synthetic glucocorticoid that readily penetrates the airway mucosa, used for asthma


low potency dopamine receptor blocker


side effects are retinal deposits, torsades, postural hypotension, sedation, CNS depression

valproic acid

causes neural tube defects

valproic acid

used to treat all kinds of seizures, as well as bipolar disorder



binds benzodiazepine receptors, antagonized by flumazenil


hypnotic drug that is not a benzodiazepine


indirect sympathomimetic MOA


inhibits catecholamine reuptake, resulting in cardiotox and hypertension


inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, causing an accumulation of acetaldehyde



benzodiazepine used as a date rape drug

lysergic acid diethylamide

hallucinogenic, nausea, weakness


hallucinogenic, nausea, weakness


hallucinogenic, nausea, weakness


lowers intraocular pressure in glaucoma


methadone treatment of opiod withdrawal opioid withdrawal syndrome nausea. piloerection. sweats. yawning. tremor MPTP destroys dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal tract morphine binds mu receptors enkephalin binds delta receptors 4 . rhinorrhea. chills. diarrhea. cramps. lacrimation.

antipyretic (but not anti-inflammatory) 5 . drowsiness. seizure acetaminophen COX inhibitor which inhibits prostaglandin synthesis acetaminophen analgesic. nausea. clammy skin.dynorphins bind kappa receptors opioid overdose constricted pupils. resp depression phencyclidine (pcp) nystagmus. hypertension.

allopurinol suicide inhibition of xanthine oxidase allopurinol increases xanthine and hypoxanthine. used to treat gout (and cancer) aspirin PGE inhibitor aspirin predisposes to acute gastritis by inhibiting PGE in the stomach 6 . which are less likely to form crystals than uric acid allopurinol slows production of uric acid.

anti-inflammatory capsaicin impairs release of substance P capsaicin used topically for RA celecoxib COX-2 inhibitor 7 .aspirin irreversible inhibitor of cyclooxygenase aspirin analgesic. antiplatelet. antipyretic.

rofecoxib COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib sulfa drug rofecoxib sulfa drug colchicine inhibits microtubule assembly. and therefore leukocyte migration and phagocytosis colchicine leukocyte inhibitor used to treat attacks of gouty arthritis 8 .

cyclosporin binds to cyclophilins and inhibits the transcription of cytokine genes tacrolimus binds to the immunophilin FK-binding protein cyclosporin impairs T cell IL-2 production. used in transplant patients tacrolimus used in transplant patients etanercept a fusion product of TNF-alpha receptor and Fc portion of antibody 9 .

infliximab binds and inhibits TNF-alpha etanercept used in RA and inflammatory bowel disease gold salts nephrotoxic gold salts used in RA gold salts decreases lysosomal and macrophage function 10 .

ibuprofen similar to aspirin. lacks antiplatelet effects ibuprofen reversibly inhibits COX indomethacin potent NSAID used to close a PDA PGE used to maintain a PDA in congenital heart disease ketorolac parenteral NSAID 11 .

meperidine causes relaxation of the sphincter of oddi meperidine causes increased ICP opiods causes biliary spasm sumatriptan binds the serotonin 1D receptor sumatriptan causes vasoconstriction of cerebral vasculature 12 .

multiple myeloma. and leprosy thalidomide suppresses production of TNF-alpha thalidomide potent immunosuppressant statins may cause elevated liver enzymes 13 .sumatriptan used for acute migraine and cluster headaches thalidomide used to treat SLE.

statins may cause myositis statins may cause increased CK from skeletal muscle reserpine enters the CNS and may cause suicidal depression and parkinsonian symptoms reserpine antihypertensive agent that blocks the storage and release of catecholamines and serotonin from neurons probucol decreases HDL as well as LDL 14 .


