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Assignment No. 1
IDEOLOGY: An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. "An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things, as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to all members of this society. The main purpose behind an ideology is to offer change in society through a normative thought process. Ideologies are systems of abstract thought applied to public matters and thus make this concept central to politics. Implicitly every political tendency entails an ideology whether or not it is propounded as an explicit system of thought. CONTRIBUTION OF IDEOLOGY IN NATION’S EMERGENCE:As ideology is a collection of facts, ideas and thoughts, so, these facts, ideas and thoughts when become the ideology of a nation, then a nation struggles to achieve independence in the eye of this ideology. Every nation has its own ideology based on their cultural, political, religious and other thoughts. When we talk about Islamic ideology, Islamic Ideology states that in whichever region of the world if there are Muslims in such number that they can make a sovereign state in order to make their lives according to the teachings of Islam, they should be allowed to do so. Islamic Ideology is based on religious purposes, whereas others follow the ideology in the sense of country, political and cultural thoughts. IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN:The ideology of Pakistan stems from the sense of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it. Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but also two social orders that have given birth to two separate cultures with no similarities. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims were not confined to the struggle for political supremacy, but were also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than a thousand years, they continued to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, are all poles apart. Even the language they speak and the dresses they wear are entirely different. The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. When they realized
that their future in a 'Democratic India' dominated by Hindu majority was not safe; they put forward their demand for a separate state. The Muslims of South Asia believe that they are a nation in the modern sense of the word. The basis of their nationhood is neither protective, racial, linguistic nor ethnic; rather they are a nation because they belong to the same faith, Islam. On this basis they consider it their fundamental right to be entitled to self-determination. They demanded that areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state, wherein they would be enabled to order their lives in individual and collective spheres in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.). They further want their state to strengthen the bonds of unity among Muslim countries. The Ideology of Pakistan has its roots deep in history. The history of South Asia is largely a history of opposition and conflict between the Hindus and Muslims of the region. Both communities have been living together in the same area since the early 8th century, since the arrival of Islam in India. Yet, the two have failed to develop nice relations. With the arrival of the British rule in India in 1858, Hindu-Muslim relations entered a new phase. The British brought with them a new political philosophy commonly known as 'territorial nationalism'. Before the coming of the British, there was no concept of a 'nation' in South Asia and the region had never been a single political unit. The British attempt to join the two communities in to a 'nation' failed. The British concept of a nation did not fit the religious-social system of South Asia. Similarly, the British political system did not suite the political culture of South Asia. The British political system, commonly known as 'democracy', gave majority the right to rule. But unlike Britain, the basis of majority and minority in South Asia was not political but religious and ethnic. The attempt to enforce the British political model in South Asia, instead of solving the political problems, only served to make the situation more complex. The Hindus supported the idea while it was strongly opposed by the Muslims. The Muslims knew that implementation of the new order would mean the end of their separate identity and endless rule of the Hindu majority in the name of nationalism and democracy. The Muslims refused to go the British way. They claimed that they were a separate nation and the basis of their nation was the common religion Islam. They refused to accept a political system that would reduce them to a permanent minority. They first demanded separate electorates and later a separate state. Religious and cultural differences between Hindus and Muslims increased due to political rivalry under the British rule. On March 24, 1940, the Muslims finally abandoned the idea of federalism and defined a separate homeland as their target. Quaid-e-Azam considered the creation of Pakistan a means to an end and not the end in itself. He wanted Pakistan to be an Islamic and democratic state. According to his wishes and in accordance with the inspirations of the people of Pakistan, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan passed the Objectives Resolution. The adoption of Objectives Resolution removed all doubts, if there were any, about the ideology of Pakistan. The Muslims of Pakistan decided once and for all to make
Pakistan a state wherein the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in their individual and collective spheres, in accordance to the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
Assignment No. 2
How do you see Chaudhary Rehmat Ali and his Contribution in the Muslim Politics of the Sub-Continent?
