Sally Tseng Period 1 Chapter #20: Girding for War: The North and the South – Big Picture

Themes 1. After Ft. Sumter started the war, keeping the border states were Abe’s top concern. These were slave states that hadn’t left the nation. Throughout the war, Abe would make concessions to “keep them happy.” The border states never left. 2. All along the South felt that England would help them. The idea was that King Cotton’s dominance would force the English into helping the Southerners. This never happened, largely because Uncle Tom’s Cabin had convinced the English people of slavery’s horrors. 3. The North had the advantage in almost every category: population, industry, money, navy. 4. Both sides turned to a draft, the nation’s first. The draft was very unpopular and many riots broke out. IDENTIFICATIONS: Election of 1860 Republican- Abraham Lincoln. Democratic- Stephan A Douglas, John C. Breckenridge. Constitutional Union- John Bell. Issues were slavery in the territories (Lincoln opposed adding any new slave states). William Seward Anti-slaveryite advocate of God’s moral law in the Senate. He was the wiry and husky-throated freshman senator from New york who opposed concession in 1850. Edwin M. Stanton An American lawyer and politician who served as secretary of war under the Lincoln Administration during the American Civil War from 1862-1865. His effective management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory. The Alabama Flew confederate flags but manned by British, picked up weapons in Portugal, The Alabama sunk 34 Union warships. The great destroyer was finally sunk off the coast of France. Emancipation Proclamation An executive order issued by the US president Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War under his war powers. It proclaimed the freedom of 3.1 million of the nation’s 4 million slaves, and immediately freed 50,000 of them, with the rest freed as Union armies advanced. Trent Affair An international diplomatic incident that occurred during the American Civil War. On November 8, 1861, the USS San Jacinto, commanded by union Captain Charles Wilkes, intercepted the British mail packet Trent and removed as contraband of war two Confederate diplomats, James Mason and John Slidell. The envoys were bound for Britain and France to press the Confederacy’s case for diplomatic recognition by Europe.

Sally Tseng Period 1 Merrimack and Monitor A frigate and sailing vessel of the US navy, best known as the hull upon which the ironclad warship, CSS Virginia was constructed during the American Civil War. It took part in the Battle of Hampton Roads and is noted as the first ironclad warship ever built. Monitor was the first ironclad warship commissioned by the US Navy during the American Civil War. It is most famous for the Battle of Hampton Roads on March 9, 1862. Anaconda Plan Plan for civil war proposed by general-in-chief Winfield Scott, which emphasized the blockade of Southern ports and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in two, the plan would suffocate the South. Border States The four slave states that stayed in the Union because of the assurances that the war was being fought to preserve the Union rather than end slavery. These four border states were Missouri, Delaware, Kentucky, and Maryland. Maryland was the key state for the north to keep in the Union. If it had joined the confederacy, the capital, DC, would have been surrounded by the confederacy. Appomattox Site of Robert E. Lee’s final surrender of the Army of Virginia to Ulysses S. Grant. Election of 1864 Lincoln running with Andrew Johnson on the National Union ticket, opposing McClellan who ran as a democrat even though he disagreed with the idea of ending the war, Lincoln wins because of support emerging from the victory at Atlanta and Sherman’s march to sea.

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Menace of Secession 1. What practical problems would occur if the United States became two nations? If the US were to become 2 nations, the national debt would be difficult to split and the fugitive slave laws would be even more difficult to uphold. South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter Know: Fort Sumter, Col. Robert Anderson 2. What action did Lincoln take that provoked a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter? What effects did the South's attack have? In order to attack Fort Sumter, Lincoln sent provisions on a ship which the south could not let pass, so the war started.