prevents restenosis after angioplasty


acts as an antioxidant


postural hypotension, headache, flushing


causes increase in cGMP in vascular smooth muscle


directly reduces secretion of VLDLs



increases HDL


causes cutaneous flushing


M phase inhibitor


blocks microtubule polymerization and spindle formation


adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine



mechlorethamine, oncovin, procarbazine, prednisone


used for lymphomas, wilms tumor, and choriocarinomas


activates AT3


inactivates thrombin

protamine sulfate

reverses effects of heparin


trastuzumab binds to receptor tyrosine kinase Erb-B2 (HER-2) trastuzumab used for HER-2 positive breast cancer tamoxifen estrogen receptor partial antagonist tamoxifen increases risk of endometrial carcinoma rituximab binds CD20 antigen on B cells 18 .

lymphoma. RA. asthma paclitaxel prevents mitotic spindle breakdown paclitaxel interferes with anaphase 19 .rituximab treatment of non-hodgkin lymphoma prednisone triggers apoptosis prednisone treatment for leukemia.

paclitaxel microtubule stabilizing agent methotrexate S phase inhibitor methotrexate inhibits DHFR treats myelosuppression leucovorin methotrexate folic acid analog 20 .

mercaptopurine (6-MP) activated by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) mercaptopurine (6-MP) inhibits many enzymes involved in purine metabolism leuprolide treatment for endometriosis leuprolide treatment for BPH and precocious puberty leuprolide stimulates release of FSH and LH 21 .

kaposi sarcoma. hairy cell leukemia interferon alpha recombinantly produced cytokine flutamide used to antagonize residual androgens after orchiectomy 22 . malignant myeloma.leuprolide GnRH agonist used to treat prostate cancer interferon alpha produced by virally infected cells to prevent infection of adjacent cells interferon alpha used to treat CML.

flutamide side effects include gynecomastia and libido changes flutamide androgen receptor antagonist fluorouracil S phase antimetabolite fluorouracil causes myelosuppression fluorouracil inhibits thymidylate synthase 23 .

fluorouracil used to treat colon cancer and basal cell carcinoma etoposide G2 phase inhibitor etoposide causes double stranded breaks in DNA etoposide inhibits topoisomerase II etoposide used to treat small cell carcinoma of the lung and prostate and testicular cancers 24 .

doxorubicin intercalates in DNA to reduce replication and transcription doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy daunorubicin used to treat AML cyclophosphamide causes hemorrhagic cystitis cyclophosphamide alkylating agent used to treat cancers 25 .

highly lipophilic nitrosourea drug bleomycin mixture of glycoproteins that produce free radicals upon binding DNA 26 .cisplatin alkylating agent cisplatin causes nephrotoxicity and acoustic nerve damage carmustine alkylating agent that causes DNA cross-linking and strand breaks carmustine used to treat brain tumors.

bleomycin causes strand breaks in DNA bleomycin G2 phase inhibitor bleomycin can cause pulmonary fibrosis anastrozole inhibitor of steroid synthesis anastrozole inhibits conversion of androstenedione to estrone 27 .

aminoglutethimide blocks conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone anastrazole aromatase inhibitor zidovudine inhibits viral reverse transcriptase zidovudine chain terminator zidovudine given to prevent transmission of HIV to neonates 28 .

vancomycin used to treat MRSA vancomycin used to treat c. difficile vancomycin rapid IV infusion causes red man syndrome TMP-SMX blocks folate synthesis TMP-SMX can cause megaloblastic anemia 29 .

TMP-SMX do not give to pts with G6PDH deficiency trimethoprim blocks DHFR sulfamethoxazole blocks dihydropteroate synthase tetracycline inhibits 30s ribosome tetracycline bacteriostatic drug 30 .

tetracycline CI in pregnant women due to bone dysplasia and dental enamel defects streptogramins p450 inhibitor arthralgias and myalgias streptogramins streptogramins used to treat MRSA and VRE rifampin inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase 31 .

rifampin imparts red-orange color to secretions ribavirin guanosine analog ribavirin inibits steps in RNA synthesis ribavirin used to treat viral hemorrhagic fevers and hepatitis C ribavirin used to treat RSV 32 .

