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Hippie The beautiful, the sublime , and the picturesque in Eighteenth-century British

Aesthetic theory
(duplicate)

5/20/69

f

MAR21

MAY

69

THE BEAUTIFUL, THE SUBLIME,
AND THE PICTURESQUE
IN

EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY
BRITISH AESTHETIC

THEORY

WALTER JOHN
The
Beautiful,

HIPPLE,

Jr.

The

Sublime,

& The

Picturesque
In

Eighteenth- Century
British Aesthetic

Theory

Carbondale

THE SOUTHERN

ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY PRESS
1957

Copyright,

by

The Southern

Illinois University

Press

Card Library of Congress Catalog
Manufactured
in the

Number S7~"9535

United States of America

by Vail-Ballou Press, Inc., Binghamton,

N.Y.

AB

7 8 Kames J9/<rir 99 122 133 149 158 /##& 9 6zr Joshua Reynolds 10 11 Thomas Reid Archibald Alison ii- Beautiful. Sublime. Picturesque and Picturesque 185 1 2 The 13 1 William Gilpn 192 4 &> Uvedale Price 202 . Beautiful and Sublime 1 1 Joseph A ddison 3 2 3 Francis Hutcheson 25 David Hume 37 4 5 William Hogarth Alexander Gerard 54 67 83 6 Edmund Burke ZLor^ .CONTENTS INTRODUCTION i.

vi Contents 1 5 Humphry Region The Price-Repton Contr oversy Richard Payne Knight 224 238 1 6 1 7 8 247 278 1 The Price-Knight Controversy Dugald Stewar t Retrospect 19 284 303 323 NOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED INDEX 377 385 .

THE SUBLIME. AND THE PICTURESQUE IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY BRITISH AESTHETIC THEORY .THE BEAUTIFUL.

who find Some favorite system to their to mmd y In every point Will force all make it fit} nature to submit.Philosophers. SWIFT .

writers even of some intrinsic or historical importance. of taste. some examination of the philosophic and methodological principles of the aestheticians surveyed. and since the principles. is possible. Treatment of beauty. an interaction of subject and object of the faculties of the percipient with ity. the sublime. and the picturesque. of the picturesque. It is my opinion that previous reviews of the several aspects of eighteenth-century aesthetic theory of sublimity.INTRODUCTION is both more and less than its title suggests: more in that the writings on aesthetics of the authors treated are discussed without close restriction to arguments on beauty. divorced from the others. 3 . bases. sublim- The view narily a consequence of. and functions of these distinctions are ordinarily different in different writers. moreover. or and picturesqueness requires. and is further determined by the devices of argumentation employed. of these aesthetic characters adopted by a writer is ordiis at any rate referred to. or of still THE METHOD more limited have been in some measure vitiated by this very limitation. of my inquiry has dictated the first deviation from the subject as narrowly conceived. sublimity. for the philosophic problem consists partly in their interrelations. no adequate and accurate account of any one such character. a set of psychological (or metaphysical) principles. therefore. All three must be seen at once. There is in all aesthetic phenomena. topics Since sublimity and picturesqueness are usually defined by distinction from beauty and from one another. are omitted. and THIS STUDY picturesqueness j less in that numerous eighteenth-century writers on the beautiful.

The so reported. The philosophic value of a thought is a function of its context. it supplied. is presented as an integral whole. or the relation of judgment to genius (or a "topic" as whatever is it may be) are picked out of his books and ranged along- side the pronouncements of his predecessors and successors. then. and can be estimated only in its context. not only the precise meaning lost. are such as any sophomore would regreat difference between the judgments of a lies in good writer and those of everyman the circumstance that in one case the opinions are supported by arguments and have a systematic connection with opinions on other topics. Very often. there exist no accurate accounts of their positions 5 and this (as I defect I A more sults. or the cultivation of taste. or with which it may be connected must be treated conjointly with beauty. then. of the undermining logical integrity of texts reseems to me. ject with scorn. There is first hope) no distortion of doctrine consequent upon wrenching fragments out of their systematic contexts to be incorporated into an historical or dialectical account organized on principles different from those of the systems analyzed. that such problems must be included as well. in its own terms 5 and I have intended hereby to avoid two great evils of scholarly surveys. For most of the authors I have studied. The opinions even of Aristotle and Hume. the solution of critical problems it. for instance. or of taste. nor is beauty definable apart from the nature of the mind apprehending Taste. in their day. II EACH SYSTEM of aesthetics. that imitations of unpleasant originals may be aesthetically agreeable is so closely connected with the view taken of the nature of beauty. in the arts of the paradox. from the almost universal practice of treating subtle it hope that I have in some measure appears in one or several authors. but the opinions usually come to seem shallow and witless. therefore and those faculties into which taste may be resolved. or the use of figurative language.4 Introduction the properties and relations of the aesthetic object which makes it impossible to define either variable independently of the other: taste cannot be discussed in abstraction from the nature of beauty. A major difference. When a writer's pronouncements on the picturesque. between this study and . too. reckoned as impressive thinkers convinced that tous les hommes sont fous. and presented. One comes away from articles or books about writers who were. moreover.

organization. and so forth. or doctrine. of authors. that it does not seem to be a history. It is not a history j it is a philosophical survey of a series of aestheticians. is its books seriously.Introduction 5 many and others of the same period. exceptionally difwhat are those narrative propositions about eighteenth-century British aesthetics which will neither conflict with the historical The of solution: data nor be so vaguely general as to be nugatory? tories (books The existing his- and articles) seem to me to fall into the two classes which R. The intellectual causes de- termining the propositions enunciated by theorists are ignored in favor of a technique of comparison of passages in the work treated with passages in other works exhibiting similarity in terms. and approaches of the men who create the systems j and I have wished to keep the two questions distinct. suppositions. My intelligible interest has been in systems considered as logical structures. the doctrines reported seem as plausible as I can by outlining their logical bases. 1 In a history of philosophy. the influence of philosophical and methodological principles is minimized. S. principles. a survey in which the writers are arranged chronologically chiefly for the reason that the later ones had read the earlier. and try to make that I take the period. and argue with them unless one is arguments which are not fully familiar with the positions canvassed. distinc- This procedure does have the merit of focussing attention upon the text. moreover. In its common form. or of some branch or problem of philosophy. and the more dubious advantage that the historian need have no special philosophic competence. These organizing ideas or terms must clearly be larger in scope vaguer than those used by the authors discussed 5 and very commonly they are ordered set of organizing ideas in pairs of general contraries jective. and. handled as a philological inquiry. Crane has described: philological and dialectical. It will strike the reader of this study. as inferred from or read into their state- . the philological method produces source-and-influence studies j in its extreme form. scholars may be led to attempt solution of philosophical problems by merely linguistic considerations. and arguments in the writers he treats by arranging them under a which he himself supplies. ficult problem seems to me. Faustian and Apollonian. The other common mode of intellectual history is dialectical: the historian endeavors to cope with the diversity of terms. objective and suband romantic. indeed. its writers. classical The attitudes reason and feeling. need not even have read continuously or entire the texts he discusses. tions. not in the changing tastes.

but the summary is accompanied by commentary pointing out philosophic principles. and in its more tion of the Zeitgeist. I have not hesitated to engage in criticism of authors. Such analogical history produces. in the case of many of these writers. of doctrine here. Knight. moreover. In particular. I have intended to discover the coherence of each system. and Repton over the picturesque are treated with the intention of showing how far translation from the language of one system into that of another can solve the diffar they arise ferences. Before entering upon exposition of the several systems. he may introduce dogmas logically unconnected with the system.6 Introduction much regard to the ments. principles may be from the first unequal to explanation of the phenomena. There is summary than is available elsewhere . Ill NOT FINDING a one. I confine this and not desiring to superimpose history in the subject. the disputes conducted so vigorously among the eighteenth-century aestheticians most notably that threecornered argument of Price. are ranged under such heads without were statements the supported . how from the fundamental suppositions and argumentative techniques of the disputants. In confuting the opinions of predecessors or antagonists. But the author of a system may and adequacy through some own principles 5 prejudice or passion lose sight of or contravene his he may fail to carry them out to their full reach and scope. book to the analysis of texts. it may be proper to hazard a few generalizations about the entire group of . interposing historical intellectual causes appear to me. fuller. interrelations beparts ment. studies in the evoluschematism. but this criticism is not usually based only on difference of my opinion. in its more pedestrian which analyze mode. and how far they are real 3 and if real. interconnections tween systems. and. methods of arguwithin of systems. of his course. authors characteristically misconceive and misstate the positions they attack. the studies of literary or philosophical problems the struggles of authors with the dilemmas and inconsistencies that in the light of the historian's appear when their texts are interpreted ambitious mode. and lines of arguments by which between these sets of ator and change are traced within persistence titudes. and the analyst must set these misconstructions right. conjectures only where clear-cut This analysis of texts is not intended to be precis-writing.

as well as Poetry and Oratory. whether philosophers. are concerned with the response of the mind to the qualities and relations of objects in nature and art. and science under the same principles. a distinction can be drawn between literal and dialectical writers between. All are concerned with a subject beauty. and seek literal causes of aesthetic sensibility j further differentiation can be effected by considering the kinds of causes discovered. quoting the very passage from The Spectator? All these aestheticians (again). that is. in other Words. since the Cartesian revolution in philosophy. and the isolation of in uniqueness is the chief problem of the scholar. or amateurs. but in what is common to nature and art and this common element. in some measure unique in each writer. Of the writers here treated." A host of writers during the century iterate and reiterate like opinions. or beauty and sublimity. may be either physiological or psychoof beauty (or of sublimity or picturesqueness) feelings . accordingly. and who are con- cerned with discovering literal cause-and-effect sequences \ and those writers who employ terms analogically (ordinarily arranged as contraries). Architecture and Painting. The principles of aesthetics and criticism. are to deduce their Laws and Rules from the general Sense and Taste of Mankind. The mechanism through which the objective properties and relations pro- duce their subjective responses logical: that is. and towards its close Alison echoes the thought once more. those writers who employ terms uni vocally. who keep from connections) aesthetic questions separate (except for causal ethical and scientific questions. and there are in every case three problems: the nature of the effects on the mind beauty and sublimity and picj turesqueness as feelings j the nature of the causes of those effects in objects beauty and sublimity and picturesqueness as traits of the objects of perception and consciousness. ethics. and not from the Principles of those Arts themselves or. but the Art to the Taste. The way this which these three problems are formulated and solved is. Reynolds alone is dialectical. In the first place.Introduction J writers treated. Addison proclaimed that "Musick. is of course the mind which apprehends both realms. or beauty and sublimity and picturesqueness which transcends the boundaries between nature and art. are sought not in the peculiar nature of art. artists. At the beginning of the century. of course. 2 the Taste is not to conform to the Art. The great majority are literal. and the nature of the connection between causes and effects the mechanism of efficiency. who tend to bring aesthetics. and who argue less by cause-and-effect than by dis- tinguishing "levels" of thought and reality.

as in the improved perceptions of sight. Comprised among are associations between impressions of the ex- ternal senses.8 Introduction be taken to be the direct consequence o organic and nervous rebe held to be the consequence of sponses..e. or with other affecting ideas $ or they may be associated as signs or symbols (Matthew Arnold's Signal Elm. or (instead) they may to perception or consciousness of purely mental operations subsequent their objects. No writer finds these aesthetic feelings wholly debut physiological causes play a conpendent on physiological agency. a further distinction special modes senses: whether various modes of beauty are analogically reduced to in Hutcheson) or whether the numperceptions of one such sense (as ber of senses is multiplied to match the different classes or material causes of beauty (as in Lord Kames). the case is is taken in a sense of these mental phenomena can be so designated: thus Alison can be said to trace all aesthetic effect to "association. a substantial role trolling role in Uvedale Price. If the term "association of ideas" sufficiently loose. as external wholes the ideas of (i. If can be based on the number of such pealed to." But the term be taken this broadly (to which some writers make need to be discriminated. . the ordinary faculties functioning in more complex. There are direct associations between sense impressions and passions. for instance) of historical. in distinction objects volving from their qualities and relations severally). and these of two kinds: the ideas of the objects may be associated as such (the idea of a tree qua tree) with ideas of human life and activity. or other phenomena. all and beauty is attributed to some special way. then various kinds of association if Associations among habits guished from atomic associations atomic impressions and ideas must be distinand tendencies of the faculties. There are associations between the ideas of the qualities and relations of sensible There are associations inobjects and those of human personality. The bent of a writer in attending more to one or more to another type of these associations is of great. indeed of crucial. and no inconsiderable part in the theory of Payne may m 4 Knight. artistic. objection). If no extraordinary sense is discovered. social. Those the writers who emphasize mental faculties and operations of as essential mechanism producing our feelings beauty may either postulate special faculties appropriated to this purpose the or may emphasize internal senses of Hutcheson and Lord Kames of operation of faculties appropriated to other funcinternal senses are aptions notably the association of ideas. that of the theory of Burke.

and Knight. upon those writers A who selection being necessary. but it seems to promise. and Reid's as the leading their philosopher of the latter part of the century. Hume comprehensive study of and Blair and Reid are not of signal im- portance as aestheticians. dictated a study of views. IV I HAVE REMARKED in another. Gerard and Burke. in one sense. are included in the survey. and the exclusion of that author perhaps for the exclusion of any. and a necessary limitation of scale prevented this 5 Thomas Whately. Repton is so inextricably intertwined in controversy with Price and Knight that he could not well be omitted (and it was an additional incentive that there exists no Repton's theory). first. William Greenand Brown. Price. Adam Smith. It is less. second.Introduction 9 influence in determining the kind of aesthetic system he will devise. of my writers. Lowth. inclusion of this. field. full treatment of all pertinent writers. Kames and Reynolds. Convinced of the importance of such differences in efficient causes for explaining the aesthetic doctrine. It was my feeling. Among the authors not treated (unless by allusion) are Shaftesbury. perhaps not even all important writers. that any writer treated at all should be treated fully. I suppose. and picturesqueness. and of Dugald . I have dwelt. Alison. alike demand his inclusion. since (though by no means a profound thinker) Addison far more than any other writer initiated and directed the aesthetic speculation of the century. Richardson. less than that this study is not only. James Usher. Harris. Blair's role as the leading rhetorician. on beauty. and his standing as a philosopher. no apology. Priestley. Webb. Beattie. to be of appear to me greatest intrinsic interest. sublimity. I have throughout noted with care the mechanisms they postulate or infer 5 and where there is enough of a general system to admit of such reduction. and. and the taste. I have attempted to trace these positions to still more funda- mental divergences. more. Some apology will be demanded for the Jeffrey. This second criterion accounts for the ex- those who and Adam Smith in favor of amateurs and gardeners like Gilpin and Repton. The inclusion of Addison needs. The works of Hutcheson and Hogarth. are necessary upon antecedents to the former. Spence. Akenside. since not all writers. Gilpin plays a clusion of philosophers like Shaftesbury rather similar role in the discussion of the picturesque late in the century. John Stedman. but the cogency of Hume's brief observations.

One note that the words "aesthetic. I am aware "aesthetics." eenth century j often called "philosophical criticism." were not used in the eightthe study now termed "aesthetics" was then most may indulged the anachronism of employing the modern term. be proper to this Introduction. besides being cumbersome. and one very foreign to the British writers of the eighteenth century. seems to imply." But this term. because of the ordinary connection of "criticism" with art. a particular theory of aesthetics. .I o Introduction Stewart make defense final of their inclusion unnecessary. 1 have. for these are the major works of the century. therefore.

I Beautiful and Sublime .

.

or the sublime and the beautiful. and much ink has been shed in tracing out faint anticipations of Addison's though ts$ Longinus. The account of taste is slender enough. French critics and English poets have been examined yet after all. In any event. philosophers from Hobbes have been searched. itself yet Addison contrives to suggest many of the avenues of inquiry which later writers explored more thoroughly. 1712 (Nos. artists. 411-21) l spoke of it as an undertaking "intirely new. The papers on the pleasures of imagination were intended by Addi- son to be ancillary to an inquiry into the nature and acquisition of a "fine Taste of Writing." Doubtless nothing is entirely until well into the nineteenth century. I propose to rest in the time of Descartes and the conviction shared by most of the eighteenth-century aestheticians. Addison announced his forthcoming essay When new under the sun. that their science began with Addison. which announces the forthcoming series. The last five papers of the "Essay" tial more purely on are devoted to this application. and the com- mentators on Longinus." an inquiry broached in Spectator No. men of letters.CHAPTER 1 Joseph ' writers like John Dennis and Lord Shaftesbury had been JL\^ discussing the sublime. it was Addison's "Essay on the Pleasures of the ALTHOUGH Imagination" which formulated the problems of aesthetics in such * a fashion as to initiate that long discussion of beauty and sublimity and later of the picturesque which attracted the interest and exercised the talents of philosophers. for some years. and amateurs 1 comprised in The he Spectator papers of June 21 through July 3. The analogy of mental with physical taste suggests that taste consists in a discriminating 13 . 409. Addison's claim /to originality seems sound enough. although it is the aesthetic portion of the series which was chiefly influenAddison's successors. have been raked through.

Statues." Addison means "such as arise visible Objects." 4 He By from or "Pleasures of the Imagination. sensibility. . Mind Reader. to range them together. the Pleasure." and the correctness which Gerard was later to elucidate and analyze." Now. Imperfections acute perception or "refinement. upon occasion. . presenta- he really employs tion. to retain them long. in such Figures and resentations as are most likely to hit the Fancy of the Reader. . should be able to isolate the peculiar virtue of an author (refinement). through the Sight. "should be born with this Faculty in its full Strength and Vigour. and memory. or any the like Occasion." and announces that he it will "fix and determine" its meaning. of conception. proposes himself to supply this defect." Although Addison complains of the "loose and uncircumscnbed" use of the term "imagination. which discerns the Beauties of 3 the with Dislike" the and.14 Beautiful and Sublime Beauties and Imperception which can discern "not only the general the several discover but of an Ways of thinking Author. and gives a Greatness of . which diversify with the several Foreign Infusions of Thought and Language. Addison restricts it to ideas of sight: did not "We make and cannot indeed have a single Image in the Fancy that 7 its first Entrance . and his "Essay" enters upon this criticism of qualities more essential than the formal traits of literary kinds. either call when we up their Ideas into our when we have them actually in our View. 5 Descriptions. all from him and expressing himself. The examination for taste which Addison provides supposes these same characteristics of the faculty: one should be delighted by admired authors (sensibility). Minds by Paintings. and should see the difference between the expression of a thought by a taste in criticism great writer and a mediocre (correctness) Addison's is Longinianj he wishes for critics who will go beyond formulation of ." Addison remarks. it is sight does not perceive even clear that images or ideas of the other senses mere are retained and used by the fancy. or in the definition of 2 it It is not as "that an Author with Faculty of the Soul." 6 RepYet despite this broad notion of imagination. architectonic rules to isolate that more essential excellence which "eleto the vates and astonishes the Fancy. putting aside the objection that distance size. so as to be able to receive lively Ideas from outward Objects. of to designate a conglomerate faculty o and of association both controlled and undirected: the "noble Writer. ." difficult to see in this view of taste. though not retained so vividly jaor used so freely as those of sight 5 Addison himself later instances . perfections other Authors. and the particular Authors from whom they were borrowed.

"entirely proceed from such Objects as are beour fore Eyes. or on occasion of something without us. from objects "that once entered in at our Eyes." used in a division somehow sense different from Locke's. nor. suffer the Mind to sink into that Negligence and Remissness. and compounded? By excluding such objects from the imagination. "which flow from the expressions . do not essentially do so there is no pleasure from recognition of imi- tation in the mere conception of an absent object. deliberations. Addison is led to ignore the manifold interconnections of the mental and material worlds. all remembered and conceived reflectively? and separated." and secondary pleasures. 9 Nor are Addison's primary and secondary pleasures correspondent with Hutcheson's absolute and relative is beauty 5 for relative beauty the beauty of imitation. The distinction Ideas of visible Objects." 10 Addison concludes his first paper with those observations on the advantages of the pleasures of imagination which were to be copied and enlarged upon throughout the following century that the pleasures of imagination are intermediate between those of sense and of intellect. volitions." 8 has been often misconceived. or Descriptions. Addison draws between primary pleasures of the which Imagination. though they may proceed from imitation.Joseph Addtson the associated pleasures tion. Still more grave in its consequences is the exclusion from imagination of all the objects of consciousness. at the same Time. and therefore also all the beauty and sublimity flowing from the cognition of mental traits either directly or through their material and analogues. in short. Some commentators have thought that this follows out Locke's distinction of primary and secondary qualities of matter with which it appears to me to have nothing in common but the words "primary" and "secondary. when the Objects are not actually before the Eye. or formed into agreeable Visions of Things that are either Absent or Fictitious. the operations of mind. and are afterwards called up into the Mind either barely by its own Operations. modified. since they "do not require such a Bent of Thought as is necessary to our more serious Employments. but are called up into our Memories. as Statues. whereas Addi- son's secondary pleasures. They arise. 15 drawn from other senses in actual percepand it is not easy to see how he is to explain the "blending" of sounds and smells and sights if qualities of sight are perceived by "imagination" and those of the other senses by some other and unspecified faculty. The secondary not do pleasures necessarily involve art: mere conceptions of memory afford them. Are not passions. which .

or sublime." "magnificent. It should seem. like a gentle Exercise to the Faculties. still adopts the division as a tentative arrangement. 10 Addison's critique of Paradise Lost is perhaps the best place to study his use association of "sublimity" 5 it is noteworthy that throughout this entire series." presumably because of its with rhetoric and purely critical writing. to be sure." "sublime imagination. Forty years after Addison wrote. Joseph Warton declared that "greatness. proceeded from an union of the beautiful. Addison his most sig- nal advance by distinguishing three sources for them: the great. and beauty. the uncommon. 7 objects as being "great/ "noble." "majestic. The term "sublimity" is really confined in its application to images." but this is a mere grammatical shorthand "sublime genius" means." "marvellous. are usually and justly reckoned the three principal sources of 13 Still later Daniel Webb the pleasures that strike the imagination. but. . in his "Essay on the Pleasures of the Imagination." and so forth but never as being "sublime. but a 17 genius for turning out sublime images and taxemes." Reid. The differentiation of the great. The of astonishment in the most enlightened ages. with the great and whole influence of visible objects uncommon 5 thus combining the 14 And even on the imagination. though pointing out the fault of the categorization." and "sublime manner of thinking. and even Addison's threefold division although obnoxious to objection for making novelty (which and sublimity is a relation) co-ordinate with the qualities of beauty shows a remarkable didactic persistence. to sentiments. with- out putting them upon any Labour in aesthetic theory or Difficulty." use the term "sublimity." n makes Returning to the primary pleasures. of Milton's Addison speaks of actions and characters and "sublime Genius. that the wonderful effect of these statues. awaken them from Sloth and Idleness. Monk has observed that Addison does not. the beautiful. yet there appears to remain an irreducible surd of originalby ity in the clear differentiation of Monk beauty and sublimity. and striking out novelty in the course of his argument. Some partial anticipations of Addison's distinction have been noted 15 Thomas and others who have traced the development of Longinian sublimity. novelty.1 6 Beautiful and Sublime are apt to accompany our more sensual Delights. not genius which is itself sublime as an object." was to write that "the Jupiter and Minerva of Phidias were subjects poem. and the beautiful is the most striking feature of eighteenth-century aesthetic theory." Addison does speak. Akenside employed it in his celebrated Pleasures of Imagination.

