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Domain Name System (DNS)

Domain Name System (DNS)

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Domain names are often descriptive of the organization registering the domain, which enhances their utility for humans. Once a domain’s mnemonic name is registered, the organization that registered the name is free to extend the name to obtain mnemonic identifiers for individual items within the domain.
Domain names are often descriptive of the organization registering the domain, which enhances their utility for humans. Once a domain’s mnemonic name is registered, the organization that registered the name is free to extend the name to obtain mnemonic identifiers for individual items within the domain.

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Computer Science

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Domain Name System (DNS)
Domain names are often descriptive of the organization registering the domain, which enhances their utility for humans. Once a domain’s mnemonic name is registered, the organization that registered the name is free to extend the name to obtain mnemonic identifiers for individual items within the domain. Although mnemonic addresses are convenient for humans, messages are always transferred over the Internet by means of IP addresses. Thus, if a human wants to send a message to a distant machine and identifies the destination by means of a mnemonic address, the software being used must be able to convert that address into an IP address before transmitting the message. This conversion is performed with the aid of numerous servers, called name servers that are essentially directories that provide address translation services to clients. Collectively, these name servers are used as an Internet-wide directory system known as the domain name system (DNS). The process of using the DNS to perform a translation is called a DNS lookup. Thus, for a machine to be accessible by means of a mnemonic domain name, that name must be represented in a name server within the DNS. In those cases in which the entity establishing the domain has the resources, it can establish and maintain its own name server containing all the names within that domain. Indeed, this is the model on which the domain system was originally based. Each registered domain represented a physical region of the Internet that was operated by a local authority such as a company, university, or government agency. This authority was essentially an access ISP that provided Internet access to its members by means of its own intranet that was linked to the Internet. As part of this system, the organization maintained its own name server that provided translation services for all the names used within its domain. This model is still common today. However, many individuals or small organizations want to establish a domain presence on the Internet without committing the resources necessary to support it. For example, it might be beneficial for a local chess club to have a presence on the Internet as

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Subject: Computer Science
KingsandQueens.org, but the club would likely not have the resources to establish its own network, maintain a link from this network to the Internet, and implement its own name server. In this case, the club can contract with an access ISP to create the appearance of a registered domain using the resources already established by the ISP. Typically, the club, perhaps with the assistance of the ISP, registers the name chosen by the club and contracts with the ISP to have that name included in the ISP’s name server. This means that all DNS lookups regarding the new domain name will be directed to the ISP’s name server, from which the proper translation will be obtained. In this way, many registered domains can reside within a single ISP, each often occupying only a small portion of a single computer.

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