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A Student’s Manual
2 nd Edition
Gary K. Clabaugh Edward G. Rozycki
i T HE P LAGIARISM B OOK A Student’s Manual 2nd Edition GARY K. ROZYCKI . CLABAUGH EDWARD G.
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newfoundations. Box 94 Oreland. PA 19075 www.page iii The Plagiarism Book: A Student’s Manual 2 nd Edition Gary K.com . Clabaugh La Salle University Edward G. Rozycki Widener University NewFoundations Press P.O.
recording. Rozycki All rights reserved. in any form or by any means. 2nd Ed.page iv Copyright ©2001 by Gary K. ISBN 1-929463-02-2 . or otherwise. or transmitted. without the prior written permission of the copyright owners The Plagiarism Book. electronic. Clabaugh and Edward G. mechanical. No part of this publication can be reproduced. stored in a retrieval system. photocopying.
Introduction vii Section I: Quick Fixes 1 1 The Rewrite Game 3 2 Just What is Plagiarism? 7 3 It's Easy Not to Plagiarize 13 4 Examples of the Rewriting Process 15 Section II: Basic Transforms and Exercises 19 5 Deletion 21 6 Rearrangement 23 7 Active Voice ⇔ Passive Voice 25 8 Synonym Substitution 27 Section III: Other Useful Transforms with Exercises 29 9 Inversion of clauses 31 10 Indirect Discourse 33 11 Splitting the Sentence 35 12 Using 's to Condense 37 Section IV: Expanding Your Skills 39 13 Notes on Change of Voice 41 14 Notes on Synonym Substitution 43 15 More Transforms 49 Section V: Other Things You Should Know 51 16 The Art of Citation 53 17 Plagiarism and the Web 57 18 Why Not Cheat? 63 Appendix: "Measuring" Plagiarism 65
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Plagiarize! Let no one else’s work evade your eyes. Do not forget why the good Lord made your eyes. So, plagiarize, plagiarize, plagiarize, But always be careful to call it “research.” “Lobachevsky” ---Tom Lehrer
It often doesn’t matter where or how you get your information; people just want to hear an interesting story. In school, it’s different. Instructors are very concerned about where your ideas came from. Did you think them up yourself; did you read them somewhere, or what? This brings up the issue of plagiarism. Essentially, that involves stealing another person’s ideas or writings and passing them off as your own. There are a lot of ways to get yourself into trouble and, in school, plagiarizing is one of them. If you are a high school student, it could result in course failure, ruin your chances for a scholarship — even keep you out of college. In college plagiarism it could lead to failing a course, getting hauled before a judicial committee, kicked out of your major or even thrown out of school. Even long-tenured professors have been dismissed for plagiarism. This sort of dishonesty is taken very seriously in Academia. Sometimes plagiarism doesn’t seem all that serious. After all, scholarship requires using concepts or facts obtained from others. But acknowledging where they came from is unconditionally required. And it doesn’t matter whether you found it in print or on the Web, you still must acknowledge your sources. You need to know how to use other people’s ideas honestly. The Plagiarism Book helps you do that. It teaches you when and how to quote and cite, as well as how to write abstracts, summaries, reports, and reviews. And hands-on exercises instruct you in the use of special techniques that help you transform texts legitimately. The Plagiarism Book even helps you gauge your own academic honesty in the context of contemporary developments such as the World Wide Web, collaborative writing, alternative research models, and new definitions of authorship.
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page 1 Section I Quick Fixes: Chapter 1: The Rewrite Game Chapter 2: Just What is Plagiarism? Chapter 3: It's Easy Not to Plagiarize. Chapter 4: Examples of the Process .
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1 The Rewrite Game
Let’s start learning how to avoid plagiarism by playing a game. Can you tell what the original was that this next paragraph came from? Come sit and listen to the story of a doomed voyage that left the harbor on this vessel. The co-captain was a buccaneer; the captain, courageous and confident. Five wayfarers embarked on a three-hour excursion. (Wylie & Schwartz, 1963) Can you guess what this is? It is a paraphrase of the theme song of a well-known, though old, TV sitcom. You probably aren't helped by the citation. Perhaps another kind of citation would help: (Gilligan, 1963) Here is another example: Flicker, flicker, astral speck. What kind of thing are you, by heck. (Anonymous, date unknown) This rewrite of Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star is not at all as good or interesting as the original, but that doesn't matter. When you want to use the work of others in your research papers, you don't have to be as poetic, or profound or artistic as they are. You just have to get their ideas across yet avoid plagiarism. You do that by rewriting what the original text is and by adding a citation.. You will learn how to do both in this book. Another Example Try to guess the original of this example: I swear loyalty to the government and to the banner of the United States of America, a free nation, united and God-fearing, with fair play for everyone. (Citation) You're right. It is the Pledge of Allegiance. No more poetry. No rhythm. But no plagiarism, either. Try your own hand at the Rewrite Game Try playing the Rewrite Game with your friends. Disguise some familiar songs, poems, or texts by rewriting them. In doing so, you will be practicing what you will learn
alone in the world with her three daughters.try to figure out the original A. He had discovered on his domain a source of fossil fuel. C. An elderly mountain-dweller. (Citation) Hint: Governmental Document E. who. The commercial exploitation of this natural wealth enabled him and his family to repair to sunnier climes.page 4 more thoroughly in this book. discharged his weapon inadvertently puncturing the surface of the earth. to conduct themselves in freedom and to go after the things that make them happy. It is impossible to deny that God has created all human begins equal and given them the right to live. Is it better to face the hardships of life or to commit suicide? Dying. She met a man. too. Sleeping… and maybe dreaming? (Citation) Hint: Shakespeare. Some More Examples -. It has been eighty-seven years in this North American land since our ancestors acting freely created a new form of government based on the idea of human equality. There was a beautiful woman. B.. (Citation) Hint: Presidential Speech. it's like going to sleep. The thing I have to answer is whether to go on existing or not. They married and formed one family called … (Citation) Hint: TV show theme. D. To his wonderment. while foraging for game one day. (Citation) Hint: TV show. you will be learning writing skills that will stand you in good stead for the rest of your academic life. a black liquid began to ooze forth. . And most important. had no one but his three sons.
Has Luna gone loony? She's grinning in solitude.M. currency) 2.") 11. We have confidence in a Supreme Being. She tossed him in the swimming pool to watch him navigate. (Theme song from children's TV show.S. (Old TV show theme) 8.attributed to B. A certain woman. the __________ family. we still have a fizzier ninety-nine more. Twelve A. Precipitation downflow then gave the bug a wipe. who can't tell what's real and what's fake. Avoid passing "Advance. If one container should break on the floor.page 5 Additional Items Rewrite Game Items (with hints): 1. All you are is a hunting dog." Proceed without delay to prison. Relinquish obtaining a pair of Franklins. I don't consider you a buddy. The teeny-weeny arachnid ascended the downflow pipe. (playing card from familiar board game) 4. One cent held on to is one cent acquired. to separate itself from another. (Old college anthem. (Jump rope rhyme. Franklin) 5. circa 1958) 3. one hundred containers of fizz. (Children's song/poem) 6. and the sidewalk is silent. and rather kind of pukey.) .) 9. Ms. (from U. In order to show proper respect to the opinions of other human beings. one must give reasons describing the situation that compels one people. is attempting to acquire possession of a celestial escalator. (Governmental document) 7. always whining. A hundred containers of fermented fizz. and altogether spooky. under special circumstances. They're ookey and they're kooky. Merry had an infant and named him Little Nate. (Lyric from "Cats.) 10. I'm going to where it smells good. You have never captured so much as a hare. On this bright. (Saying . (Led Zeppelin lyric) 12. (Elvis Presley hit. cloud-dispersing morning.
my lover! Oh. To scratch the unscratchable itch. to wear the unwearable shoe. tapping on my chamber floor… (E. Poe) 17. chair and bed are spoiled by the fair-locked intruder. to stir the unstirrable stew… (Man of La Mancha) 18. (Christmas song) 15. My past life there lies still in memory. Turpentine.page 6 13. perusing tomes not light nor cheery. A. to eat the inedible sandwich. Coming back you will for never. my sweetie. (Civil War song) 14. Triple preparations of porridge. my honey! Oh. in ambience both dark and dreary. Would that I found myself in cotton-growing territory. Oh. (Childrens’ story) 20. Looking through my eyelids weary. And if you ever observed that snout you would contend that it emitted radiation at just above the infrared frequencies. Carry me to the game field! Dump me into the herd! Buy me a sausage and foaming brew. Turpentine! (Folksong) 16. The Ursine family receives an unwelcome visitor. I feel awful. How ravishing the firmament! Undulating golden wheat! Imperial purple summits overlook abundant flatlands! (Patriotic song) 19. I don’t care if I never get through! (Sports song) .
it isn’t always easy to say what is or isn’t plagiarism. marking our “plagiarometer” to indicate the degree of plagiarism. Rate these examples. Stealing another student’s paper and turning it in as your own. Borrowing ideas from someone else without noting where they came from. Borderline Not Plagiarism Plagiarism Borderline Not Plagiarism . Buying something written by someone else and turning it in as your own. Plagiarism 1. 5. Plagiarism Borderline Not Plagiarism 3. Writing something with someone else then claiming it to be entirely your own. to take and use another person’s ideas or writings or inventions as one’s own. (Oxford American Dictionary) Despite straightforward dictionary definitions like this. Plagiarism Borderline Not Plagiarism Plagiarism 4. Borrowing phrases from someone else’s writing without noting where they came from. Borderline Not Plagiarism 2.page 7 2 Just What is Plagiarism? pla-gia-rize (play-ja-riz) v. Try it yourself.