which "loves to be filled with an Object. with the Simile illustrating this Circumstance. Thus. precisely as Longinus does. Satan's sitting on the brink of the causeway from Heaven to Earth. a vast uncultivated Desart. I do not only mean the Bulk of any single Object. of huge Heaps of Mountains. "and taking a Survey of the whole Face of Nature. Jthese but with that rude kind of Magnificence which appears in many of 20 Theodore Moore calls this stupendous Works of Nature. shortened on every side by the Neighborhood of Walls or Moun- when . strikes the Imagination with someld Here is the same taste. especially when wild and "rude. Attention to the nature of those Miltonic descriptions the greatness (or the sublimity) of which Addison especially admires illumines his conception of greatness. in short.Joseph Addison to certain devices of language . Again. Restraint upon naturally hates every thing that looks like a and is apt to fancy it self under a sort of Con- the Sight is pent up in a narrow Compass. arises in is great. for numbers of them are of those images stupendous prospects which." same delight in spatial magnitude. and that shapeless unformed still Heap of Materials. Such are the Prospects of an open Champian Country." ^emphasis on magnitude "Addison's confusion of external size of form 21 with an aesthetic sublime. between that Mass of Matter. and finement." It is unquestionable that Addison sees an "aesthetic sublime" in physical magnitude but why is this a confusion? Vast objects tease the imagination. which was wrought into a World. that appeared to him new and fresh in all its Beauties. fills the Mind of the Reader with as surprising and glorious an Idea as any that the whole Poem. or a wide Expanse of Waters." 18 The scene. high Rocks and Precipices. which Chaos and Confusion. considered as one entire Piece." and "we are flung into a pleasing Astonishment at such bounded Views. in the "Pleasures of the Imagination" papers. the simile sublime." The delight in vastness arises also (which I take to be a distinct cause) from the circumstance that "the Mind of Man it. 17 and Addison uses the word. but the Largeness of a whole View. where we are not struck with the Novelty or Beauty of the Sight. the thing astonishingly great and wild. typify greatness." lay in that determines the illustrations in the "Pleasures of the Imagination": "By Greatness [Addison declares]. and feel a delightful Stilness and Amazement in the Soul at the Apprehension of them. in Addison's terminology. or to grasp at any thing that is too big for its Caunpacity. Satan's "Roaming upon the Frontiers of the Creation.

say. the psychological mechanism of sublimity traced beyond the apparently instinctive love of the imagination to expand and yet be baffled. . . his preference In any event. the Danube. than by the the fires heaven . 23 . and the transition is natural It is usual to remark that Longinus himself compares the sublime with physical greatness: [Nature] has from the start implanted in our souls an irresistible love of whatever is great and stands to us as the more divine to the less. is magnitude. in consequence of Addison's limitation upon the scope of imagination and the only trait of visible objects which astonishes the mind without operating clearly as a sign or by / There is in Addison r engaging the passions. . or its instinctive hatred of circumscription. for it suggests very strongly Addison's preference of open prospects to. But there also a purely systematic reason why Addison should stress magni- tude: the sublime must depend on visual images. This is no more is Nor kthan a hint towards a theory of sublimity. and the 24 immensity as extending was seen as through unan image of the divine nature. . its pulse we do not marvel at small streams . or his preference of the Pantheon to a Gothic cathedral. This identification of the sublime with physical vastness was in part a consequence of the adjustment philosophers and theologians had made to the Copernican cosmology: the infinity of deity was conceived by men like More and Burnet spatial bounded space. and Addison judged this to be its final cause. ' The new or uncommon. . and gives the Soul with an agreeable Surprise. The sublime thus became an aid to enthusiastic is devotion." vastness causes a feeling resembling that with which we are struck and obvious. but human speculations frequently exceed . or of the multitudinous other causes of the sublime which so occupy the attention of Gerard. it an Idea of which it was not . or the Rhine. . and much more at the more stirred by this flamelet that we kindle in Ocean. depth. but at the Nile. tains. or of the sublimity of time. Wherefore not even the whole of the universe suffices for man's contemplation or scope of thought. by the rhetorical sublime. and horizontal extent. Hence indeed it is that moved by some natural imcompass. . "Raises a Pleasure in the Imagination because gratifies its it fills Curiosity. mountain passes. no complicated discussion of the comparative greatness of height.1 8 22 Beautiful and Sublime The last phrase is interesting.. of Burke. nor yet are we . (in brief) of horizontal extent as against elevation. Addison affirms.. or consider it more wondrous than craters of Aetna. and of later writers. .

their effects though no discussion of unexpectedness. the two distinguishable. pleasures being even heightened by their conjunction." In treating both beauty and sublimity. and gives a Finishing to any thing that is Great or Uncommon. he says. 26 The very generality of the notion makes source-hunting equally easy and inconclusive: for in what writer can we look without discovering some of these topics ? "But there is nothing. Addison's novelty. or in a just Mixture and Concurrence of all together. herent in objects absolutely. no doubt. In certain its Faculties. partly. hausted. Disposition Arrangement Proportion metry 30 of Bodies. which consists "either in the Gaiety or Variety of Colours." . others by being Soft. includes variety and even motion and change generally. The fashion in which sound becomes beautiful or sublime is given no study beyond the observation that agreeable sounds conjoined with . for there is no study of the beauty or sublimity of motion. Observing that different species of animals appear to have different notions of sexual beauty. 28 . nor immediate from subsequent response 5 nor any any treatment of the commingling of novelty with feelings other than the sublime and beautiful. the excellences) of writing: he has endeavored to show. "that makes its way - are not differentiated y there distinction of is which immediately diffuses a and Complacency through the Imagination. in consequence of the desire to distinguish it from the graver emotion of sublimity j as Addison secret Satisfaction more directly to the Soul than Beauty y puts all it. He takes no pains (as Burke and later 20 writers were quick to point out ) to show that the sexual attractions upon the perception of a beauty bearing any analogy to that more general beauty "in the several Products of Art and Nature" are based Symand in the and of Parts." Addison's conception of novelty is very general: the new and the singular are separately named. in the sights in particular scenes may reinforce the visual delights. and spreads a Chearfulness and Delight through The beautiful and sublime. There is . "the very first Discovery of it [Beauty] strikes the Mind with an inward Joy.Joseph Addison 25 19 before possest. not a property in.. Addison concludes that beauty is a function of our nature. as when Addison speaks loosely of the "beauties" (i. indeed. others by being Natural." 27 and contexts the sublime is made a species of the beautiful." The gaiety of the emotion of beauty is insisted upon by numerous writers throughout the century. Addison has limited himself and even these are not exstrictly to the visual-tactile properties.e." Addison continues. though different are nowise incompatible for Addison. that some passages of Paradise Lost "are beautifull by being Sublime.

nor the Substance of a Human us to discover the Conformity or DisagreeSoul.20 Beautiful and Sublime or of no hint of the sublimity of the terrific. efficient mechanism which Addison presented in his discussion of subHe tells us. that novel stimulates our study of the creation. or of power or energy.Causes from whence the Pleasure or Displeasure and matter that efficient causes in the sense of ultimate ties between we can do in Speculations of this kind. general these seem hardly a sufficient recompense for the efficient insights as denied 3 but Addison's merit is. and none of the beauty softer moral traits and their expressions. which might help for want of such a ableness of the one to the other 5 and therefore. rather to iniare we causes than to arrive at conclusive results. is to reflect on Light. all that and to range. after all. "but tho> there are ondary. feeling is still possible 5 for efficient he when chief problem and difficulty gives up the search and bare open to our causes in favor of final causes which "lie more mind or antecedents and Observation" and "are generally more useful than the other. indeed. but a pheconsequents." . proper efficient without being able to trace out the several necessary and 31 It is true arises. because we know neither the Nature of an Idea. ficial Shows j yet we find the Works of Nature still more pleasant. pleasing are undiscoverable. do we find even those hints of the Nor. Nature alone can exhibit more delightful than any artithat are wild several of these Scenes. in the discussion of beauty. invariant sequences of sense perception. the more they resemble those of Art: For in this case our Pleasure rises from a double Principle j from the Agreeableness of the Objects to the Eye. sters. under their Heads. nomenological account of the and Addison shirks the and mental operation. as they of admiring the Goodness and Wisdom of give us greater Occasion 32 final causes which Addison postulates are The Contriver. and from their Similitude to other Objects: We are . Addison's aesthetic analysis is complicated by the overlapping of various distinctions he employs: since the distinction of primary and tiate various lines of inquiry to a distinction between art secondary pleasures does not correspond and nature. of the moral grandeur or intellectual force. to assign the necessary Cause of this [aesthetic] Pleasure. that atpleasure in the traction to our own species prevents the production of infertile monSuch that beauty makes the creation gay and agreeable." the first that delight in the great leads us to the contemplation of Deity. we find art affording primary pleasures and nature sec33 true vastness. or is what displeasing to the Mind. those Operations of the Soul that are most agreeable. that "it is impossible for us limity and novelty.

and one of the uncultivated Parts of our Country. architecture." 37 Manner is ordinary or That there is a greatness of manner in which major parts are few and imposing. or the manner of particular masters or schools. It A Garden was the Meditation. The converse principle. "which can arise from 5 . and suggests innumerable Subjects for is of the most innocent Delights in humane Life. shall give the Mind nobler Ideas than one of twenty times the Bulk. only evoked by a natural scene which is merely composed as if by design. that a small Building. as one naturally apt to fill the Mind with Calmness and Tranquility. but of manner." Here Nature yields a secondary pleasure through its re- semblance to art works which hint of it suggests: and here. as throws out hints: he does not distinguish the feelings always. Greatness is the distinguishto return But ing excellence of architecture." 3C In this same paper Addison recommends a winter garden of plants which are not decidufirst ous the And he first such suggestion (I believe) in English garden literature. ars est celare artem. he would look upon it as a natural Wilderness. Habitation of our first Parents before the Fall. of course. as with surveying them. Not only does Addison regard parterres and topiary work with some contempt 5 he envisions the jerme ornee. I take it. is a William Gilpin's picturesque the natural scene suitable for pictorial representation because composed like a picture." 3C there are not only secondary pleasures in nature. where it appears. where the little. is more a commonplace j but Addison's of it to application gardening theory betrays an advanced taste.Joseph Addtson 21 pleased as well with comparing their Beauties. Addison. unperplexed by minute divisions and orna38 that on this account the interior of the Pantheon ments. It gives us a great Insight into the Contrivance and Wisdom of Providence." while that of a Gothic cathedral affects but little. In a later Spectator> Addison (disguised as a correspondent) writes with pride that "if a Foreigner who had seen nothing of our Country should be conveyed into my Garden at his landing. and can represent them to our Minds. "which has such force upon the Imagination. greatness not only of absolute dimension. and to lay all its turbulent Passions at Rest. either as Copies or Orig34 inals. and by one which calls to mind particular works of art. but primary pleasures in art. concludes with a rhapsody which (like the proposal for a winter garden) anticipates in little Lord Kames's enthusiasm for the art: "I look upon the Pleasure which we take in a Garden. is evident fills the imagination "with something Great and Amazing. The art which beyond others yields primary pleasures is.

Burke a rotunda under what he terms the artificial infinite. greater than that pends in great measure on the height of the Pantheon in actuality and still greater in appearance because peculiar or the element of wonder. The Gothic sublimity deof the roof. The mimetic arts (all. and he supplies this defect with a final cause. according greatness of Gothic. he would have been led by the same reasoning to appreciate the effect of the Gothic nave. with the Many. or the influence of the ternot remark the analysis. than the Eye ever saw. Description. and the nothing else but the Greatness of the 39 Addison was insensitive to certain. The greatness circumstance of the rotunda's bethe in to Addison's chiefly rific. because the Imagself Things more Great. reason why Addison could not admit Burke's principle (though he could not subscribe to the physiological explanation which Burke hazards) j if he had employed Burke's principle. and is still sensible of some Defect in what it has seen 5 on this account it is the part of a Poet to humour the something more ination can fancy to it Imag- ination in its own Notions. because of the poet's powers of selection and combination 5 and no doubt the same observation is true in lesser degree of the other arts. or Beautiful. less is the in Meanness other. and the greatness lacks the elesublimity ments which could correct his prejudice. verbal description." 41 As Addison does not seek the efficient cause. by mending and perfecting Nature where . the encouraging of search after truth. Picture. 40 of the pleasures of art are secondary. or indeed anything which might contribute to an appreciation of the of the Pantheon consists. than the things themselves. perhaps most. and can never meet with any Sight in Nature which sufficiently answers its highest Ideas of Pleasantness j or." of account his of Gothic. Description in words of visible objects may produce more lively ideas (Addison maintains) Sound that represents them. Statue. which compares the Ideas Ideas we receive from the arising from the Original Objects. in other Words. which depends upon comparing ideas together to observe their congruity and disagreement. save gardening and architecture) are enumerated in order of degree of resemblance to their originals: sculpture. "because the Mind of Man requires perfect in Matter.22 Beautiful and Sublime Manner in the one. than what it finds there. Strange. later brings the sublimity of ing perceived in one coup d'oett. music. or with the primary pleasures. or the impression made by dim light. Indeed. that is. proceeding from "that Action of the Mind. the succession There is no of uniform parts which gives the imagination no rest. painting. of the relative narrowness 5 but Addison's treatment of greatness does effects of height.

is preferable: "But if the Description jects is Little. is reflected in an image of imagBut although this subject might have led into the realm of the associations and expressions by which mental and material beauty and sublimity are fused." by means of which gories In the ination. 46 final paper of the series. Beyond the recognition of just imitation in this case. by this account." 44 sions. in a skilful painting or even in a statue. Description Surprising. and his observations are mere critical points about the subjects and uses of such ornaments. little that the only British aesthetician who so limits the province of imagination and the range of qualities which pertinent to aesthetics. Addison's explanation is of the the of "the Ideas that arise from Words simplest: pleasure comparing stance The [or from the plastic 43 medium]. is much more so j because here we are not only delighted with comparing the Representation with the Original. Common. but are highly pleased with the themselves. caeteris fanbus. its is He provide pleasures. and to work. and by adding greater Beauties than are put together in nature. be acceptable to the Imagthe of what is Great. Addison has nothing more iri mind than the ornamental function which such figures may serve in writing. "run into Absurdities. by endeavouring to excel. with the Ideas that arise from the Ob- Since the pleasure of comparison is. with Violence. by reforming nature too much. . 45 the agreeable consciousness of our own security from the perils and sufferings represented. simply reckoned off against the unpleasantness of the image. Addison remains a sort of materialist." This principle introduces that special case of the imitation of unpleasant originals which is most often treated of the pity and fear of tragedy. no doubt." provided only that he does not. a pleasant subject. is seems to see in the ob- mind itself." or. upon his PasOriginal it self. or Deformed. Addison appears to approach to the and sublimity of mind by treating of the similitudes and allebeauty drawn from "the visible Parts of Nature. ination.Joseph Addis on 23 he describes a Reality. sticking close allusions a truth of understanding to the visual properties of external objects $ he in the operations of the jects of consciousness. or Beautiful. a consciousness permitted by the comparative is detachment with which we view imitations. where he describes a Fiction." 42 secondary pleasures are distinguished further by the circumone of the persistent problems of the century that disagreeable originals may please "in an apt description." of what Another recommendation of description is that it us "such Objects as are apt to raise a secret Ferment to may represent in the Mind of the Reader.

As Hugh Blair put is it. but for its clear and simple formulation of a set of problems Addison's aesthetic theory is which were to exercise many of the keenest minds for the following and more. The problems were the nature of our sentiments of beauty and like aesthetic feelings. Addison explains by a hypothetical physiology of brain traces and animal spirits. however. . valuable not for its systematic rigor for these merits it has in very ordinary or its psychological profundity. which was before unbeaten." 51 . 50 But this estimate rial causes of and this last of Addison's accomplishment century. involving flectively. not new: it is that of the eighteenth first "Mr. as Variety of Images that once attended it" also the heightened delightfulness of pleasant scenes reviewed rea "Cartesian" associationism. and which established as well a vogue in popular century taste and a pattern for practicing artists. and Novelty. . Addison was the . the mate- these responses. and to bring up into View all the 48 ). especially of those associinfluence of association ations based upon contiguity (".24 Beautiful and Sublime phenomena of association could have bridged the gap matter for Addison. in his Essay on the Pleasures of the Imagination. and he was not unaware of the and mind between The various of it. Yet I think it clear from Addison's denial of the possibility of finding efficient causes when "we know neither the Nature of an Idea. if not exceedingly profound. This phenomenon. .. with the Picture of the Fields or Gardens where we first met with it. He treats yet he makes little enough 47 of the different senses. the function of the aesthetic feelings. on a sudden. measure. very beautiful and entertaining j and he has the merit of having opened a track. nor the 49 Substance of a Human Soul. a particular Smell or Colour is able to fill the Mind. who at- tempted a regular inquiry [into the pleasures of taste]. problem Addison himself shirked the mechthough anism through which the feelings are generated. briefly of association among the impressions and briefly also of the associations of ideas." that he cannot subscribe to these Car- tesian explanations in all earnestness. Grandeur. are. His He speculations on this subject.. has reduced these Pleasures under three heads j Beauty.

" "An and Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions. He Hutcheson's development represented by the Inquiry > the Essay > and the System of Moral Philosophy together with the fourth edition of the Inquiry. Indeed. Hutcheson's theory has attracted some attention in the past few decades. he refers to his four treatises by number. throughout the Essay volume. Teaching and Position in the History of Philosophy . and Scott's attitude is belittling: "To foster the taste for Philosophy was Hutcheson's main work. though it has not been accorded any very persuasive exposition. Presbyterian THE teacher FIRST treatise to follow the path of aesthetic inquiry and later professor of moral philosophy at Glasgow. cerning the Original of Our Ideas of Virtue or Treatise II j "An Inquiry "An Inquiry con- con- Moral Good. The Inquiry was followed three years later by An Essay on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions cmd Affections. It would be unreasonable to expect that he also 3 created a Philosophy. With Illustrations of the Moral Sense. had never thought the System ready for the press 5 and in the two earlier works he speaks with entire unconsciousness of any shift in his position.^ Issued anonymously in 1725. &c. 25 . R." Expecting not much in the way of systemdiscerns three stages in atic thought.CHAPTER 2 Francis Hutcheson which Addison had opened up the first philosophical document in modern aesthetics was An Inquiry Into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue. Order." "Illustrations Treatise III 5 upon the Moral Sense. Scott's Francis Hutcheson: His Life. Scott does not find much." becomes Treatise I. as if they constituted parts of a single system: cerning Beauty. however. this work was the first important performance by Francis Hutcheson." Treatise IV. By the Author of the Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue? and the two works constitute a kind of unity. The major study is W. Hutcheson himself.

"a Determination of the Mind. The principal design of the inquiries into beauty and virtue is to show. in the acts of rational agents: clearly this beauty is analogiidentical manical. by "sense" Hutcheson means. Hutcheson was concerned to vindicate human nature against the selfish theories of ethics. to receive any virtue. independ5 ently on our Will. "If the Reader . his aesthetics is coldly schematic. to form to it left quite indifferent in the affair of Observations self concerning the Advantage or its Disadvantage of Actions. partly integral.26 Scott's entire Beautiful and Sublime adoption of an arbitrarily gewhile netic approach 5 some recent studies. have been too slight to be very valuable j an adequate treatment of Hutch- study is weakened by his eson's thought remains to be written. which engrossed the attention of disputants at this time. a Platonist than Shaftesbury. 4 Hutcheson's method is Less of partly differential. \The slightness and generality of his metaphysics facilitated the proliferation of original principles which this approach involved. its morality is disality (for though the moral may tinct from its beauty) 5 beauty and morality spring from different and appeal to different faculties. Hutcheson separates beauty from morbe beautiful. Hutcheson's interest was primarily ethical 5 his metaphysics and aesthetics are ancillary to the ethical speculations in which his major contributions were made. he tends always to assert the originality of the perceptions. and also to correct the errors of those antiHobbists who ward and The line which Hutcheson took as a guide through the labyrinthine maze of error was the notion of internal senses . a universal appearing in similar but not literally festations in these radically different subjects. together with his chosen method. and accordingly to regulate Conduct" The sense of beauty is taken up first. He displays little familiarity with works of art and a pretty casual appreciation of external nature . "That human Nature was not Virtue. injudiciously traced the springs of virtue to divine repunishment or to the natural self-gratulatory pleasure of Idea from the Presence of an Object) Which occurs to us. It is possible to see how the problem which Hutcheson had engaged. Yet the beauty of which Hutcheson is in search is found in physical objects. in the theorems causes of science. Hutcheson's spontaneous interest in aesthetics was probably slight." Reacting against strained reduction of apparently clear perceptions to remote (and sometimes discreditable) principles. however. would lead naturally to such a result. As a half-way disciple of Shaftesbury. avoiding this fault. the Hobbesian and Mandevillian. because.