tinnitus mefloquine used for prophylaxis of p. vertigo. blurry vision.quinine blocks DNA replication and RNA transcription in p. falciparum within RBCs quinine causes cinchonism cinchonism headache. falciparum due to low SE quinine used for malaria 33 .

pyrantel pamoate stimulates nicotinic receptors in nematodes praziquantel used for fluke and tapeworm infections polymyxin b cationic detergent that disrupts bacterial membranes polymyxin b causes neurotoxicity and acute tubular necrosis polymyxin b only used topically 34 .

penicillins inhibits transpeptidation step in bacterial cell wall synthesis oseltamivir neuraminidase inhibitor that prevent viral spreading oseltamivir used against influenza a nystatin disrupts fungal membrane permeability by binding to ergosterol nystatin used to treat oral candidiasis and diaper rash 35 .

nitrofurantoin can cause hemolysis in G6PDH deficient patients nitrofurantoin can accumulate to toxic levels in patients with renal failure nitrofurantoin urinary antiseptic that requires acidification nifurtimox used to treat chagas disease nevirapine NNRTI used to treat HIV 36 .

giariasis. diff 37 . trichomoniasis. and c.neomycin used to treat hepatic encephalopathy neomycin prevents accumulation of nitrogenous microbial metabolites metronidazole activated by anaerobes and parasites metronidazole interferes with nucleic acid synthesis metronidazole used to treat amebiasis.

naf.methicillin bulky R-group prevents degradation by penicillinase nafcillin bulky R-group prevents degradation by penicillinase dicloxacillin bulky R-group prevents degradation by penicillinase methi. diclox beta lactams mebendazole inhibits microtubule synthesis and glucose uptake by helminths 38 .

mebendazole used to treat pinworms albuterol selective b2 agonist atenolol selective b1 blocker acebutolol selective b1 blocker metoprolol selective b1 blocker 39 .

detromethrophan depresses cough center in the medulla metoclopramide facilitates acetylcholine while blocking dopamine in the enteric nervous system metoclopramide SE are sedation. diarrhea. extrapyramidal symptoms metoclopramide prokinetic agent used to block emesis metoclopramide blocks D2 receptors in the area postrema 40 .

increases mucus production misoprostol eicosanoid preparation used for pts taking lots of NSAIDs omeprazole H/K ATPase inhibitor ondansetron serotonin-3 inhibitor that acts at the area postrema 41 .misoprostol PGE analog misoprostol decreases gastric acid production.

sucralfate requires acidic environment to polymerize sucralfate cannot be used with antacids or H2 blockers folic acid will correct anemia but not neuro sx associated with b12 deficiency EPO recombinant drug used for anemia aminocaproic acid orally active inhibitor of plasminogen activation 42 .

aminocaproic acid inhibits fibrinolysis aminocaproic acid used for acute bleeding in hemophilic patients abciximab antibody against glycoprotein 2b/3a receptor abciximab prevents platelet activation abciximab anticoagulant preventing restenosis after angioplasty 43 .

GI obstruction.benztropine antimuscarinic benztropine CI are prostatic hyperplasia. but does nothing for bradykinesia RhoGAM antibody to Rh(D) antigen that opsonizes probenecid competes with uric acid for reabsorption in the proximal tubule 44 . glaucoma benztropine antimuscarinic used to treat tremors and rigidity in parkinsons.

probenecid inhibits secretion of weak acids sulfinpyrazone acts simliarly to probenecid methylsergide blocks serotonin receptors methylsergide causes fibroplasia of retroperitoneum and subendocardium methylsergide used to prevent migraines 45 .

daclizumab binds IL-2 receptor on activated T cells daclizumab used for patients with renal allografts bromocriptine D2 agonist bromocriptine inhibits PRL release diphenhydramine inhibit histamine binding to H1 receptors 46 .

polydipsia. hypothyroidism.diphenhydramine causes drowsiness diphenhydramine used for allergies and motion sickness cromolyn sodium stabilizes mast cell membrane lithium inhibits IP3 and DAG lithium causes tremor. polyuria 47 .

