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Sally Tseng Period 1 Chapter #18: Renewing the Sectional Struggle – Big Picture Themes 1.

The main question facing the nation was, ―Will new lands won from Mexico have slaves or be free?‖ 2. The answer to the question was hammered out in the Compromise of 1850. It said California was to be free, popular sovereignty (the people decide) for the rest of the lands. 3. A tougher fugitive slave law was a major concession to the South, but it wasn’t enforced. This angered the Southerners. 4. The North—South rift was widened with the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It repealed the Missouri Compromise which had kept the peace for a generation. In it’s place, popular sovereignty opened the Great Plains to potential slavery. Whereas the slave-land issue had been settled, now it was a big question mark. IDENTIFICATIONS: Stephen Douglas Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the KansasNebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine. Franklin Pierce Democratic candidate for President in 1852 and the 14th president of the US. He made the Gadsden Purchase which opened the Northwest for settlement and passed the unpopular Kansas-Nebraska Act. Compromise of 1850 Package of 5 bills sent in September 1850. It defused a 4 year confrontation between the southern states and the northern states following the Mexican American War. Drafted by Whig Henry Clay and brokered by Democrat Stephen Douglas it temporarily avoided secession or civil war at the time and it quieted a sectional conflict for 4 years. Zachary Taylor 1784-1850, 12th president of the US 1849-50: major general during the Mexican War and commander of the army of the Rio Grande 1846 John C. Calhoun The ―Great Nullifier,‖ proposed to leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, give the south its rights as a minority, and restore the political balance. His view was that 2 presidents would be elected, one from the south and one from the north. Matthew C. Perry the Commodore of the US Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854

Sally Tseng Period 1 Henry Clay the ―Great Pacificator,‖ proposed a series of compromises. He suggested that the North enact a stricter fugitive-slave law. Free-Soil Party Short lived political party in the US that was active in the elections of 1848 and 1852. It was a 3rd party and gained most strength from New York. It consisted of former anti-slavery members from Democratic and Whig parties. Its main purpose was to oppose the expansion of slavery in the western territories in any new territories. When the party died ti was mostly swallowed up by the Republic party. Fugitive Slave Law part of the Compromise of 1850. It was a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal, and required their return to slaveholders. Harriet Tubman US abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North. 1820-1913

Ostend Manifesto A confidential 1854 dispatch to the US State Department from American diplomats meeting in Ostend, Belgium, suggesting that the US would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain refused to sell it to the US. When word of the document leaked, Northerners seethed at this ―slaveholders plot‖ to extend slavery. Kansas-Nebraska Act A compromise law in 1854 that suspended the Missouri Compromise and left it to voters in Kansas and Nebraska to determine whether they would be slave or free states. The law exacerbated sectional tensions when voters came to blows over the question of slavery in Kansas. It was very controversial and was supported by President Pierce, but not by Douglas. Chapter #19: Drifting Toward Disunion – Big Picture Themes 1. Uncle Tom’s Cabin drove a wedge between the Northerner and Southerner. The South cried foul saying it gave a view of slavery that was too harsh and unrealistic, but it cemented each section’s feelings on the issue. 2. Kansas became the battleground over slavery. Since slavery there was to be decided by popular vote, each side passionately fought for their position. Bloodshed resulted.

Sally Tseng Period 1 3. The Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision was huge. It said that Congress or a legislature cannot outlaw slavery in the territories. Effectively then, all new lands were possible slave lands. 4. A financial panic in 1857 added to the chaos and uncertainty. 5. Abe Lincoln arrived on the scene. Although he lost to Stephen Douglas for Illinois Senate, he made a name for himself there. 6. In 1860, Abe Lincoln won a very sectional race for president over 3 other candidates. The South had promised to leave the union if Abe won. He won, and the South indeed seceded. IDENTIFICATIONS: Hinton Helper – The Impending Crisis of the South Attempted to prove that indirectly the non-slave holding whites were the ones who suffered the most from slavery. The book was banned in the south, but countless copies were distributed as campaign material for republicans. George Fitzhugh a social theorist who published racial and slavery-based sociological theories in the antebellum era. He argued that ―the negro is but a grown up child‖ who needs the economic and social protections of slavery. John Brown A militant abolitionist that took radical extremes to make his views clear. In May of 1856, he led a group of his followers to Pottawattamie Creek and launched a bloody attack against proslavery men killing five people. Charles Sumner An unpopular senator from Massachusetts and a leading abolitionist. N 1856, he assaulted the pro-slavery of South Carolina and the South in his speech. The insult angered Brooks who then beat him unconscious. Dred Scott A black slave who had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin territory. He sued for his freedom on the basis of his long residence in free territory. Abraham Lincoln Ran against Senator Douglas in the senatorial elections of 1858. He became the Republican nominee for president. John Crittenden Senator of Kentucky. Responsible for the Crittenden Compromise. This augments the fact that the war was often between families.