" Hutcheson remarks as he begins his analysis.Francis Hutches on is 27 convinced of such 'Determinations of the Mind it Forms. why Hutcheson takes the of beauty figure as simplest. is "a passive Power of receiving Ideas of Beauty from all Objects in which there is Uniformity amidst Vari- question should be raised. that study of the ety" n The beauty of color leads directly to no important results universally applicable. It is true. as the theory of affected tangents applies to infinite species of curves. like the of reducrights . consequently. and some others. seems to be . Novelty. it. deter7 mining them to be yleas'd with Actions. in a compound Ratio of Uniformity and Variety. matter to to be $leas d with will be no difficult y a^rehend another superior Sense natural to Men. or what real Qual8 The ideas of beauty are ity in the Objects ordinarily excites them." for the Idea rais'd in us. "All ceiving this Idea. "is relative to the Sense of Beauty? some Mind perceiving in relative is that which is apprehended any Ob- commonly Beauty is considered as an Imitation of some Original: And founded on a Conformity . but what we call ject. Intellectual of the variety in uniformity is of course not prereqcomprehension uisite to the perception of beauty . the internal sense is immediately (analogically. each of which contains an infinity of sizes. . however. "Beauty." 10 The in- ternal sense. whereas the principle of uniformity in variety is applicable to pretty nearly any subject. Resemblances. Affections. as in regular this figures. . . The answer is. such as But what we call Grandeur. that the greatest in uniformity is to be found in the realm of intellect a thevariety orem of science may contain an infinity of infinites. that excite in us the Ideas of Beauty. . Characters. or a kind of Unity between the Original and the Copy. There are many "The Figures Conceptions of Objects that are agreeable upon other accounts. Theorems. the desire . Proportions. each of which in turn comprises an infinity of individuals. a principle may Newtonian Uws or the theory of natural be deductively fertile. . to speak in the Mathematical Style. "is taken and a Sense of Beauty for our Power of re- and the object of the inquiry is "to discover what the immediate Occasion of these pleasant Ideas." 9 The investigation of original beauty is concise 3 Hutcheson turns first to its simpler kinds. Beautiful in Objects. at least) by that compound ratio. Again." is Hutcheson declares. Sanctity." either original and absolute or comparative and relative in both cases ideal. seem to be those in which there is Uniformity amidst Variety. I suppose. when he acknowledges that the eye of itself perceives only color. but in the latter imitative or resemblant.

may give more Pleasure.28 ing to system is Beautiful and Sublime stimulated by the aesthetic sense independently of any notion of utility. Thus we can see that Regularity in laying out of Gardens in Parterres. however. whereas Hutch eson had found be the compound ratio i. accordingly. is often neglected to obtain an This account has the paradoxical consequence that irregularity is enjoyable because indicative of design an for the unnecessary finesse. Scott finds that in the later phases of Hutcheson's thought uni12 I believe. for the number of sides and angles of modern aestheticians are concerned with this very rela- A tion of uniformity and variety. causation. This difference arises from Birkhoff 's premise that all mental effort (as in perceiving vari- to painful.e. for a given uni- The more complex problems of beauty are found in relative beauty. Hutcheson's position seems to me the only defensible one on this point. so that variety is inherto a certain rate of perception ." M . its number is unchanged. Variety the uniformities ifso facto number and kind of that make up the . is But the no- tion of "imitation" given some breadth by the possibility that imi- of intention or idea rather than of a natural object. the more variety the less ety) is satisfaction. for instance. Scott understands that the discovery of is new is not true. the more variety tied together by it the better. and misconceives the formula in the first instance. then. finds vacuity painful. illation. parallel Walks. 13 Hutcheson.. Birkhoff. the product. beauty of irreguits Imitation of Nature even in some of Wildnesses. formity tends to displace variety in the formula. or whatever or formity is the relations (of resemblance. than a more perfect original Beauty separately. along with some degree of the original Kind. may "not form their Works so as to attain the highest Perfection of original Beauty separately considered $ because a Composition of this relative Beauty." as he terms it it) to variety ("complexity"). supposes instead that the mind ently pleasurable up formity. The beauty of imitations of the unattractive is explained in this system merely tation is in terms of the pleasure of imitation as such. variety. some duce of a regular plane part independently of variety j the properties ones does not renew of the are but discovery figure very numerous. aspects. parts. that Scott takes mere does so because he reduces variety 5 this rhetorical changes for changes in doctrine. accordingly. George D. Artists. Vista's. whole and uniwhat vary in not) obtaining among them. and that recognition of order is a kind of reward for the effort 5 for a given uniformity. units. Uniformity can. like other writers of his century. finds the formula for beauty to be the ratio of uniformity ("order.

is relative to a Denot relative. Men differ in their experience. "Concerning our Reasonings about De- Quite generally. It is a misreading of Hutcheson to see natural theology either as an unwarranted intru- sion into the realm of aesthetics or (at the other it is extreme) as the un- 15 derlying basis of his aesthetic system j true that to a reflective all beauty. the principles of aesthetic judgment and does "The Power of Custom." and devout mind but it is there is nonetheless a standard of taste. sign only Although the sense of beauty is subjective. perceptions. This use of the term (derived from Locke) is found also in Lord Kames and in Alison. perception of sign and Effects" Wisdom in the Cause. from the Beauty or Regularity of or. ideal. there is no need for explanations. and treatment of the topic leads Hutcheson into a rather intricate argument. signal importance in Hutcheson (and bulk of aesthe constitute in Kames). and attribute the universal aspect to other Hutcheson) or discuss it in different terms (as in AliBut even son) taking the concept of association as Hume understood of little more of still no it is it. to suggest confusions which falsify the perceptions of sense. fitness and design is a principal of source beauty. Diversity of fancies arises also from casual associ- which may make men "have an aversion of Objects of Beauty . and connected arbitrarily with the nature of things by the "Author of our Nature. to put it plainly." These writers confine the term "association" to the accidental aspect of the associative process. For the internal sense spontaneously yields pleasures only aesthetic pain arises from with the observed discrepancies of taste 5 disappointment (setting aside the function of appearances as natural or arbitrary signs of something painful). distort the passions. cultithen. natural theology. even original beauty. but under different Conceptions than 1C The term "association" is emthose of Beauty or Deformity" ations ployed by Hutcheson in a rather pejorative sense. and a liking to others void of it. even though this latter bases his entire aesthetics on what Hume would call "association. causes (as in . for when original perceptions thetic experience. Example. or mislead the reason. Education. This standard is consistent among men. and thus in the cultivation of the sense: what gives unfeigned pleasure to the untutored may (through comparison) be excruciating to the cultivated. as to Nor Our . differences in taste resulting from the various degrees of vation of the mind and from the casual associations which color our are universal.Francis Hutcheson lar 29 as imitation o gardens would be well accounted for merely Na- ture. Setting aside.

should He have regular objects and our pleasure in them? created so regular a universe? Limited beings find regularity useful." 10 There is also a Sense of Dignity or suitableness to human nature. from the external senses and from the aesthetic These are the Pubkck Sense. pleasure. the occasion of that uneasy Sensation called Shame. by a superior moral sense we have pleasure in contemplating them without any view of natural advantage . The first inquiry concludes appropriately. This apparatus of senses and their correspondent desires enables Hutcheson to answer the two leading questions of ethics: What is . and the universe was created we owe it to regular to satisfy the implanted sense and give scope to virtue. and to be uneasy at their Misery". for virtue is beautiful. and that the incitement is not the intention of securing this pleasure of approbation or any other natural good. sensation de novo all must of a create can nor tion. species example Internal Senses" contradict this truth presuppose a natural basis of aesthetic perception.30 Beautiful and Sublime for neither custom. and the sense of honor produces a noble ambition for 21 praise and a shrinking from blame. but occasion of Pleasure j reduce to a modification of the moral sense. the necessary of Injuries Moral ment and their Dislike. enlarging theorems. this may from of others 5 the moral sense gives us a desire of virtue and an aversion vice. even when we fear no further evil from them. Condemnation) or Resentdone by us. Pleasure. His analysis uncovers the existence of three to virtue senses distinct both sense. nor educa. and an aversion from the misery. and major portions of the third and fourth. But the second treatise. Why should Deity have established the arbitrary connection between . Hutcheson's pur- 17 pose that is to show that some actions and affections are immediately good. Some explication of Hutcheson's ethics is requisite to make this clear. for the economy of life depends upon the uniformity of nature j and Why Divine benevolence that interest and utility coincide with with regular objects. "our Determination to be pleased with the Hafpness of others. accordingly. for any good Actions we have done. 20 Answering to each of these senses is a set of desires and aversions: the public sense produces a desire of the happiness. treat of moral beauty. is conjoined fruitful actions. but a principle entirely different from 18 self-love or interest. The "Inquiry concerning Beauty" contains little discussion of moral beauty. the Sense) by which "we perceive Virtue y or Vice in our selves or others" 5 and a Sense of Honour "which makes the A^frobation^ or Gratitude of others. in view of the emphasis the theory throws upon design with illustration of the final causes.

and counteract not " 22 kind the welfare of others. for instance. but even the particular Affections. of so monolithic a system. and the cardinal virtues of the ancients when use. however. Partly because I wish to be virtuous and thus enjoy the pleasurable consciousness of my own merit . reflection on it may lead me to form my character along the lines of virtue. in consequence of all this. participating applied benevolently. and "A" the abilities 24 of the agent. for we thereby assist in a more become instruments. that it is better to aid the good than the evil. System which can reach fection of Virtue consists in 'having the universal the prevalent Affection of the Mind. It is remarkable that Hutcheson reduces all virtue to benevolence. . because I feel a calm yet active benevolence extending to all mankind. Hutcheson makes very subtle in virtue He extensive scheme of benevolence $ and he postulates a regularly graduated diminution of love as its objects are progressively more remote an inverse variation analogous with gravitation and equally necessary to the order of the universe. from to whom our Influence can extend. Primarily because my public sense causes me to desire [and consequently] the Percalm Benevolence. And constantly to approve that Temper which desires. unlimited Tendency to the greatest and most extensive Haziness of all the rational Agents us. "every one Moment sive of Good to in the it Power of the . abilities. Occasioned by Reading a .' And why should I be virtuous? For three reasons derived from three senses. which argues no want of Affection towards others. "M" moment of public good accomplished. although this self-approval follows in any particular instance only if it was not sought. The most virtuous acts." 23 This truth is represented sym- bolically in Hutcheson's well-known mathematical calculus of virtue: E wherein "B" is _M-I the total benevolence. argues. Lastly because I desire the praise and gratitude of fellow men. Thomas Reid was provoked by this formula to write his first work. and to be secure of the approbation of Deity. All moral affections become modifications of love and hatred j talents. Agent toward the most exten. so as to limit only the selfish Passions. "I" the moment of personal good. "An Essay on Quantity.Francis Hutcheson 31 virtue? its Why should I be virtuous? Abstracting from particular hab- is so constituted as to approve every kind toward Affection particular any one. "have the most universal. my The it various internal senses are determinations to feel it or approve or appreciate its reflection from others. and those Actions which tend to procure the greatest or prejudices.

Virtue is the cement of the macrocosm. that that certain . Vivacity. and in so doing he was led to analyze further the apparently original principles which In ethics as in aesthetics. to resting his system upon perceptions and determinations presumed be original. and because it does unite the rational or sensitive creation into a system of mutual dependence and compliintentions. Good-nature. Mildness. Humility. This is obvious . Hume subsequently placed these moral questions within a comprehensive system grounded on a precise metaphysics and unified by a flexible but consistent philosophic method. beauty of virtue consists in the relation of virtuous dispositions. that logical term pretty far. so that no mathematical reasoning can ever advance a step. some natural or imagin'd it indication of concomitant Virtue. but Hutchon such subjects eson was not really attempting to reason mathematically only to use a symbolic notation which would represent his argument more vividly. This conspectus of Hutcheson's ethical theory has been prelim- The inary to explication of the beauty of virtue. which all allow to have great Power over human Minds. and the natural form of the countenance may also resemble the expression of passion in these ways moral beauty is seen as physical beauty. Digis. nity.' stretching the flexibility of an ana- But there is another and more special way in which the beauty of : the physical and intellectual worlds is united with that of the moral habitual dispositions form the countenance.^a Treatise in Beautiful and Sublime Which Simple and Compound Ratios Are Applied to Virtue and Merit" (1748). the attributes of the significatum being transferred by association to the sign. THERE is a further Consideration which must not be pass'd over. It this is must be granted. Let us consider the Characters of Beauty. and actions to the system of sensitive beings. Hutcheson had invoked. which are commonly admir'd in Counthis tenances. which gives powerful Charm above all other kinds of Beauty. cated interrelationship. and to this topic I return. Tenderness. and we shall find them to be Sweetness. Now it is some apprehended Morality. Reid argues that motives and happiness are not susceptible of mensuration. concerning the EXTERNAL BEAUTY of Persons. By introducing sympathy itself susceptible was able of metaphysical analysis as the first principle of his ethics. Hume to resolve all of Hutcheson's ethical senses into more ele- mental principles and at the same time 25 to escape the exclusive benevo- lism of the Hutchesonian ethic. to be sure. Majesty. Hutcheson stops short in his analysis. it is beautiful: uniformity in variety.

The same ities as true of air and motion. Dramatic. to present the Object it self. All of these beauties are to be distinguished from the moral beauty proper on which they ultimately depend that is a question of uniformity in variety. we are not content with a bare 'Narration. distinctly represented as morally . if we can. je ne seal quofs. in the former Treatise. The "sympathetic emotion of virtue" appears: "When we form the Idea of a morally good Action. most part natural). almost certain taste. lively Image of it. which represent such moral qualand so forth.Francis Hutches on 33 Airs. gentleness. or (what we commonly call) Deformity. or Tragedy. is Kames and Alison. so the most moving Beautys bear a Relation to our moral Sense. 1 tho both aim at recommending Virtue?' or the most Lord Kames's notion of "ideal presence" not developed. and moves our Passions in a quite affects us Virtue. either of Vice or more strongly. ever. we think it just to be so affected upon the Occadislike those who are not so: but we are excited directly to desire . and are not immediately excited by Compassion to desire the Reof our own Pain. And hence it is that the Efa Poem. Proportions. SimiliContemplation of moral Objects. or of Abilitys or Dispositions toward them. resentation of natural Objects in the liveliest Descriptions. and used (together with delight in moral beauty) to account for the enjoyment in tragedy: Drama. here projected.. give a vastly greater Pleasure than the Writings of Philosophers. . Much.. or read doing the like. entirely addressed to this Sense. and raise our Pas- Fortunes of Characters. in fact. We hinted. but endeavour. shall find the chief Pleasures of same moral Sense to be the Foundation of the POETRY. Measures. are natural Indications of such Vir26 tues. we 28 The . at the in the Numbers. though indeed." it in Epicks or Romance. These latter signs.. howroughness. of Kames's theory of tragedy is scattered through the ethical treatises of Hutcheson. by Hutcheson j the notion to occur in the psychological analysis of is is. and affect us more vehemently than the Rep- Foundation of Delight But as the and Efic poetry are sions by the . different and more powerful manner than natural Beauty. we moval sion. Metaphors. or evil. as conventional (unlike Hutcheson regards who treat them as for the WE tudes. Where we are studying to raise any Desire. It is these moral beauties which play a principal role in literature and painting. Admiration of an Object really beautiful. or see it represented in the feel a Desire arising of of attraction compulsive pity is remarked. or good.

It should be remarked also. sion of the taste of an amateur and essayist. Hutcheson's theAddison's an expresory is part and parcel of a philosophic system. People Compassion* . to see Objects flection.o . which often recommend Novelty are two ideas different is foreign to the present Subject. Thorpe has observed truly that Hutcheson's aesthetics might be expected to than with Shaftesbury's. ? But even though so broadly 30 beauty. . of this Reason The Objects to us. we Re- . in suphis own more philoplanting Addison's simple notion of beauty with Hutcheson leave Addison's grandeur and sophical conception. that grandeur and novelty do The real question ." This acquiescence in the slight treatment which Addison accords grandeur and novelty is surprising. and if we see this impossible. kind Instinct. to Tragedy s. See Spectator. beauty extends through the physical. 31 whereas Addison's of he may speak figuratively physical only (albeit senses which apprehend internal Addison . beauty. THIS same would be kept to see fictitious Scenes of Misery. writing that the treatise on beauty is "the most important aggerates in saying 32 Hutcheson's that had yet been made. our any to us vain for Compassion be it to indulge flection discern occasions our which the from retire we Object and then from Self-love But where there is no such RePain. Beaiitijul and Sublime may by the Relief of the Miserable. Principle leads men of the Characters that another strong reason of this. that Kames's distinction of pleasant (in immediate feeling) and agreeable (in objective survey) is made use of by Hutcheson: many virtues and passions are painful. 4I2. yet provide a reflex pleasure of self-approval. But Thorpe exis like Addison. agree more with Addison's in the tradition of Locke. did could be treated so as aovelty untransformed? Certainly grandeur :o pervade not only the physical but also the intellectual and moral worlds. The explanation presumably is. grandeur. if they were pleas'd. tion of this 5 is moral beauty) position whereas Hutcheson's a beauty of form 5 in short. No." gloss to Addison's essay and intellectual realms. is on Hutcheson's use of Addison is: Why. Addison's beauty appears most vividly in color. and study to divert our Thoughts. Hutcheson. since Hutcheson. further. barely of the Sufferers. or their Characters strangers to the moral Quahtys 2* and Actions. only we are to observe. implies but and provides no philosophic justificanovelty. moral. is the moral Beauty whether any Audience and Actions which we love to behold: for I doubt. of are hurry'd by a natural. does not embrace all and loosely understood by aesthetic pleasure: "GRANDEUR and from Beauty.

comme sont les combinaisons. As De Villette thinks. de- sired a shift of the theory in the contrary direction towards a still closer dependence of beauty on virtue. Grandeur. engaged. Something of this sort appears to have occurred in the thought of Lord Kames: Hutcheson's aesthetic sense is the moral senses of Hutcheson are fractured into many. du degre de Bienfaisance que le Dessein 34 etale au Spectateur. part and whole. 2. with virtue no longer confined to benevolence.Francis Hutches on 35 'not share with beauty that peculiarly intimate connection with morality. Qualities noble in themselves to might have found place alongside those contributing humanity: courage. Un objet est Beau a proportion du degre de Sagesse. Construction of an aesthetics of sub- however. does morality 5 the senses appropriated to beauty and mo- rality are concerned. Certain virtues are of course sublime. He cal or conceives of beauty as (z) providing a pleasing sensation. & Positif. De Villette's "Essay Philo- sophique sur le Beau. and force of will would have become virtues rather than instruments. each natural and original. Beauty from the remethodological lations of part and part. that if limity alongside that of beauty might well have meant dissolution of the exclusive benevolism of Hutchesonian ethics. and Hutcheson's chief concern was always morals. and so." brought to light by A. son's in physical and moral subjects. c'est a dire de Sagacite. is not susceptible of this kind of analysis. and still further divided. qui se montre dans les moyens necessaries a 1-execution du Dessem. with analogous relationships. d'habilete. physimoral. mais un Plaisir actuel. & prmcipalement. it might in turn have shaped his position on ethics. non une exemption de Mai. however. and therefore (5) awakening a feeling of love and gratitude. Al33 demands a beauty more obviously identical than Hutchedridge. Hutcheson's aesthetic thought had been more spontaneous and self-dependent. therefore. un objet est Beau a proportion du degre de Bienfaisance (de cette Bienfaisance qui concerne. which. les rapports. O. & sur le Gout. un Plaisir tel que je 1'ai indique) a proportion. One contemporary of Hutcheson. Charles Louis De Villette. (2) permitting the patient to see design and benevo- lence in the provision of the pleasure. together with the other feel- . dis-je. intellectual power. the lack of connection I point to is rather than substantive. de genie. nor does investigation of its influence on the mind have any analogy with that mode of ethical speculation in which Hutcheson It is conceivable. En second lieu. as emerges Hutcheson con- ceives it. j.

appropriated to The have indicated as a whole. path marked out by Hutcheson himself. constitutes the sentiment of beauty. but all subsume beauty in a more comprehensive conception and such transformation is of which it forms but a part or aspect j altered. is possible only because its the philosophic basis of aesthetics shifted or analytical method . is and intellection. and a mode of piety. The feeling neither simple nor original. and requires no special sense 35 it. no more than that I as a variant not incompatible with Hutcheson's system was not followed by any disciple. Almost all later writers acknowledge the beauty of uniformity this in variety. trine is to subsume the aesthetic sense under other faculties: physical and moral of beauty sensation.36 Beautiful and Sublime The tendency of this docings.

and subtle thinker of the century. Most modern scholars. The limity in the Treatise is always ancillary to other other works contain little of importance. Yet though systems as Gerard's and Alison's points to Hume these later aestheticians occasionally borrow from or quote him. together with analyses 3 of the two essays. 2 far as this can 'be inferred from his writings. What is attempted here. and the internal evidence of such instead. "Of the Standard of Taste" and "Of Tragedy. his influence was pro found 5 the systems of Gerard and Alison. and the treatment of beauty and subdiscussions. David might have commanded a great influence over British aesthetic speculation." and certain sections of A Treatise of Nature have important aesthetic implications. Hume's aesthetics is slender. however. derive in great measure from Humeian psychology. The essay. agree in declaring that Hartley's psychology car1 ried the day for associationism in aesthetics 5 there is. "Of Tragedy. Hume had little direr*" ^flW-fnprm aesthetic discussion. no external evidence for any decisive influence of Hartley on British aestheticians before James Mill. "Of the Standard of Taste. THE MOST Hume indeed. so cordingly. systematic. to be sure. through observation ." is the only extended piece of Hume's work which is strictly aesthetical in character 3 the esHuman say. ac-. is a concise adumbration of Hume's aesthetic position.CHAPTER 3 T>avid Hume A original." A Treatise of Human Nature is an effort to apply inductive techand introspective experiment. and important aspects of the work of the picturesque school. yet the first is really a critical problem the more general aesthetic implications of which were not developed by Hume. The slight- ness of his impact is readily explicable: save for cogent and probing analyses of certain special problems. to psy37 niques. In formulating an associational psychology which could be turned to account in aesthetic investigation.

according as they are more or less vivid lively. principles. morals. society But though Hume treats of logic. and the nature of our ideas: morals and criticism gard our tastes and sentiments: and politics consider men as united in and dependent on each other. or which can 4 tend either to the improvement or ornament of the human mind. Morals. like the moral. which it can any way import us to be acquainted with. impressions lively originals. are. pride and humility. the "philosophical criticism" now termed aesthetics) receives slight attention. within the scope of ultimately their their Hume's study for though they are dependent on human nature. &c. time." 7 This "beauty and de- .38 Beautiful and Sublime sciences depend* the science of "human chology. rather than the external world itself. and Politics. criticism (and this term comprehends. and criticism are branches of the science of human nature it- self: The sole end of logic is to explain the principles and operations of our rereasoning faculty. aesthetic sentiments. moreover. immediate reference is to external reality. and politics at length in his essays and treatises. and which they exactly represent". and external objects. from which all other nature" is Hume's metaphysics. politics. Criticism.^ is may kind hatred. deriving from psychology j fundamental principles and concepts (space. They are. arising in consequence of sensations (primary impressions) or ideas. which are and 5 correspondent to them. The first principles of Hume's metaphysics are: that the imme- diate objects of knowledge are perceptions of the mind. Mathematics. or at any rate more confined. entering the Treatise only incidentally. that there is a "liberty of the imagination to transpose and change its ideas" in accordance with the laws which Hume discovers. Of the the sense of beauty and deformity in action. These compre- hensive principles are supplemented in the course of discussion with subordinate. Of the second are the passions of love and be_<jividftH i'ntn i-wr> IrjnH. In these four sciences of Logic. natural philosophy. causality. composition. of course. morals. of course. is comprehended almost everything. that these perceptions are distinguishable into impressions and ideas. second- The ary and reflexive impressions.). grief and joy. except by way of analogy and illustration. and into simple and complex $ "that all our simple ideas in their first appearance are deriv'd from simple impressions. and natural religion do not come. not fainter derivatives. But logic. And they are distinguished from the passions by their comparative calmness: "Thereflective impressions first vi^ the calm and the violent.

