services, some irreplaceable, for human societies (Dudgeon 172). Biodiversity is an indicator for having resources available to these societies. These resources include healthy drinking water and the certain species available in only a high biologically diverse, freshwater ecosystem. Recent emergence and reemergence of

infectious disease can be associated with ecological disruption. Habitat destruction and biodiversity loss associated with biotic homogenization can increase the incidence and distribution of infectious diseases affecting diseases (Pongsiri 946). Without certain species living within the freshwater humans use for resources, the surrounding environment provides infectious disease among the other species in that area, including humans. The loss of predators and hosts that dilute pathogen transmission can increase the incidence of illnesses (Pongsiri 946). Without healthy freshwater environments, humanity will also lack the healthy attributes to survive in their environment. Conclusion: A substantial decline in freshwater biodiversity poses a threat to life in regards to the environment, certain species, and its inhabitants. This is caused by changes in the environment caused by humans, through artificial movement barriers. When humanity changes environments to a less biologically diverse state, their personal environment is, in turn, affected. The human environment is penetrated by infectious disease and inapt resources due to the loss of species and the infected environment. After discussing freshwater, biodiversity, its decline, the causes of it, and how these causes affect the human race, we see what humanity can do.

Work Cited Olden, Julien D., Mark J. Kennard, Joshua J. Lawler, Leroy N. Poff, Challenges and Opportunities in Implementing Managed Relocation for Conservation of Freshwater Species. Conservation Biology, Vol. 25, pp.40-47. 2011 Pongsiri, Montira J., Joe Roman, Vanessa O. Ezenwa, Tony L. Goldberg, Hillel S. Koren. Biodiversity Loss Affects Global Disease Ecology. BioScience; American Institute of Biological Science 59, pp. 945-954. 2009 Dudgeon, David, Angela H. Arthington, Mark O. Gessner, Zen-Ichiro Kawabata, Duncan J. Knowler, Robert J. Naiman, Doris Soto, Melanie L. J. Stiassny, Caroline A. Sullivan. Freshwater Biodiversity: Importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biology Review (2006)81, pp. 163-182. Cambridge Philosophical Society, United Kingdom 2005