The name of Chaudhary Rehmat Ali will always be remembered in the history with utmost regard and respect for the devoted services, which he submitted to the cause of the Muslims of India. He played a commendable role in the establishment of a Muslim state in the sub-continent. He is known as the architect of the idea of Pakistan in the history of Muslim India. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali was born on November 16, 1897 in the district of Hoshiarpur. He joined Islamia College, Lahore from where he took his Bachelor Degree. He joined service in a newspaper known as KASHMIR. He then switched over to the teaching profession and joined Aitchison College, Lahore as a lecturer. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali went to England for higher studies and obtained the Master’s degree from the Cambridge University and later on his Bar-at-Law from the University of Dublin. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, a great and fiery operator, was full of nationalist feelings. He had his firm belief in the separate identity of the Muslims and considered them a separate nation. He was very much in favor of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India and considered it the untimely destiny of the Muslims. In 1905, while addressing a meeting of BAZM-E-SHIBLI, he said, the western part of India is a Muslim majority area, which we will make an independent Muslim State. This can only be possible when we separate ourselves from the common nationality and sever our relations from the rest of the India. During his studies at Cambridge, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali and his three other comrades issued a pamphlet in 1933 entitled as NOW OR NEVER. In his article, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali extremely criticized those Muslim leaders who were supporting the federal system in India. He declared in NOW OR NEVER that the Indian federation was not suitable to the Indian Muslims. He said that the Muslims were a separate nation with their own culture and civilization distinct from the Hindu culture and civilization. He said that to burden together two different and distinct nations in one political system would lead to complete confusion and bitterness. He pleaded that the only solution to this dilemma was to divide the sub-continent to establish a separate Muslim state consisting of Punjab,
Baluchistan, NWFP, Kashmir and Sindh. He suggested the name of PAKISTAN for the new Muslim state. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali set up Pakistan National Movement in England in 1933. He launched a forceful movement of Pakistan from the platform of this organization. Pakistan National Movement was extremely opposed to the idea of making India a federation and did not like the Muslims to have any connections with India. This movement gave a clear explanation and clarification of the Two-nation Theory and expressed its firm belief in it. The Pakistan National Movement extended it activities to other parties of Europe and America. This organization educated awareness among platform of Pakistan National Movement entitled as Objectives of Pakistan National Movement. In this article, the aims and objects of the Pakistan National Movement were discussed and the name of South Asia was proposed for the Indian sub-continent. In 1937, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali demanded a Muslim state comprising of Bengal and Assam and proposed the name of BANG-I-ISLAM. He also suggested the name of USMANISTAN for the Muslim state of Hyderabad. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali strengthened his efforts during the Round Table Conference and advised the Muslim participants of the conference to reject the proposal of Indian federation. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali was a great supporter of the Muslims of India. His ideas and thoughts produced hope among the Muslims of India. His scheme of a separate Muslims state created anguish among the Hindus and British who heatedly negated his ideas. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali not only invented the name of PAKISTAN but also launched an effective movement for the achievement of Pakistan. His ideas gained wide range popularity among the Muslims youth of India. It was Chaudhary Rehmat Ali who declared the LAHORE RESOLUTION as PAKISTAN RESOLUTION, which was finally accepted by the Quaid-e-Azam and all the Muslims of India. The proposals made by other Muslim leaders could not attract a concrete scheme for the establishment of the Muslim state, came from the first time, from a person of high brain stature and prestige. With Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, a student of Cambridge University, propounding his scheme of partition of India, the Muslims, instead of looking upon themselves as downtrodden minority, now saw themselves as a proud nation entitled to build a just social order based on Islam in their homeland. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali coined the word PAKISTAN in which ‘P’ stand for Punjab, ‘A’ for Afghan (NWFP), ‘K’ for Kashmir, ‘S’ for Sindh, and ‘TAN’ for Baluchistan. The word PAKISTAN itself means the Land of the Pure. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali expanded his scheme in his famous pamphlet known as NOW OR NEVER and gave it a wide publicity. He wrote a book as Pakistan the fatherland of Pak Nation, in which he declared that the northern part of the sub-continent is a Muslim majority area, which we shall
make an independent Muslim State. He openly rejected the idea of One Nationality and advocated separation from India. Chaudhary Rehmat Ali made great contributions to the Muslim politics of India. He died on 3rd February, 1951. He is buried in Cambridge City Graveyard.
Assignment No. 3
1. The Lahore Resolution was moved by Moulvi Fazal-ul-Haq. 2. The World War II started in 1939. 3. The Hindus started Quit India Movement in August 1942 seeing British in trouble. 4. Lord Wavell announced elections in Winter 1945. 5. In December 1945, the elections of Central Legislature were held and the ML won all 30 Muslim seats. 6. On April 9, 1946, all the newly elected Muslim members pledged in the Delhi Convention to shatter the Hindu dream of united India. 7. The Interim Government was formed under Nehru on September 2, 1946 and the ML stayed away. 8. Khizr Hayat Tiwana was a Muslim Leader from the Punjab. 9. First meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on August 11, 1947 and the ceremonies on August 14. 10. Lord Mountbatten appointed as Viceroy and he arrived in Delhi on March 22, 1947.