Of the beauties which are such by nature. so far the case that "pleasure and such and pain . which be. The chief treatment of beauty in the Treatise . others beautiful owing to peculiar and arbitrary associations. classes . or by caprice. This analysis requires that beauty be pleasurable deed. exbeauty is pleasant. to the passion 5 related to the sensation of the passion: related to the object. cipal analytical device: others beautiful through customary association. the passion is deriv'd. as the case of or that and may humility. . demonstrate that those passions arise from a double relation of im- Hume pressions and ideas: a relation passion (self) between the idea of the object of the and that of the cause of it (some trait related to self).David Hume 39 formity in action" is not the visual beauty of motion. . is fitted to give a pleasure and satisfaction to soul. in- neces- constitute their very sary attendants of beauty and deformity. are not only j is." but this power of producing pleasure.. 8 is ancillary to the is concerned to analysis of the passions of pride and humility. "we shall find that all of beauty deformity. beauty may cites pride in its possessor." Thus. of two distinctions that intersection the formed by virtues. and those which one as a prinmight expect to find in a psychology employing association there must be some things originally beautiful. as either by the primary constitution of our nature.. as in possible: n The Hume tween properties which are useful and those which are inherently Hume discovers four classes of pleasurable. but the moral beauty of behavior: in the fashion of his age. In his moral theory. which the cause separately produces. a locution justified for him by the important analogy between aesthetic and moral feeling j Hume does not." three origins of beauty here suggested are really only those which Hutcheson had already considered. a further differentiation is the case of the virtues. which nature has attributed the sensation. pride excites the passion. excited by the cause together with a similarity between the passion "That cause. bedistinguishes here. . is is From 9 this double relation of ideas and impressions. but 10 difference betwixt the "to If we examine theories essence. the idea of per- sonal beauty be connected with the idea of self through conas being our beauty. as is the emotion of pride 3 accordingly." Hume them resolve into this. by custhe tom. intend to identify the two species of emotion: "Now there is nothing common to natural and moral beauty ." explain and declares. . that beauty is such an order and construction of parts. however. Hume speaks often of the "beauty" of character and behavior. and the emotion of tiguity and cause-and-effect.

art." Hume lays greatest stress on utility: "Most of the works of he declares. where qualities rather than actions and traits of character are in consideration. and determine In the aesthetic realm." greatest influence. Handsome and beautiful. And in aesthetics as in and uule the modes of two beauty: morals. and pleases us by 13 nothing but its tendency to produce an end that is agreeable.. "are esteemed beautiful. tho ? it will never appear so to one. as beautiful as a hill covered with vines or olive-trees. a discussion in its turn contributory to the analysis of love and hatred. who is acquainted with the value of each. 12 all the great lines of our duty. in itself. that . and of particular causes are intermixed in our opinion is.40 Beautiful and Sublime between useful and immediately pleasurable. in proportion to their fitness man. . it is impossible for any reasoning . but relative to some other circumstance. and has no foundation in what appears to the senses. "may My opinion. overgrown with furze beauty of color and figure as such. and broom. and even many of the productions of nature derive from that source. for instance. He . or from reflections or appearance of characters species on their tendency to the happiness of mankind. on most occasions. arise either from the mere as it. than would be readily justifiable." he observes on one occasion. on their first appearance." 14 But this passage occurs as an illustration of the force of sympathy. is not an absolute but a relative quality. may be.. command our affection and approbation j and where they fail of this effect. and . The Hume puts and passions. the dulce. I know not but a plain. a beauty inherently pleasurable without reference to utility: "Some species of beauty. were it not that his discussions of beauty usually occur in contexts which make such for the use of their beauty emphasis appropriate 5 Hume never has occasion to treat of the is always considering beauty remarks. scarce any advantages of ornament or situation will be able to equal this beauty. there is no distinction of agent and and in consequence there are only patient. of ourselves and others. that between agent and patient. "nothing renders a field more agreeable than its fertility. But this is a beauty merely of imagination. virtues are useful or agreeable to ourselves or to others . manner as they are in our decijudgments of morals 5 after the same sions concerning most kinds of external beauty: Tho' I am also of that reflections on the tendencies of actions have by far the moral sentiments. Hume always concedes. perhaps. "especially the natural kinds. that both these persons." Hume insists upon the influence of utility on our ideas of beauty more. though he has never occasion to treat.

" 17 Hume's insensitivity to the visual arts (to which Brunius also perhaps. like Kant. having objective reality 20 It appears to me. which ! "In every judgement of beauty. re- 19 in conferred beauty and sublimity to the perceiving mind alone." errs in two it immediate judgment particulars: ignores beauty. for Hume." 15 led to the conclusion that beauty. be recalled 5 whatever is instrumental testifies) is. his appreciation of it is universalized it is not his selfish interest which makes the object beautiful. In such a case one appreciates qua spectator the feelings' one has qua user. and communicate to the spectator 18 and this would be true even similar touches of pain or pleasure. remarking that Hume." with both accord in Hume is that previous and subsequent ever. but his detached view of the object as useful to the employer (who chances to - be himself).David Hume them better to our taste 41 to redress their influence. trast with an earlier "tendency to regard the sublime [I suppose also the beautiful] as a quality residing in objects. is "an impersonal recognition of the functional perfection of an object. he remarks that "the fitness except as aesthetic tastes of one satisfied with such a theory could not have been keen. Monk observes this disinterestedness of aesthetic judgment and connects it if with an alleged subjectivity. responsible for some of the limitations of his theory of beauty. not the latter. howlike the primary characteristics of matter. Hume is useful the whole train of social virtues are useful and the expressions of countenance imaging them would no doubt be ranked by Hume as among the beauties of utility. yet not beautiful by Hume's criteria. overlooks the McCosh. The beauty of utility affects us chiefly indeed. even when the beautiful object is useful to and being used to happiness by the judge himself. An instrument of torture is purposive. he never makes a single allusion to a fine statue or painting. the is Monk 16 This knowledge that it is complete and at least latently purposive. the feelings of the person affected enter into consideration. wholly by sympathy. Hume nowhere speaks of the it beauty of conducive to utility and human happiness. and we do not wonder to find that in the letters written during his travels. however. importance of immediate beauty for Hume y troubled by Hume's utilitarianism. and it is the former sentiment. or adapt and sentiment. writers of the century in finding the sentiment of beauty within the . The broad sense in which understands "utility" must. and confuses utility with fitness. too. ' the person affected and the spectator were the same." is aesthetic.

being united to 22 And thirdly. "acquire an union in the fancy. the great- . enlarges the soul. while those of objects past may be memories or beliefs. moreover. whether successive or extended. The weakening of conceptions in any of these ways of course weakens correspondingly all those practical passions which arise from the conceptions: we do not fear what is remote." time has a lesser effect than past. for the parts of extension. wide plain. I think. and excel Hume A every thing. Ideas of faint in proportion to their relose the association to self (through because not moteness. little analysis of the various classes of associations which influence judgments of beauty. that since ideas of future objects are only fancies. but because the fancy pro- objects remote in time or space are ceeds to their conception through the conception of the intermediate objects. On this last point it could easily be objected. Hume's treatment little of beauty goes no further than there is subtlety of differentiation (of design from fitness from utility. no treatment of the mechanisms by which the immediate beauties operate. because the fancy tends to run in the direction of the passage of time. future the senses. the ocean. Hume treats "Of Contiguity and Distance in Space and Time. But curiously." 23 In conceiving a remote object. a process interrupted by repeated recalling of the fancy to the present self. and it a gives sensible delight and pleasure. for instance). which accompanies not its beauty with a suitable greatness. Removal in time." 21 The treatment is conducted in terms of the vivacity of ideas and of habits of the imagination and the passions. renders ideas feebler than distance in space. there is a set of aesthetic emotions admiration and esteem terms them. Following a discussion of the influence o imagination on the passions.42 perceiving Beautiful and Sublime it mind and the causes of without 5 there is no this 5 historical progression in this viewpoint. removal into the future might weaken our ideas more than remoteness in the past. and so forth. sublimity as they are usually designated when more than usually elevated and intense which run counter to the as Hume tendency of the imagination. Hume's aesthetics is formed of hints and one of the most important of these suggests an analysis of sublimity. the fancy proceeds through conception of the intervening distance. however beautiful. eternity. repeats the conventional observation that "the mere view and contemplation of any greatness. In accounting for this circumstance. a succession of several ages 5 all these are entertaining objects. only they which ideas acquire a vicarious vivacity). which wax as the conception wanes.

in certain dispositions. and the su- and rises in aspiration. a short remove in time or space weakens our emotion by enfeebling the conception without arousing us to overcome the difficulty. This is also true in the inverse. to pursue objects downward. has rather a contrary effect. the greater difficulty of forming a conception across an interval of time makes temporal distance more impressive than spatial. a commonplace $ Du Bos. and forcible perceptions are ifso facto pleasurable. supports and fills the passions is agreeable to us. we invigorate the soul. perior resistance of the past makes antiquity more admirable than futurity. when . and inspires us with a more than ordinary grandeur and magnanimity. requisite to explain the superior effect of and of future time to past. Opposition but the soul. whereas. opposition. Whatever and is averse to the latter. and facility the second. through association with phenomena of gravitation. It must be noted that there are other possible causes for the sublimity of the past. since his entire system rests distinctions in force or vivacity of perception. In collecting our force to overcome the opposition. More precisely. a greater remove engages our powers and excites admiration. desires the former. To Hume upon the idea is especially congenial. 'Tis a quality very observable in human nature.David Hume is 43 transferred to ness of which excites admiration. sociations Dugald Stewart suggests a series of as- between antiquity and elevation. associations systematically . which admiration the associated object. of course. full of courage and magnanimity. A further principle is temporal over spatial distance. what weakens and infeebles them is uneasy. . . 26 In like manner. in a manner seeks . As opposition has the first effect. Lord Kames. 24 notion of vacuity being painful to the mind is. not only enlarges the soul. as on the contrary. . and give it an elevation with which otherwise it wou'd never have been acquainted. no wonder the mind. elevation. This prin- ciple is a property of human nature: both the passions and the imagination tend to exert their force by opposing obstacles. The the natural tendency of imagination is. The tendency of the mind to oppose obstacles appears to resistance 25 is depend upon sensibly felt this principle: the force of when an idea or impression is more overcome. and in it accordance with the present principle. counteracts its own tendency and sublimity. and other writers had based aesthetic The theorems upon it. . that any opposition which does not entirely discourage and intimidate us.

men necessarily agree. confirming one sentiment. and it is found. "The great variety of Taste. is pithy. while at bot30 Hume employs in this conjudgment. by which the various sentiments of men may be reconciled 5 at least." they this is opposite to the case in matters of opinion and science: "The difference among men is there oftener found to lie in generals than in particulars 5 and to be less in reality than in appearance. Parallel to the situation in criticism is that in morals. af31 The forded. and has Hume for granted that feelings of beauty and the reverse are essentially impressions." of the is thus defined. "is too 2S For since the very greater in reality than in appearance. this may be radically different: "when critics come to seeming unanimity vanishes ." terms employed in discussing matters of taste signify praise and blame." one of the fundamental distinctions in his system: the opposition of matters of sentiment and taste to matters of opinion and science is founded on the distinction of impressions and ideas. where again tacitly taken it agree as to names that virtue. And the direction in the which problem essay solution is to be found is matters of judgment there discovered by meeting the objection. and condemning another. "it is natural for us to seek a Standard of Taste. like beauty. that in is a standard (to wit. a decision. has All this is but a fragment of a theory of sublimity. judgments. Hume's investigaits tion of the faculty which apprehends aesthetic quality is less truncated: "Of the Standard of Taste. that they tom they agreed trast in their had been quarreling. a rule.44 DeaunjM ana. "real matter of . but nonetheless grasped a clue which could have been followed out into 27 Hume ramifying consequences to yield a theory of sublimity systematically integrated with a metaphysical psychology. servation" 5 to be still obvious not to have fallen under every one's oband this evident variety will "be found. which prevails in the world. suowne which could also be adapted to Hume's powithout inconsistency. is good but may yet disagree on the extension of the names to actual conduct and charall acter j this analogy is itself a kind of proof. as well as of opinion. on the general propositions formed with these terms j while the application of them to concrete instances particulars. An explanation of the terms commonly ends the controversy 5 and the disputants are surprized to find. but sition ceiving past and future." he observes. emotions rather than ideas. Amidst such diversities." though brief. and which would enable Hume to avoid the difficulties attending his view of the relative difficulty of conattractive to Stewart. on examination. for the most part. that 29 All affixed a had very different meaning to their expressions.

David
fact"), to

Hume

45

which disputes may be referred, whereas all sentiments are since "right," they are not representative of something outside the mind. "Beauty," it is urged, "is no quality in things themselves: It

merely in the mind which contemplates them; and each mind perceives a different beauty. One person may even perceive deformity, where another is sensible of beauty 5 and every individual ought
exists

to acquiesce in his 32 those of others."

own

sentiment, without pretending to regulate

Hume
ciple in

its

observes very justly that no one really applies this prinfull latitude, that in practice all admit of a standard even

while subscribing to the proverb which denies one. It is true that the rules of composition (Hume throughout has literature in mind,

though analogous reasonings would be applicable to the beauties of nature or of the other arts) do not depend on relations of ideas, and
are not susceptible of demonstrative reasoning 5 they depend upon experience. Sentiments do not resemble external objects and relations (and to this extent the point that all sentiments are equally right is
just)
jects,
5

anH causation
33

they are caused by the properties and relations of external obis a relation discovery of which depends upon ex-

experience here in question is simply the pleasure and pain yielded by the different modes and devices of composition j the "rules" are nothing but "general observations, concerning what has
perience.

The

been universally found to please in all countries and in all ages." 34 If authors appear to please while abrogating the rules, either the
rules involved are false, or the authors please despite these licences in virtue of other beauties conformable to rule. But please whom? one may ask. For "though all the general rules of art are founded only

human

on experience and on the observation of the common sentiments of nature, we must not imagine, that, on every occasion, the feelings of men will be conformable to these rules. Those finer emotions of the mind are of a very tender and delicate nature, and require

the concurrence of

many

favourable circumstances to

make them play

and exactness, according to their general and established There is a "relation, which nature has placed between principles." the form and the sentiment" a relation of cause and effect but the effect, as always, may be obstructed by contrary causes. For the obdue impression, there must be a "perfect serenity of ject to make its mind, a recollection of thought, a due attention to the object j if any
with
facility
35

and we

of these circumstances be wanting, our experiment will be fallacious, shall be unable to judge of the catholic and universal,
36

beauty."

46

Beautiful

and Sublime

The
can

sentiments
still

natural tendency of objective beauties to produce agreeable may in any given case be frustrated 5 but the tendency

be determined "from the durable admiration, which attends those works, that have survived all the caprices of mode and fashion,
all

From

the mistakes of ignorance and envy" this test we learn that

quod semper, quod ubique.

some particular forms or qualities, from the original structure of the internal fabric, are calculated to please, and others to displease; and if
they
fail of their effect in any particular instance, it is from some apparent defect or imperfection in the organ. ... If, in the sound state of the organ, there be an entire or a considerable uniformity of sentiment among

men, we may thence

derive an idea of the perfect beauty, in like

manner

as the appearance of objects in the day-light, to the eye of a man in health, is denominated their true and real colour, even while colour is

allowed

to be

merely a phantasm of the

senses.

37

This step concludes the demonstration that there
it

is

a standard

which, though subjective in the sense that depends upon a certain adaptation of human nature to the objects of its perceptions, is not
subjective in the sense that it depends upon individual preference. The next stage in the inquiry is to determine what those defects are

which

may deform

the taste of individuals. There

is first

"the want of

that delicacy of imagination, which is requisite to convey a sensibility of those finer emotions," 38 a delicacy illustrated by that well-worn

story of Sancho Panza's wine-tasting kinsmen. The delicacy of mental taste comprises the two abilities this story suggests: sensibility to every beauty, and refinement in isolating the various beauties. "Where

the organs are so

fine, as to

allow nothing to escape them 5 and at the

same time
This

we

so exact as to perceive every ingredient in the composition: call delicacy of taste, whether we employ these terms in the

literal

or metaphorical sense." 39 The rules of composition are like the key and thong of the story they justify the delicacy of the true critic. And the false critic can be confounded by the production of
5

these rules, for "when we show him an avowed principle of art when we illustrate this principle by examples, whose operation, from his own particular taste, he acknowledges to be conformable to the principle when we prove, that the same principle may be applied to the
y

must present case, where he did not perceive or feel its influence: conclude, upon the whole, that the fault lies in himself, and that he wants the delicacy, which is requisite to make him sensible of
every
beauty and every blemish, in any composition or discourse."
40

He

David

Hume

47

But delicacy is not all; practice is requisite to improve vague and hesitant responses into "clear and distinct sentiments" wherewith the
"discerns that very degree and kind of approbation or displeaswhich each part is naturally fitted to produce." 41 Practice, moreure, over, leads inevitably to "comparisons between the several species and degrees of excellence," and it is only by comparison that the merit
critic

of a performance can be assessed. Hume makes the point which Hutcheson had made before him, that the coarsest daubing or most vulgar ballad is in itself pleasing, and becomes painful only to those

accustomed to higher merits

comparison having

its

usual influence

of exaggerating differences. The critic must divest himself, Hume continues, of prejudice, setting aside his individual being and peculiar

circumstances and considering himself as "a man in general." 42 The aesthetic attitude thus assumed is very like the attitude Hume supposes for moral judgment, where we readily distinguish our personal

and response from that universalized response we feel as generalized spectator. In the case of criticism, indeed, we must even assume the point of view which the performance, though designed for a different age and nation, requires. It is good sense which enables
interest

us to correct, or set aside temporarily, our prejudices and, Hume remarks, "in this respect, as well as in many others, reason, if not an
essential part of taste,
latter faculty."
43

A

at least requisite to the operations of this competent reason is requisite to judge of the inis

and of their subordinacy to an end. a chain of propositions and reabut Poetry, moreover, nothing sonings 5 not always, indeed, the justest and most exact, but still plausible and specious, however disguised by the colouring of the imagiterrelations of parts in a work,
"is

nation."

44

In short, few are qualified to

establish their

own

sentiment as the

standard of beauty. "Strong sense, united to delicate sentiment, imall prejpractice, perfected by comparison, and cleared of udice, can alone entitle critics to this valuable character 5 and the joint

proved by

verdict of such, wherever they are to be found, is the true standard 45 of taste and beauty." The difficulty remaining is to ascertain the cri-

by which such judges may be recognized. This question, however, is not perplexed by the difficulties which embarrassed the original issue, the existence of a standard. For we are no longer discussing
teria

sentiments, with all their subjectivity 3 this is a matter of fact, a question of ideas rather than impressions. Doubt and dispute may persist, but the doubts and disputes are of the kind which attend questions

submitted to the understanding, and the remedy

is

the usual one of

48

Beautiful

and Sublime

argumentation. Indeed, these aesthetic questions are decided much more readily than scientific, and the authority of literary classics is

more durable than

that of scientific systems.

Men

of taste,

though

few, acquire an ascendancy which makes their preferences prevail. The possibility of determining the standard established, Hume

concludes by conceding two limitations on the universality of the standard: "The one is the different humours of particular men 5 the
other, the particular manners and opinions of our age and country." All diversities in the internal frame of men are not indicative of dedeclares, plainly an error in a critic, "to confine his approbation to one species or style of writing, and condemn all the rest. But it is almost impossible not to feel a predifect or perversion: "It
is

4e

"

Hume

our particular turn and disposition. Such preferences are innocent and unavoidable, and can never reasonably be the object of dispute, because there is no standard, by which they
lection for that

which

suits

In like manner, we are inevitably more touched life which resembles that of our own age and of by representations country. Where the disconformity consists only in customs or in speccan be decided."
ulative opinions, full allowance should be made, and we should accommodate our judgments to the work 5 but where the principles of

47

morality and decency alter from age to age, though the poet we cannot relish the composition.

we may

excuse

The drift of Hume's argument, taken as a whole, is contrary to the purpose of Hutcheson. Hutcheson's effort was to establish a distinct sense of beauty, whereas Hume endeavors to get the issue out of the realm of impressions and into that of judgment and ideas. So
little,

however, has the import of Hume's argument been grasped, pronounce Hume's discussion "almost a reproduction 48 of Hutcheson's early work," and Wilson O. Clough could say that
that Scott could

"Hume, thorough-going rationalist, tried to bring taste and the arts under reason and good sense, but had finally to accept the subjective
and sensibility." 49 No philosophical critic of the eighteenth century was an antinomian in taste all establish a standard, and the only problem is to determine how the standard is estabcriteria of feeling
;

lished within the context of each system.

essay "Of Tragedy" is devoted to explanation of the appar"unaccountable ently pleasure, which the spectators of a well-written tragedy receive from sorrow, terror, anxiety, and other passions, that
are in themselves disagreeable
a,

The

and uneasy." 50 Solution of this crux, part of the more general aesthetic problem of imitations of dis-

David

Hume

49

pleasing originals, was repeatedly attempted by critics and aestheticians of the eighteenth century 5 no explanation of the narrower probthe from lem, pleasure tragedy, was more ingenious and systematic than Hume's. Hume makes subtle use of the principles of inductive

reasoning developed in the Treatise of Human Nature; much artful 51 logic is concealed in an apparently casually structured essay.
a paradox that painful passions should be the cause of pleasure in a tragedy 5 but that they are so is incontestable, since the more
It
is

keenly we are afflicted by them, the greater is our enjoyment. Hume's solution comprises three steps: determination of the conditions which a solution must meet, development of an hypothesis conforming to
those requirements, and inductive verification of the hypothesis. The Abbe Du Bos had attacked the enigma by noting that a certain enjoyment accompanies any action or passion which occupies the mind

and prevents disagreeable vacuity; 52 Hume himself had recourse to this principle in the Treatise, and "Of Tragedy" confirms the account. But Hume suggests a difficulty "in applying to the present subject,
for the theory does not account for the very fact here to be explained, that what is displeasing in reality 53 may be pleasurable in imitation. The solution must, in short, be
in
its full

extent, this solution"

found in something differentiating art from life. The theory of Fon54 tenelle attempts just that. Arguing that pleasure and pain, so different as effects, may proceed from related causes (moderated pain, e.g.,
yields pleasure), Fontenelle is able to show why the excitement of the mind is still pleasing in the theater even when the passions would

be painful in real
the pain,

For the half-awareness of fiction moderates reducing the affliction to a point where the emotion is
life.

pleasurable; in real

life, however, no reflection (even, I presume, on our comparative security) can render grief agreeable. This reasoning

is

arguments employed by Hume at several points in the ? " Treatise. Tis only in dramatic performances and in religious dishe declares ironically, "that [fear and terror] ever give courses,"

much

like

pleasure. In these latter cases the imagination reposes itself indolently on the idea; and the passion, being softened by the want of

no more than the agreeable effect of enliven55 -But the theory appealing to attention." the the and mind, fixing ing the nature of poetical belief fails of full explanation, for it rests the
belief in the subject, has

difference in effect
scenes, whereas,

on the degree of

belief accorded the affecting

Hume

argues, events of a really distressing nature
is

may

be pleasantly exciting in oratorical presentation which

fully

50
believed

Beautiful

and Sublime

vividly the rhetorician puts before us the afflictthe less we are aware of their remoteness, the more ing circumstances,

the

more

we are The
and

pleasurably stirred. evidence thus far adduced indicates that the cause of the paradoxical pleasure of tragedy must be something common to rhetoric
poetic,

and some common

differentia of both

from

reality.

This

statement of the problem precludes not only the solutions traditional before Hume but also most of those developed after or in opposition

by suggesting our own to Lucretius and had back comparative security has a history reaching 56 in modern times the authority of Hobbes; yet Hume does not conto his

own.

The hypothesis

that tragedy pleases

it. Given Hume's problem, the theory is irrelevant, unelaborated form, at least) it does not entail any differentiation of art from life 5 indeed, consciousness of our security would

descend to refute
for (in
its

be yet greater in real than in imitated distress. Had Hume taken up this notion, I presume that he would have argued that a satisfaction

stemming from comparison of our state with that which we observe would disappear as sympathy becomes more acute 5 the influence of 57 comparison runs always counter to that of sympathy. Yet our pleasure in tragic representations increases with the degree of sympathy a circumstance which is a conclusive refutation of the theory in felt question. Nor could Hume assent to an explanation grounding our

enjoyment on an instinctive delight in compassion a notion advanced by Burke, Adam Smith, Blair, Lord Kames, Bishop Hurd, Campbell, and a host of lesser lights 5 all the variants of this theory have a com-

mon

failing:

without further development, they do not account for

any difference in our reactions to tragedy observed dryly in a letter to

and

to real situations.