Sally Tseng Period 1 ―Bleeding Kansas‖ many people feuded over the decision of making Kansas free leading to killing in Kansas. American or ―Know-Nothing‖ Party Developed from the order of the Star Spangled Banner and was made up of nativists. In 1865, they nominated the ex-president Fillmore. They were anti-foreign and anti-Catholic. Panic of 1857 The California gold rush increased inflation. Speculation in land and railroads hit the North harder than the South because the south had cotton as a staple source of income. It caused an increase in tariffs and gave the Republicans an issue for the election of 1860.

Lincoln-Douglas Debates Lincoln challenged Stephen Douglas to a series of 7 debates. Though Douglas won the senate seat, these debates gave Lincoln fame and helped him to later on win the presidency. These debates foreshadowed the Civil War. Freeport Doctrine occurred in Freeport, Illinois during the debates of Lincoln and Douglas for senator. This was a question that Lincoln asked Douglas that made Douglas answer in such a way that the south would know that he was not truly supporting them. Harper's Ferry Raid October 1859. John Brown of Kansas provided slaves with stolen fire arms in order to start a revolt. He failed and was captured. Constitutional Union Party also known as the ―do-nothings‖ or ―Old Gentlemen’s‖ party. Consisted mostly of Whigs and Know-Nothings that met in Baltimore to nominate John Bell from Tennessee as president candidate.

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries Know: Harriet Beecher Stowe, Hinton Helper 1. Which book, Uncle Tom's Cabin or The Impending Crisis of the South was more important? Explain. Uncle Tom’s Cabin was more important because it helped start and win the Civil War. The North-South Contest for Kansas Know: Beecher's Bibles, Border Ruffians 2. What went wrong with popular sovereignty in Kansas?

Sally Tseng Period 1 Popular sovereignty went wrong in Kansas when both the north and the south began fighting over whether or not Kansas would be a slave or free state. Kansas in Convulsion Know: John Brown, Pottawatomie Creek, Lecompton Constitution 3. What was the effect of "Bleeding Kansas" on the Democratic Party? Bleeding Kansas caused the Democratic Party to become divided which ended the last national party. "Bully" Brooks and His Bludgeon Know: Charles Sumner, Preston Brooks 5 What was the consequence of Brook's beating of Sumner in the North? The South? The North applauded Sumner’s speech and criticized Brook which also caused the South to become extremely angry. "Old Buck" versus "The Pathfinder" Know: James Buchanan, John C. Fremont, The American Party 6. Assess the candidates in the 1856 election. Buchanan was enemy less, but also confused and irresolute while Fremont also had no enemies, but had no political experience. The Electoral Fruits of 1856 7. Interpret the results of the election of 1856. Buchanan won the elections because many wanted to keep the Union as it was, and so agreed with the fire eaters and voted for him. The Dred Scott Bombshell Know: Dred Scott, Roger B. Taney 8 Why was the Dred Scott decision so divisive? Dred Scott decision was so divisive because it supported Southern views while causing popular sovereignty supporters to be aghast. The Financial Crash of 1857 8 How did the Panic of 1857 make Civil War more likely? The Panic of 1857 made Civil War more likely because it caused economic issues and financial problems. The Republicans were concerned with protection for the unprotected and farms for the farmless. An Illinois Rail-Splitter Emerges

Sally Tseng Period 1 10. Describe Abraham Lincoln's background.

Abraham Lincoln was born in 1809 in a Kentucky log cabin and was mostly self-educated. He married into the Todd family, and became a well-known lawyer. The Great Debate: Lincoln versus Douglas Know: Freeport Doctrine 11. What long term results occurred because of the Lincoln-Douglas debates? The Lincoln-Douglas debates caused Lincoln to be in the national limelight and he emerged as a potential Republican nominee for president. The debates proved to be one of the preliminary battlefield s of the Civil War. John Brown: Murderer or Martyr Know: Harper's Ferry, Robert E. Lee 12. Why were the actions of one (crazy?) man so important in the growing conflict between North and South? The north viewed John Brown as a martyr for fighting for his beliefs while the south viewed him as a traitor to the country. The Disruption of the Democrats Know: John C. Breckenridge, John Bell 13. What happened when the Democratic Party attempted to choose a candidate for the presidency in 1860? When the Democratic Party attempted to choose a candidate for the presidency of 1860, they could not agree on who to choose, so the party split. The north democratic party chose Douglas while the south democratic party chose Breckinridge. A Rail-Splitter Splits the Union 14. Why was Lincoln chosen as the Republican candidate instead of Seward? Lincoln was chosen as the Republican candidate because he had made fewer enemies than Seward had. The Electoral Upheaval of 1860 15. Did the South have any power in the national government after Lincoln’s election, or were they helpless? The south had a five to four majority on the Supreme Court and the federal government couldn’t touch slavery in those states where it existed. The Secessionist Exodus Know: Secession, Jefferson Davis 16.. What did President Buchanan do when the South seceded? Why?

Sally Tseng Period 1 When the south seceded, president Buchanan did not resort to force to keep the Union together, and did nothing. The Collapse of Compromise 17. What was the Crittendon Compromise and why did it fail? The Crittendon Compromise prohibited slavery in the northern territories above the 36 30 line, but the south was given federal protection in all territories where slavery already existed. Farewell to Union 18. What advantages did southerners see in secession? Who did they compare themselves to? The advantages seen by the southerners in the secession were an independent banking and trade with Europe.