Stolen, Bought and Borrowed Papers There shouldn’t be any doubt about stealing another student’s paper and turning it in as your own. That’s not only plagiarism, it’s outright theft. But what about buying a paper and turning it in as your own? You bought it, so it’s yours, right? After all, many wellthought-of people pay others for words then make them their own. Presidential candidates hire speechwriters. Celebrities employ ghostwriters. Executives have others write their business reports. Now folks on the World Wide Web are offering to do the same thing for you. Pick any term paper mill web site, such as Evil House of Cheat or Genius Papers, search for what you want, give them your credit card information, and you’ve bought yourself a paper. Trouble is, it never is OK to buy school papers and submit them as your own. When you turn in a school assignment with your name on it, you are, in effect, pledging that you wrote it. So it’s fraudulent to turn in a purchased paper as your own. What if somebody gives you the paper and says you can use it? Some web sites like “School Sucks” or “Absolutely Free Online Essays,” for instance, give papers away. A student writes something, then “gives” it to a web site that makes it available to you. In a sense, then, you have the author’s authorization to use their work. Is that still plagiarism? You bet. You didn’t write it and that’s what you are claiming by turning in a paper with your name on it. A Caution In case you are more interested in being careful than in being honest, perhaps we should also caution that papers obtained over the Internet can be just plain awful. Some we’ve seen are so bad they’re funny. Remember too, the information in free or purchased papers could be inaccurate or even plagiarized. There also is the possibility that another student in your class might copy the same paper you did and turn it in. (Try explaining your way out of that one.) Plus your teacher probably is well aware that there are cheat sites on the web and knows how to check your paper for authenticity.. Perhaps we should also mention borrowing organization from someone else’s paper. Web cheat sites routinely declare, probably to protect themselves legally, that papers you get from them should be used as models and for facts, not for plagiarism. Let’s suppose you get such a paper and, to be safe, just borrow its manner of organization. That’s o.k.,
it’s a great way to learn and.” put more of yourself into the writing before turning it in.k. But . In fact. Of course. Sometimes it isn’t altogether clear what “writing something with someone else” means. But if the person “helping” you actually sits down and rewrites your paper and you turn it in as your own. And if you are working with a partner on a computer project. When you put your name on it. as we explain later. you shouldn’t take credit. but you type it —take dictation. “Writing something with someone else then claiming it to be entirely your own?” That’s plagiarism too. Just make sure you have your instructor’s permission. “Can I honestly say that I wrote this?” If the answer is “no. So ask yourself. What about lab reports? Suppose you and a lab partner do an experiment together. not yours? That’s not always easy to say.. It’s also unacceptable to submit someone else’s computer lab work as your own. how individually must the lab reports be written? Unless the instructor indicates otherwise. Still. and don’t try to pass off something written that way as purely your own. pledging that you wrote it. editors routinely offer that sort of help to authors in the publishing industry. Collaboration and Editing How about example #3. there is a general rule to follow. . in effect. or referenced. not just by you. And if someone tells you word for word what to say. lab reports must be written independently and expressed in your own words. Borrowing Phrases and Paraphrasing How did you rate “Borrowing phrases from someone else’s writing without noting where they came from?” Going by the Dictionary definition. If someone reads your rough draft. Why? Because the writing was done collaboratively. If she did the program. that is plagiarism. it’s plagiarism if one does the work yet both take credit. the Internet has opened a world of new possibilities. so to speak — that’s plagiarism too How far can another person go as an editor before it becomes their writing. there is nothing at all wrong with writing collaboratively.page 9 provided your submission isn’t just a paraphrase of the original and the ideas are yours. offers suggestions for improvement and you use their ideas to write the final draft yourself. that’s perfectly o. And you should reference everything important that is not your own work. you are. As a matter of fact. that’s clearly plagiarism.
you first need to decide whether what you are referring to is commonly known. that Columbus made his first voyage of discovery in 1492. But most of the ideas we walk around with are “borrowed” in the sense that they didn’t begin with us. that’s all right too. When you write an academic paper it is generally expected that you will use a variety of sources. But who gets to decide if it’s common knowledge? You make the initial decision. Then there should be no problem. Let’s look at this more closely. It ‘s considered common knowledge and does NOT require a citation. Ultimately. Here is a safe course of action. That’s not plagiarism. If you restate in your own words something another has written. Do you have to find a citation if you make reference to this date? No you don’t. You’re just not supposed to steal another writer’s words or ideas without giving them credit. (A later chapter teaches you how to paraphrase more effectively.page 10 suppose you only use their phrasing as a starting point. then it requires the authoritative backing of a reference. . If not. not something you have to cite? Suppose you remember. The trick is in deciding when that point has been reached. That’s dead wrong. Use your own phrasing and give the author who provided the inspiration credit in a reference. then. ask him or her for guidance. Sometimes students new to writing think there is not much difference between citing another’s work and just taking it. put quotes around it and provide a reference. Common knowledge never does. but your teacher gets the final say.) Borrowing Knowledge How did you rate “Borrowing ideas from someone else without noting where they came from?“ The Oxford American Dictionary defines plagiarism as the unauthorized use of the language and ideas of another author and the representation of them as one’s own. but modify it. provided you don’t paraphrase beyond reason and give the author credit in a citation. the teacher has the authority to decide if you accomplished this or not. for instance. So if you repeat what someone else wrote word for word. If you are in doubt. Where should we draw the line? To determine what requires a reference and what doesn’t. and even link what you learn from them together. That’s a quote and is perfectly acceptable. That’s called paraphrasing. it's research. There is a degree of modification that makes it truly yours. Common Knowledge When can you consider something you’ve learned in the past your knowledge and. therefore.
.page 11 Summing up Deciding what is or isn’t plagiarism is not as simple as the Oxford Dictionary’s definition suggests. though. though. the following things are plagiarism: • • • • • • Copying something word for word without putting it within quotation marks and citing the author Turning in someone else’s work as your own Paraphrasing another work without giving credit to the original author Extensive paraphrasing. you will have skills that make plagiarism unnecessary. As a general rule. even when credit is given Copying another’s lab report or similar assignment Failing to indicate where borrowing begins and ends. When you complete this workbook.
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page 13 3 It's Easy Not to Plagiarize! If you take someone's original text and put it into your paper without citation or adjustment. you are no longer plagiarizing. The next chart summarizes this information: START WITH Original Text THEN TRANSFORM BY Adding quotation marks + citation RESULTING IN Quotation ADVANTAGES/ DISADVANTAGES Not a plagiarism/ Cannot be used often To use another person's ideas other than by quoting them. What you get by doing this. you have avoided plagiarism. regular manner. depends on what you do. you must transform the original text. The limitation to this procedure is that you can't normally hand in a paper that is nothing more than a set of quotations.) Replacing. For example. if you take your original text and place quotation marks before and after it. That means you must change it in a consistent. Then if you cite it. then follow it with the proper form of citation (a style manual will show detail how to do this and we offer brief guidance). START WITH Original Text THEN TRANSFORM BY Adding quotation marks + citation RESULTING IN Quotation ADVANTAGES/ DISADVANTAGES Not a plagiarism/ Cannot be used often Not a plagiarism/ Only for special uses Not a plagiarism/ May be awkward Original Text Deleting words + citation An abstract Original Text (Deleting. and rearranging words + citation A paraphrase . you're plagiarizing. But you can avoid plagiarism with just a little effort on your part. The next chart gives an overview of several of the ways this manual will teach you how to avoid plagiarism. but quoting.
That is not its purpose. NOTES: . This workbook will show you how.page 14 You can see that avoiding plagiarism is easy enough. It will not show you. how to write as well as the authors you are citing. Only experience and special study will help you along that path. however.
4 Examples of the Rewriting Process
Example A BASIC METHOD: Begin with the original text and its source. Transform the text using various rules for change. Add in the source as a citation form.
Begin with Original Text:
Four score and seven years ago, our forefathers brought forth upon this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. ---- from "The Gettysburg Address" by Abraham Lincoln, 1864.
Transform Text by Synonym Substitution: -- replace words with similar ones.
Eighty-seven years ago, our ancestors produced in this land a new nation founded in freedom and devoted to the idea that everyone is created the same.
Transform Text by Deletion: -- cut out less important ideas.
Years ago our ancestors produced a nation founded in freedom and the idea that everyone is created the same.