methylphenidate stimulates the release of catecholamines phenytoin inducer of p450 carbamazepine inducer of p450 griseofulvin inducer of p450 rifampin inducer of p450 48 .

barbiturates inducer of p450 penicillins bactericidal cephalosporins bactericidal vancomycin bactericidal aminoglycosides bactericidal 49 .

fluoroquinolones bactericidal metronidazole calcium channel blockers bactericidal causes cutaneous flushing adenosine causes cutaneous flushing vancomycin causes cutaneous flushing 50 .

metronidazole causes disulfiram-like reaction cephalosporins causes disulfiram-like reaction procarbazine causes disulfiram-like reaction nitrous oxide has a high MAC phenelzine MAOI 51 .

tranylcypromine MAOI isocarboxazid MAOI MAOI + SSRI serotonin syndrome MAOI inhibits breakdown of amine neurotransmitters mebendazole microtubule inhibitor 52 .

thiabendazole microtubule inhibitor paclitaxel microtubule inhibitor vincristine microtubule inhibitor colchicine microtubule inhibitor griseofulvin microtubule inhibitor 53 .

hydralazine SLE like syndrome procainamide SLE like syndrome isoniazid SLE like syndrome phenytoin SLE like syndrome halothane massive hepatic necrosis 54 .

acetaminophen massive hepatic necrosis valproic acid massive hepatic necrosis cimetidine p450 inhibitor ketoconazole p450 inhibitor erythromycin p450 inhibitor 55 .

cimetidine gynecomastia ketoconazole gynecomastia spironolactone gynecomastia bleomycin pulmonary fibrosis amiodarone pulmonary fibrosis 56 .

busulfan pulmonary fibrosis aminoglycosides ototoxic and nephrotoxic loop diuretics ototoxic and nephrotoxic cisplatin ototoxic and nephrotoxic vancomycin mildly ototoxic and nephrotoxic 57 .

penicillamine used to treat wilson disease penicillamine used to treat RA penicillamine used to treat copper toxicity bc it is a chelator organophosphates anticholinesterases used in chemical warfare pralidoxime antidote for anticholinesterases such as organophosphates 58 .

naloxone mu opioid receptor antagonist naloxone used to treat opioid overdose phenobarbital binds GABA receptors phenobarbital increases the duration of chloride channel opening phenobarbital used to treat tonic-clonic seizures and crigler-najjar 59 .

hirsutism. anemia.phenytoin interferes with folate absorption phenytoin SE are gingival hyperplasia. and birth defects phenytoin class 1b antiarrhythmic risperidone blocks D2 and serotonin-2 receptors risperidone causes high sedation 60 .

coma flumazenil antagonizes benzodiazepines and zolpidem 61 .risperidone atypical antipsychotic with lots of extrapyramidal SE ropinirole forestalls the use of levodopa in parkinson's disease methanol causes damage by being converted to formaldehyde in the liver methanol retinal damage. blindness. metabolic acidosis.

flumazenil used for benzodiazepine overdose ethylene glycol causes metabolic acidosis and precipitation of oxalate crystals in the kidney dimercaprol chelates metals to keep them from damaging proteins succimer orally active metal chelator dimercaprol used to treat heavy metal poisoning 62 .

digibind fab fragment antibody deferoxamine rapid infusion causes hypotensive shock deferoxamine used to treat acute iron toxicity dantrolene decreases the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum dantrolene used to treat malignant hyperthermia 63 .

used with levodopa for parkinson's thiopental ultra-short acting barbiturate used to induce surgical anesthesia alprazolam intermediate-acting benzodiazepine used for panic disorder and phobias 64 .selegiline inhibits MAO-B MAO-B degrades dopamine selegiline inhibits degradation of dopamine in CNS.

n-acetylcysteine protects against fulminant hepatic failure n-acetylcysteine used for acetaminophen overdose carvedilol used for CHF carvedilol nonselective beta blocker and alpha-1 blocker amiodarone blocks sodium channels 65 .

amiodarone corneal microdeposits amiodarone class III antiarrythmic adenosine short acting agent given IV for AV nodal arrhythmias spironolactone potassium sparing diuretic spironolactone aldosterone antagonist 66 .