Assignment No. 4
Question: What were the provincial reforms introduced in the Indian Act of 1935, and why this act failed to win appreciation from the various political factions of the Subcontinent?
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1935: Nothing could be done in the Round Table Conference to solve the constitutional problems of India. The only good factor of these conferences was this that they sufficiently marked the public opinion to enable the government to fully understand the problems and to take some concrete steps to solve them. The proposals of the Round Table Conference were contained in a white paper which was published in 1933 and discussed in the parliament. A committee was arranged under the leadership of Lord Linlithgow, the Viceroy of India, to consider the proposals of the white paper. The other members of the committee included Agha khan, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Shafaat Ahmad Khan, Abdur Rahim and A.H. Ghaznavi. The committee worked for one and half years and finally came out with a draft bill on February 5, 1935. The bill was discussed in the Parliament for 43 days and finally it was signed by King of England in July 1935 and was enforced in the country as Government of India Act 1935. SALIENT RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE ACT OF 1935: The Government of India Act contained 14 parts and 10 schedules and consisted of two parts. Part 1 pertained to provincial subjects while Part II contained federal list of subjects. The act came into operation on 1st April, 1937 except part II which could not enforced until a specific number of princely states acceded to the Indian Federation. This act introduced federal system in the centre. The provincial reforms were as follows. The provinces were given more authority and powers and for the first time the provinces were made the separate entities. The system of ‘Diarchy’, which had been established in the provinces by the Act of 1919, was to be established at the Center. However, it ended in the provinces.
Three lists of subjects were drawn up which were the federal list, the provincial list and the concurrent list. The provincial legislatures were given powers of legislation on provincial and concurrent subjects. The provincial executive was handed over to the representatives of the people who were accountable before the provincial legislatures. The country was divided into 11 provinces. Responsible parliamentary system was introduced in the provinces. The provinces were given the full autonomy. The Ministers were to be chosen from the representatives of the people. Every province was given a council of ministers whose advice was binding on the Governor. However, in the discharge of his responsibilities the Governor was to act under the general control the Governor-General. Special powers were given to the governors for the protection of the rights of minorities. AN UPRAISAL OF THE ACT OF 1935: The Act of 1935 failed to satisfy several political sections of the country. The Indian political leaders rejected due to the fact that it did not satisfy the demands of the different political factions. Quaid-e-Azam declared it as a defective document. The Federal System introduced by the Act of 1935 was defective in many ways. There was no guarantee of individual liberties neither it could give a workable dominion status. The people were not given their rights. All authority was vested in the Parliament which was under British influence. The system of Dyarchy, which had failed in the provinces, was introduced in the centre without any prospective results. Vast authority was given to the Governors in the provinces and to the Viceroy in the center, which was against the principle of democracy and provincial autonomy. The minister of State could interfere in the government services without any reasons. The central part of the Act could not be enforced and was suspended for some time. However, the provincial part of the Act was enforced on 1st April 1937, under which the election were to be held in the country.
Assignment No. 5
1. The first Martial Law was imposed in Pakistan in October 1958. 2. Provincial Governors are appointed by President on the advice of PM. 3. Hudood Ordinance was promulgated in the country in 1979. 4. The River System of Pakistan is consisted of Indus and other associated rivers. 5. Durand Line was drawn on November 1893 between Pakistan and Afghanistan. 6. Normally 25 percent area of a country should be covered with forests. 7. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was the first civilian chief Martial Law administrator of Pakistan. 8. Federal Shariat Court was established in 1981. 9. The Constitution of 1962 was abrogated on 25, March 1969. 10. Shahabuddin Commission presented its report on 6th May 1961.
Assignment No. 6
Question: Comment on the role of Pakistan’s Foreign Policy in International Relations Particularly with the reference to the Muslim World.