Transform Text by Active ⇔ Passive: -- change "do" to "be done by" + Citation:
Years ago a nation was produced by our ancestors, who founded it in freedom and the idea that everyone is created the same. (Lincoln, 1864)
Avoiding Plagiarism: Example B
united and Godfearing. with fair play for everyone ("Pledge".switch parts of the sentences around. I swear loyalty to the government and to the flag of the USA. under God. Transform Text by Synonym Substitution: -. united and God-fearing. with liberty and justice for all. I swear loyalty to the flag of the USA and to its government. "The Pledge of Allegiance" rev. with fair play for everyone. a united God-fearing nation with freedom and fair play for everyone. Transform Text by Active ⇔ Passive: -.change "do" to "be done by" + Citation: Loyalty is sworn by me to the government and to the flag of the USA. indivisible. Transform Text by Clause Reordering: -.page 16 Begin with Original Text: I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America and to the republic for which it stands: one nation. a free nation.replace words with similar ones. 1954. a free nation. 1954) .
change "do" to "be done by" + Citation: This harbor was left by a vessel about whose doomed voyage a story will be heard. courageous and confident. Five wayfarers embarked that morn on a three-hour excursion. Do you get different results? Exercise B: Go back to Chapter 1 and look at the rewrites given in the exercises.hour excursion was embarked upon by five wayfarers. courageous and confident. (Gilligan. Five passengers set sail that day on a three-hour tour.page 17 Avoiding Plagiarism: Example C Begin with Original Text: Now. Listen to a story of a doomed voyage that left this harbor on this vessel. the captain. sit right back. The mate was a mighty sailing man. The co-captain was a robust buccaneer. brave and sure. Transform Text by Deletion: --remove less important words Transform Text by Active ⇔ Passive: -. the captain. Can you figure out which of the transforms illustrated above were used to change the originals into the examples? . Recline and listen to a story of a doomed voyage. a voyage that left this tropical harbor on this small vessel. 1964) Exercise A: Experiment with the examples given in this chapter by changing the order in which you apply the transforms.Wylie &Schwartz1964.replace words with similar ones. courageous and confident. A three. The co-captain was a buccaneer. "Gilligan's Island". The cocaptain was a buccaneer. and you'll hear a tale. the captain. Transform Text by Synonym Substitution: -. the skipper. a tale of a fateful trip that started from this tropic port. Five wayfarers embarked on a three-hour excursion. aboard this tiny ship.
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Section II: Basic Transforms & Exercises
Chapter 5: Deletion Chapter 6: Rearrangement Chapter 7: Change of Voice Chapter 8: Synonym Substitution
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page 21 5 Deletion . Boston retailers often sell old model furniture at reduced prices. using your intuition. Tall. ungainly cows were blocking the new highway. Candy laces _______used to _______ the crullers. Hints are given in the answer sentences Example A: Original: Seven large. But deletion is seldom sufficient by itself to yield an acceptable paraphrase. red and as yet unwashed gym socks were discovered to be a major contributor to the atmosphere that permeated the basement halls. Licorice-flavored candy laces were cleverly used to tie the iced crullers. Deletion: Seven cows were blocking the highway. 5. try to make appropriate changes in the exercises that follow. Exercises: 1. His gym socks __________________________________________________. By doing the deletion carefully. swaying palm trees closely bordered the sun-drenched pool area. usually the less important ones. Deletion: Please send the remittance. Example B: Original: Please send the appropriate remittance immediately. His sweaty.cut words out This is just a matter of removing words. Broad _________________________________________________________ . 2. Examine the following examples and. Retailers ________________________________________at reduced prices. Ridiculously broad brims were a prominent feature of the new Paris hats. 4. Palm trees ____________________________________________pool area. 3. . you can save much of the sense of the original.
John __________________________________________________________ . really. A listless group _________________________________________________ 7. his lips white from tension. really. “You make me really. really angry!”. yet distracted group of passengers greeted the new captain with only faintly disguised disdain. John growled through clenched teeth. A listless.page 22 6.
2. Candy laces ________________________________________________the cake. Retailers often sell furniture at reduced prices.page 23 6 Rearrangement . Items for the Rewrite Game using only Deletion and Rearrangement . Rearrangement: Last summer our party was held at night in the old barn. His unwashed socks were a major contributor to the dank atmosphere. A major contributor to the dank atmosphere were _______________________. Rearrangement: He ran quickly out the back door with great effort.change the order This involves nothing more than reorganizing your sentences. Hints are given in the answer sentences Example A: Original: Our party was held last summer in the old barn at night. 5. Next Tuesday on the waterfront a fireworks display will be given. 3. Example B: Original: With great effort he ran quickly out the back door. Though they are seldom appreciated. nurses play a major role in patient care. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Examine the following examples and. Nurses _________________________________________________appreciated . Tall palm trees swayed behind the pool area. Exercises: 1. 6. 8. try to make appropriate changes in the exercises that follow. In the hole in the bottom of the sea _____________________________________ 7. A fireworks display ________________________________________________. Behind the _______________________________ _______tall palm trees. 4. There's a frog on the bump on the log in the hole in the bottom of the sea. Often retailers _____________________________________________________. Around the top of the cake candy laces were cleverly tied into bows. Of pickled peppers. Peter _______________________________a peck. using your intuition.
your right foot. When the moon is in the second house then love will guide the stars. It doesn't matter what comes. You are like a diamond high up above the world. Rough weather tossed the ship (which) would be lost. staying cool. I do not like green ham. (TV show theme song. miney moe. (Camp song. (Holiday song) 15. (Children's rhyme) 3. (Song. Take a walk down Lonely Street when your baby leaves you. "Stop!" (Winter holiday children's song) 9. Our LaSalle ran great. I would really like to be a wiener because all the world would love me. guys like us. (Children's book) 8.) 14.) 12. (Children's poem) 4. (Movie song. shout.) 13. I lost my meatball all covered with cheese. (TV show theme) 7. I'll wish upon a star some day and wake up far behind me. Sam-I-am. Catch a tiger. (Commercial) 5. (or) cry.) 10. You put your left foot. Nothing gets to you. We had it made.) 6. (Commercial for candy mint. Down the streets of town he led them and only paused a moment when he heard the traffic cop holler.page 24 1. your whole self in and shake it all about. Sometimes you gotta go where everybody knows your name and people know that troubles are the same. (TV show theme. (Dance) 11. Everybody pulled their weight. Somebody sneezed. I'm tellin' you why you'd better not pout. fresh goes better. if not for the crew.) . (Presley hit) 2. staying fresh.
. 5. The growth of ______________ can often be __________by ________________. Susan __________________this ___________________in the yard. Try your intuition first. is given in Chapter 14. Exposure to radiation ______________________________________cancer cells. 6. should you need it. ___________________in small colonies is __________ investigated by Simpson. Exposure to radiation can often check the growth of cancer cells. The gold artifacts couldn’t have been discovered by Himmelman.page 25 7 Active Voice ⇔ Passive Voice An explanation of this complex transformation. Change of voice: New developments can be reported by the Calder Institute immediately. 9. This metal ring was found by Susan in the yard. Beta-blockers can reduce blood pressure. Change of voice: The green truck ran over Mrs. 7. Himmelman couldn’t __________________________________ the gold artifacts. Example A: Original: Mrs. Wilson’s Siamese cat. Simpson has investigated baboon behavior in small colonies. Example B: Original: The Calder Institute can report new developments immediately. __________________in small colonies has been ________________by Simpson. Beta-blockers will reduce blood pressure. _______________________can be reduced by _____________________. 2. Examine the following examples and try to make appropriate changes in the exercises that follow. 3. Wilson’s Siamese cat was run over by the green truck. 8. Blood ____________ will be _________________by _____________________. 1. Cancer cells can be reduced by exposure to radiation. Simpson is investigating baboon behavior in small colonies. Retailers often sell furniture at reduced prices. 4. Furniture is often ______________ by ___________________ at reduced prices. Hints are given.
All _____________________ are not ______________ by _______________. Amateurs sometimes _______________________________with a straight face. 13. We will help Sam tomorrow. Taxpayers should ______ assisted by __________________________________. 20. Penicillin does not destroy all kinds of streptococcus. The artifacts were discovered by Himmelman near the site of ancient Troy. Seventy-six trombones led the big parade. 14. 11. She ___________________________________ by the seashore. Seashells are sold by her by the seashore. All the king's horses and men _____________ put _____________ together again.page 26 10. Humpty couldn't be put together again by all the king's horses and men. if wood could be chucked by a woodchuck? . Indifference is often encountered by police investigators. Who is able to leap tall buildings with a single bound? By whom are tall buildings able ________________________with a single bound? 16. How much wood could be chucked by a woodchuck. Ludicrous jokes are sometimes told with a straight face by amateurs. 19. 17. 18. Himmelman ________________________________ near the site of ancient Troy. Sam will ______ helped by _________ tomorrow. 12. Police investigators often ____________________ indifference. The big ______________ was _________ by ____________________________. 15. Agency representatives should assist taxpayers.
if a woodchuck _______ chuck ____? .page 27 How much wood could ___________chuck.