spironolactone functions at the collecting tubule nitroprusside stimulates guanyl cyclase nitroprusside increases cGMP in vascular smooth muscle minoxidil direct-acting vasodilator minoxidil used topically bc of benefit of hypertrichosis 67 .

cholestyramine bind bile acids to prevent enterohepatic recycling fexofenadine nonsedating antihistaminic loratadine nonsedating antihistaminic ipratropium dry mouth side effect ipratropium antimuscarinic for COPD and asthma 68 .

somatotropic pituitary adenoma 69 .salmeterol may cause tremors and arrhythmias theophylline methylxanthine used for asthma theophylline inhibits phosphodiesterase theophylline inhibits conversion of cAMP to AMP octreotide used to treat carcinoid. gastrinoma.

propylthiouracil inhibits iodination step of thyroid hormone synthesis methimazole same as PTU but crosses placenta and enters breast milk raloxifene estrogen partial agonist raloxifene does not increase the risk of endometrial cancer tamoxifen increases risk of endometrial cancer 70 .

repaglinide rapid onset sulfonylurea repaglinide binds potassium channels to facilitate insulin release glitazones increase insulin sensitivity glitazones stimulate PPAR-gamma receptor troglitazone hepatotoxic 71 .

sulfonylureas stimulate closure of potassium channels sulfonylureas glyburide and glipizide sulfonylureas cause release of preformed insulin acyclovir used to treat herpes acyclovir guanosine analog 72 .

acyclovir activated by thymidine kinase of the virus it treats acyclovir functions as a chain terminator when incorporated into viral DNA amantadine prophylaxis against influenza A and rubella amantidine inhibits fusion of viral particles within endosome of the cell amantidine not effective against influenza B 73 .

amantidine binds to M2 protein amphotericin B disrupts fungal membranes by binding ergosterol mifepristone blocks binding of progesterone to cytoplasmic receptors ampicillin extended spectrum penicillin used to treat gram negatives aztreonam b-lactamase resistant monobactam 74 .

aztreonam used only with aminoglycosides against gram negative rods aztreonam cannot be used against gram positives or anaerobic bacteria bacitraicin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis piperacillin used against enterobacter and pseudomonas carbenicillin used against enterobacter and pseudomonas 75 .

ticarcillin used against enterobacter and pseudomonas ceftriaxone used for septic meningitis cefixime used to treat gonnorhea chloramphenicol gray baby syndrome in babies deficient in hepatic gluconosyltransferase chloramphenicol aplastic anemia 76 .

with toxic accumulation of heme in RBC clavulanic acid beta lactamase inhibitor sulbactam beta lactamase inhibitor 77 .fludrocortisone used in postadrenalectomy therapy chloroquine primary drug for acute malaria chloroquine disrupts hemoglobin breakdown.

tazobactam beta lactamase inhibitor clindamycin bacteriostatic at the 50s ribosome clindamycin treatment of bacteroides didanosine (ddI) dose-limiting pancreatitis lamivudine inhibits reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B 78 .

erythromycin bacteriostatic inhibitor of 50s erythromycin macrolide azithromycin macrolide clarithromycin macrolide erythromycin GI irritation and acute cholestatic hepatitis 79 .

metformin biguanide compound metformin increases peripheral glycolysis clomiphene blocks negative feedback at the pituitary cosyntropin used for diagnosis of addison's disease danazol inhibitor of p450 80 .

danazol used for endometriosis and fibrocystic disease of the breast desmopressin selective V2 agonist vasopression V1 and V2 agonist vasopressin used to treat esophageal varices DES clear cell carcinoma of the vagina in daughters 81 .

ethinyl estradiol/mestranol lowers risk of coronary disease. ameliorates hot flashes HRT increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer zileutin inhibits leukotriene synthesis monteleukast LTD4 and LTE4 antagonist acarbose inhibits a-galactosidase 82 . slows osteoporosis.