As

Hume

thought a the Tears
Case,

difficult

Smith, "It is always Problem to account for the Pleasure, receivd from

Adam

of Tragedy $ which woud not be the was Sympathy agreeable. An Hospital woud be a more 58 Place than a Ball." In the same fashion, the various entertaining moral feelings aroused admiration of courageous resistance to mis-

&

Grief

& Sympathy

if all

fortune, &c.

What,
ical

then,

are not pertinent to this problem. is to resolve the paradox?

Hume notes that

in a rhetor-

description of a melancholy or terrifying episode we find pleasure in (i) apprehension of the talents and faculties of the rhetorician

judgment in combining, his genius them and in (2) the beauties of the rhetoric itself the language and force of expression. These pleasures of art exceed
in presenting

his art in assembling details, his

David

Hume

51

the pain of the melancholy passions suggested by the subject (which, though believed in perhaps, is not before our senses), and by this

predominance "convert" the excitement of the
to their

distressful

emotions

own aggrandizement.
impulse or vehemence, arising from sorrow, compassion, indignanew direction from the sentiments of beauty. The latter,
least tincture them so strongly as totally to the soul, being, at the same time, rouzed by by eloquence, feels on the whole a strong move59

The

tion, receives a

being the predominant emotion, seize the whole mind, and convert the

former into themselves, at
alter their nature.

And

passion,

and charmed
is

ment, which

altogether delightful.
fortiori explain the effects of tragedy,

This account will a

wherein the

pleasure arising of pleasure common to rhetoric and poetic. tragedy may also have its influence 5 but it
to

from

detection of imitation

added to the sources The weakened belief in
is

is necessary in any case combine the charms of genius with the excitements of the subject. Conversion of the passions, this change of a passion into another,

even an opposite, passion under the influence of a predominating emotion, is not a notion developed ad hoc by Hume for the sake of constructing an ingenious theory of tragedy. The Treatise discusses
conversion in three passages. It is mentioned rather incidentally in the explanation of unnatural malice against oneself: a man enjoying a
pleasure while a friend suffers is made uneasy by the contrast and surrenders his pleasure j such comparison would ordinarily lead to self-gratulation and an accession of pleasure, save that "as grief is

here supposed to be the predominant passion, every addition falls to that side, and is swallowed up in it, without operating in the least upon
the contrary affection." 60 more general account of conversion is found in the section treating "Of the Causes of the Violent Passions": "'Tis a remarkable property of human nature," Hume
observes, "that

A

verted into

it,

any emotion, which attends a passion, is easily cony tho in their natures they be originally different from,

and even contrary to each other" 5 and he distinguishes this process from the production of one passion out of another through the double 61 Hume discriminates finally, in relation of impressions and ideas. other modes of rencounter three "Of the Direct Passions," treating between passions: alternation when they arise from different objects, cancellation when the same object provokes opposite passions, mixture in a new passion when the same object produces different emotions

52 but
is

Beautiful

and Sublime

sion,

Hume
62

of uncertain probability. Conversion into the predominant pasobserves, commonly arises at the first shock of conflicting

passions.

conversion of painful feelings by artistry and beauty satisfies the two conditions for a solution to the problem "Of Tragedy" it is

The

:

common

to art

and

rhetoric,

and

differentiates both

from
is,

actuality.

Adducing the

effects of artistry, imitation,

and beauty

novelty in the theory of tragedy 5 what is new is these elements not as merely counterbalancing the disturbing passions of pity and fear, but as transforming those passions into a new
pleasure. Conversion explains the effect of tragedy "by an infusion of a new feeling, not merely by weakening or diminishing the sorrow." ea It must be stressed that Hume's hypothesis does not intellectualize art: the influence of artistry need not be consciously recognized 5 these are pleasures of the imagination, felt intuitively, not

of course, no that Hume conceives

judgment (though of course judgment may make us aware of circumstances which permit our taste to respond). Refutacalculations of
tions of

Hume's

theory, both in the eighteenth century

and today,
64

commonly overthrow a view which

Hume

did not advance.

Hume's

analysis, traced this far, is

only an hypothesis ; confirma-

tion is requisite, and the confirmation finds his system. "To explain the ultimate causes of our

Hume

is

appropriate to
is

mental actions

" 'tis sufficient if we impossible," he remarks early in the Treatise; can give any satisfactory account of them from experience and anal33 65 ogy. Finding analogies to the cause-effect sequence here being studied is, then, the most efficient confirmation. The instances Hume brings forward to "afford us some insight into the analogy of nature" are carefully selected and arranged to constitute a complete induction. 'The first group of instances includes the effects of novelty, of curiosity and impatience, of the encountering of difficulties, all which tend to enhance whatever predominant passion they accompany, whether agreeable or distressing. Painful feelings are converted into
pleasurable more strikingly in another set of instances when anxiety for a sickly child increases affection for it, when death of a friend en-

hances appreciation of him, when loneliness in absence, or jealousy, reinforces love. Next the cases in which the principle operates contrariwise, so that, aesthetic pleasures being subordinated to painful

passions, the pleasure is converted to augmentation of the painful feelings: as (in tragedy) when excess of horror or mere passive suf-

fering convert the pleasures of imagination into augmentation of horror or disturbing compassion. In one of his infrequent discussions

and imitative verisimilitude to a subject dismal and unpleasant. does in fact convert uneasiness to enjoyment. . Investigation of the inadequate conjectures of other writers had enabled Hume to present his own more complete and adequate hypothesis 3 he had established the reality of conversion of the passions. I am inclined to think. and conveying only a disturbing uneasiness. that. art. expressive force and numbers. and judgment." 67 Too much dif- much sickness and infirmity disHume's final instance presents the common-life equivalent of a tragedy a gloomy story unadorned with the embellishments of art and genius. Hume of painting can convert more disagreeable feelings than condoes not attempt application of the theory of conversion Hume Hume to imitations of the ugly and disgusting. in painting at least. 66 Conversion is reversed when the subordinate passion becomes the predominant: "Too much jealousy extinguishes love: ficulty renders us indifferent: Too gusts a selfish and unkind parent. and the unpleasantness of the original being simply sub- ducted from the beauty of the representation. and by close analogies had given strong support to his conjecture 5 what remained was to suggest that the addition of imagination. the mind not being stirred as by the terrific or pathetic. imitation of ugly or disgusting originals does not yield a conversion. Hume 53 here observes that painters have been "very unin their happy subjects" having chosen either the "ghastly mytholof ogy" Christianity or the implausible fictions of Ovid. and form perhaps too low j the visual beauty cedes. color. Hume rates the power of light.David of painting.

resting on his palette. Hogarth met with no such luck." cleverly apposite to Hogarth's solution 1 of the enigma of beauty all this has been told before. Hogarth was represented as Painter Pugg in mockery of the bellicose insularity Hogarth had displayed in his own satirical attacks on the vogue for Italian art and which led him to set his British pug beside his own likeness in the picture of 1745. The story behind the publication of the Analysis in 1753 garth's self-portrait of 1745 with of the curiosity aroused "The LINE of by HoBEAUTY And wiry and golden. Milton. that likeness itself resting on volumes of Shakespeare.CHAPTER 4 "William Hogarth ONLY aesthetic treatise of the quarter-century between JL Hutcheson's Inquiry (1725) and Burke's Sublime and Beautiful (1757) fame of which has survived into the twentieth century is William Hogarth's The Analysis of Beauty. curiosity kept up a by print of the portrait in 1749 and whetted by the subscription ticket for the Analysis in 1752. but subsumed into theories represented as more comprehenj . in setting the broken egg on end. But among the major aestheticians of the next half-century Hogarth's theory was accorded the same sort of recognition as Hutcheson's: it was taken. the imp of vanity whispers in his ear he draws from hideously grotesque models whose curves caricature the line of grace 5 a bust of 2 Raphael is desecrated as his wig block and more of the same. that is. might confound the sceptic and humble the proud." lumbus Breaking the Egg. Ridicule as well as applause greeted his theory 5 in several of a maliciously witty series of prints from the hand of Paul Sandby." "Pour Rembrandt" to exclude any gleam from the genius of those masters . But though Columbus. and Swift. Pugg's studio windows are closed by shutters labeled "Pour Raphael. as true of a limited class of aesthetic phenomena. 54 ." "Pour Rubens. which featured an engraving of "Co- GRACE.

"who have no bias of any kind." Le Blon's fabulous notion that the Greeks possessed a secret and mysterious rule or "analogy" brought by Pythagoras from Chaldea or Egypt. or the lessons of others. yet . by considering more minutely than has hitherto been done. That so great a painter could have concerned himself with the odd theories put really seriously forward in this book is not to be believed. as saving him "the trouble of collecting an 5 historical account of these arts among the ancients. is Marjorie Bowen's remark that the Analysis "is a very curious production. with articles on Hogarth the artist. Such subsumption in the hands of Burke and Gerard. he concludes. nelPs study of Hogarth attends seriously to Hogarth's theory 5 and it is unlikely that commentators can in future ignore it. this notion gives the Preface an air of buncombe for the modern ahistorical reader. may seem to dewhich has been heaped upon the book. by which we are directed to call the forms of some bodies beautiful." 8 He appeals to a disinterested audience. Reynolds and Alison was accomplished. Typical of the attitude. The serve Preface to The some of the ridicule Analysis of Beauty. Until quite recently the Analysis has been curiously ignored in modern scholarship on the eighteenth century. supplied this defect. Lives and critiques had . and ought to be considered even by hostile a seri- ous and significant theory. and even pretty good art history for the period. and indeed incompatible with. acin which I shall endeavour declares. now no more than a literary curiosity. those which for Hogarth himself justified his as a complete theory of beauty. But the treatise itself is free of such critics as crotchets. ." 4 A new and elaborate edition by Joseph Burke has. . those.William Hogarth 55 sive. however. Peter Quen- of Hogarth fill a library shelf. which serve to raise in the mind the ideas of all the variety of forms imaginable. . are fittest to examine into the truth of the principles "a short essay. and others the reverse . and their different combinations. though sory Analysis. unique in important respects British systems of the eighteenth century. neither of fashionable connoisseurs nor of painters. the nature of those lines. however. only by shifting the surviv- ing parts of Hogarth's doctrine onto new philosophic bases different from. either from their own practice. Ho- garth recites at length. among the "I now offer to the public." Hogarth companied with two explanatory prints. they bulge ignore Hogarth the 3 aesthetician. indeed. to shew what the principles are in nature. prevailing perhaps. Though a commonplace of Hogarth's age. none has offered more than curremarks about the and the learned journals. others ugly 3 some graceful.

Hogarth conceives a is This manifestly a highly all sphere as "an infinite number of straight rays of equal lengths. view the whole form within. issu- . to the shape of the object itself: made up of very fine threads. or at least disregard the works of nature. is The ele- of which wholes IreTomposed ingly. the Introduction to fashion in which volume can be seen lineally: Hogarth the line 5 accordthe Analysis explains at some length the for In order to being well understood." of criticism . we shall facilitate [The] oftner we think of objects in this shell-like manand strengthen our conception of any particular and mark there at once. or within 5 and nd the ideas of the two surfaces of this shell will naturally . supposed to observe them from without. and reduces perception of surface to a strange complication of perceptions of line. totally neglect. the priority of nature to art as an object of aesthetic analysis j the fault with painters and connoisseurs is that by having "espoused and first adopted their notions from nothing but imitations. because do not tally with what their minds are so strongly merely they 8 The beginning with nature. is characteristic of an analytic philosophy j the peculiarities of art can then be accounted for by a study of the effects of imitation. dividually to the powers or sensibilities of the react. and view it from without. and equally perceptible. or with what is prepossessed with.56 laid Beautiful and Sublime 7 Such appeal is not merely an in the following pages. as we corresponding parts so strongly. and object. as to have nothing of it left but a thin shell. and becoming too often as bigotted to their faults. connected together. be imagined to have its inward contents scoop'd out so nicely. exactly correspond- my ing both in its and let us likewise suppose this thin shell to be closely is inner and outer surface. by acquiring thereby a more perfect knowledge of the whole. they at length. 9 make artificial technique. as the opposite from a center. as their beauties. The approach always strives to separate the different elements contributing to aesthetic eff ect. as to retain the idea us masters of the meaning of every view of the walk round it. coincide. . it expression of Hogarth's pique at a fashionable cant a Implicit in Hogarth's statements down is implies philosophic standpoint. let every object under our consideration. to which it belongs: because the imagination will naturally enter into the vacant space within this shell. in a manner. and of the whole. for it does away with conception of solidity." common to nature and art. whether the eye we shall . f and to relate them inmind with which they And ment so with the linear analysis which Hogarth promises. ner. part of the surface of an object we are viewing.

57 and circumscribed or wound about at their ing from the center other extremities with close connected circular threads. With this hint of his linear analysis garth enters upon his by way of introduction. from Socrates' 13 The debt is likely 5 but. then. which are generally allowed to give elegance and beauty. rests on different presuppositions. duly elaborated. and evolves a doctrine with only partial or accidental similarities to Hogarth's. for instance. . VARIETY. mutually correcting and restraining each this enquiry. "The Statuary's Yard. SIMPLICITY. and actions to combinations of elementary lines is another part of this system. Socrates. are FITNESS. it visit to the sculptor Cleiton. or lines. The artist thus "arrives at the knack of recalling [even the most irregular into his mind when the objects themselves are not befigures] . . the particular force of each. UNIFORMall which co-o'ferate ITY. form. to compositions of all kinds whatever. is part of the memory or visual grammar of which Hogarth speaks in his n autobiographical fragments j the reduction of figures. 33 must be affirmed that Socrates' discussion is undertaken for a differ- ent purpose. ing a true spherical shell. this forced way of re- garding objects does have the advantage which interests Hogarth of permitting evolution of all possible views from a single image. employs a different method." an identification of beauty and fitness which Socrato in or visit no his could means Parrhasius. fore him. .Wdliam Hogarth . Nevertheless. and point out to my readers. declares that "all things are good and beautiful in relation to those purposes for which they are well adapted. Homain subject by undertaking to consider the fundamental principles. . It has been remarked by Joseph Burke that Hogarth drew on Xenophon's Memorabilia for some of his remarks on fitness. in general. bad and ugly in relation to those for which they Hoadapted. which is the subject of mean. when duly blended together. in those compositions in nature and art. which seem most to please and entertain the eye> and give that grace and beauty." Actually (as I think) a sphere is conceived as a surface of which the lighting varies in a certain fashion or 10 which provides certain tactile sensations 5 the reduction of this com- paratively simple impression to a multitude of ideas of lines requires a positive effort of imagination. and perhaps conceived his idea for the print. AND QUANTITY. INTRICACY. The principles I other occasionally** Fitness is first both as prior in nature and as indispensable. accept 5 by garth are ill . attitudes. in the production of beauty ." technical This technique.

but sufficient of Hogarth gives to his ideas. is pretty generally aestheticians. is in modifying unqualified beauty into "characteristic" beauties adapted to particular circumstances. a composed variety for variety 15 and without design.. . not merely of the physical form. and properly introduced. rather than as a relief to or as the composition of variety. is pleasing only as suggestive of fitness: "If the uniformity of figures.e. adds to it more variety. and is assumed among eighteenth-century a truism comparatively independent of philo- sophic system. is confusion and deformity. that when the mind has once been satisfied. uncomposed. Yet when the eye is glutted with a succession of variety. and every where indeed. Fitness. and even plain space becomes agreeable. Variety yields a more positive beauty than does fitness: All the senses delight in it. only a very moderate degree of beauty. mean The psychology supposed lights in here. There is at any accidentally enters Hogarth's rate nothing Socratic in the development and is and the theory into which they are fitted classical unlike theory. I here. in a certain finds relief degree of sameness. and contrasted with variety. The is as much offended with one even continued note. It must be noted that itself for beauty of fitness does not depend on appreciation of the concord between part and function considered qua concord in the manner of Hutcheson. as to pre- . who reduced fitness analogically to a special instance of uniformity in variety 5 rather. or the attention. the more pleasure the eye would receive: but this is so far from being the case. that the sense. and equally are averse to sameness. or lines were truly the chief cause of beauty. parts. with so exact an uniformity. for Hogarth. a mean between vacuity and distraction. dea moderate degree of exertion. the more exactly uniform their appearances were kept. or to the view of a dead wall. as the eye is it ear with being fix'd to a point. from the cognition of fitness) to the "eye" (the apparently simple perception of the object). in fact. that the parts answer one another. it is a pleasure transferred by association from the "mind" (i. and repeats this demand in talking with Cleiton but this is an aspect of beauty which only indirectly 14 theory." Regularity considered in itself. Its principal influence. is not the any wholly whole of beauty but a material cause of it necessary. Hogarth's statements about variety have sometimes a paradoxical air because he tends to include much of regularity in variety: his variety is "composed.58 Beautiful and Sublime tes argues for imitation of the soul.

then it pleases. properly speaking. modes of that Simplicity is agreeable because of its is ception: "Simplicity..William Hogarth 59 serve to the whole the character of fitness to stand. enhances the pleasure. he decomprehended clares. gives a sort of spring to the mind. intitles it to the name of beautiful: and it may be justly said. than in the other five. to fly. fourth of There is for Hogarth no peculiar sense adapted to perceiving uniformity in variety. because it enhances the pleasure of variety. "regularity and sameness . by giving the eye the power of enjoying it with ease. others only in that they are insufficient to produce beauty without and serve as prerequisites or limits or reliefs to it 3 intricacy.. of variety. and at best does only not displease 5 but when variety is join'd to it. contraries for in inverse proportion. the problem not to strike a mean but to secure the maximum "composed vari- ety. Every arising difficulty." Variety includes the it." decorative. except variety j 20 which indeed includes this. that leads the eye a wanton kind. gives pleasure. is want of elegance and true tinguish design taste. and makes what would else be is toil and labour." 18 The suit. to move. and shifted. which compose it." 19 Intricacy of defined. to be sure. Although Hogarth constantly speaks of "the eye" finding pleasure is only a special mode . for although they vary as variety are not. that for a while attends and interrupts the pursuit. and all the others. as in a Regularity often pleases. for the different union are pleasing from different principles. accordingly. regularity indicative of fitness. and simplicity. &c. Pursuing is the business of our lives 5 and even abstracted from any other view." 17 Umformity_and is Hogarth. Apart from fitness. of chacey and from the form pleasure that gives the mind. influence in facilitating perwholly insipid. in forms merely molding 5 but as Hogarth does not usually disin from fitness from utility such regularities are still what he terms fitness. without losing the balance: the eye is rejoiced to see the object turn'd. to sink. pleasure of intricacy arises from the instinctive love of purfrom the delight in moderate exertion: "The active mind is ever bent to be employed. to swim. without variety. The "uniformity" of Hutcheson's theory object is found in Hogarth fractured into the composition of variety. the symmetry or Hogarth's principles." given prerequisite that kind and degree of regularity needed to fit an for its end. that the cause of the idea of grace more immediately resides in this principle. so as to vary these uniform apie pearances. as "that peculiarity in the lines. become sport and recreation. of course.

21 He 23 Eye movements are really staccato." 26 This analysis thus reduces greatness to the same principles from which beauty depends. And Hogarth concedes a sublimity independent of beauty: "Forms of magnitude. and to the legs and thighs. that Ho- a movement dupligarth thought that the eye followed a line with "we shall line: the always suppose some such cating the course of principal ray moving along with the eye. . It does seem evident. a pleasure of the sense 5 it stems appetite through use of the eye. The pleasure of intricacy is not. for the more ample tity to the upper parts together. most noteworthy the anatomy he devises in explain- and so forth. although ill-shaped. draw our attention and raise our admira. and the pleasure only appears to pertain to the organ of sight. the attention the mind's eye is not conscious of the discrete move- ments of the organ. large quantities. Curiously." not analyzed by Hogarth 5 the independence from moral feeling is in fact one of the striking traits of Hogarth's aesthetic. and which are discussed below." every form we mean to examine in the most perfect manner . as to the neck for the larger and more swangrace like turns of the head. tion. and Hogarth's view will stand if we conventionally interpret it to refer to the attention rather than to the organic 24 eye. and tracing out the parts of . speaks also of "pleasing vibrations of the optic 22 nerves" produced by light and shadow. Elucidation of the peculiar excellence of the Apollo Belvedere demonstrates that "greatness of proportion must be considered. on merely linear partly . and horror is 25 The moral associations of sublimity are soften'd into reverence. the pleasure increases on the mind. . but ing the color of the skin. as depending on the application of quanthose parts of the body where it can give more scope to its in movement. properly speakfrom satisfaction of a natural ing. however. Even the sub- limity of the human form is treated formally 5 true greatness (Hogarth does not use the term "sublimity") stems from proportion rather than from quantity merely. the principles of beauty. Hogarth digresses into an ac- sway of all transition hinging count of the ridiculous in the midst of his treatment of quantity the upon the circumstance that exaggerated quantity may become absurd. The ridiculous depends partly on the conception of impropriety and incongruity (which in Hogarth's loose and general way of speaking are modes of ijnfitness). and has other curious physiological notions. [But] when forms of beauty are presented to the eye in . it is doubtful whether he always intends these locutions quite literally. is of course associated with sublimity.60 Beautiful and Sublime in this or that. on last of account of their vastness. will however.