3. Example B: Original: The Calder Institute can report new developments immediately. Exercises 1. Aggression in tusked pachyderms generally results from sibling challenge. Transformed: The foundation is instantly able to relate news of progress. place of freedom. As I was ________________St Ives. my homeland. Retailers often sell furniture at reduced prices. sweet land of __________.page 28 8 Synonym Substitution . The gold ring was found by the policeman in the schoolyard. Simpson is investigating baboon behavior in small colonies. While I was travelling towards St. I ___________ a man with seven ________. 6. You can't ___________your ____________and ________it. It is about you. Wilson’s Siamese cat was run over by the green truck. 7. also. Elephant _____________________happens when ________________________. 'Twas the _________________________________________________________. Special medicine can _______________blood pressure. Use your thesaurus to substitute words. More items (with hints) for the Rewrite Game using all four transforms: . Citrus __________________________________lipids in the ____________. 2. But see chapter 15 to avoid problems. My ___________. It was late December 24th at home and not even a rodent was moving.. 5. The _____________ring was __________________by the cop in the schoolyard. Dealers frequently ________________tables and chairs at _____________prices. I ran into a fellow with seven spouses. Ives. Beta-blockers can reduce blood pressure. Transformed: The woman's feline was hit by the heavy vehicle. 'tis of ________. One cannot continue to possess baked goods and consume them. of thee ________ 10. Examine the examples and do the exercises below.in other words If you have a computer this is easy. Simpson is ___________________ primate behavior in small ________________ 4. that I raise my voice in song. too. Example A: (some deletion is also used) Original: Mrs. 9. Oranges and grapefruits will lower serum cholesterol. 8.
page 29 1. I'm so gloomy and have lost fifty percent of myself. How many? (Tongue twister. (Thanksgiving song. Piper. The body but not the soul is chilled by the river Jordan. (National anthem) . (Nursery rhyme.) 3. The birds want to be with you. (Kid's song. onto the floor and out the door. My worries today seem permanent although twenty-four hours earlier they appeared to be so distant. That's the whole story. Let the boat be rowed ashore. halt. We're riding through the forest and over the river to my father's mother's house. (Beatles' song) 2. One's right foot is put in and shaken around. just like me.) 12. for affection's sake! (Motown hit) 4. Her sheep have been lost and how they are to be found.) 7. Throughout the night the glow of rockets and exploding bombs helped us to ascertain our flag's presence. My unfortunate meatball tumbled off the table. That's why they arrive with you.) 13. (Dance) 9. (Spiritual) 6. (1970's song. How the sleigh should be pulled through the snow is known by the horse. It was a complete falsehood to describe you as high quality. Before my heart is broken by you. Not a single hopping rodent has been captured by you. As white as winter precipitation was the hair on the baby sheep. (Children's rhyme) 8. (Elvis Presley hit) 14. she doesn't know. So be good! (Holiday song) 5. A basket of vinaigrette bells were harvested by Mr. (Streisand hit) 10. You are seen when you sleep or are awake or are bad or good.) 11. So don't expect any camaraderie with me.The most fortunate people on earth are those who need other people.
Section III: Other Useful Transforms with Exercises
Chapter 9: Inversion of Clauses Chapter 10: Indirect Discourse Chapter 11: Cleaving the Sentence Chapter 12: Using 's to Condense
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Step 2 . were not ___________________until recently. Simpson. Beta-blockers. a well-known anthropologist.turn it "inside out" This method of changing a sentence is done by moving elements within the Step 1 . Separate: Mrs. . Wilson’s Siamese cat was run over by the green truck when it ran into the street. Switch: Wilson's Siamese cat ran into the street. Step 3 . Join: The Calder Institute. who ________________________________________in small colonies. Himmelman discovered gold artifacts near the site of ancient Troy. The Calder Institute recently increased its endowments. where he had been camping. 2. Mrs. Wilson’s Siamese cat ran into the street where it was run over by the green truck. where he discovered ____________________________ . Separate: The Calder Institute recently increased its endowments.Join: join the sentences into one.page 32 9 Inversion of Clauses sentence around in the following way: .Switch: switch the order. can report new developments immediately. Example B: Original: The Calder Institute. 3. not discovered until recently. The Calder Institute can report new developments immediately. Exercises: 1. ___________________. which can report new developments immediately. Note the order. Wilson's Siamese cat was run over by the green truck. who. can reduce blood pressure.Separate: break the sentence into two simple ones. Himmelman _______ been ___________________ near the site of ancient Troy. etc. Simpson. which can reduce ________________________. Wilson's Siamese cat ran into the street. is a ___________________________________. recently increased its endowments. Mrs. Switch: The Calder Institute can report new developments immediately. using such words as that. Example A: Original: Mrs. Wilson's Siamese cat was run over by the green truck. Join: Mrs. is investigating baboon behavior in small colonies. which recently increased its endowments.
can sometimes check the growth of cancer cells. normally to be avoided. 7. is normally to _____________________________ 10. Penicillin. 9. unless metastasized. who ___________________ baboon ____________in small colonies. ___________________which couldn’t __________________________________. Penicillin. High blood pressure. Several of the men. had been seen ________________ earlier. . is effective ________most purposes. who were __________________by_________________ . Exposure to radiation.page 33 4. who had been seen drinking earlier. 5. they can be reduced by _______________________. Simpson is an award-winning anthropologist who has investigated baboon behavior in small colonies. is an award-winning ______________________________. Simpson. The gold artifacts. were clearly manufactured ________________________________. which will not ________________ every __________________of streptococcus. couldn’t have been discovered by Himmelman. clearly manufactured in the 20th century. can be reduced by radiation. Cancer cells. will not destroy every kind of streptococcus. Several of the men. Exposure to radiation. 8. Beta-blockers will reduce high blood pressure. which beta-blockers __________________________. effective for most purposes. were pulled over by the state troopers. can have damaging __________________________________________ 6. which can _________________the growth of ___________________. Unless cancer cells have __________________________. which can have damaging effects on the kidneys.
Mary said that her friend would visit her. Consider the following chart Original: My father is sick.page 34 10 Indirect Discourse . Several tornadoes will be seen this summer. . The Journal of Dentistry reported that _______________________________________________________ 3. Be careful how it affects the verbs in the report. however. AMJ reports that _____________________________________________________. My friend will visit me. Present Report John reports his father is sick. especially in the social sciences. Past Report John reported his father was sick. Sam ate and is feeling full. John says the man we see was sick. The man we see was sick. A greater number of work breaks reduces stress. 2. Mary says Sam ate and is feeling full. etc)" at the beginning of a sentence. No longer is aspirin to be used for toothache. Mary said Sam had eaten and was feeling full. NOTE: This transform together with deletion and the proper citation is sometimes sufficient as a rewrite. John said the man we saw had been sick. Exercises: 1.She said that … This just adds in "So-and-so said (reported. Mary says that her friend will visit her.
whose ________________________ unknown. 5. KYW News reported that the victim.page 35 CNN Weather reported that ____________________________________________ 4. . The victim. whose name is unknown. The Racing News reports that ___________________________ bought at top dollar but others _____ yet to be sold. Several horses were bought at top dollar but others have yet to be sold. _________ been found unconscious. was found unconscious.
Mr. b. In the train station was where ____________________________________ d. Five dollars was what Harry sent Sam last week. . Exercises: 1. 2:30 P. Mark was the person whom Mary ________________________________ c. Haynes was the person who said ______________________________ c. who… - This transform is most easily learned by carefully studying an example. Example : Original: Last week Harry sent Sam five dollars. Sam was the one to whom Harry sent five dollars last week. Original: Mary met Mark in the train station at noon.M. "Pay attention!" was what Mr. d. Original: Sam recklessly drove the cab across the medial strip.M. At noon was when Mary ________________________________________ 2. Haynes _____________________________ b. His class was the group to whom Mr. Last week was when Harry sent Sam five dollars. Mary was who ________________________________________________ b. Haynes said. Haynes to his class at 2:30 P. Haynes said ____________________ d. 3. Original: "Pay attention!" said Mr.page 36 11 Splitting the Sentence …the one. c. a. was __________Mr. a. Harry was the one who sent Sam five dollars last week. a. "Pay attention!" to his class.
page 37 a. b. _____________________________________________________________ b. Mary was _______________ rendered the sonata with astonishing expertise. c. _____________________________________________________________ c. _____________________was the way in which Mary rendered the sonata. Across the medial strip was where ________________________________ 4. Sam was _______________ recklessly drove the cab across the medial strip. c. a. The sonata was ________ Mary rendered with astonishing expertise. The cab was ________ Sam recklessly drove across the medial strip. _____________________________________________________________ . b. d. Original _________________________________________________________ a. _______________was how Sam drove the cab across the medial strip. Make up your own original: 5. Original: Mary rendered the sonata with astonishing expertise.
That impresses me. That makes my back hurt. The puppy's _________________ and __________________all night disturbs us. Sam wrestles aggressively. 3. 2. The puppy cries and barks all night. C&J (compress & join): John's reckless driving scares me. That annoys his brother. Sam doesn't want to hurry. That affects their grades Some children's _______________________to school late affects their grades. 6. C&J: Mary's not knowing what to do bothers me. That scares me. The pilot has chosen a different route. a careful examination of examples is worth many words of explanation. Exercises: 1. Example 1: Original: John drives recklessly. Example 2: Originals: Mary doesn't know what to do. That surprises the controllers. ___________ aggressive ______________________ makes my back hurt. Some children come to school late. Mary's _______________________________________________ impresses me. Sam's not ________________________________________annoys his brother. Mary thinks things out carefully and slowly. . 5. That disturbs us.page 38 13 Using 's to Condense …Sue's fast running - Again. 4. That bothers me.
7. Jack's _______________________________________________ got him the job. Joe drives fast. John is very lucky at cards. Mary doesn't need to study. ___________ fast ______________________ scares me. The Smith’s came late to the hospital. The students study all night. That meant they couldn’t stay long.page 39 The pilot's having ______________________________surprises the controllers. 13. 9. The Smiths’ ______________________________meant they couldn’t stay long. 12. 11. . Mary cannot waste her time playing. The driver's having ______________________________lengthens the trip. That got him the job. Jack works carefully and precisely. 14. That is crucial. The driver has picked a different route. That doesn’t help at all. The students’ _________________ __________________ doesn’t help at all. Mary's ________being able to _________________________________ is crucial. That scares me. Mary's not ______________________________________ perplexes her brother. 8. That perplexes her brother. ______'s _______________ very lucky at cards doesn't help my playing. That lengthens the trip. That doesn't help my playing. 10.
page 40 Section IV: Expanding Your Skills Chapter 13: Notes on Change of Voice Chapter 14: Notes on Synonym Substitution Chapter 15: More Transforms .