The foreign policy is defined as the relations or friendship among the independent states. However, in the broader point of view, the foreign policy is said to be those endeavors of the independent states, which they get on upon to develop close relations between them in order to benefit from each other’s achievements in various fields of human activity. The foreign policy is usually referred to as the general principles by which a state governs its re-action to the international environments. Foreign policy is a nation’s thought, desire and reflection of domestic political movement and behavior. It is always the product of interaction of many forces like ideological, historical, economic, national interests and geo-political locations. These factors determine the country’s outlook in world affairs. It is more or less, a friendly stance taken over by a nation in its dealings and connections with other nations with respect to the affairs falling beyond the territory of the conventional alliances or convenient settlement. The peculiar location of Pakistan with its linkages with the West and Central Asia, its cultural and ideological orientations as well as circumstances surrounding its birth ending in the partition of the Indian sub-continent make the task of fashioning a rational approach to international affairs complex and difficult. The wars with its hostile neighbor, the loss of its eastern part, its policy with regard to Afghanistan and its friendship and dependence with USA constitute the most important elements of its foreign relations. To these may be added close links with China and the Muslim countries especially Saudi Arabia, Gulf States, Iran and Turkey. The foreign policy of a country reflects the behavior pattern of a nation based on its collective wisdom in dealing with other nations. It can be based neither permanently on the dreaming of an individual, nor on the idealism of a group. The national goals, more or less, at external ends, as collected carefully through records of the nations, remain consistent, although they may be inharmonious internally with the man and the groups in power from time to time. A multitude of factors contributes to the making of an
outlook in dealings with nations of the world abroad. Friends and foes, as with individuals, are determined by the history and the geography of a nation. No country, whatever its economic potential, can remain isolated from the outside world any longer. Pakistan foreign policy is based on the fact to develop friendly relations with different countries of the world to enhance trade, economy etc. Pakistan fastens a special value to its relations with Islamic countries and is committed wholeheartedly to all Muslim causes and the strengthening of cooperation among Islamic countries. This has been an unshakeable pillar of our foreign policy. Pakistan has earned the respect of the Islamic world for its consistent and effective support of Muslim causes, specially at the United Nations. Pakistan’s relations with the Islamic Countries are based on the ideology of Pakistan. Pakistan was created to meet the irresistible urge of Muslims of subcontinent to have a homeland of their own where they could preserve in safety and tranquility their religion, culture and way of life and where they could live in peace and prosperity. The late Prime Minister of Pakistan Liaqat Ali Khan once said: “The underlying idea of the movement for the achievement of Pakistan was not just to add one more country to the collection of countries in the world or to add one more patch of color to the multi-colored global map. Pakistan came into being as a result of the urge felt by the Muslims of this subcontinent to secure a territory, however limited, where the Islamic Ideology and the way of life could be practiced and demonstrated to the world. A coordinal feature of this ideology is to make Muslim brotherhood a living reality. It is, therefore, part of the job, which Pakistan has set before itself to do every thing in its power to uphold closer friendship and assistance between Muslim Countries.” The special relations that Pakistan maintains with the countries of the Middle East have a historical, cultural, religious, strategic and economic basis. The relations are numbered by mutual trust and confidence that have stood the test of time and are never been effected even by change of governments. Over the years, Pakistan and the Gulf states have shown marked awareness of each other security concerns. This has been a continuing process, unaffected by changes of government or other factors in the international environment. Pakistan always supported for Arab causes, beginning with the decolonization process in the Middle East and North Africa and our continuing commitment to Palestinian self-determination, rooted in our national philosophies, and dates back to Pakistan’s own creation. Similarly, the Arab states have shown understanding and support for our position on Kashmir. Every Muslim country has supported Pakistan in the long-standing issue of Jammu and Kashmir and has said that this issue should be resolved as per the desires of Kashmiri people.
Pakistan always wants to have brotherhood and deep friendly relations among Muslim Countries. Relations with Muslim Countries are an important part of our foreign policy in order to enhance cooperation. Building friendly relations with Muslim Countries is important part of Pakistan Ideology. It is also written in the constitution of Pakistan to build friendly relation with Islamic Countries. Now-a-days, Pakistan has friendly relations with all Muslim Countries of the world. Pakistan is a member of all Muslim Organizations. Pakistan has always lifted its voice on the issues of Palestine, Kashmir, Eritrea, and Bosnia and also supported the all freedom Movements and also provided them all moral and diplomatic help. We see that Pakistan foreign policy is consistent towards Muslim Countries in every Government and this all is because of the fact that our great religion Islam stresses upon brotherhood and teaches us to be united all the time and this reason has grasped Pakistan and other Muslim countries at one place.
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