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Problem Set #2 Professor Bdison Tse
Problem Set #2
(not to be tured in - a solution set will be distributed
about a week after problem sets are distributed)
1, Consider a genetic model concerning eye color. Eye color genes are one of three types: Green
(G), Brown (Bi), and Blue (BD. Eveny person is bom with two genes, one taken from each
parent to give a combination of genes for that individual (there are six possible combinations). A
pperson’s eye color is then determined by the gene combination as follows:
Combination Bye Color
GG Green
G. Br Brown
G.BL Green
Br, Br Brown
Br, BL Brown
BI, BI Blue
The selection ofa gene from each parents pairs random (Le, any parental gee is passed on with
probability 0.5). Genes have no effect on the selection of a mate in this population. For a gene X
select at random ftom the population,
Prob(X = @) = p; Prob(X = Br) = g; and Prob(X = BN) =
-P-4
(a) Write a system (6-state) of first-order difference equations describing the transmission of eye
color from one parent to his or ber child, given that one gene is passed from this parent and the
other is acquired randomly from the at large population, That is define x,{k-+1) to be the
probability that the child will have the i-th gene combination given that the parent has the i-th gene
combination with probability x,(k). Note that the 6 combinations form a mutually exclusive and
collectively exhaustive set of possibilities for an individual so that the sum of all the state variables
at a given k should be 1.
(b) If a person's grandfather has the gene pair (G, G), what is the probability that the person has
green eyes? Note that you can do this by writing out the probability tree, but it may be easier to
use your mode! from (2),
(c) Suppose p=.35 and q=.5. Determine the long run percentage of population with green,
brown, and blue eyes (as k =), assuming that every individual has the same number of
children.
2. Luenberger, p. 124, #1
3, Luenberger, p. 125, #5. Also find the eigenvalues of this system.
4, Luenberger, p. 126, #9.
5. Luenberger, p. 128, #13.yma oymen revruary 1, 1797
Problem Set #2 Professor Edison Tse
6. Luenberger, p. 179, #2.
7. Luenberger, p. 180, #11.
8. Luenberger, p. 181, #12.
9. Luenberger, p. 181, #12.
10. (4 question from the 1996 Quic #2,) Consider the system x(k+1) ~ Ax(k) + b, where
[0.25 0 -0.25] mM iy
Az=l0.75 05 -0.25| belil x@y=iil
has 0 0.75) li ii}
(2) Find the eigenvalues and corresponding right and Jefi eigenvectors of A. Please show all
algebra and maniputations (i. NO computer print-outs; but you can use MATLAB or
Mathematica, for example, to confirm your sofution). Note there is at least one real number
eigenvalue for such a 3-state dynamic system,
weal a]
(b) Write the general solution of x(k) as x(&) = 2;"*}py + ay!*!py + 23*p3 + pg. Le. find the
constant vectors p,, p;. Ps. and p,; where 2,, 2, and A; arc the eigenvalues of A.
(©) Simplify your expression for x(k) so that it just contains real valued numbers (you may find
the following useful: cos(p) + i*sin(p) = e? where #” = -1)
(d) An equilibrium point is defined to be vector point x*, such that x(k+1) = x(k) = x* (see
Luenberger, page 151). Using this definition, find the equilibrium point for the above system.
[025 0 -0.25)
For (e)-(f), consider the system above with A=10.75 a -0.25! where ois areal number.
li2s 0 0.75]
(©) Find x* (equilibrium point) as a function of.
() What is lim x(k), 98 function of 2? (Compoters may be used here.)

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