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We (1) them ⇔ They are (3) by us. Using the verb sell.page 42 13 Notes on Change of Voice This is a very useful transform for paraphrasing. Many native English speakers don't know all the forms of the verbs they use.. They are (1)ing the book ⇔ The book is being (3) by them. She must (1) the book ⇔ The book must be (3) by her. sold. sold. by itself. it doesn't change the meaning of the sentence. The following chart is one which is used to teach non-English speakers the subtleties of English verbs: Principal Parts of Verbs (examples) Present (1) see break eat buy rent Past (2) saw broke ate bought rented Past Participle (3) seen broken eaten bought rented You can find extensive charts like this in many English grammar books. You have (3) the book ⇔ The book has been (3) by him. with its principal parts sell. He (2) the book ⇔ The book was (3) by him. since. But it is easy to show formulas for generating change of voice using the above chart: Examples: using the numbers of the forms -Active Voice ⇔ Passive Voice He will (1) the car ⇔ The car will be (3) by him. This makes understanding the active ⇔ passive voice change difficult. we can form the sentences .
who broke the window.. She must sell the book ⇔ The book must be sold by her. who did something. so that when we don't know. They are selling the book ⇔ The book is being sold by them. . You have sold the book ⇔ The book has been sold by him. for example. The passive voice allows us to construct sentences in English lacking knowledge of the subject. He sold the book ⇔ The book was sold by him. Common use in English often drops the phrase beginning with by in the passive. we can still make the complete English sentence: "The window was broken" even though "broke the window" is not an English sentence by itself. that is.page 43 He will sell the car ⇔ The car will be sold by him. We sell them ⇔ They are sold by us.
Suppose our original text is from an imagined story. . p. Consider what the problems are with our mechanical transformation: a.eyed. (James. We wish to use the information from this sentence: The dark green truck. ran over Mrs. For example: The verdant mail truck. driven by an underage boy.Shakespeare Synonym substitution is a process of replacing an author’s words with words that mean substantially the same thing. Also. etc. but it commits a different kind of fraud: embellishment. written by Aymes James in 1923 and published by Harper-Rowboat of New York City. chauffeured by a 13-year old boy. This can be done mechanically or intelligently. not to painted objects. You can transform this almost mindlessly by simply using a thesaurus (especially if you have a word processor) and writing in synonyms for words you wish to change. flattened Mrs. leaves. b. which does not specify the kind of truck it is. . with a little bit of thought you can avoid both.page 44 14 Notes on Synonym Substitution A rose by any other name would smell as sweet. or putting words in the author’s mouth. However. verdant is generally restricted to plants. the transformed text changes this to mail truck. 17) This mechanical example avoids plagiarism. a person green-eyed with jealousy is not said to be verdant. This is an embellishment not justified by the original text. The Flattened Feline. Wilson’s Siamese cat. although verdant is sometimes given as a synonym for green. the original word is truck. Let’s see how. But the results might be less than satisfactory. 1923. Wilson’s Thai tabby. -.
controlled by an unlicensed driver. the original does not give the age of the boy as 13. but not every vehicle is a truck. again. and a Siamese temple could be called a Thai temple. But it often develops into embellishment which. a tabby is a striped and mottled cat. yet by being different it avoids plagiarism.page 45 c. Another way to look at it is that every truck is a vehicle. To chauffeur is to drive a vehicle for a specific “high class” reason. How can we use the transformation intelligently? Let’s look at a transformed sentence constructed using synonym substitution that avoids both plagiarism and embellishment: The dark-colored vehicle. flattened is a possibility of being run over. is too specific. 1923. chauffeured. We call such synonyms weaker synonyms. 17) The trick to avoiding embellishment is to pick synonyms that say less than the original word. f. We may only assume he is less than whatever age allows legal licensing. hit Mrs. will certainly not help your grade on a paper. you avoid embellishment. Perhaps the cat was only knocked down. or to deliver the vehicle for that purpose. Its name does not change. Siamese is a breed of cat. Also. or weaker. It would be wordplay to say that a farmer chauffeured his produce to a market. Wilson’s feline. again is too specific. than truck. although Siam was more recently renamed Thailand. but. So when you use as synonym that is related to the original in this way. It is not an embellishment. for example to carry a passenger. e. while not getting you into deep trouble. (James. Vehicle is less specific. p. mechanical substitution of synonyms helps avoid plagiarism. not a Siamese and not just any cat. d. It says less about what it was that was being driven. To sum up. The general rule is this: pick synonyms that are less specific than the original word .
The Flattened Feline by Aymes James: Original 1: Impatiently. (James. p. avoided all but a grazing by the truck’s undercarriage and leapt away into the bushes across the street. scampered out into the street. (James. frightened by the sound of a plane. Column A animal vehicle dog book plane Column B dog plane Collie dictionary Boeing 747 Do you see how each word in column B is more specific than its partner in column A? This means that if you are going to rewrite a text.15) Original 2: She locked out the cat even though it was mewing loudly to come back in. Rewrite 3: The cat. Rewrite 1: Unable to wait. Look at the example pairs of sentences below and identify the extent to which the transformed sentences are plagiarizing or embellishing on the originals. p. by adept and sudden twisting. Ling-ling. out the front door onto the open porch. the elderly woman shoved the cat out onto the unheated porch. p. 1923. 17) Original 4: Ling-ling. all from our imaginary text. startled by the roar of an overhead jet. (James. 16) Original 3: Ling-Ling. Mrs. . 1923. 1923. ran out onto the road. Wilson pushed her Siamese.page 46 In order to get this important relationship clear in your mind look at the two columns of words below. Rewrite 2: She locked out the cat even though it was crying loudly to climb into the house. you would try to replace column B words with column A words but not vice-versa. Circle the word in each row that is the embellishment.
p.page number indicated – into a. _________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Original 2: Hardly shaken by the near-loss of one of her nine lives. thoughts of the mouse in the upstairs bedroom wall causing her to twitch excitedly. (p. by skillfully jumping to the side. (don’t forget your citation!) from James’ book. was only brushed by the vehicle’s driveshaft and ran into the bushes on the other side of the road.) Original 1: Ling-Ling. (p. 5) a. the foolhardy cat lurked in the bushes across from the Wilson house. an embellished form. preparing to make a mad dash in front of the next car that might drive up the street. and b. _________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ b. Wilson spoiled her with every morning. (James. 9) a. -.page 47 Rewrite 4: The cat. a non-embellished form: (Use deletion as suits your convenient to shorten what might otherwise be an awkward sentence. 1923. The Flattened Feline. indolently lapped up the heavy cream that Mrs. _________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ . _________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ b. 18) Synonym Substitution Exercises Transform each of the following sentences.
page 48 ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ .
page 49 .
repetition/I want your hand to be grasped by me. Keep the Rhyme and Meter.A. the distance to Cathay.) 1. Active to passive. Paint a painting. (Beatles' song) 5. from the most mechanical random deletion. the guy I love the most. Prance a prance.page 50 15 More Transforms There are many ways of transforming texts. Fa. Dance.(Sesame Street song) 3. It eventually works. Dance a blue sky. As a source. that rely not only on linguistic changes but also on cultural associations. Rearrangement. Ray. Homonym Substitution. Me. the sorcerer surely is such a source. not gray. synonyms. To be a skillful writer involves developing a sense of language that enables you to judge what kinds of changes preserve some important qualities of the original text. (Holiday song) . Paint a painting of play. of course. Keep the Rhyme and Meter/ Dough. I want your hand to be grasped by me. Synonym substitution. (Song from Sound of Music) 2. a source of sorcery. Having come this far. (Movie song) 4. dance a dance. my buddy from L. some hard earned cash. some cash.you may recognize despite the transformations indicated. TRANSFORMATIONS/ TEXT (Try to figure out what the original was. to the highly inventive ones. Chestnuts burn in ember pots. for the reason that he does such marvelous things. Below are some examples of texts -. meter/ Chilly noses on a winter day. Bundled up. Read and practice. Alliteration/..of varying quality -. you should know more than enough about changing texts for that purpose. We have focussed in this book on the more mechanical transforms because our concern was to help you avoid plagiarism. people stop now to hear some singing groups carole Christmas plots.
(College anthem) 8. dum. common association/ Ditty.page 51 6. Rhythm. dum. Ditty. Synonym phrases. One hits the ground and doesn’t rebound. (Beatles' song) 7. dum. so she left me. Now I wish I lived in the past. we've eightyeight flagons to do. eighty-nine flagons of brew. rearrangement/ Something unsuitable was done by me. meter/ Eighty-nine flagons of fermented barley.) . synonyms. although I am completely at a blank as to the whys and wherefores.. dum. ditty. dum. active to passive. … (Children’s rhyme and song. Concept association. dum. ditty.
page 52 Section V: Other Things You Should Know Chapter 16: The Art of Citation Chapter 17: Plagiarism and the Web Chapter 18: Why Not Plagiarize? .