And no Fra Angelico as in has more of Hogarthian beauty and grace Rembrandt. the^tajice jD f a figure. It is true. yet without The problem destroying simplicity: "In a word. still be found in a picture symmetrical. in the gesture. Nonetheless." garth's treatment of composition is that whether he is discussing a . It is not confined (I use W6lfflin ys terminology) to the Baeven in that of the but is found. the closed form. r^ ja. it would be an error to suppose that the theory is merely a rationalization for a style fashionable in Hogarth's age. 31 that Hogarth neither much approved in theory nor much followed in practice the linear manner. and the rest are all modifications of variety intricacy being a mode. the serpentine line and is of a higher order. the art of compos32 What is remarkable in Hoing well. especially for rococo art. of variety. the clear presentation. ^ is (fitness apart) one of employing oF-cjqmpoatQtaL. in Lomazzo and various Analysis of beauty in terms of the waving or serpentine line natuis found. ' - ' *- * i ' . when they are composed of unvaried lines. style. various kinds of lines in various relations one to another..-*. in the Renaissance roque too. is "the rally arises with the Baroque. without systematic elaboother writers before Hogarth. "hath the power of super-adding grace to beauty. and ration.. improper. as Burke has argued. 80 Hogarth's theory affords a rationale for baroque.-M* i t r quattrocento in Botticelli as in style Velasquez." properly entitled "the line of beauty" . which. it may be said. These six principles are the substructure of the theory: fitness is a prior condition. P4-l 1 w-A vra . or incompatible excesses meet. that is. the planar composition of the Renaissance style . is the art of varying well." 29 It is the waving line alone which from straight and "circular" is line of grace. .. That variety in which interested is linear. through waving line with its reverse curve. as Joseph Burke has well argued. the sweep. and order of an entire canvas it is a line found injh 3> r of drapery or a curl of hair. to the serpentine line. *** u-f **-* ***. and uniformity is and simplicity limits.WiLliam Hogarth factors: 61 "When excite laughter. Not soj the^ergenti^ not (or primarily) a grand compositional Iine ^dictating. but the serpentine line can frontal. of a ixaadx>r. Line is progressively more various as Hogarth we advance lines through those partly straight and the partly circular. varying in three dimensions. quantity a supervening excellence. and planar." characteristic of Hogarth's aesthetic that he should not trace out the associations which render regular curves and unvaried lines ridiculous in the human face and 28 figure. or. they always more especially when the forms of those excesses are 2T It is inelegant. IJttu ^j^. in than Raphael's a style quintessentially Renaissance.

whose emphasis is almost wholly on the kinds of considerations excluded from Hogarth's system. "are those that are of public utility. most notably and systematically Alison. moral associations. he handles the problem in terms of his simpie linear analysis. | uniformity and regularity." distinct most consequence. is distinguished from those lines which. insufficiently curving. Variety excites the lively feeling of wantoness and play Itricacy like the joy of persute .62 Beautiful and Sublime 1 candlestick or St. alongside this physiological effect. The 38 "Mean" and "gross" are terms not literally applicable to clumsy. of admiration and wonder \ . Hogarth notion of "fitness. Some writers later in the century. reduce all the influence of Hogarth's formal properties to moral association. though even for Alison the associations with formal qualities remain distinguishable in their aesthetic effect from associations with concrete wholes. Paul's. ." the influence of variety on the sense or the attention: they suggest. first manuscript draft of the Analysis. the various classes of associations which qualify our reactions to objects and mentioned and the occaan intrusion unwarranted has properly no place for such by any systematic necessity. We see distinctly what is left out in Hogarth when we think of Ruskin." he most entertain and Improve the mind and It is simply that this excellence is an excellence from beauty. are "mean and poor. Attitude and action exhibit the same fusion of moral and formal qualities. Yet the intrusion of moral association is nonetheless discernible even in Hogarth's purely their qualities and relations. Hogarth categorized the "inherent quallity of objects & the motions they excite in us" by analogy with moral and other feelings: uniformity Fitness - In his f I and Regularity Fitness excites a pleasure equll or similar to that of truth and Justice. are pleasures like contentment. The connotative aspects of ckungositi^n." and his of elaboration judgments except through this consideration alone is not adequate to the whole range of moral association. L quantity quantity pleasure y excite the * . Hogarth's effort to abstract beauty from moral association implies no preference for abstract art: "Subject [s] of 34 declares. are scarcely sional reference to such associations seems precise line of beauty. . which are "gross and formal criteria. for the graceful is found to be also the genteel. for instance. f Simplicity and Variety J I f tinctness Intricacy . ." and from those of excessive curvature.

through not a matter of is a virtue violation of which excites but satisfaction of which antipathy.. however.. especially ratios proper to harmony: "Albert Durer.William Hogarth 63 which Joynmg in their precise degrees in the human have the power of creating esteem love Honour Simplicity and distinctness in like the pleasure of attainment. of the serpentine line to analysis of the human this is part of little figure. that similar distances in lines belonging to form. Fitness excites a pleasure like that of truth and Justice (I presume) because cognition of it is intellectual (even though experience it may come to be judged of at sight). not only puzzled mankind with a heap of minute unnecessary divisions. and more beaten path 35 is of moral beauty." 3G But there is a second "general idea of form" arising from fitness. an idea involving not only the surfaces of objects considered as shells. but I am in any event not persuaded and of that aesthetic analysis It Hogarth was here attempting to escape the thorny tangle of by turning into "the broad. from its movements in tracing and coursing over surfaces of all kinds. This interpretation of Hogarth's sketch is confessedly conjectural. is not quite a reduction o aesthetic feeling to moral. is a mode of love. ordinarily causes only calm approbation and so with fitness. all easy This analysis. but the motion and function of the objects and hence their solidity and contents. justice properties is with felt it in Hogarth's table yield a pleasure which both immediately positive character. have . would. in like 38 manner. when its cause is a human being. "which is one part of beauty to the mind tho' not always so to the 37 eye. It is this second conception which gives rise to judgments of fit proportion. but also with a strange notion that those divisions are govern'd by the laws of music 5 which mistake they seem to have been led into. and by persuading themselves. a pleasure which." Hogarth is inclined. its effects on the mind 5 with the manner how such impressions are made by means of the first what he terms "the different feelings given to the eye. All general idea of form" determined by "the nature of variety. delight the eye. to run the the other to reduce sound under the laws of visual way. . Lamozzo and some others. analogy . Again. sometimes a fanciful." Hogarth heaps ridicule upon theories of proportion which pretend an absolute merit in certain ratios. indeed. Variety and the associated direct feeling. and . . by having seen certain uniform and consonant divisions upon one string produce harmony to the ear." unnecessary to trace Hogarth's application.

and breadth really variety and simplicity again but there is only the slightest ramification of into subordinate rules and criteria. breadth. for the graceful turns\out to be also the genteel. regard specific ful motion. or altogether. and the analysis remains on the level of shrewd comthere is no treatment comparable to the mon-sense 5 generalizations inimical to elaboration complex study Alison subsequently makes of facial beauty. corresponding to straight. admit of lineal definition more readily than do light and color. But the true beauty or "gentility" of proportion in the figure of length. "The Country Dance. with shades is curved. accordingly." and consistent maximum variety thickness as give \ This "character" depends of figures. Composition treated in terms of opposition. and serpentine lines. insofar as his treatment of expression is sys- . fleetness. and four of variation are distinguished." the analysis fuses formal and connotative fac- and the regular tors. waving. either in some particular that this singularity can be attributed part. The handling of these principles the entire subject of coloring analysis. Although Hogarth treats the greatness of the these charApollo Belvedere alongside is not comparable acteristic beauties. Attitude and action. similarly for the smaller parts "on a figure being remarkable as to its form. is hampered by the reduction to linear Associative factors of course intrude into discussion of the lines is and coloring of the face 5 yet Hogarth's system of such factors. The fusion o line with expression or character is not analyzed by Hogarth . for although the proportions also withthis a of traits the greatness is pleasing sun-god. and depends only upon such general proportions with "character." provided the "tuscan" legs of to "some remarkable circumstance or cause" as and shoulders broad the and chairmen spindle shanks of Thames 40 watermen clearly arise from their professions.64 39 Beautiful and Sublime beauty. and Hogarth's observations are accordingly more rewarding. topics of the two final chapters of the Analysis. Hogarth's psychology naturally log^^m^t^^^^^ll phenomena analodcnjjjiJ'n modificarions ofJjhn^Thft beauties oiTcoIor are the effects of colors as such. Illustrated by the print. with connection its from graceto out general function. it must be noted that greatness with the rugged strength of a Hercules or the softness of an Antinof the Apollo suggest dignity and ous. The beauty both of prime tints which serve as gradations as shades to one another and of "retiring shades" (variations in it bril- liance) is linear: species arises from the variety of the shading. but treated. not in terms of of shading. simplicity. the ridiculous.

is view three years before his death Hogarth affirmed his intention of 42 publishing a supplement." I. 55 than constantly applied to every action we make they being 41 . inscribed to the Dealers Dark Pictures" refers to the line of beauty. Note. straight and pentine lines. circular lines. did not occur to or three Years after his publication of the Analysis. Only in Manner of Sinking. it is so 65 by virtue of by his principles of variety. Recognition of the expressiveness of form has been remarked by almost every aesthetician since antiquity . such as are readiest to serve the necessary purposes of i. And his last work (1764). and rather at times of leisure. the serpentine line twisted about a cone "A Copy of the precise Line of Beauty w cJl Plate [Plate explanatory 26] of the Analysis of Beauty. It is of course obvious that Hogarth is best and best known as a comic painter. the expressiveness being superadded and coincidental. his tendency to describe expression and the rest. . are those made up of plain lines. till two ity of these two Conic Figures. . second false issue arises over the relation of Hogarth's own practice to his theory. while admirers may seek to find the theory exemplified in the paintings. "THE BATHOS. as it is represented on the i 8t This detail demonstrates. the novelty in Hogarth is that the beauty of form does not derive from the expression but from independent causes. fig. . persistent misconceptions which have obstructed sympathetic understanding of the Analysis should perhaps be dispatched here. A band beneath the engraving depicts on one side a pyramidal spiral shell "The Conic or in Form the Goddess of Beauty was worship by the Ancients at e in Pathos y Island of CYPRUS" and on the other. Ranged against not only the coherence of the argument itself. whereas "graceful movements in serare used but occasionally." properly speaking. . life. . But . if demonstration is needed. Detractors point with contempt to the discrepancy A between Hogarth's painting and his aesthetic. in Sublime Paintings. Hogarth's distinction of fitness or utility from ornamental beauty also plays through his discussion of motion 5 he notes that "all useful habitual motions.e. whereas the Analysis is devoted almost wholly to the beautiful. only the ornamental part of gesture. the similarthe Author. First is the notion that Hogarth tossed off the theories of the Analysis y as a jeu d esf>rit or as a device to escape from the position into which his controversy this Two with the connoisseurs had thrust him. in 1754 [1753]. but positive external evidence of Hogarth's continued adherence to its principles. Hogarth's devotion to his theory as long as he lived. [really the line of grace]. and especially in terms of lines. uniformity.William Hogarth tematic at all.

not of its pertinence to :he works of its author. the gesture of the :an be seen: the figure of Columbus &c. graceful and genteel 5 those fig-ight ares expressing vulgar astonishment. the merit of an aesthetic theory is a function of its anaJytiacuity and its fruitfulness in application.56 Beautiful insists that and Sublime the only end of art 5 of a subordinate theme in the is Hogarth nowhere the beautiful is 3ther possible ends. Mary Redcliffe's). in "The Pool of Bethesda" and "The tan. Hogarthian grace and beauty are seen in Raphael and ^nnibale Caracci with some exaggeration in Guido Reni. comic ones angular or round." Driate to the satirical works and is rarely found in them unless to Doint up some contrast or irony. is. But in my :al event. in this context. hand." or twenty years later (for St. the ridiculous Analysis and the principal object of Hogarth's art. That is to say. lowever. But sis it is enthusiasm for Charles Holmes to declare that in the Analy- irt Hogarth attempted "to explain that vital principle. which is a mere argwmentum ad hominem." or for Hesketh Hubbard to apply this idea by detecting the line of beauty in such 44 i The line of grace is clearly inappropainting as "Calais Gate. whereby his was different from that of all his contemporaries. There is a true :orrespondence between theory and practice: "Hogarth's earliest ^orks are conceived on a formal pattern exactly in accordance with his later theories. idealized or romantic figures are serDentine." is the engraving of "Columbus in so trifling an eff ort Breaking the Egg" this distinction 43 Even the hair. The high-comedy and conversation Dieces are nstanced ire to not devoid of grace "The Lady's Last Stake" might be but it is in the history paintings that grace and beauty be sought. . Good Samarand less strikingly in "The Ascension" Better than in Hogarth's own works. chagrin. or annoyance are not.

consists chiefly in the monly called the philosophers as improvement of those principles. how their exertions. which we term good taste. . we must. With the explication of these. Manufactures. And last of all. appeared in London and Edinburgh in 1774. added an important analysis of the standard of 2 taste. what other powers of the mind what constitutes that refinement and perfection of them. An Essay on Genius." is the more impressive analytically. and real importance. although Gerard observes that "the first part [was] composed. We shall next endeavour to discover. determine its genuine rank 4 among our 67 faculties. so long ago as the year 1758. and some progress made 3 The later book in the second part. . but its principal subject is foreign it to the present study and will be considered only incidentally. treated the subject with such elaborateness as to discourage subsequent inquiries of comparable detail. of imitation. indeed. Gerard's other important aesthetic treatise. Alexander Gerard. begin our enquiry into the nature of taste. its proper prov- ince. . This essay. which are compowers of imagination. we shall. the senses of novelty. by a review of the principles. and by what means it is obtained. submitted An Essay on Taste for a prize offered by the Edinburgh Society for the Encourageof Arts. of sublimity. of ridicule. and subjects of forming taste. Sciences. and are considered by modern These are reducible to the internal or reflex senses. then professor of moral philosophy logic at Marischal College. therefore. . and Agriculture. is the most elaborate investigation of the faculty of taste during the eighteenth century. 1 published in I759. "Taste. and. these senses co-operate in are combined with them in taste.CHAPTER 5 Alexander Qerard INand ment 1756. 1780. and of virtue. A second edition was called for in 17645 and the third edition. of harmony. operation. of beauty. following principles." observes Gerard.

They are termed senses because they share with the external senses independence of volition. And phenomena of taste "proceed. . . of which we have a perception by consciousness self to its when an or reflection. and to explain the phaenomena from them. without our reflecting on this mixture. or sublimity. justly razor. mility. as in a manner converts them into the passions themselves" ) modify our sensations. Taste. they are simple in feeling and their perceptions are inconceivable prior to experience. This senti- ment is compound in its frincifles. subsuming the notion that is mod- erate activity pleasurable. or from certain operations of the imaginageneral tion. On enquiry it appears that the internal senses are not ultimate principles. not. and. either from the laws of sensation. . however. by simpler qualities of the mind. and it is the business of philosophy to investigate these causes. the principles." 6 Gerard can wield Occam's A general principle of sensation. and produces numerous effects. the sole such principle. but the sentiment of beauty arises. because all their phaenomena can be accounted for. a depression of soul. This adapting of the mind to its present object and painful huis the immediate cause of it many of the pleasures and pains of taste. "Those who are unacquainted with philosophy. reduced to imagination. . by a few causes of extensive influence. Thus difficulty produces a consciousness of a grateful exer- tion of energy: facility of an even and regular flow of spirits: excellence. for though they are compound in principle.68 Beautiful is and Sublime This statement component f acuities the rationale for the three parts of the Essay: the their conjunction . and the relations between . Thus the pleasure we receive from beautiful forms is resolvible into the pleasure of facility and that of moderate exertion . association and symenlivens our ideas of the passions infused by it to such ("which pathy 8 a pitch. by 7 augments or diminishes many others. This . in respect of its in general. . But nature de- lights in simplicity. is. and is put in a frame suitable and analogous. begets an enlargement of mind and conscious pride. The seven internal senses are not ultimate principles of human nature: they are compound and derivative faculties. the taste thus constituted and other faculties and principles. deficience or imperfection. though itself a species of sensation. but perfectly simple in its 5 feeling. and immediacy and simplicity of perception." Gerard remarks. perfection. is its consequences. the mind conforms it nature and appearance. is that object is presented to any of our senses. reckon all our powers ultimate qualities of the mind. feels an emotion.

perfectly . beyond the fact that causal. of its obligatory character. and imparts a "peculiar sensibility to all the other powers of the 10 soul. they ["operations of operations of the or with other us for action j the latter. fit and taste the whole. and comprehends under the its fitness "sense or taste of virtue" perceptions of the "beauty" of virtue. pro- On duces an agreeable cast of mind conducive to the gentler affections. in contrast. memory. "it is necessary to remember that many different causes concur in forming the characters of men. perceptions vaguely like those caused by visible beauty. furthermore. by operating in conjunction with those qualities of the mind. qualities of human nature." But although taste is naturally more favorable to virtue than to vice. which "By being compounded with one another. tion The connec- between is ethics and aesthetics in this system. and he does faculties for The fundamental not attempt to reduce beauty to a single species. When Hutcheson speaks of the "beauty" of virtue. since it minimizes sensual pleasure. judgment. by being combined with the general laws of sensation. Of the various internal senses. nothing systematic in Gerard's treatment of this sense. Taste is but one of these causes $ and not one of the most powerful. taste reciprocally modifies the bent of the passions. though Gerard is an eclectic writer and on occasion imitates Reid or Hutcheson instead. is favorable to virtue. In particular. which perceptions might perhaps be referred to separate There is. But the Hutchesonian element in Gerard can be overestimated: Gerard analyzes senses or faculties which for Hutcheson were and simple original. It is not therefore to be expected that the character should be. they produce affection and taste of every kind j the former." is from similar Both char- imagination: original imagination." 9 The prevailing passions influence the turn of taste. the only one which need be treated before proceeding to the more strictly aesthetic problems is the sense of virtue. he does not proliferate distinctions. Gerard's view of these faculties is essentially that of Hume.Alexander Gerard 69 Gerard are the usual: external sense. only that certain traits of character yield pleasurable perceptions in onlookers." "energies of fancy"] generate most of our compounded powers. Gerard means. imagination. virtue acter in and taste arise in large part some sense "beautiful" or "sublime. of its good all desert senses. Since Gerard is only incidentally concerned with morals. in every instance. of to human nature. language conveys not a vague and figurative meaning but a significance systematically connected with the whole of his thought that virtue is so related to the the of universe as to present a economy his picture of uniformity in variety.

JO Beautiful and Sublime u These differentiations and causal connecanalogous to the taste. though mind. surprisingly varied in Gerard's analysis/ present no peculiar problem. though cost in systematic rigor. Five principles can be distinguished: the elevation and pleasurable exertion of the mind in conceiving the new phenomenon 5 surprise j composition with other passions or emotions j reflection on success in surmounting difficulty. study of judgment is is more different from orthodox Humeian- Judgment Gerard either of truth or of beauty. the effect is opposite. and it is possible to pass and judgment. yet if the connected ideas have such a degree of relation as invites comparison. which latter kind is rather quick in accepting a variety of intellectual faculties concerned with truth as original and unanalyzable. The influence of the passions on association is given an extraordinarily rich treatment 5 15 as in much of the Essay on Genmsy Gerard goes far beyond Hume in often at the evolution of a detailed associational psychology. from Beattie. though Hume parable treatment of association and of the Humeian distinction between natural relations (by which the imagination associates spontaneously) and philosophical relations (by which the judgment may 13 And other operations of the imagination beconnect reflexively). ren- ." tions clearly mark Gerard's approach as literal and differential. or self-gratulation on acquisition of the new works of to perception 5 sympathy with the original genius displayed in inventive 16 science and art. The "sense or taste of novelty" is included by Gerard among the internal senses because of the tradition established by Addison. taste. But pertains to beauty will take its proper place hereafter. and from Campbell. which the conception be pleasant in its own nature. borrowit ing eclectically the question of judgment as from Reid. The contrariety of the influence of sympathy with that of comparison is remarked upon 5 for though simply associated perceptions transmit their qualities to one another. is some The ism. His explanation of the love of novelty is rather surprisingly complicated. in contrast with Hutcheson's more analogical and organic treatment. The analysis directly to the treatment of imagination of imagination is roughly similar to that of 3 there is a com- The phenomena 2 of memory. and a pleasant idea will 14 appear less so by comparison with a more pleasant. The pleasing sentiment arising from nov- elty blends readily with other agreeable passions an object happens produce 5 but what is of interest is that such composition may be- come a of conversion: "The exercise of it new objects occasions. sides association follow Hume pretty closely.

following Baillie. too. but also in treating of the ridiculous and in discussing tragedy. it sometimes imag- ines itself present in every part of the scene." and that (contrariwise) the on objects. "gives us a still higher and nobler pleasure [than novelty]. by means of a sense appropriated to the perception of it. a large object is presented. as enlivens and invigorates its frame and : having overcome the opposition which this occasions. and simplicity in conjunction. with a general theory of the mind in Hume than in Gerard. feels a noble pnde. of course. notes that "the mere view and contemplation of any greatness. the enlargement of the mind to match the scene. "GRANDEUR or sublimity. which possess quantity or amplitude. The internal senses of chief importance for this study are. which had appeared posthumously in I747/50 Similar ideas. which always follows the nature of the 17 Gerard makes use of this Huingredient that was most intense. emphasizes extent as principal cause of the sensation of sublimity. to which it adheres. and gives it a sensible delight itself" mind "spreads there is in actually loss of content as well as of systematic connection Gerard's formulation 5 for Gerard. enlarges the soul. composes it into a with one grand sensation. those of sublimity and beauty. which totally solemn sedateness. and. disagreeable and distasteful. Each part of this analysis greatness. appear as commonplaces in classical authors 5 and Hume. whereas elevation and temporal distance were found by Hume to be still more . the mind expands itself to the extent of that object. from the sense of this immensity. which it contemplates. of course." 1S The emotion of sublimity is produced by such objects because we When contemplate objects and ideas with a disposition similar to their nature." Gerard declares.Alexander Gerard ders a disagreeable object 71 more disagreeable at first: for the most opsensations posite produced by the same cause. seeing its own traits existing in the 21 Both notions are more intimately connected object of perception. Objects are sublime. whether successive or extended. and entertains a lofty conception of its own 19 capacity. are easily transfused into one another. and [John] Baillie. simplicity conjoined therewith. and its conscious pride each part was to be found in An Essay on the Sublime by Dr." meian theory of conversion not only in accounting for the effects of novelty. and. by their composition form one more violent. while meanness renders any object. and pleasure. and existing in the mind at once. and is filled possessing silent it. and strikes it with deep it wonder and admiration: its finds such a difficulty in spreading itself to the dimensions of object.