Sally Tseng Period 1 Brothers' Blood and Border Blood Know: Border States, Billy Yank, Johnny Reb 3. How did the border states affect northern conduct of the war? The border states affected northern conduct of the war because if they had not been a part of the Union, the capitol would have been surrounded by the Confederacy and caused for the north to have acted much more differently. The Balance of Forces Know: Robert E. Lee, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson 4. What advantages did the South have? The North? The South had better generals, a home field advantage, and only had to defend. The north had a larger population so a larger army, had a navy, had more money, and had ¾ of the railroad. Dethroning King Cotton Know: King Cotton, King Wheat, King Corn 5. Why did King Cotton fail the South? King Cotton failed in the south because it had been so lavishly productive in the prewar years and there was suddenly a surplus of cotton. The Decisiveness of Diplomacy Know: Trent, Alabama 6. What tensions arose with Great Britain during the Civil War? During the Civil War, tension arose with Britain when both the south and the north wanted foreign allies. Britain also contributed in the Alabama incident with the warships. Foreign Flare-Ups Know: Laird Rams, Napoleon III, Maximilian 5. What other circumstances led to serious conflict with Great Britain during the Civil War? Many Irish Americans hated the British and they raised many tiny armies to attack Canada in place of Britain. President Davis Versus President Lincoln Know: Jefferson Davis, States Rights, Abraham Lincoln 8. Describe the weaknesses of the Confederate government and the strengths of the Union government? The Confederate government was weak in that it could not logically deny future secession to its constituent states. The Union was strong in that it had a long-established government, was financially stable, and was fully recognized both at home and abroad. Lincoln also proved to be superior to Davis.

Sally Tseng Period 1 Limitations on Wartime Liberties Know: Habeas Corpus 9. Give examples of constitutionally questionable actions taken by Lincoln. Why did he act with arbitrary power? An example of Lincoln’s constitutionally questionable actions is the proclamation of a blockade despite legal objections. He acted this way because Congress was not in session when the war started, and so he needed to do something on his own. Volunteers and Draftees: North and South Know: Three-hundred-dollar-men, bounty jumpers 10. Was the Civil War "a rich man's war but a poor man's fight?" Explain. The Civil War was a rich man’s war because draftees had to pay 300 dollars in order to not be drafted. The Economic Stresses of War Know: Income Tax, Morrill Tariff Act, Greenbacks, National Banking Act, inflation 11. What was the effect of paper money on both North and South? Paper money caused inflation in both the north and the south. The North's Economic Boom Know: "Shoddy" Wool, Elizabeth Blackwell, Clara Barton, Dorthea Dix 12. Explain why the Civil War led to economic boom times in the North? Civil War led to economic boon times in the north because new factories were built and prices soared due to the inflation, leading to a new millionaire class. A Crushed Cotton Kingdom 13. Give evidence to prove that the war was economically devastating to the South. The war was economically devastating to the south in that transportation collapsed and many sections of the railroad were taken to repair other parts of it. Chapter #21: The Furnace of the Civil War – Big Picture Themes 1. The North thought they could win in a quick war. After they lost at Bull Run, the quickvictory approach seemed to have been a mistake. A northern loss on “the Peninsula” at Richmond reinforced that this would be a long war. 2. The South started the war winning. Turning point battles, which the North won, took place at (a) Antietam just before Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation”, (b) Gettysburg which effectively broke the South’s back, and (c) Vicksburg which helped the North control the Mississippi River.

Sally Tseng Period 1 3. Lincoln won a hard-fought reelection in 1864. He did so by starting the “Union Party” made of Republicans and pro-war Democrats and on the simplicity of the slogan, “You don’t change horses midstream.” 4. General Sherman marched across Georgia and the South and reaped destruction. And the South began to lose battle after battle. These events drove the South to surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. IDENTIFICATIONS Draft riots of 1863 A series of violent disturbances in New York that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. Charles Frances Adam The U.S. minister to England during the Civil War who kept the pressure on the British government to pay for destroyed shipping. Sherman's March Sherman left Atlanta and led his troops to the sea. They ate off and used the land and destroyed that which they did not use. 60 miles wide desolation was used to break the confederate’s materials and the morale and the will of the southern people. They reached Savannah by destroying towns along the way. Clement L. Vallandigham Denounced war, imprisoned, banished to South and then returns to Ohio illegally. He was an anti-war democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, calling him “King Abraham”. He was arrested and exiled to the south, a prominent copperhead who was an ex-congressman from Ohio, he demanded an end to the war, and was banished to the confederacy. Andrew Johnson A Southerner from Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president. He shared many views with the south, pardoned rebel leaders, and gave back some of their lands. John Wilkes Booth An actor, planned with others for 6 months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn’t arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre and cried, “Sic Semper Tyrannis!” He escaped, and was found several days later in a barn. C.S.S. Alabama British warship used to aid the confederates by looting and sinking many Union vessels, British (John Laird Sons and Company-Laird Rams, wreaked havoc on Union trade and blockade. National Banking Act The banking system was used to create the sale of government bonds and to establish a uniform bank note currency. The system could purchase government savings bonds and money to back the bonds. The National Banking Act was made during the Civil War, and was