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16 The Art of Citation
Previously we stressed the need to cite sources. But when and how should that be done; and what should be avoided? We’ll explore that next. Why Cite Sources? Why do scholars cite their sources? One obvious reason is to avoid charges of plagiarism. But there are other reasons as well. Suppose your reader(s) is interested in learning more about something you found. You careful citation helps them do that. Citations also help you keep track of your own sources and that helps keep your own research organized. And if you need to recheck something, you can find it. Keeping track of and citing your sources can be a bother. And if you provide references, instructors can more easily check for plagiarism. Students sometimes think these are compelling reasons for not make citations or using them selectively. But that tactic will almost surely result in a bad grade and encourage an instructor to suspect you’ve been plagiarizing. In the long run, it’s far better to keep track of your sources and give credit where credit is due. When and What to Cite Deciding when and what to reference requires you to first decide whether what you are referring to is commonly known. If so, no reference is necessary. Let’s look at that more closely. Common Knowledge When can you consider something common and, therefore, not support it with an authoritative knowledge and, therefore, not support it with an Suppose you know, for know, for instance, that reference? Suppose youinstance, that Columbus made voyage voyage of discovery Do you Do you have to his first of discovery in 1492.in 1492. have to support with a reference? No, not not if considered common this with a reference? No, if it ‘s it ‘s considered knowledge. Who gets to decide what knowledge is common NOTE
Here’s something to remember. The mere inclusion of a source in your reference page is NOT enough to protect you from a charge of plagiarism. You must acknowledge the source of a direct quotation, distinctive language, idea or paraphrase when it takes place. The point is to eliminate even the suspicion that you are trying to pass someone else’s work off as your own.
isn’t? You make the make the initial but your teacher and what isn’t? You initial decision, decision, but final say. So say. So if you are in doubt, or him or gets the final if you are in doubt, ask him askher for guidance. If that’s not possible you have to use common sense. Here are some examples of what normally counts as common knowledge. • The world’s tropical rain forests are rapidly disappearing.
a claim that is centrally important to your paper should have a supporting reference. Merely providing a citation for the paraphrase does not excuse you from that more specific obligation. When in doubt. college students probably not unless that fact is centrally important to their paper. The exception is if your paper deals directly with the person being quoted.page 55 • • • • • Joseph Stalin. Also avoid numerous direct quotations from a single source. The development of railroads changed the way we lived and worked. if a paraphrase contains a direct quotation within it. Ideas and Interpretations You should also cite distinctive or original use of language that you borrow from others. Without that it is plagiarism. No matter how well you do it though. That’s a hard and fast rule. Of course. The value of pi is 3. check it out with them. pure and simple. Electronic bulletin boards are a popular way to “meet” other internet users. So every time you use quotation marks. was a brutal dictator. Language. Remember too. Middle schoolers might be expected to reference the destruction of the tropical rain forests. This general rule that will help you avoid too many quotations from one source.) Direct Quotes In Chapter 1 we said that if you use someone’s language directly you must put quotes around it and provide a citation. (Even if well known. Paraphrases This workbook helps you learn skillful paraphrasing. a Premier of the now extinct Soviet Union. the more likely your instructor will expect a reference. Keep in mind.141592+. leave it out. In . Suppose someone uses a term he or she made up and you want to use it too. Water is composed of two parts hydrogen and one part water. the less experienced a student you are. paraphrasing always requires a citation. Also remember that there is a limit on how much you can put within one set of quotation marks before your grade suffers. the instructor gets the last say on how much is too much. for instance. So when it doubt. You can’t usually quote someone page after page and get away with it. it must be enclosed in quotation marks and directly cited. make sure you add a citation.
you should cite where it came from. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers. such as psychology. and Dissertations. place and date of publication. All we hope to do here is to give you some very general guidelines. Most school papers minimally require a list of references. if needed. chemistry or biology.” Regarding how to style reference entries. no way of referencing is universally accepted. Should you decide to use that distinctive term in a paper. mathematics. journal name. nor is there any single way to make citations. you are likely to find your instructor asking the sort of questions you would rather not have to answer. also publish their own style manuals. publisher. volume number and year. There are a number of these guides. There are a many others. Theses.page 56 Chapter 1. Magazines and Journals: author. we referred to our “plagiarometer”— a tongue-in-cheek word we invented by combining plagiarism and thermometer. title. These are the sort of things you should be sure to record when doing your research: Books: author. as we said. Kate L. A Manual of Style (University of Chicago Press) Specific disciplines. it is better to label that page “Works Cited” or “References” than “Bibliography. That’s why instructors usually specify a particular style and either provide a style sheet. you will be asked to include the works cited and the works that influenced your writing. title. and the edition. recommend that you use a publication as a model or refer you to a style manual. pages of the article. (University of Chicago Press) c. Should your instructor only wants works cited. Bibliographic (or Reference) Entries Novices are often surprised to discover that there is no one way to list bibliographic or reference entries. It’s how it is listed style-wise that is different. Otherwise. so we won’t provide details on the various ways you can make these entries. for instance. The information you generally need to make reference entries is fairly standard. . This workbook is not a style guide. The American Psychological Association’s Publication Manual is an example. The Modern Language Association of America’s MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers b. Here are three that are widely used: a. Typically.
com) and the date you accessed it. or “retired coal miner. or World Wide Web (WWW). the version (if applicable). . (“World War II veteran. date and place of the interview. newspapers and encyclopedias): should include the author’s name. newsletters.”) Electronic References (such as journals. etc. the site’s address (a WWW site might be something like http://www.) If it’s an on-line source also include the site protocol For example. http://www. here is an example of a referenced electronic source. (3 March 1999). File Transfer Protocol (FTP). the type of electronic medium (Internet. videocassette.page 57 Personal Interviews and Oral Histories: full name of the person interviewed. Our recommendations for referencing electronic sources were actually adapted from this Web page: Walker. revised 01/99. “The Columbia Guide to Online Style.columbia.3. a phrase describing the background that makes them appropriate for interview.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx.” Version 1. By the way.” for example. CD. the title(s) of the electronic material. Janice R. the date of production or last revision.lotsaluck.
And. Sally copied and pasted it. It could happen to you. She tried to weasel out of it. she found something on the Web that fit her assignment perfectly. she couldn’t get the things she found to blend. but he also knew she was due to graduate and under a lot of pressure trying to juggle school and work. asking her what she had to say for herself. It was the end of the school year and “Sally” couldn’t put off writing her term paper any longer. The fit was flawless. They all identified the same document. “I didn’t know copying something off the Web was plagiarism. in a stroke of luck. required her to actually write the paper and said he would not grade it higher than a C.page 58 17 Plagiarism and the Web “If the human race wants to go to hell in a basket. he gave her no credit. It happened in one of our classes. in fact. “She’s stolen this from somewhere.” she thought. It won’t change the desire or the direction. Impulsively. It was the work Sally had plagiarized. because he didn’t think it necessary.. and tried to put something together. technology can help it get there by jet. What’s more. “There’s tons of stuff on the Web. She could have . She made the deadline and was able to graduate. but it can greatly speed the passage.” So he went to the Web to see what he could find. her teacher would no longer write the recommendations she had been counting on. “he never said we couldn’t copy things off the Web. But her final grade for that course fell from A to C. he had not specifically said it was plagiarism to copy something from the Web. The writing was different and much better than her previous work. Trouble was.” Charles M. saying.” As soon as Sally’s instructor began reading her paper he knew something was wrong. She searched the Web. Using a meta-search engine he looked for a distinctive string of characters from the paper and immediately got a number of hits. What’s the chance he’s seen this? Besides. found various things relating to her assignment. The instructor confronted Sally. Then. and done right. Sally had just three days to get it done. He thought. Still. if she wanted to graduate with her class. So instead of flunking her. Allen Here’s a true story.” she rationalized. stuck her name on it and turned it in. Sally had been lucky.” Sally’s teacher knew that wasn’t true.
00 to $30. There’s nothing new in selling pre-written essays.a1-termpaper.00 per page for original research. And such effortless cheating is seductive.aci-plus.cheathouse.com/ Claims Ph.com .hypermart.” The minimum order is $500. your teachers not only have a much more complete list. A-1 Term Papers http://www. though. Remember. The quality ranges from laughable to professional— provided you can afford to pay a minimum of. then retype it. say. (We were able to locate over 130 free online essay sites.” 53. In fact.000 hits. Cheat Factory http://cheatfactory. Counter shows 86. Ask for help if you need it.00.s do the writing.00 for the latter. Youth oriented magazines have long included ads offering term papers for sale. $500. Instructors just go on the Web and search for key words of phrases. Here are a few of the many sites offering term papers for free or for pay. though. Remember.00 per page for “editing. you can get the job done. Don’t act impulsively. The Evil House of Cheat http://www. Web site papers can be downloaded in an instant. $10. And have confidence that. Sites that Sell or Give Away Essays on the Web The Web makes plagiarism more tempting than ever. with effort.com/ “Your resource for locating approximately 20.) These prewritten essays address thousands of topics in dozens of categories. we’ve provided them with strategies to nail users. been formally charged with plagiarism and even kicked out of school. The papers are individually priced.net/ “Essay. term paper and report warehouse. It takes no time to find where they came from. web sites offer downloadable papers for free and for pay to students nationwide. Give yourself enough time to do the work.000 pre-written term papers…”. you won’t see a fraud looking out. Then when you look into a mirror. D. find something. the very same technology greatly simplifies catching cheats. not graduated. ACI Writing Assistance Center http://www.page 59 failed the course..090 visits. You can avoid the high-tech trap that Sally fell into. Charges $40. But in those “good old days” you had to dig through the library.