. great degree of quality has here the same effect upon the mind." 22 Here again Gerard has fol- lowed Baillie.72 sublime. benevolence is more sublime of science. Baillie." had attempted to show. for Gerard as for found to consist in "universal principles and general thefrom orems. as from an inexhaustible source. which. by an original principle of the mind. Gerard does not himself apply the term "association" to this commingling of like emotions. magnanimity which enables a man to despise honors. objects. And in the same way. or death. He confines the term to a narrower range of phenomena. Although Gerard's assertion that we admire such traits by an original property of the mind may be mooted. is of signal im- portance. his introduction of the principle of association of impressions. that whatever excites in the mind a sensation or emotion similar to what is excited by vast objects is on this account 24 . nor does he apply it to the relation whereby passions become sublime through connection with their causes. of like feelings. whereas to writers who distinguish the sublime and it is and beautiful on a is basis other usually felt to be beautiful. they naturally render the passion sublime. and are often connected with quantity. The sublime of diction is traced to "association" with the ." Terrific objects are termed sublime denominated sublime. because of the likeness of the awful sedateness they inspire to sublimity. The than quantity. by a strained reduction. and other excellences: "Such degrees of excellence. interesting to note that both find universal benevolence sublime. . multitudes. excite wonder and astonishment. makes Hutcheson makes science beautiful for An object which is not in itself sublime by its quantity may become so not only by association of ideas (as with the sublimity of passions and affections) but by association of impressions and feelings: "It must also be remarked. nothingness. the same emotion which is produced by amplitude. genius. power. the very reason which it sublime for Gerard. flow multitudes 23 of corollaries and subordinate truths" 3 thus. or effects. or effects: "as these always enter into our conception of the passion. by 25 and Baillie stretching elevating the mind in the conception of it. Beautiful and Sublime The sublimity of duration and that of great number are traced by Gerard to their participation in quantity. Sublimity of the passions and affections is explained by association with their causes. riches. as vastness of quantity y A and it produces this effect in the same manner. that these excellences were sublime only because they implied quantity in the objects upon which they were exerted worlds. objects. we admire as sublime pre-eminence in strength. &c.

vehement. the sublimity of the objects of imitation scenes of grandeur or sublime passions may be Sublimit^in the supplemented by "an artful kind of disproportion. from Locke. In poetry. from the pains to point out that Longinus uses "sublimity" metaphorically to describe any superlative excellence of composition. which assigns to some well chosen member a greater degree of quantity than it com26 a point drawn. though though it may be artfully heightened by compositional devices. distant. Gerard's associations._is_ *k* rangg nf pur emotion. of course. of which tish philosophers use the it is m but a special case.g Hir^ri-ly F. however.yen in architecture T it the suggestion of strength or durability or magnificence is^chiefly which . idiosyncratic associations a usage derived. by intervals. ity. arts rarelyj*riy. which affects the mind much as absolute magnitude does. yet he takes subject. but brief he supplements Baillie by insisting on the importance of comparative magnitude. It is puzzling why the relation of sign to significatum should be "association" and not that of cause to effect. while here it is the objects removed association with the are. whereas he is confining the term to its precise significance j the nervous. In painting. sublimity must arise largely discussion of the visual arts his treatment is. Here Gerard is supplementing Baillie (who scarcely touches upon the arts of language) by rhetorical theory. In all this. ignoring even so that music association may inspire passions itself would which are sublime. pathetic. in the earlier context. perhaps. personal. acknowledgement ascription of the greatness of such objects to association is not in contradiction with the analysis of the sublimity of duration and extent already mentioned . This ation. Baillie and Gerard are wholly inadequate in treating of the sublime of music. temporally objects is referred to associwith due of Hume's explanation. observing only that the length (quantity) and gravity of the notes contribute to sublimobvious a consideration as volume 5 Gerard adds. sublime. Most of the Scot- term "association" in a somewhat pejorative sense 5 Hutcheson. for instance. calls by this name only accidental. 73 and the grandeur of and remote elevated. it was the extent and time 1>er se which were inherently sublime from their participation in time or space which quantity. Gerard has done .Alexander Gerard ideas presented or the character of the speaker. to and elegant are not sublime for Gerard unless they are applied a subject which is naturally sublime. not personal 5 he must consider that these relations are less close than those other relations through which objects may become sublime. Gerard's monly has" is largely based upon Baillie. from Hogarth. are universal. and through this become sublime.

urges that terror is similar in its feeling to the sublime: "objects exciting terror . terror and sublimity are opposite: "The Sublime dilates and elevates the 27 "There ever enters in the . by filling the Mind with one vast and uniform Idea. if they are connected with vastness by their causes or results 5 but the passion felt subjectively is not sublimity. Baillie. Passions may be sublime as objects of perception." Baillie observes. It is Gerard's Essay on Genius rather than the early Essay on Taste which approaches Alison's work in proliferation of detail. The Sublime) when it exists simple and unmixed. . . the terrific was to become a focus of controversy among theorists of the sublime ." With the theory of Burke and the strictures on it of Payne Knight. Doubtless Gerard would concede that real practical fear is in itself depressing and opposite to sublimity. and this Dread may be so heighten'd (when a Person is Gerard. . It might even be argued that a certain degree of fearful can be converted to Adagitation sublimity. Description of Storms. ". some small degree of Dread. and even this early difference between Baillie and Gerard manifests the influence of system in the statement and solution of problems.74 Beautiful and Sublime no more than sought j lime and beautiful worked out. rather than composes agitates. one simple grand Sensa- the Sublime not hurrying us from Object to Object. but terrific objects are sublime when we can regard them detachedly. which is ever effected by crouding into tion. indeed. sticking very close to magnitude as the one intrinsic sublimity. . al- though the two feelings could co-exist or oscillate in the mind when stimulated by the same object 5 in their own nature. whilst the very Essence of the Pathetick consists in an Agitation of the Passions. is led necessarily to separate the sublime from the pathetic. nor is its cause sublime in the same respect as it is pathetic. are in general sublime 5 for terror al- ways implies astonishment. and insight into associational mechanism." Soul. 28 . Fear sinks and contracts it. Baillie had denied vigorously that terror could be sublime. affects it with a solemn Sedateness. and then not until Alison indicate the lines along which explanations must be is the real content of an aesthetic of the subit is a content evolved by rigorously systematic method. as it were. rigor of system. occupies the whole soul. by this means the Soul itself becomes. actually in one) as intirely to destroy the Sublime" in contrast. . and hurrying the Mind into various Scenes. . Thus the Thoughts a thousand 80 different Objects. radically in contrast with Gerard's eclectic patchwork. and suspends all 29 its motions.

most of the beauties of belles-lettres would be reduced under this rubric.Alexander Gerard 75 mitting as he does that like feelings may become practically indistinguishable and may properly be called by the same name." fects 31 Beauty. This fit proportion is not the beauty of utility itself. "are of different kinds. and which has not got a proper and peculiar name to the pleasure we receive. But for the most part. although the beauties of the visual arts would fall pri- marily under the heads of figure and color. which applied to almost every thing that pleases us. Since considerations of utility determine the laws of the various arts which propose various ends. and melthe nature 34 Proportion too may depend upon of perception. without a faulty deviation from pre5 cision. either when an object of sight suggests pleasant ideas of other senses. and proportion. Beauty of figure is traced. or cases. apply this epithet to every pleasure which is conveyed to the eye. In 32 all these beauty is. mixed with. Gerard is to distinguish the terrific or the admirable from the sublime. and produce pleasure by means of different principles of human nature. "giving the gratifications of facility 3 lowing one another. variety (and intricacy). the principle being Aristotle's rule of magnitude: a size discernible but not incomprehensible. we may. The several classes of beauty. Though this usage is doubtless too indefinite. . or to explain away their apparent sublimity by finding under no compulsion some connection with physical greatness. though distinct in their principles. ' 33 mind at once the opposite and active exertion. proportion depends upon fitness. though without any remarkable subtlety. variety gratifies the love of novelty 5 uniformity and variety together Hutcheson's formula set on a different basis please because they conform to the nature of the perceiving mind. Utility itself is of course also pleasthe infering. Uniformity ensures facility of perception. but a generalized association based only ultimately on utility. when both these circumstances concur. for Ger- ard as for Hogarth. "BEAUTIFUL objects. both directly as being useful and indirectly through ences it may afford of art and skill in the causes. indeed. resolvable into association. are reduced to the same genus by the similarity of their feeling by association of impressions. is an omnium-gatherum of all aesthetic ef- not especially appropriated to some other sense: is THERE is perhaps no term used in a looser sense than beauty. to uniformity (and simplicity). or when the ideas suggested are agreeable ones formed from the sensations of sight. at least in part." Gerard premises.

and though Gerard does not term this "association. As a farther energy uisite . 37 Gerard handles his of assosubject wholly in terms of ideas. does not require him to analyze this commonplace. which. is. sublimity 3S but all aesthetic feelings are "emotional" largely emotional" 5 that and some of the modes of beauty are perare. impressions ceptions making as direct and immediate impact upon the mind as those of sublimity. By be35 some colors afford a meing "less hurtful to the organs of sight. The splendor of other colors procheerful and vivacious. whereas Gerard's effort is rather to analyze and separate the kinds of beauty and the faculties which discriminate them. furthermore. Sublimity for Hogarth simply an excellence supervening to beauty. it is on that account agreeable. When Gerard observes that "the beauty of colors is. by continually connecting the ideas in which it is found. and leading our thoughts from one of them to the other." it clearly is association of impressions based on The duces a mood the resemblance of sensation to emotion. and as this discovery produces a grateful consciousness of our own discernment and sagacity. as be said that Gerard's treatment of beauty deMonk has suggested. consider it beauty. and no searching study of the beauty of the face was Essays on Taste in 1811. with Gerard. produces in mankind a strong tendency to comparison. This association appears in the suggestion of mental dispositions by the colors of the countenance 5 Gerard's plan. is pretty subtle: Similitude is His analysis of this a very powerful principle of association. tends to re- duce the varieties of beauty to the model of the waving line. Hogarth. whereas Gerard finds independent roots for it in the mind. on this point. whereas Hogarth hankers after an physiological less incidentally theory and in any case does not employ association as a principle unand implicitly. impressions. in most instances. resolvable into association" 36 he is using that term in the more confined sense discussed above. though all do not. Monk remarks.76 Beautiful and Sublime beauty of color is partly original and partly associative." chanical pleasure which all the associationists concede. is that for Gerard "beauty is said to be largely intellectual. As comparison implies in the very act a gentle exertion is reqfor discovering the original by the copy. It can not properly made until the second edition of Alison's rives from Hogarth. Gerard's discrimination of aesthetic categories leads him to treat sense imitation as appealing to a separate sense or taste. and the habits untenable ciation. however. of the mind.

in the case of unpleasant originals. and ridicule please partly by imitation. humor. which spring from the objects imitated. to intimate that it is not confined to the all such description only of realities. anxiety. which pleasure is serious j but it is converted to gaiety by the ludicrousness of the subject. but the medium of poetry (setting dialogue aside) has no resemblance to the sensible and intelligible objects signified. a conception which resembles. our admiration of the skill and ingenuity of the artist diffuses itself over the effect from which that skill is inferred. in consequence of comparison. to would be a more express the exactness with which it copies real things." Gerard makes ingenious use of the theory of conversion in his subsequent discussion of the sense or taste of ridicule. but is never identical with. a discussion otherwise undistinguished. not because it produces a immediate subject. It is not called an imitation. but his conception of this resemblance is flexible. "converts into delight even the uneasy impressions. poetry is called an imitation.Alexander Gerard 77 and includes the pleasant feeling of success. but because this subject itself is an imitation of some part of real nature. the recognizing resemblance. and the conception of probability as resemblance to the . and terror of tragedy afford a more serious and intense satisfaction than the gaiety of comedy. "When thus secondarily pro- duced. Imitation to Gerard is always a resemblance of copy and original. whereas in tragedy the converse is true. 41 This is not a pseudo-Platonic theory of general Nature 5 it is a theory of probability. A poem is an imitation not of is its particular subject but of Na- ture: the real subject a conception of the poet. Painting and sculpture are strictly imitative. Wit." those feelings "agitate and employ the mind." It is thus that the suspense. It is this complex pleasure of imitation which. and rouse and give scope to its greatest activity 5 while at the same time our implicit knowledge that the occasion is remote or fictitious. come within the limits of probability. Here the pri- mary feeling of the original converts the feeling from the imitation. enables the pleasure of imitation to relieve the pure torment which would attend 40 their primary operation. lively idea of its In a word. existing things. for then history perfect imitation than poetry. and on account of that resemblance. and compleats the delight which the work 39 inspires. It is called an imitation for the very contrary reason. but may take the liberty to describe things as resemble realities. augments our pleasure. And when the imitation is intended.

to evolve any of the imformity as principles. commingling judgment and imagination. on which the senses exercise themselves 5 but also in com- an integral and indispensable part is an ingredient of taste: "in all the paring and weighing their perceptions and decrees. judgment is employed5 not only in presenting the subjects. acquires a fitness." vigorous internal senses. "But still the chief excellence of Music. "lies in its expression. however. but because the parts of the music may be skilfully adapted to the eni of arousing the passions 5 the aesthetic virtue is this adaptation. it is true that "taste is not one simple power j but an aggregate of many. not the passions as such. too. He suggests an and unianalogy with the beauty of figure. Gerard can determine the excellences of taste. readily associate and are combined. by the resemblance of their energies. These virtues of taste "may be reduced to four. indeed." 42 Beyond these "simple powers of human nature" the internal senses being simple in feeling albeit not original taste involves their union with one another and their co-operation with other faculare enhanced by coexisting ties. has been implicit throughthe passions enhances aesthetic effect. Thus. in order to give out. moreover. the greatest virtue of music is in its expressiveness." 45 With the contributory faculties examined. it By this quality. correctness. Gerard's remarks on harmony are pretty slender. but makes no effort mense body of axiomata media of music from those principles. and the proportion or comparative adjustment of its sep- . variety. yet music excellent not simply because it may arouse the passions. sensibility. and causes." passion taste its 43 Sensibility. 44 is a constituent of taste: "DELICACY of must be united with just extent.78 Beautiful and Sublime laws of real existence could be developed in such a way as to parallel Aristotle's conception of probability as consisting in the inner coher- ence of the poetical work. that appeal to does not constitute aesthetic is This point. and agitates the soul music is with whatever passion the artist chooses. and. and the analogy of their subjects. Sensibility. but that it effect. applied to a determinate subject: by this becomes adapted to an end. accordingly. operations of taste. All the objects of the internal senses with the others j although the ridiculous might be excepted from this generalization. is make this last of the theory. which. Judgment. the insensible to the passion cannot perceive the adaptation. and thence passing ultimate sentence upon the whole. refinement. Obviously. the turmoil of the passions can be converted to intensify man related aesthetic emotions (though Gerard omits to point)." he continues. finally. with proportion.

the constituents of excellence or faultiness in the several kinds. though simple in sensa- and complex in principle. false taste from injudicious cultivation. feelings which are susof reflexive analysis. when these qualities are exhibited to his jew exceptions. Men are." one a series of hypotheses "implicit in [Gerard's] analysis of taste and its improvement. the kind of explanation which Gerard must give is apparent from the argument of the first three parts. and. occa- It must be noted that Mrs. Grene is not aware of the fourth part of the Essay > added in the third edition. without any exception. If. determinate and stable. who affect to find subjectivism the logical ysis. who remains view. It might be added that we ordinarily tion. independent of to operate caprice. in any particular instance. . are naturally productive of the sentiments of taste in all its forms. ture." finding each inadequate to explain false taste. it is to be ascnbed to some weakness or disorder in the fit There are humour or to all qualities in things. consequence of psychological anal- 48 Her examination consists of rejecting one by compatible with it. are derivative sion j have no hesitation in judging the external senses defective upon and a fortiori . This excellence of taste supposes not only cul- judiciously applied. but culture . there is a universal element in human nature there are 5 ." 46 It is apparent that Gerard is no relativist: there is a standard of taste superior to the preferences of individuals. 50 Even so. The standard is proclaimed in a striking statement which concludes the first part of the Essay: on mental principles. In the first place. that are person. in terms of which ceptible they can be adjudged proper or improper responses. yet in- reveals it as a set of simple feelings which can no more be 'justified' than can the perceptions of the external senses in their character of 49 But this is to forget that the internal senses do not simple givens. 47 This uncompromising "absolutism" troubles modern scholars. they prove ineffectual. Mrs. jg . Grene's problem is really unsolvable." present "simple givens" but feelings which. we have investigated: but these qualities themselves are. for she has supposed that "an examination of the broader basis of taste in human nature .Alexander Gerard arate <prmci<ples. common men. Want of taste unavoidably springs from negligence. by operating on them. . with unmoved. a part which treats at length this very problem. . affected by the qualities. Marjorie Grene has formulated the problem of the standard of taste in Gerard most elaborately: her intention is to state and resolve the "striking tension between a psychological theory of taste and standards apparently established on the basis of that theory.

that gument of Hume. may obstruct. that a standard may be found. the psychological with a standard it is the method far excellence of determining the dices (in Gerard's case." 51 Taste in direct exercise. It is so far from being impossible to discover a standard which may answer this purpose to the impartial. enjoy only the consent of the European nations. and by the different degrees and modes of culture which have been bestowed upon these powers. contending. for that would have just the efto erect local and temporary prejufect Mrs. even the Greek he rejects the test. not universal consensus.O faculties Beautiful and Sublime and mental habits which inherently tend towards. and precision can be secured only by studying the causes of the sentiments j sentiment is corrected and fixed by attention to the qualities producing it. amiss. Such of tastes is. which are a potentiality for the development of. cannot admit of a standard: a man's likes depend upon his constitution and his training. he urges. This standard is "not something by which all tastes may be reconciled and brought to coincide: it is only something by which it may be determined. provides not the standard but the data from which the laws can be educed . Grene complains of into universal principles. Custom and education. to which even they whose relish it condemns. singular. Edinburgh gentletrue principles are determined by method is not incompatible analysis of the mind. is the only just test for new works or for the works of obscure nations. . the Zeitgeist and individual caprice. . is susceptible of a standard. the acorn warp." 52 and yield readily to a judgment Philosophical criticism. quod ubique. be determined by counting noses. feels in a certain manner . and incapable of coinciding perfectly. But taste as a reflex act. may find themselves obliged to submit. may The person who yet be convinced that he feels in opposition to his feeling. What the natural tendencies are is not. pronounce "which are most con- . classics. Gen- eral approbation. is He is so vividly which Gerard does argue in his aware that diversity real. or overlie these natural developments j yet to to still tends become the oak. the laws in hand. These diversities "must be produced both by an original inequality and dissimilitude in the powers whose combination forms taste. of course. in fact. even as established by the arof quod semfer. the fashion in added treatment of the standard. those of a limited class of men) The standard. then. Mere sentiment is too unsteady to be accurately weighed. as a species of discernment. considered as a species of sensation. then. certain preferences. which is the best among tastes various. criticism can explain however and sentiments.

sive several inferior species under the same genus. Burke. with the consilience by a of inductive and deductive results constituting the verification is. and render it truly philosophical. By renewing the induction. that we may what reason. both superior and subordinate. and other philosophical critics one and all argue for a normative position: all to define true taste by analyzing the natural effect of the of on the faculties of the mind. be rendered accurate and 56 Only by the Baconian method determinate. quotes Bacon of ascending induction and Gerard "can our conceptions of all the sentiments of taste. indeed. must be compared with the principles of human nature. analysis. Plurality of causes and inter- . radically opposite to subjectivism. as Mill shows in the well-known argument in Book VI of his Logic** alone proper to subjects (such as aesthetics) in which a considerable variety of interacting causes participate. . he will ascertain the less conspicuous properties. and will carry on his till he discovers the highest kinds. and pushing it to a greater degree of subtlety. . to form an able critic. . the common qualities of the several classes. and of the qualities by which they are excited. therefore. by metaphysical psychol- ogy: "To complete the criticism. The inverse deductive method empirical genlearn by what means they please or displease. Knight. 54 objects qualities Gerard was very conscious of the logic of criticism. which unite qualities The common to the first. the rough outline of method which Gerard urges corresponds to the Inverse Deductive Method of J." 5T This final deductive step saves Gerard's procedure from the danger of uncontrolled and unverified induction ." 53 The analytical method of Gerard and of most other eighteenth-century inevitably to this critics leads naturally and normative position. But a true critic will not rest satisfied with them. S. which may subject these materials to a regular induction. Alison. and prescribes the most exten- laws of art. and for eralization followed from fundamental priori deduction of those provisional results principles already established. Mill. Hogarth." This direct and cumulative induction is confirmed by deductive collation of the discovered laws with the principles of human nature already established. lower classes will naturally be determined by regular induction. . reduce them into classes. and conceived aesthetics aim of philosophical criticism sense: as inductive in the Baconian In order. Kames. of course. taste must be attended with a philosophical genius. 55 .Alexander Gerard f ormable to the real constitution of 81 human nature. . and determine the general rules which govern them. Hume.

This 59 the subject of our present enquiry. "On this account. ascending to more and more general laws before deriving these same results a priori." This "heteroge- neous composition" of good taste and bad morals causes Gerard to reflect that all ence: but our conclusions concerning human nature must be founded on experiit is not necessary that every conclusion should be immediately deduced from experiment. 60 strengths . This is the natural method of is establishing synthetical conclusions. if qualities of the it shewn that it necessarily results from general human mind. in pushing the initial inductive pro- cedure through successive stages. Thus. then. But Gerard errs. which have been ascertained by experiment and induction. Inductions from the ductive procedures data supplied by taste yield empirical and provisional laws the chief use of which is to guide deduction and to verify the principles de- duced from established laws of human nature. and liable to be counteracted by other causes. though he did not develop his views so distinctly and systematically as would have been possible. effect the case Gerard had a concern. and even gives theoretic when he argues that taste is but one justification for so doing. and exhibits more vividly the of Gerard's aesthetic method. especially is where an in produced by a complication of causes. he is Gerard (somewhat the inconsistently with in fact often operate as I led to observe that. I believe. the deduction from at each stage the empirical psychological principles must accompany aesthetics would be far more degeneralizations indeed. nor did he apply them with entire consistency in the Essay on Taste> made up as much of that work is of eclectic bor- rowings not entirely reduced to system. The later Essay on Genius is a more cogent and exhaustive work.82 Beautiful effects and Sublime hence the immense variety of mixture of abound in aesthetics which aestheticians devise and merely inplausible causal analyses would be of slight utility. remarks discussed above) have does suggested. examples of a good taste joined to with gross passions or a vicious character are far from being sufficient prove that taste has no connection with morals. a rigorous ductive than inductive in the establishment of the amomata medw. with method in aesthetics. be A conclusion is sufficiently established. cause of character.

Dublin. everyone after Burke either imitates him or borrows from him or feels it necessary to refute him. 1757. and establishes pretty conclusively that the first edition was published April 21. owed nothing to the fame of its author. was Edmund Burke's A gin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful. lately a very the discipleship of Uvedale Price well enough known. who wrote pretty treatise on the Sublime" is Hume (who 4 ) . was most influential aesthetic speculation in the eighteenth Philosophical Enquiry into the Ori- on the course of British century. and that both were indiscriminately applied to things greatly differing. as the brilliancy and animation of its style were applauded. and the second January 10. 83 and some- . the influence of which was felt in Germany as well England." ). I759. by Reynolds ("the admir.6 Burke's program of inquiry is explicit. and by wrote of Burke as an "Irish gentleman. able treatise c On the Sublime and Beautiful'" is the only modern work thus commended in the Discourses 3 ). by whom the philosophy of the Inquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful was not as much despised and ridiculed. after Addison's essays. Although the Sublime and Beautiful was subjected to severe enough attack Richard Payne Knight declared that he had "never met with any man of learning. and admired" * it was acclaimed by Johnson ("We have an example of true criticism in Burke's 'Essay 2 on the Sublime and Beautiful' . The bibliography of the Sublime and Beautiful is confused} but Theodore Moore's complete and ingenious historical argument harmonizes all the apparently conflicting evidence.CHAPTER 6 Sdmund "Burke THE WORK which. for it was the 5 and may have been composition to come from his hand sketched as early as Burke's undergraduate days in Trinity College. . as in first Burke's book. and indeed. Observing that "the ideas of the sublime and beautiful were frequently confounded.