bisphosphonates esophageal ulcerations bromocriptine used to treat hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary adenoma bromocriptine ergot alkaloid diphenoxylate suppress GI motility loperamide suppress GI motility 83 .

cisapride stimulates peristalsis by release of Ach from myenteric plexus cisapride long QT magnesium hydroxide laxative antacid aluminum hydroxide constipating antacid ipecac syrup acts to stimulate chemoreceptor trigger zone of the medulla 84 .


gynecomastia and galactorrhea


p450 inhibitor

calcium carbonate

hypercalcemic alkalosis

calcium carbonate

renal calculi

bismuth subsalicylate

used with metronidazole and tetracycline for PUD caused by h.pylori



interferes with vitamin K dependent clotting factors


converts fibrin-bound plasminogen to plasmin


platelet antiaggregant


interferes with binding of fibrin to Gp2b/3a receptor on platelets


catalyzes conversion of plasminogen to plasmin



inhibits formation of ergosterol


prophylaxis against cryptococcus neoformans


used to treat oral candidiasis


bactericidal inhibitor of DNA gyrase


used for gram negative rods, some gram positives, and neisseria


fluoroquinolones bad for cartilage sargramostim recombinant GM-CSF filgrastim G-CSF hydroxyurea used for sickle cell crisis hydroxyurea increases levels of HbF 88 .

hydroxyurea inhbits DNA synthesis by blocking conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides foscarnet treats CMV foscarnet inhibits viral DNA polymerase ganciclovir metabolized by viral transferases ganciclovir requires phosphorylation by viral kinases to work 89 .

leukopenia. thrombocytopenia griseofulvin keratinized tissue griseofulvin ringworm griseofulvin binds tubulin 90 .ganciclovir guanosine analog converted by CMV to triphosphorylated form ganciclovir SE: neutropenia.

carbapenem given with cliastatin carbapenem used against gram positive cocci. gram negative rods. and anaerobes ritonavir inhibit protease in the HIV pol gene isoniazid inhibits synthesis of mycolic acid isoniazid SE neuritis and hepatitis 91 .

ethambutol TB pyrazinamide TB rifampin TB streptomycin TB sulfonamides stevens-johnson 92 .

ethosuxamide stevens-johnson lamotrigine stevens-johnson penicillins erythema multiforme barbiturates erythema multiforme salicylates erythema multiforme 93 .

hydantoins erythema multiforme antimalarials erythema multiforme sulfonamides G6PDH isoniazid G6PDH primaquine G6PDH 94 .

tetracycline photosensitivity amiodarone photosensitivity sulfonamides photosensitivity bethanechol muscarinic agonist carbachol nicotinic and muscarinic agonist 95 .

ephedrine ma-huang phenoxybenzamine adrenergic antagonist (alpha receptors) phentolamine used in diagnosing pheochromocytoma ivermectin onchocera volvulus and strongyloides stercoralis ivermectin increases GABA transmission in the worm 96 .

ketoconazole interfere with fungal cell wall synthesis pilocarpine treatment of glaucoma pilocarpine muscarinic agonist prazosin first dose syncope prazosin miosis 97 .

pyridostigmine used for tubocurarine toxicity scopolamine competitive cholinergic antagonist used for motion sickness succinylcholine muscle relaxant succinylcholine nicotinic agonist that opens sodium channels tubocurarine nondepolarizing neuromuscular ganglionic blockers 98 .

acetazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrase in the proximal convoluted tubule acetazolamide metabolic acidosis acetazolamide give to alkalinize the urine in aspirin toxicity amiloride block sodium channels in the cortical collecting tubules amiloride hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis 99 .

captopril inhibit breakdown of bradykinin ketamine should be given with benzodiazepines gabapentin partial seizures ethosuxamide inhbits T-type calcium channels entacapone inhibits conversion of levodopa to 3-0-methyldopa 100 .

alkalosis.HCTZ hypokalemia. hyperlipidemia captopril functions at the collecting tubules losartan functions at the collecting tubules losartan CI in pregnancy captopril CI in pregnancy 101 . hyperuricemia.

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