(Victoria Benning. people dishonest enough to encourage fraud can hardly be trusted to have done an honest job on the paper to begin with.com http://www. the information in free or purchased papers might be inaccurate or even plagiarized from some other source. and the teachers are nervous.” (Sure.” October 4. Claims that “Evil House of Cheat is visited by approximately 2.allpapers.com/ “Since 1994 has successfully helped more than 20.000 students every day. we’ve got a bridge we’d like to sell you. Internet. After all. The Authors. 1998. We’ve seen some that are so bad they’re funny.com/ “…the World’s largest collection of topics…”. For example: “Useful! And I found out how to cheat on CNN!” Nick Ransom Cheater.95 per year.” The Paper Store http://www.com/ “Where the students are students. Remember too.) Caveat Emptor (Let the Buyer Beware) Be aware that papers obtained over the Internet can be just plain awful. we have provided sophisticated strategies for preventing.cheater. $9.com http://www.000 … students in the pursuit of their respective degrees by providing them with high-quality custom written model term papers to use as research assistance and as guides in the preparation of their own. “High-Tech Cheating Hits the Campus: Computers Make it Easy for College Students to Break the Rules. They ended up before the school’s Honor Court. and if you believe that.com/pqdweb?TS=…1&Did=00000003478243782437 &Mtd=17&Fmt=3) Remember too.umi. Does that sound unlikely? The Washington Post reports that at Virginia Tech four students in one class unwittingly turned in the same term paper because they had coincidentally stolen the same article from the Web.researchpaper. “How to Cheat on Exams” for sale. In fact.page 60 Offers 9.500 essays in 44 categories.” Offers the book. There also is the possibility that another student in your class might have submitted the very same paper. http://proquest. School Sucks http://www. original work. Lists student testimonials.com “What’s your term paper on?” Researchpaper. most instructors are well aware of how the web can be used for cheating. detecting and .schoolsucks.
The purchase of any of these products implies acceptance of these terms and conditions on the part of the buyer and agrees to hold Research Papers On-Line free from all harm and liability associated with these products. “DISCLAIMER: Research Papers On-Line assumes no responsibility for the content of. All sales are final and no return or refund will be granted. in effect. that they aren’t responsible if you use their stuff to cheat and get your life wrecked as a result. It is the sole responsibility of the buyer (not the seller) to ascertain through competent legal counsel how any law or laws may apply to the use of each item purchased through this catalogue and act accordingly. Sure these cheat sites give you a sly wink and provide you with the raw material for plagiarism. Research Papers On-Line intends their products to be used as RESEARCH MATERIAL ONLY and are not intended to be submitted for educational. Some instructors also use software that detects similarities in student’s work.” Makes you feel like they’ll be in your corner. Research Papers On-Line (the company) or any members of its staff disclaim any responsibility and/or liability for any wrongful or unlawful acts committed by the purchaser with items ordered from this site and misused as such. Web cheat sites routinely advise that papers you get from them should be used solely as models or for facts. business or private credit. or any liability for loss resulting from any use of its products.) Here’s a typical “we’re not responsible” statement.page 61 tracing online plagiarism in a text accompanying this workbook. They’re Not Responsible To protect themselves. These on-line entrepreneurs even post legal disclaimers stating. (They also don’t want prosecuted by states that have statutes forbidding the sale of term papers for plagiaristic purposes. doesn’t it? This should give you a foretaste of how much help they’ll be if you get caught passing their stuff off as yours. but you can see how willing they are to share the risks . intended or otherwise.
might single-mindedly set out to.) What’s in it for those running sites that give papers away? Check out all the ads that appear on the most popular sites and you’ve got your answer. it is plagiarism for any one of them to claim sole responsibility. Collaborative Hypertexts and Plagiarism The Web facilitates a new form of cooperative writing called collaborative hypertext. say. It’s easy to copy and paste together passages from various articles found on the Web. The collaborative hypertext writer joins others in constructing a cluster of links and pages united by written text. even get you kicked out of school.page 62 For some it’s a thrill to use plagiarism to beat the system. 1998. September 23. The whole thing is interactive and web-based discussion tools can involve users in dialogue. that educators who care most deeply often become especially angry when a student cheats. In 1997 Boston University even filed a federal lawsuit to stop companies from selling term papers over the Web in Massachusetts. Summary Personal computers make plagiarism more tempting than ever. Maybe you’ve tried it. Each participant creates their own hypertext bundle. They’re in it for the money.” New York Times. the essential ethic remains the same. But educators are infuriated by such deceits. “Universities Finding a Sharp Rise in Computer Aided Cheating. if he or she catches you cheating. then turn it in as your own. don’t claim what isn’t yours. Who wrote what becomes blurred and less consequential as the project grows. Still. Collaborative hypertext writing poses a challenge to traditional notions of plagiarism. (Ian Zack. It is. deny you a scholarship. So if students write collaboratively. . The very teacher who most encourages and nurtures you. That makes plagiarizing from the Web risky business. It might even seem halfway acceptable when classified electronic adds pitch catalogs full of term papers you can try to pass off as your own. You can even buy or get free papers online from dozens of term paper mills. then links it with other collaborator’s bundles. Remember too. But the self-same technology that makes plagiarism tempting also simplifies detection. and it’s important you know that before their fury is turned on you. This same school successfully sued street vending term-paper mills in the 1970’s.
18 Why Not Cheat?
This above all: to thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst be false to any man.” -- Shakespeare, Hamlet
Plagiarism is a form of cheating; and cheating sometimes pays off. So let’s ask the obvious question. Why not cheat? Essentially, there are two reasons. One involves prudence — looking out for yourself. The other has to do with ethics — doing the right thing. Let’s examine them both. Before we do though, let’s just mention this. Psychological experimentation suggests that if people have a chance to reflect on a moral issue, they are much more likely to behave in accord with their consciences. The Argument from Prudence The argument from prudence is that you shouldn’t cheat because the potential costs far outweigh the likely benefits. This is not a moral argument. The point isn’t that cheating is wrong — though it is. It’s that cheating isn’t smart. Students often risk cheating because they don’t realize how seriously educators regard it. You don’t want to make that mistake. Take our word for it, few things enrage educators more. You can get some sense of this by looking at how schools deal with the threat of plagiarism. In 1997 Boston University filed a federal lawsuit to stop companies from selling term papers over the Web in Massachusetts. This same school successfully sued street vending term-paper mills in the 1970’s. (Ian Zack, “Universities Finding a Sharp Rise in Computer Aided Cheating,” New York Times; September 23, 1998.) We think you would agree that legal action indicates a high degree of concern. Educators take similarly serious steps against students found guilty of cheating. They face a variety of penalties, such as: • • • • • • • Double weighted zeros on the test or assignment An informative phone call to parents Course failure A letter of reprimand in the student’s permanent record Compulsory community service Expulsion from a program Expulsion from school
cheating themselves of their own possibilities as persons. An additional ethical argument against cheating is that it damages the “common good. Like the common good argument. dispositions and character traits cheating requires will stifle the development of the cheater’s full human potential. Another ethical argument against cheating is that it produces unfair and unjust consequences. With cheating the total harm outweighs the good. Utilitarians argue that to decide what is morally right we have to consider the total good that will come from an action or the total harm it will prevent. Cheating destroys that bond because the cheater is pursuing purely personal goals and victimizing his friends in the process. Utilitarianism offers an additional ethical argument against cheating. justice requires that each person gets what he or she deserves.page 64 Another argument from prudence against cheating is that the attitudes. Cheating involves using others for advancing a personal goal without regard for their rights as human beings. So it’s not prudent to cheat. Ethical Arguments The Judeo-Christian tradition offers one ethical argument against cheating.. has basic interests or rights (e. a fair chance at a grade) that must not be violated.g.” The idea is that the classroom should be a close knit community where each classmate’s own well being is bound to the well being of the classes’ other members.” states the commandment. Honest effort provides greater benefits to a greater number. But a cheater didn’t do the work and their honest classmates did. “Thou shalt not steal. utilitarianism requires us to look beyond ourselves. Therefore. including the teacher. That’s what makes it wrong. A further ethical argument against cheating is that each person in the classroom. . Cheaters are. That’s what makes cheating wrong. Sometimes deciding what people deserve isn’t easy. That makes it wrong. and plagiarism is stealing. says the utilitarian argument. Put simply. cheating is wrong. It violates a law of God.
. But don't rush ahead! Have your instructor look at more than one scale. It is always safer to use an extra transform. American Literature and foreign language. Far less of the original author's text will be permitted. Just have them read the original. All you need do in the future to avoid plagiarism is to use the same transforms. use the stricter standard. A good rule to follow is: when in doubt. you note that the transforms used are: • Synonym Substitution & Deletion & Reordering You can try then to rewrite text you want to include in your papers using only those transforms indicated. you might want to use the scales below to have your instructor. than to use fewer. In general. you will be permitted to use much of the original author's words and phrasing. as in English.page 65 Appendix: “Measuring” Plagiarism What plagiarism is will depend sometimes on what subject area you are studying. Note that each one indicates the transformations used to bring it to that level. However. then indicate what rewrite they would accept as avoiding plagiarism. or someone else knowledgeable in the field indicate what is an acceptable level of rewrite to avoid plagiarism. if your instructor looks at example A and tells you that rewrite 4 is acceptable. will have stricter standards as to what is allowed as a paraphrase. On the other hand. For example. those areas where style and expression are given heavier weight. in disciplines where content and information are more important.
