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Chapter #20: Girding for War: The North and the South – Big Picture Themes 1. After Ft.

Sumter started the war, keeping the border states were Abe’s top concern. These were slave states that hadn’t left the nation. Throughout the war, Abe would make concessions to “keep them happy.” The border states never left. 2. All along the South felt that England would help them. The idea was that King Cotton’s dominance would force the English into helping the Southerners. This never happened, largely because Uncle Tom’s Cabin had convinced the English people of slavery’s horrors. 3. The North had the advantage in almost every category: population, industry, money, navy. 4. Both sides turned to a draft, the nation’s first. The draft was very unpopular and many riots broke out. IDENTIFICATIONS: Election of 1860 This election was between Lincoln, Bell, Douglas, and Breckenridge. This was a republican victory and resulted in southern secession. William Seward Secretary of State to Lincoln and helped prevent foreign intervention. Edwin M. Stanton Lincoln’s secretary of War and helped organize a union victory. The Alabama A confederate sloop of war that harassed union shipping. Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln made a proclamation that all slaves in the rebel states were free. Trent Affair A union ship pulled over a British ship to take 2 southern diplomats. Merrimack and Monitor The first two ironclads and revolutionized naval warfare. Anaconda Plan This was the plan to stave the south with a blockade, and control of the Mississippi. Border States

States that were slave states but did not join the South in session. Appomattox The final surrender point of Robert E Lee to Grant. Election of 1864 Election between Lincoln vs McClellan. Lincoln won because of a series of victories.

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Menace of Secession 1. What practical problems would occur if the United States became two nations? This would of allowed the European powers to reinstate the policy of imperialism in America. South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter Know: Fort Sumter, Col. Robert Anderson 2. What action did Lincoln take that provoked a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter? What effects did the South's attack have? Lincoln sent an armored warship to provide food. This started the civil war and prompted other states to secede. Brothers' Blood and Border Blood Know: Border States, Billy Yank, Johnny Reb 3. How did the border states affect northern conduct of the war? This was a great benefit to the north since it prevented more states from seceding and made the Union more careful not to get them to rebel. The Balance of Forces Know: Robert E. Lee, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson 4. What advantages did the South have? The North? South: defensive war, knowledge of the land, great generals. North: more of everything except generals. Dethroning King Cotton Know: King Cotton, King Wheat, King Corn 5. Why did King Cotton fail the South? The Europeans had other ways to get cotton other than the south. The Decisiveness of Diplomacy Know: Trent, Alabama 6. What tensions arose with Great Britain during the Civil War? Tensions arose from British built warships for the south.

Foreign Flare-Ups Know: Laird Rams, Napoleon III, Maximilian 5. What other circumstances led to serious conflict with Great Britain during the Civil War? The British was going to build ironclads for the south but eventually backed out. President Davis Versus President Lincoln Know: Jefferson Davis, States Rights, Abraham Lincoln 8. Describe the weaknesses of the Confederate government and the strengths of the Union government? Confederate: no central government North: already set government, strong and financially stable. Limitations on Wartime Liberties Know: Habeas Corpus 9. Give examples of constitutionally questionable actions taken by Lincoln. Why did he act with arbitrary power? Lincoln suspended Habeas Corpus to prevent any antiwar efforts. He did so to preserve the Union. Volunteers and Draftees: North and South Know: Three-hundred-dollar-men, bounty jumpers 10. Was the Civil War "a rich man's war but a poor man's fight?" Explain. Yes, the conscripted poor had to fight while the rich white man could pay his way out. The Economic Stresses of War Know: Income Tax, Morrill Tariff Act, Greenbacks, National Banking Act, inflation 11. What was the effect of paper money on both North and South? This use of paper money caused major inflation in both the north and the south. The North's Economic Boom Know: "Shoddy" Wool, Elizabeth Blackwell, Clara Barton, Dorthea Dix 12. Explain why the Civil War led to economic boom times in the North? The war encouraged the production of war materials which stimulated the economy. A Crushed Cotton Kingdom 13. Give evidence to prove that the war was economically devastating to the South. The ravaging done by the northern generals destroyed the southern land and economy by burning everything