Sally Tseng Period 1 the first real step taken toward a singular, unified banking system since Jackson killed the BUS. Union Party It included all of the Republicans and the War Democrats, but excluded the Copperheads and the Peach Democrats. It was formed out of fear of the Republican party losing control. It was responsible for nominating Lincoln. GUIDED READING Bull Run Ends the "Ninety Day War” Know: Bull Run, Stonewall Jackson 1. What effect did the Battle of Bull Run have on North and South? The Battle of Bull Run boosted the confidence of the South, and showed the north that they would have to work harder to win the war. "Tardy George" McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign Know: George McClellan, Peninsula Campaign, Robert E. Lee, "Jeb" Stuart, Seven Days' Battles, Anaconda Plan 2. Describe the grand strategy of the North for winning the war. The north decided to blockade the south with the Anaconda plan, and liberating the slaves. The War at Sea Know: Blockade, Continuous Voyage, Merrimac, Monitor 3. What was questionable about the blockade practices of the North? Why did Britain honor the blockade anyway? The blockade was questionable because it was especially sieve-like at the outset. Britain recognized it as binding and warned its shippers that they ignored it at their peril. Britain did not want a future war with America. The Pivotal Point: Antietam 4. Why was the battle of Antietam "...probably the most decisive of the Civil War?" The battle of Antietam was the most decisive of the Civil War because the Confederacy would never get as far as it did then, and was also the victory Lincoln needed to pass the Emancipation Proclamation that lead to the 13th Amendment. A Proclamation Without Emancipation Know: Emancipation Proclamation, Butternut Region 7. The Emancipation Proclamation had important consequences. Explain. The Emancipation Proclamation had important consequences it tried to free the slaves in the states where they wouldn’t be freed, and did not free the slaves in the states they could have been freed in.

Sally Tseng Period 1 Blacks Battle Bondage Know: Frederick Douglass, 54th Massachusetts, Fort Pillow 8. African-Americans were critical in helping the North win the Civil War. Assess. African Americans were also eventually allowed to fight in the war, and many were spies for the Union and helped in any way they could. Lee's Last Lunge at Gettysburg Know: Ambrose Burnside, Joe Hooker, George Meade, Gettysburg, Pickett's Charge, Gettysburg Address 1. Why was Gettysburg a significant battle? Gettysburg was a significant battle because it was the start of the South’s doom after Lincoln’s victory over the confederacy. The War in the West Know: Ulysses S. Grant, Fort Henry, Fort Donnelson, Shiloh, David Farragut, Vicksburg 10. Describe General Grant as a man and a general. General Grant was a mediocre student at West Point and only did well on horsemanship and mathematics. After fighting in the Mexican American war, he was stationed at an isolated frontier post and began drinking. As a general, he was able to gain Lincoln’s support as he was someone who would make sure what he said he would do was accomplished. Sherman Scorches Georgia Know: William T. Sherman, March to the Sea 11. How did Sherman attempt to demoralize the South? Sherman attempted to demoralize the South by plundering towns, salting the fields, polluting the well water, and vandalizing the railroads. The Politics of War Know: War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Clement L. Vallandingham 12. Describe Lincoln’s political difficulties during the war. Lincoln’s political difficulties during the war included the doubt he received from factions within his own party, the separation of the Democrats, and the issue of Vallandingham. The Election of 1864 Know: Andrew Johnson, George McClellan, Mobile, Atlanta 14. What factors contributed to Lincoln's electoral victory? Lincoln won the electoral victory because the Republicans joined with the War Democrats in fear of defeat. At first Lincoln faced many oppositions from hostile factions, but the “ditch Lincoln” move collapsed and the Union party nominated him without serious dissent.

