You are on page 1of 2
Problem Set #2 Professor Bdison Tse Problem Set #2 (not to be tured in - a solution set will be distributed about a week after problem sets are distributed) 1, Consider a genetic model concerning eye color. Eye color genes are one of three types: Green (G), Brown (Bi), and Blue (BD. Eveny person is bom with two genes, one taken from each parent to give a combination of genes for that individual (there are six possible combinations). A pperson’s eye color is then determined by the gene combination as follows: Combination Bye Color GG Green G. Br Brown G.BL Green Br, Br Brown Br, BL Brown BI, BI Blue The selection ofa gene from each parents pairs random (Le, any parental gee is passed on with probability 0.5). Genes have no effect on the selection of a mate in this population. For a gene X select at random ftom the population, Prob(X = @) = p; Prob(X = Br) = g; and Prob(X = BN) = -P-4 (a) Write a system (6-state) of first-order difference equations describing the transmission of eye color from one parent to his or ber child, given that one gene is passed from this parent and the other is acquired randomly from the at large population, That is define x,{k-+1) to be the probability that the child will have the i-th gene combination given that the parent has the i-th gene combination with probability x,(k). Note that the 6 combinations form a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive set of possibilities for an individual so that the sum of all the state variables at a given k should be 1. (b) If a person's grandfather has the gene pair (G, G), what is the probability that the person has green eyes? Note that you can do this by writing out the probability tree, but it may be easier to use your mode! from (2), (c) Suppose p=.35 and q=.5. Determine the long run percentage of population with green, brown, and blue eyes (as k =), assuming that every individual has the same number of children. 2. Luenberger, p. 124, #1 3, Luenberger, p. 125, #5. Also find the eigenvalues of this system. 4, Luenberger, p. 126, #9. 5. Luenberger, p. 128, #13. yma oymen revruary 1, 1797 Problem Set #2 Professor Edison Tse 6. Luenberger, p. 179, #2. 7. Luenberger, p. 180, #11. 8. Luenberger, p. 181, #12. 9. Luenberger, p. 181, #12. 10. (4 question from the 1996 Quic #2,) Consider the system x(k+1) ~ Ax(k) + b, where [0.25 0 -0.25] mM iy Az=l0.75 05 -0.25| belil x@y=iil has 0 0.75) li ii} (2) Find the eigenvalues and corresponding right and Jefi eigenvectors of A. Please show all algebra and maniputations (i. NO computer print-outs; but you can use MATLAB or Mathematica, for example, to confirm your sofution). Note there is at least one real number eigenvalue for such a 3-state dynamic system, weal a] (b) Write the general solution of x(k) as x(&) = 2;"*}py + ay!*!py + 23*p3 + pg. Le. find the constant vectors p,, p;. Ps. and p,; where 2,, 2, and A; arc the eigenvalues of A. (©) Simplify your expression for x(k) so that it just contains real valued numbers (you may find the following useful: cos(p) + i*sin(p) = e? where #” = -1) (d) An equilibrium point is defined to be vector point x*, such that x(k+1) = x(k) = x* (see Luenberger, page 151). Using this definition, find the equilibrium point for the above system. [025 0 -0.25) For (e)-(f), consider the system above with A=10.75 a -0.25! where ois areal number. li2s 0 0.75] (©) Find x* (equilibrium point) as a function of. () What is lim x(k), 98 function of 2? (Compoters may be used here.)