Chapter #21: The Furnace of the Civil War – Big Picture Themes 1. The North thought they could win in a quick war. After they lost at Bull Run, the quick-victory approach seemed to have been a mistake. A northern loss on “the Peninsula” at Richmond reinforced that this would be a long war. 2. The South started the war winning. Turning point battles, which the North won, took place at (a) Antietam just before Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation”, (b) Gettysburg which effectively broke the South’s back, and (c) Vicksburg which helped the North control the Mississippi River. 3. Lincoln won a hard-fought reelection in 1864. He did so by starting the “Union Party” made of Republicans and pro-war Democrats and on the simplicity of the slogan, “You don’t change horses midstream.” 4. General Sherman marched across Georgia and the South and reaped destruction. And the South began to lose battle after battle. These events drove the South to surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. IDENTIFICATIONS Draft riots of 1863 Riots that broke out in the north in protest of the mandatory draft. Charles Frances Adam US diplomat to Britain and convinced the English to stay out of the war. Sherman's March Sherman’s devastating march through Georiga and the South ruined the economy and broke the south’s will to go on Clement L. Vallandigham Leader of the Copperheads and an antiwar democrat. Andrew Johnson Vice president to Lincoln and was in charge of Reconstruction. John Wilkes Booth Southern sympathizer and assassinated Lincoln. C.S.S. Alabama Ship built by the British and given to the south that attacked Union merchants. National Banking Act This was to help stimulate the sale of government bonds.

Union Party Political party that formed during the election of 1864 to secure Lincoln’s victory. GUIDED READING Bull Run Ends the "Ninety Day War” Know: Bull Run, Stonewall Jackson 1. What effect did the Battle of Bull Run have on North and South? The Battle of Bull Run showed that the war would not be a quick one. "Tardy George" McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign Know: George McClellan, Peninsula Campaign, Robert E. Lee, "Jeb" Stuart, Seven Days' Battles, Anaconda Plan 2. Describe the grand strategy of the North for winning the war. The strategy of the north was to starve the south through a blockade and to split the south in half by taking the Mississippi river. The War at Sea Know: Blockade, Continuous Voyage, Merrimac, Monitor 3. What was questionable about the blockade practices of the North? Why did Britain honor the blockade anyway? The American’s questionable acts were the seizures of multiple British ships and stating their destination even though they were not exactly true. The British honored the blockade because they did not want to go to war. The Pivotal Point: Antietam 4. Why was the battle of Antietam "...probably the most decisive of the Civil War?" This was important because it guaranteed that the south would not get foreign support. A Proclamation Without Emancipation Know: Emancipation Proclamation, Butternut Region 7. The Emancipation Proclamation had important consequences. Explain. This would devastate the southern economy by encouraging slaves to runaway and strengthened the union cause home and abroad. Blacks Battle Bondage Know: Frederick Douglass, 54th Massachusetts, Fort Pillow 8. African-Americans were critical in helping the North win the Civil War. Assess. The African Americans with the war effort through movement of provisions and military service. Lee's Last Lunge at Gettysburg Know: Ambrose Burnside, Joe Hooker, George Meade, Gettysburg, Pickett's Charge, Gettysburg Address 1. Why was Gettysburg a significant battle?

It would be the last time the south would be on the offensive. The War in the West Know: Ulysses S. Grant, Fort Henry, Fort Donnelson, Shiloh, David Farragut, Vicksburg 10. Describe General Grant as a man and a general. Grant was a short quiet and an alcoholic. He was a successful general but not a very skilled one. Sherman Scorches Georgia Know: William T. Sherman, March to the Sea 11. How did Sherman attempt to demoralize the South? Sherman demoralized the south by destroying everything in his way. The Politics of War Know: War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Clement L. Vallandingham 12. Describe Lincoln’s political difficulties during the war. The Republican party was split in groups and the Democrats tried to end the war. The Election of 1864 Know: Andrew Johnson, George McClellan, Mobile, Atlanta 14. What factors contributed to Lincoln's electoral victory? The Republicans joined with the war democrats to win the election. Grant Outlasts Lee Know: The Wilderness, Cold Harbor, Grant the Butcher, Richmond, Appomattox Courthouse 15. What strategy did Grant use to defeat Lee's army? Grant just outlasted Lee. The Martyrdom of Lincoln Know: Ford's Theater, John Wilkes Boothe 16. Was Lincoln's death good or bad for the South? Explain. Lincoln’s death was bad for the south because he was willing to let the south return in peace. The Aftermath of the Nightmare Know: Lost Cause 17. What was the legacy of the Civil War? It was the supreme test of America’s democracy and inspired democracy throughout the world. Varying Viewpoints: What Were the Consequences of the Civil War? 18. Do you agree with those historians who say that the importance of the Civil War has been exaggerated? Why or Why not?

No the civil was is an extremely important part of history because it defines American politics for the next 100+years.