Sally Tseng Period 1 Grant Outlasts Lee Know: The Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Grant the Butcher, Richmond, Appomattox Courthouse 15. What strategy did Grant use to defeat Lee's army? In order to defeat Lee’s army, Grant used the strategy of pitting his great number of soldiers against Lee’s army to see who would outlast the other. The Martyrdom of Lincoln Know: Ford's Theater, John Wilkes Boothe 16. Was Lincoln's death good or bad for the South? Explain. To the south, Lincoln’s death was a bad thing as his kindliness and moderation would have been the most effective shields between them and vindictive treatment by the victors. The Aftermath of the Nightmare Know: Lost Cause 17. What was the legacy of the Civil War? The legacy of the Civil War was the loss of the young men and potential leadership. Varying Viewpoints: What Were the Consequences of the Civil War? 18. Do you agree with those historians who say that the importance of the Civil War has been exaggerated? Why or Why not?

I disagree with historians that say the importance of the Civil War was exaggerated because the war was a very important time period in the history of the country. If the war had ended differently, then the United States of America might not be here today.

Chapter #22: The Ordeal of Reconstruction – Big Picture Themes 1. After the war, the question was, “What to do with the southern states?” The more moderate Republicans, like Lincoln and his successor Andrew Johnson, lost out to the Radical Republicans who desired to punish the South. 2. The South was divided up into military districts. The southern states were not allowed to reenter the U.S. until the North’s stipulations were met. 3. For Southern blacks, these years were good politically. Since whites wanted nothing to do with the U.S., blacks voted and were often elected to state legislatures and Congress.

Sally Tseng Period 1 4. Economically, freed blacks fared worse. They were no longer slaves, but with little other options, they largely became sharecroppers. The end result was little different and little better than slavery. 5. In 1877, a presidential election was essentially a tie. A compromise was worked out, and the South got the U.S. Army to pull out. This left the southern blacks on their own—southern whites reasserted their power.

GUIDED READING The Problems of Peace Know: Reconstruction 1. "Dismal indeed was the picture presented by the war-wracked South when the rattle of musketry faded." Explain. After the war, the south was destroyed. The crop fields were unable to be used as Sherman had salted the fields, there was a shortage of fresh water as the wells had also been polluted by Sherman, and the people of the south were unable to live as they once had. Freedmen Define Freedom Know: Exodusters, American Methodist Episcopal Church, American Missionary Association 2. How did African-Americans respond to emancipation in the decade following the war? African Americans did not know how to live in the decade following the war since they had lived generations under the watch of whites who provided all they needed to survive. The Freedmen's Bureau Know: Freedmen's Bureau, General Oliver O. Howard 3. Assess the effectiveness of the Freedmen's Bureau. The Freedmen’s Bureau was created to help African Americans start a new life with 40 acres of land and a mule. Many southern whites were able to bribe the workers of the Freedmen’s Bureau to bring in African Americans to “work” on their land. Johnson: The Tailor President Know: Andrew Johnson 4. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of Andrew Johnson. Andrew Johnson was weak in that he only received favorable attention from the north. He was of a humble background, and raised himself to be intelligent, able, forceful, and gifted with homespun honesty. He was also steadfastly devoted to duty and to the people. He believed in states’ rights and the Constitution.