Coucy still had not taken command. W. Tuchman. W.page 66 FORM A: PLAGIARISM RANKING GUIDE FOR INSTRUCTORS: Is the level of paraphrase acceptable with citation? Instructions: An original text is given below. Tuchman. A distant mirror. 1978. W. 1978) . The calamitous 14th century. New York. 1978. Coucy had not yet assumed leadership. W. Tuchman. (B. 1978. Would you reject that rewrite as a plagiarism? Or is it an acceptable paraphrase? If you can. Coucy still had not taken command. Tuchman. It is followed by five rewritten versions. Original Text (No transformation) While his assembled forces plundered Alsace for six weeks through October and into November. (B. 1978) Rewrite 2: (Active voice ⇔ Passive Voice & Deletion & Reordering) Command still had not been taken by Coucy while Alsace was plundered by his forces through October and into November. Imagine finding each of the rewrites in a student paper -. Coucy had not yet assumed leadership. try to rank order the rewritten texts from most unacceptable to most acceptable. W. Further instructions follow the text samples pages. 272) Rewrite 1: (Deletion only) While his forces plundered Alsace for six weeks. (B. (B. (B. (B.) Rewrite 3: (Synonym Substitution &Active Voice ⇔ Passive Voice & Deletion & Reordering) Leadership still had not been assumed by Coucy during the time through October and into November that Alsace was ravaged by his armies. Tuchman. W. Tuchman.with citation. Ballantine.) Rewrite 4: (Synonym Substitution & Deletion & Reordering) During the time his gathered armies ravaged Alsace for six weeks. 1978) Rewrite 5: (Synonym Substitution & Active Voice ⇔ Passive Voice) During the time his gathered armies ravaged Alsace for a month and a half through October and into November.
164) Rewrite 5: (Synonym Substitution & Active Voice ⇔ Passive Voice) These standards notwithstanding. Its results indicated that the United States' inventory of scientists and engineers would soon be reduced because there were increasingly fewer twenty-two-year olds. (Berliner & Biddle. Consequently. 1995) Rewrite 4: (Synonym Substitution & Deletion & Reordering) The NSF completed a badly done piece of research in 1985 indicating that the twenty-two-year cohort was shrinking. This study had many defects. the nation's scientific expertise would soon be seriously affected. 1995. that the call for their expertise would remain unchanged was covertly presumed by its predication of a downward trend. in 1985 a terribly misleading piece of research was done by a worker at the NSF indicating that because the count of twenty-two-year olds in the populace was going down. Addison-Wesley. (Berliner & Biddle. (Berliner & Biddle. 1995) Rewrite 2: (Active voice ⇔ Passive Voice & Deletion & Reordering) A flawed study was prepared in 1985 by an employee of the NSF. 1995) . it assumed that requirements for their services would be unchanging. Among the many defects of this study was that it provided no information at all about the probable need for scientists and engineers. thus it tacitly assumed that demands for their skills would remain constant. in 1985 an employee of the NSF prepared a badly flawed study suggesting that since the number of twenty-two-year olds in the population was declining. New York. no indication whatsoever was given about probable needs for scientists and engineers. The manufactured crisis. Severe defects were exhibited by this research. (Berliner & Biddle.page 67 FORM B: PLAGIARISM RANKING GUIDE FOR INSTRUCTORS: Is the level of paraphrase acceptable with citation? Original Text (No transformation) Despite these principles. 164) Rewrite 1: (Deletion only) In 1985 an employee of the NSF prepared a study suggesting that since the number of twentytwo-year olds in the population was declining. It suggested that the nation's supply of scientists and engineers would soon suffer since the number of twenty-two-year olds in the population was declining. consequently. the nation's supply of scientists and engineers would soon suffer. a grave reduction would be undergone by the country's inventory of scientists and engineers. (Berliner & Biddle. (Berliner & Biddle. 1995. The manufactured crisis. Among the defects of this study was that no information was provided about probable need for scientists and engineers. 1995) Rewrite 3: (Synonym Substitution & Active Voice ⇔ Passive Voice & Deletion & Reordering) A badly done research project was undertaken in 1985 by the NSF. the nation's supply of scientists and engineers would soon suffer a serious "shortfall. thus its projection of a "shortfall" tacitly assumed that demands for their skills would remain constant. it provided no information about likely demands for scientists and engineers. Among other things. New York. AddisonWesley. it provided no information at all about likely demands for scientists and engineers. Among others. consequently." This study had many defects. Thus its forecast of a "shortfall" assumed that the need for their services would be unchanging. It tacitly assumed that demands for their skills would remain constant. Among others. No information was provided about likely demands for scientists and engineers.
(Berman. A large proportion of new cities and towns were governed by assemblies of citizens. 1983. 1983) Rewrite 3: (Synonym Substitution & Active Voice ⇔ Passive Voice & Deletion & Reordering) Even though there were varied forms of government in European cities. Berman. there were certain common patterns. The election of officials and introduction of laws required their consent. Popular assemblies of all the citizens governed a large number of recently created cities and towns. there were certain shared patterns. 1983) Rewrite 5: (Synonym Substitution & Active Voice ⇔ Passive Voice) Even though the types of government of European cities were quite varied. there were common patterns. there were common patterns. whose consensus was required to elect officials and introduce laws. A large proportion were assemblies of citizens. Citizen assemblies governed most new urban entities. Law and revolution. 1983) Rewrite 2: (Active voice ⇔ Passive Voice & Deletion & Reordering) Although the forms of government were diverse.J. common patterns could be observed. (Berman. Cambridge: Harvard. common patterns existed. (Berman. whose consent was required for election of officials and for introduction of new laws. (H. 1983) Rewrite 4: (Synonym Substitution & Deletion & Reordering) Even though there were varied forms of European city government. A very large proportion of newly founded cities and towns were governed by popular assemblies of all the citizens. Assemblies of citizens governed a large proportion of new European cities and towns. 1983) . (Berman. whose consent was required for election of officials and introduction of laws.page 68 FORM C: PLAGIARISM RANKING GUIDE FOR INSTRUCTORS: Is the level of paraphrase acceptable with citation? Original Text (No transformation) Although the forms of government of European cities were quite diverse in nature. 397) Rewrite 1: (Deletion only) Although the forms of government of European cities were diverse. and their consent was required to elect officials and introduce laws. (Berman. Their consent was needed to select dignitaries and to introduce new legislation.
You might.page 69 Extended Directions for Instructors or Advanced Students Rank each of the transformed texts above relative to each other. changes other than synonym substitution might be critical. rank them in this way: Rewrite # 3 4 5 2 1 Rank of Rewritten Text Most acceptable (equally or) less acceptable (equally or less acceptable) (equally or) unacceptable Most unacceptable Then make note of the transformations involved in changing the original text into a form acceptable as a paragraph (with citation) in a paper. It is important to remember that a person trained in a different discipline might rank the rewritten texts differently. for example. . Rewrite # 3 4 5 2 1 Rank of Rewritten Text Most acceptable (equally or less) acceptable (equally or less) acceptable) (equally or less) unacceptable Most unacceptable Transforms Involved Synonym Substitution &Active voice ⇔ Passive Voice & Deletion & Reordering Synonym Substitution & Deletion & Reordering Synonym Substitution & Active voice ⇔ Passive Voice Active voice ⇔ Passive Voice & Deletion & Reordering Deletion only The chart shows that the critical change involved synonym substitution. In that case. though other transforms may be importantly involved. Remember you are considering whether or not they are acceptable in a student paper.
Or that what an instructor in one discipline counts as a plagiarism will necessarily be one in another. Do not assume that what is acceptable in one discipline is not a plagiarism in another.page 70 Important Note: Persons trained in different disciplines will determine the point of acceptability of a rewritten text differently. Empty Charts Ranker ___________________ Discipline _______________________Form ______ Rewrite # Rank of Rewritten Text Most acceptable (equally or) less acceptable (equally or) less acceptable) (equally or) less unacceptable Most unacceptable Transforms Involved Ranker ___________________ Discipline ______________________Form ______ Rewrite # Rank of Rewritten Text Most acceptable (equally or) less acceptable (equally or) less acceptable) (equally or) less unacceptable Most unacceptable Transforms Involved Ranker ___________________ Discipline ______________________Form ______ Rewrite # Rank of Rewritten Text Most acceptable (equally or) less acceptable (equally or) less acceptable) (equally or) less unacceptable Most unacceptable Transforms Involved .
Contents of The Plagiarism Book Section I: Quick Fixes 1 The Rewrite Game 2 Just What is Plagiarism? 3 It's Easy Not to Plagiarize 4 Examples of the Rewriting Process Section II: Transforms and Exercises .The Basics 5 Deletion 6 Rearrangement 7 Active Voice ⇔ Passive Voice 8 Synonym Substitution Section III: Other Useful Transforms with Exercises 9 Inversion of clauses 10 Indirect Discourse 11 Splitting the Sentence 12 Using 's to Condense Section IV: Expanding Your Skills 13 Notes on Change of Voice 14 Notes on Synonym Substitution 15 More Transforms Section V: Other Things You Should Know 16 The Art of Citation 17 Plagiarism and the Web 18 Why Not Cheat? Appendix: "Measuring" Plagiarism The Plagiarism Book 2nd ed ISBN 1-929463-02-2 ì<)rl*m*=egdaca< .
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