Chapter #22: The Ordeal of Reconstruction – Big Picture Themes 1. After the war, the question was, “What to do with the southern states?” The more moderate Republicans, like Lincoln and his successor Andrew Johnson, lost out to the Radical Republicans who desired to punish the South. 2. The South was divided up into military districts. The southern states were not allowed to reenter the U.S. until the North’s stipulations were met. 3. For Southern blacks, these years were good politically. Since whites wanted nothing to do with the U.S., blacks voted and were often elected to state legislatures and Congress. 4. Economically, freed blacks fared worse. They were no longer slaves, but with little other options, they largely became sharecroppers. The end result was little different and little better than slavery. 5. In 1877, a presidential election was essentially a tie. A compromise was worked out, and the South got the U.S. Army to pull out. This left the southern blacks on their own—southern whites reasserted their power.

GUIDED READING The Problems of Peace Know: Reconstruction 1. "Dismal indeed was the picture presented by the war-wracked South when the rattle of musketry faded." Explain. The southern lifestyle was ruined, and entire generation of men disappeared and the economy was in shatters. Freedmen Define Freedom Know: Exodusters, American Methodist Episcopal Church, American Missionary Association 2. How did African-Americans respond to emancipation in the decade following the war? Some slaves resisted the Union soldiers and others responded with glee.

The Freedmen's Bureau

Know: Freedmen's Bureau, General Oliver O. Howard 3. Assess the effectiveness of the Freedmen's Bureau. The Freedmen’s Bureau was successful because it educated the former slaves which is an important step for more rights. Johnson: The Tailor President Know: Andrew Johnson 4. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of Andrew Johnson. Andrew Johnson was a great orator, intelligent, able forceful and honet. He did not understand the north and earned distrust from the south. Presidential Reconstruction Know: Lincoln's "10 percent plan," Wade-Davis Bill, Radical Republicans 5. How did the Presidents' plan for reconstruction differ from the plan of the Radical Republicans? The presidents wanted the states to return peacefully but the Radicals wanted to punish them. The Baleful Black Codes Know: Black Codes, Labor Contracts, Sharecropping, Debt Peonage 6. How were Black Codes used to keep the freedmen down? These rules kept the freedmen down by forming a freemen’s form of slavery, bounding the blacks to their old master’s land. Congressional Reconstruction 7. Why did northern congressmen refuse to seat the southerners when they came to take their seats? (Hint: there are two reasons -- one moral and one practical) The republicans were unwilling to reinstate old southerners because they wanted control in Congress and that they were still traitors. Johnson Clashes with Congress Know: Civil Rights Bill, "Andy Veto," Fourteenth Amendment 8. How did Republicans use their dominance of Congress? What did President Johnson do in response? Republicans tried to pass bills that Johnson vetoed but congress overthrew his veto with a majority in Congress. Swinging `Round the Circle with Johnson 9. How did Johnson's campaigning during the 1866 congressional elections backfire? Why did it backfire? Johnson tried to make speeches to rally crowds but gave the others more votes. He insulted his own party. Republican Principles and Programs Know: Charles Sumner, Thaddeus Stevens, Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Moderate Republicans

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How did the views of Moderate Republicans about reconstruction differ from the views of Radical Republicans? The radicals wanted to take the rebel states out of power and the moderates wanted to honor state’s rights. Reconstruction by the Sword Know: Reconstruction Act, Fifteenth Amendment, Military Reconstruction, Redeemers, Home Rule 11. Describe military reconstruction. Military Reconstruction was putting soldiers into the South. No Women Voters Know: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Woman's Loyal League, Fourteenth Amendment 12. Why did some women feel that they did not receive their due after the Civil War? They did not get equal rights and the right to vote. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South Know: Union League, Suffrage, Hiram Revels, Blanche K. Bruce, Scalawags, Carpetbaggers 13. In what ways did African-Americans become politically involved in the years immediately following the Civil War? How did White southerners view their involvement? They began to run for office and gain positions which was a threat to the whites. The Ku Klux Klan Know: Ku Klux Klan, Force Acts, Disfranchise 14. In what ways did Southern whites attempt to keep former slaves down? They terrorized them with terrorist tactics including violence. Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank Know: Radical Republicans, Ben Wade, Tenure of Office Act, Edwin Stanton 15. How did the Radical Republicans "manufacture" an impeachment of Andrew Johnson? They claimed that Johnson was a bad president and hurt the nation. A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson Know: Benjamin F. Butler, Thaddeus Stevens 16. Why were the Radicals unsuccessful in removing Johnson from office? They did not have the full support of the moderates in congress. The Purchase of Alaska Know: William Seward, Russia 17. Explain why Alaska was called "Seward's Folly," but was purchased anyway. Seward saw Alaska as a future investment and good for America.

The Heritage of Reconstruction 18. Assess the success of Republican reconstruction. It was successful at first but a failure in the end.