Sally Tseng Period 1 Presidential Reconstruction Know: Lincoln's "10 percent plan," Wade-Davis Bill, Radical Republicans 5. How did the Presidents' plan for reconstruction differ from the plan of the Radical Republicans? The president’s plan for reconstruction differed from the plan of the Radical Republicans in that Radical Republicans wanted to punish the south and demanded equality for African Americans. The Baleful Black Codes Know: Black Codes, Labor Contracts, Sharecropping, Debt Peonage 6. How were Black Codes used to keep the freedmen down? The Black Codes were used to provide a stable labor supply now that African Americans were emancipated. It included sharecropping where African Americans were “hired” to work on plantations if they shared some of their crops. Congressional Reconstruction 7. Why did northern congressmen refuse to seat the southerners when they came to take their seats? (Hint: there are two reasons -- one moral and one practical) Northern congressmen refused to seat the southerners when they came to take their seats because it was feared that the southerners would join with the Democrats in the North and win control of Congress. They also did not want to be with those who rebelled against the Union. Johnson Clashes with Congress Know: Civil Rights Bill, "Andy Veto," Fourteenth Amendment 8. How did Republicans use their dominance of Congress? What did President Johnson do in response? Republicans used their dominance of Congress by passing bills that Johnson didn’t approve of, and in retaliation, Johnson vetoed the bills. Swinging `Round the Circle with Johnson 9. How did Johnson's campaigning during the 1866 congressional elections backfire? Why did it backfire? Johnson’s campaigning during the 1866 congressional elections backfired because he accused the radicals in Congress of having planned large-scale anti-black riots and murder in the south. Republican Principles and Programs Know: Charles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens, Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Moderate Republicans 10. How did the views of Moderate Republicans about reconstruction differ from the views of Radical Republicans? Moderate Republicans did not agree with the Radical Republicans’ view of rapid restoration.

Sally Tseng Period 1 Reconstruction by the Sword Know: Reconstruction Act, Fifteenth Amendment, Military Reconstruction, Redeemers, Home Rule 11. Describe military reconstruction. Military reconstruction was a division of the south into 5 military districts. The southern states must ratify the 14th Amendment and must agree to suffrage for all African Americans in order to be readmitted into the Union. No Women Voters Know: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Woman's Loyal League, Fourteenth Amendment 12. Why did some women feel that they did not receive their due after the Civil War? Some women feel that they did not receive their due after the Civil War because they had played a prominent part in the prewar abolitionist movement and had worked wholeheartedly during the war for emancipation. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South Know: Union League, Suffrage, Hiram Revels, Blanche K. Bruce, Scalawags, Carpetbaggers 13. In what ways did African-Americans become politically involved in the years immediately following the Civil War? How did White southerners view their involvement? African Americans became politically involved immediately after the Civil War in that they were allowed to vote. White southerners then passed a poll tax, a literacy test, and a grandfather clause that prevented most if not all African Americans from voting. The Ku Klux Klan Know: Ku Klux Klan, Force Acts, Disfranchise 14. In what ways did Southern whites attempt to keep former slaves down? Southern whites attempted to keep former slaves down with intimidation tactics. Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank Know: Radical Republicans, Ben Wade, Tenure of Office Act, Edwin Stanton 15. How did the Radical Republicans "manufacture" an impeachment of Andrew Johnson? Radical Republicans “manufacture” an impeachment of Andrew Johnson when he abruptly dismissed Stanton from office.

Sally Tseng Period 1 A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson Know: Benjamin F. Butler, Thaddeus Stevens 16. Why were the Radicals unsuccessful in removing Johnson from office? The Radicals were unsuccessful in removing Johnson from office because he was one vote away in the Senate from being impeached. The Purchase of Alaska Know: William Seward, Russia 17. Explain why Alaska was called "Seward's Folly," but was purchased anyway. Alaska was called “Seward’s Folly” because Seward’s views of Alaska were not shared by his countrymen. Alaska was purchased anyway because America did not want to offend the Russian tsar by returning his gift. The Heritage of Reconstruction 18. Assess the success of Republican reconstruction.

The Republican reconstruction was unsuccessful because more acts of violence occurred, many African Americans were still treated as slaves, and African Americans did not achieve equality until many years later.