(5) Not to account for the some of their properties effect of its uses. Burke has not only a clear conception of his program. He lays down. (2) Not to account for the effect of a natural object from the effect of an artificial object. the uncontrolled Method of Agreement. and which have misled me it if I have gone astray. and ignores the The of plurality of causes. Part iv treats of the laws in accordance with which the assigned properties excite the 8 emotions it treats." he proposed to remedy this confusion of ideas "from a diligent examination of our passions in our own breasts. if a natural cause any natural object from a conclusion of our reason concerning may be assigned.84 Beautiful and Sublime times of natures directly opposite. Part i is the examination of the emotions of sublimity and beauty of the formal_cause ." (Part Hi) they are an investigation of material causes. theticians is an illusion all the aes- from Addison real to Kant and onwards conceive of the sublime as a feeling in the jects. classic to a psychological and subjective view 5 as applied to the aestheticians here examined. and not to those in which they differ. if the effect is produced by different or opposite measures and relations 5 or if these may It is measures and relations not be produced. as the cause of a certain effect. Parts ii and lii investigate the properties of things and that of beauty productive of the emotion of sublimity (Part ii) sions. that no given measure can be the cause if other measures also sibility first is not possible to accept these rules without some reservations. but also some awareness of the techniques of argument proper to in treating the influence of proportion. 7 by which those propthus of exciting our pasand body These three steps of the inquiry are readily connected with the divisions of the Sublime and. The mind caused by certain properties in external obdifferences among these men are to be sought in the methods of argument and the causal principles which they employ. the common effect is to be attributed to the properties in which they agree. (1) If two bodies produce the same or a similar effect in on the mind. it. The fourth rule is . some moderns have seen it. a step from the objectivism of the neo9 this whole dichotomy. and from a sober attentive investigation of the laws of nature.of the two characters. and yet the effect posreally two: the first of these. from a careful survey we find by experience to influence and erties are capable of affecting the of the properties of things which those passions. that is. (4) Not to admit any deter- minate quantity. or any relation of quantity. This program is not. Beautiful. in the rules which governed me in this inquiry. of the efficient cause. and on examination they are found to agree and to differ in others. 10 may exist.

for as Burke remarks. that the given measure is in some instances not followed by the effect 85 if it cannot be the cause. insisting upon the investigation of the parts before the whole and upon the priority of immediate to mediate causal connections. that "a priori principles are constantly applied. The second and third rules of Burke's listing are just consequences of an analytic philosophy. and Burke does employ them. once induction has established tentatively certain empirical generaliBurke deduces from (what he takes to be) established laws of human correlations nature the middle principles which account for the empirical and verify them. "cannot be the whole cause. experiential compare the results computed from these simple laws with the ex- perienced nature of the complex objects involving them. our labour be must as it little to judged an useless. Burke is really following what J. It is quite wide of the mark to describe Burke's method as "a faulty rationalism imposed upon an incomplete empiricism" and to urge." This is a fragmentary system of induction at best. This method is that best adapted to the nature of aesthetic phenomena. S. scarcely above the Method of Agreement save for a negative application of the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference. the second. But the inadequacy of theoretical formulation of decisive inductive methods is not rising crucial if they are nonetheless employed in practice. if the imagination is not affected acis likely to be cording to some invariable and certain laws. if very purpose 5 employed not an absurd undertaking. to lay down rules for caprice and to set up "if taste has . actually. that Burke's effort. though not with the definitive results which would have followed from a conscious awareness of their implications and conditions. performed. To his second edition Burke prefixed an essay "On Taste. where plurality of causes and intermixture of effects often baffle attempts at steady ascending induction." n I urge. presumably as a criticism. and. again denies plurality of causes . Mill terms the Inverse Deductive Method: zations. the progress is made almost entirely because of such principles." another and a of demonstrations standard. in contrast.Edmund Burke yield the effect. Burke's procedure is thus analytical to separate the components of complex objects 5 inductive to determine through to observation the effects of the "principles" thus isolated. of the no fixed principles. appropriate enough many as introduction to the Sublime and Beautiful. that no progress can be made with a purely empirical and inductive method in a derivative science like aesthetics . is just if corrected to read. is though inadequate and often ill- in general rightly oriented.

which would be highly ab14 The obvious difference among the responses of men's senses surd. we must imagine that the same cause operating in the same manner. unless the phrase "works of imagination" is it is not. the imagination. simply." After a caveat against defin- definition: "I mean by ing a priori. in which aestheticians may avoid the postulation of special aesthetic facilities: by explaining aesthetic responses in terms of association of ideas. human . it must raise in all mankind. will produce different effects. concerning the various relations of these. the whole groundwork of taste is common to all." effect of confining taste to art to the exclusion of nature. naturally. is not a simple idea. . faculty. and by its proper powers only. passions. no more in matters of taste than in matters of "naked reason" implies absence of a standard. solving the problem wholly in terms of the conventional faculties. and Kames. and in this regard Burke stands apart from Hutcheson. It must be noted that Burke avoids recourse to internal senses. Variation of judgment. however. and on subjects of the same kind. whilst it operates. and therefore there is a sufficient foundation for a conclusive 15 reasoning on these matters. for as the senses are the great originals of all our ideas. or which form a judgment of. Gerard. for if we deny this. broad j There follows the analysis of the faculties which are conversant with such "works": the senses. then. but is partly made a perception of the primary pleasures of sense. [The] groundwork of all these is the same in the human mind. the judgment. and of the conclusions of the reasoning its and concerning the manners and actions. of the secondary of up pleasures of the imagination. if they are not uncertain and arbitrary. Burke's intention so to limit taken in a sense licentiously taste. Burke hazards the fro temf>ore faculties of the mind those the word taste no more than that faculty or which are affected with. and by tracing them to the action in cer- There are two ways . . Taste. of course. the works of 13 This statement has the unhappy imagination and the elegant arts. in most general acceptation." senses and imaginations to objects of taste are attributable either to differences in degree of natural sensibility or to differences in attention to the object 5 but the chief variations in taste arise from differences in judgment. The argument is. and consequently of all our pleasures.86 for a legislator of Beautijul and Sublime 12 whims and fancies. and that in consequence "it must necessarily be allowed that the pleasures and the pains which every object excites in one man. that the and imaginations of all men respond alike in principle to external objects.

concerned with self-preservation. Accordingly. fe~ar 18 upon us whether 19 be sublime. is a source of the sublime. or to entitle it to be known by the same name 5 and thirdly. In fact. "What I advance. "is no more than this first. whatever is sublime sort to excite the ideas of in any sort terrible. His is a two-fluid theory: pain and pleasure are both positive qualities. insofar as they are agreeable at all." does not say note well that the sublime is always terrible 5 it is either terrible. that upon the same principle the removal or qualification of pleasure has no re- semblance to positive pain. Burke really avoids the false issue. that is to say. or humbling and incompatible with the sublime 5 for he insists that "when danger or pain press too nearly. Burke finds passions both selfish and social to be natural and original in man. from the remission of pain T from absolute pleasure is the foundation of Burke's distinction of the <uiK1imft from the beautiful. or operates in a manner analogous to terror. turn on pain and danger hence on delight rather than pleasure. the opening section of Burke's inquiry is devoted to the pleasure of novelty." that arising 17 The discrimination of relative pleasure." must on other sources of pain and pleasure." Burke declares. or is conversant about terrible objects. it is productive of the Burke strongest emotion which the mind is capable of feeling. they are in- . Burke's theory of the sublime and beautiful led him to reject the Addisonian tradition making novelty co-ordinate with the qualities of beauty and sublimity. Agreeing with the sentimental system of ethics. ~~or associated with something terrible. that the feeling which results from : the ceasing or diminution of pain does not bear a sufficient resemblance to positive pleasure to have it considered as of the same nature. adopts both of these devices. The selfish passions. that there are pleasures and pains of a positive and independent nature $ and secondly. and the removal of one is thus not equivalent to the addition of the other. And it is on these that the is based: "Whatever is fitted in any and pain danger. It is in the jects depend discussion of ensuing pleasure and pain that Burke's originality makes itself felt. Burke. it will become clear. or acts like the terrible. arguing that although some degree of novelty is necessary "in every instrument which works 16 the permanent attractions and repulsions of obupon the mind. "Delight" and "pleasure" are the terms which Burke hoped to in affix to the two species of agreeable sensation 5 and the next^step the argument is to specify the causes and objects of those feelings which are pleasant or delightful.Edmund Burke tain 87 modes of other faculties. that is.

the real distresses of others. and which we may in some 24 sort be said to have even with the inanimate world. works us to its own purposes without our con- Compulsive and instinctual attraction to suffering is a noted before Burke by Hutcheson and after him by Kames. [which] always touches with delight." delightful. and is the further it removes us from all idea of fiction. not only in imitated distress. principle currence. no aesthetician had found the fearciples before Gerard ror. ." terrible Sublimity is "tranquillity tinged with terthe self-glorying of the soul is objects. It is not that consciousness of fiction relieves us.88 Beauttjul and Sublime and are simply terrible. a source of aesthetic satisfaction. as that of some uncommon and grievous calamity This is not an unmixed ness. for "the nearer [the imitation] approaches the reality. considered in itself. though the sentiment of beauty is not have with men and the passions pertaining to general society. two sympathy and ambition may proitself sexual in nature. but blended with no small uneasi- The delight we have in such things hinders us from shunning scenes of misery5 and the pain we feel prompts us to relieve ourselves in relieving those who suffer 5 and all this antecedent to any reasonby an instinct that 25 ing. but at certain capable of giving any delight. . 23 The social passions. than when without danger we are conversant with 21 . Gerard simultaneously with Burke was urging the agreeableness of the terrific. hence effects The He "there is no spectacle we so eagerly pursue . which may all in one way or another afford sorts: those pertaining to "the society of positive pleasure." j 22 ful. they may be. every day "never more perceived. and to take pleasure in detecting imitation 5 ambition to excel. . tated distress. and they are distances. as Burke truly says. though he gave an explanation on different prinand Burke. . imitation. sympathy. ambition are of peculiar importance for aesthetics 5 and of these. Of three duce delight as well as pleasure. the only difference can be in the circumstance of imitation itself. certain with and modifications." Beauty human beauty has its special function in directing the sexual feelings towards particular individuals. delight. the of cuts the knot by arguing that we delight in pleasure tragedy. 20 as we Again. Sympathy causes us to feel what others feelj imitation to do as others do." but neither of these writers developed such a paradox as Burke's 28 Thus with real distress 5 in an imidelight in witnessing suffering. of sympathy lead Burke to that persistent crux. nor operates with more force. Burke urges that experience. are of two the sexes" and those regarding "that more general society which we with other animals. the more perfect .

the mind always claiming to itself some part of the dignity and importance of the things which it contem- plates." The very word ." delight inexplicably attached to sympathy with distress. it appears to me that a second fiction must be introduced. Burke was not (in view of these difficulties) followed by any other writer. glorification of the soul for conceiving such objects passion caused by the great and sublime in nature. which delight is still more keen in actuality than in poetry. however. a sense of duty which will oppose so natural a desire. Ambition. . then. when those causes operate most powerfully.Edmund Burke its 89 Rather. man in his own is on good or upon bad grounds. The sublime. . nor operates with more force. and as should we the effect of a displeasing original is thus simply subducted from the pleasure of the imitation. It remains the case. Burke has no notion of conversion of the passions. This explanation runs counter to the usual observation that the reality of a tragic scene is painful and only the imitation agreeable 5 and it is not without other problems. as Baillie and Gerard had already found it to be. Not only is is there the curious delight in pity itself. however. 28 So much for sympathy. tends to raise a opinion. Hence proceeds what Longinus has observed fills sense of inward greatness that always in poets and orators as are sublime. finally." Burke declares. it excites delight afflicting danger without actually from presenting ideas of pain and us. the imitation as such affords pleasure. but the not bring about tragic situations suggested. Imitation in art provides a positive pleasure often keen enough to overcome the effect of repellent originals . including (I presume) that from artistry and the means of imitation. produces a sort of swelling and triumph that either extremely grateful to the human mind. is a twofold movement of the soul. and Richard Payne Knight wrote a witty and destructive analysis of Burke's account. than when without danger we are conversant with terrible objects. a response to the object and a self-reflection. of that glorying and the reader of such passages 29 . and it is accompanied with selfwith equanimity. why question in order to experience this delight? To avoid this consequence. and this swelling is never more perceived. there is no encouragement to artists to deal with such subjects. whatever. that the greater part of our response is the 27 power. "is astonish- "The ment $ and astonishment tions are is that state of the soul in which all 30 its mo- suspended with some degree of horror. may join with the selfish passions concerned with self-preservation to produce the sublime: Now.

Solitude. too. is produced by whatever is terrible. everything directly suggests danger. and difficulty thus becomes by association a cause of sublimity. and terror $ those instances in which power is stripped of all danger serve to its association with prove that its influence is indeed the consequence of "are Burke terror. The ation. The sublime. education. The task of the aesthetician should associations $ an explicit presumably be to trace out the various classes of and Burke. but the associations thus alluded to are never drawn out by thets as Burke.go "astonishment" spect. because and Silence"** they are all terrible . because of its association with violence. or is a modification of power (which is as- . is sublime. through original efficacy. the imagination conimtinuing beyond the actual limits of the object. pain. Yet other associations account for the sublimity of extreme light or of somber colors. or is "conversant about" terrible objects (association of ideas). "All general privations. is sublimity of all these properties Granted Burke's fundamental clearly traceable to associposition. 33 "is therefore another name for a little idea." "re- which of the sublime designate inferior effects terrific." "A clear idea. though he does not in Part ii attempt to educe analysis in these terms. for "it our admiration and chiefly is our ignorance of things that causes all excites our passions. and ob- in general necessary to make anything very terrible." Burke adds in the second edition. then." Power. implies the connection of the sublime with the the evidence of language in associating fear 32 related passions. Greatness of dimension. accompaniments of such circumstances too may become sublime. it follows that such circumstances will be tually a mode sublime as. too. and infinity fills the mind with that "delightful horror" which is the essential effect of subthe "artificial infinite" of limity. an effect which is approximated by and uniformity (as in a colonnade). or operates like terror (association of impressions) $ sublime either again. obsessed as he is with the terrific. we are told. is a source of the sublime. Vacuity. A work implying mense force and effort to execute it is sublime." all as Beautiful and Sublime "admiration." "reverence. is if so facto sublime. great. or custom. Darkness. are fitted to suggest terror 5 by more remote associations. Such episuccession "gloomy" and "melancholy" are repeatedly applied to the sublime. that original sublimity is of terror (anticipated pain) vividly conceived but not acraised into a passion. seems certainly to point to it." continues. experience." 31 also "awe. Burke himself stressed with astonishment and Whatever scurity is is terrible to sight.

Already difficulties crowd upon us. not moral but physiological. But this is not conformable to experience. then. they are capable of pro- ducing delight. then look for the mediate and tainly remote. Pain and fear (we are told) consist in "an unnatural tension of the nerves" 37 and Burke means this tension to be a literal stretching." Burke continues. complete in all its parts. The causal connection the nerves are stretched (by some "mechanical cause") a feeling like pain or terror will be produced. as a surprise to discover. that association not so much an explanation of the sublime as a confusing obstacle in the path of inquiry. the system. violence. as these emotions clear the parts. Even this.Edmund Burke 91 sociated with danger). could be given a psychological interpretation in terms of the tendency of imagination to extend and extrapolate observed tendencies (as with the "artificial infinite"). if if of the person. for an emotion . 39 is one of the strongest of all the passions. however. To a commonplace that moderate exercise tones have the nerves "in proper order. for up the body. until we fail of it in the natural properties Abstractly. not pathetic. by this account. one which is to be got out of the way. whether fine or gross." the "mechanical cause" which operates like terror." 36 ideal. or produces a similar effect from a "mechanical 35 The only thing in all this which is not clearly association is cause. in Part iv. they must be it is shaken and worked to a proper degree. as it belongs to self-preservation." 38 "As common labour. a sort of tranquillity tinged with terror. All that remains is. Its object is the sublime. simply a weaker degree of terror enough to tone up but not to overstretch is Here the nerves. but a sort of delightful horror. is which is a mode of pain. and if a certain mode of pain be of such a nature as to act upon the eye or the ear. The sublime should be. and the terror is the pain and terror are the pain is not carried to not conversant about the present destruction In all these cases. that Burke should show how this can become agreeable 5 is reversible: if and this is easy. the affection approaches more nearly to that which has a mental cause. as they are the most delicate organs. this is a sound methodological point: cerfind the immediate causes first. But what are the immediate causes which Burke detects? Not of things. which. is the exercise of the grosser. It comes. a mode of terror the exercise of the finer parts of the system. so modified as not to be actually noxious. not pleasure. of a dangerous and troublesome encumbrance. Burke is pronounces that it would be "to little purpose to look for the cause of our passions in association.

and consequently produces a more must be A imaged membrane. is "that satisfaction which arises to the mind upon contemplating " This neat circle is not a flaw in the argument.g2 Beautiful and Sublime of the sublime somewhere a far stronger than a faint emotion of terror must come in. As Payne Knight later suggested with some pen a foot away makes a greater impression on the retina than Salisbury steeple at a mile. Before entering upon his own analysis. laid slight stress on the physiology. all cause tension of properties appealing to all the external senses. which are infinite. sec. Burke undertakes to show that the various sublime properties. on the retina. 14) illustrates pretty vividly the power of system to wrest data into conformity. unobtrusively shifting most of the superstructure onto new foundations. and Uvedale Price. consists of more points which the nerves. 40 Even if we allow for the modification of the actual sense impression by habitual judgment ("improved perception") can allow for this there is and it is difficult to see how Burke the further difficulty that "the ideas of great and small are terms almost 41 entirely relative to the species of the objects." however. and this cannot qualitative difference may be be on Burke's mechanical hypothesis. one's of Teneriffe. by distending the muscles of the produce a species of pain allied to the sublime. Goldsmith pointed his out that the ins really relaxed in dilating j but Burke rejoined in second edition with the argument that the radial antagonist muscles were distended in dilatation. for instance. Burke's most vigorous champion. 43 is Beauty. vast object. Burke . 42 One wonders whether fogged spectacles would produce sublimity 5 that Burke should give such a line of reasoning preference over his own obvious associational ac- count (Part iv." Love. and the sheet of paper on which one writes would be more sublime than the Peak violent vibration of that sarcasm." as Burke well puts it. "that quality or those qualities in bodies by which they cause love. This is association: how is it to be reconciled with the stretching of nerves and muscles which know nothing of the species of things? The artificial infinite is fortunately susceptible of a more satisfactory explanation on Burke's hypothesis through the analogy to the percussion and vibration of stretched cords. anything beautiful. but only indicates that the basic emotions can be designated but not described. But this fiction becomes absurd again when we read that darkness and the iris resulting dilatation of the pupils. or some passion similar to it. for Burke. in turn. This physiological theory was reckoned an absurdity even in the eighteenth century.

either in plants or animals. and when no use appeared. He has little trouble in showing that beauty is not resolvable into proportion. with the intellectual and moral traits it implies. was influential." he . 47 and and unfortunate that Burke did not differentiate fitness from design utility. no natural power. "The general application of this quality to virtue. or if they were so situated. or customarily. 45 But since pleasing proportions are infinitely various. which never was the case. Burke's doctrine on fitness itself. however. where parts were well adapted to their purposes. we might conclude that beauty consisted m proportion or utility. they were constantly beautiful. which if they seldom are. as they certainly are not. Definite measures have. indeed. "On the is The snout of the hog fitness whole. indeed. we may origin to be satisfied that beauty does not depend on It is these. but custom (it might be argued) may adapt us to certain proportions within each species. 46 Proportion may be conceived. indifferent to the passions. both appeal more strongly to imagination and emotion than fitness in the more circumscribed sense. absence of which felt more keenly than Burke is its presence. or through fitness. as that a pleasure might flow from the comparison. is so far from being an adjunct of custhat it strikes us by its novelty as much as does the deformed. But since. as the suitableness of means to ends. utility. beauty least conspicuous. were likewise constantly found beautiful. which were always attended with beauty. finally. and quite distinct from beauty. which is contrary to all experience. Burke does not deny that perception of fitness is pleasurable but to term fitness "beauty" is a usage figurative and improper. in all respects. concerned also to discourage declamation about the beauty of virtue. Burke replies with a distinction: violation of the usual measures of a species produces deformity but not ugliness. let it owe its what else it will.Edmund Burke 93 pauses to brush aside erroneous theories. proportion can not often most perfect when proportion is be a necessary cause of beauty. there was no beauty. or if any assignable proportions were found. then. the case is quite otherwise. Design. such parts in human bodies as are found proportioned. tom not lovely because adapted to its office. Beauty." Burke concludes. The ratios o proportion must operate either mechanically. Conformity to these measures is mediocre. is and since. such produces only acquiescence of the understanding and cool approbation the imagination and passions are untouched. and most it later aestheticians who treated the relation is at length considered a negative beauty. with the human concerns and feelings it touches. or if.

merits softer those to beauty analogous which impress us with a sense of loveliness. . and to the beautiful and sublime in nature." Those virtues "which cause admiration. and the sublime and picturesque to be subspecies with additional differentiae." "which engage our hearts. perhaps unwittingly (though Thomas Twining had commented on classical ideas of beauty and size in his commentary on the Poetics). Burke's relating it to his dichotomy of self-preservation and society. is The Aristotelian distinction be- echoed. is perhaps original." This division of virtues into soft and severe. of low saturation and high brilliance. upon virtue. 53 and Payne Knight analyzes associations which may either the large or the small beautiful in different instances. smoothness. nonetheless. amiable and venerable. . . 52 Dugald Stewart follows Price tween prettiness and beauty and Twining. and induced us to re- move the science of our duties from their proper basis (our reason. Each of these traits was already or was to become the focus of aesthetic controversy.94 Beautijul and Sublime and our ideas of things. argues beauty as a golden mean between grandeur and prettiness. that small people may be "pretty" but not beautiful. William Gilpin. consistwith his own Price for ently system. some quality in bodies acting mechanically upon the human mind 50 The properties which so act by the intervention of the senses. than love. however. 54 of these writers except Price. for the greater part. and our necessities) to rest it upon foundations alto48 Some virtues. our relations. considering all objects yielding serious aesthetic pleasure to be beautiful. depend upon proportion or fitness nor yet. gradual variation. delicacy. produce terror rather 49 . declares. "has a strong tendency to confound infinite deal of whimsical theory. and are of the sublimer kind. argues that there is and respect more than love 5 a species of beauty exciting admiration 51 but this contention stems from the circumstance that Gilpin does not radically distinguish the sublime from the beautiful. reaches back at least as far as Cicero." be to smallness. but usually because of systematic differences which giye the term "beauty" varying significances. are gether visionary and unsubstantial. That the beautiful must be small is the point most controverted. but . by Uvedale Price . attempts a systematic opposition of the sublime and the beautiful. Aristotle (it will be recalled) had remarked that beauty implies greatness of body. and prove colors of various hues. and even Price departs make None . in general. for inIf beauty does not stance. . an rise to it has given This loose and inaccurate manner of speaking has therefore misled us both in the theory of taste and of morals. Burke concludes "that beauty is.

shafe. as elegant 57 Here again Burke is led by his buildings and pieces of furniture. is characterized by regularity. for in his second edition he drew upon Hogarth to support his contention Burke appears to have written for the beauty of gradual variation. and to cast into other and inferior categories much which other writers comprehend under beauty. and his correction of Hogarth for allowing angularity to be beautiful (Hogarth does admit an inferior degree of beauty to various anguis another logomachy like that over the beauty of large obBurke himself admits another category." the "beau" of writers not concerned to make a sharp differentiation between sublime and beautiful are much like Burke's "fine. which. can be denied as a predicate of beauty." which jects. for he does not penetrate to Hogarth's principles. differing in this regularity. And these visual beauties (like visual subsenses* limity) have their analogies in the other There is a beauty of touch consisting in smoothness. Richard Payne Knight was later to urge by a subtle argument that strictly visible beauty de- pends on broken light and color. Beyond the physical beauty on which Burke's emphasis principally falls. any body is composed of parts smooth and without polished. Under this head I rank those delicate and regular works of art. and regularity may well be usually "When is angular. that it is incompatible with the harsh reflections from smooth objects. pressing upon each other. gradual variation. for the "beautiful. the "elegant. there is a beauty of expression in the face and a beauty or grace of posture and motion. as it makes a very only material difference in the affection produced." the "handsome. I call elegant. It is closely allied to the beautiful." desire to oppose the beautiful to the sublime to limit the beautiful very narrowly. softness. mod- . Burke's criticism of Hogarth is not searching. and at the same time affecting some regular larity) ' . may very well constitute it from it another species. Burke himself concedes an aesthetic pleasure from largeness conjoined with all or most of the other traits of beauty $ objects exhibiting this combination he terms "fine" or "specious.Edmund Burke 95 from Burke's principles though adhering to his dichotomy." Even smoothness. where Burke finds a near consensus in his sup- port. and without showing any ruggedness or confusion. and that the beauty of smoothness depends upon association. 56 this portion of the Sublime and Beautiful before Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty came to hand." 55 This distinction goes a good way towards resolving the apparent conflict. that imitate no determinate object in nature. however.

then." Burke himself had urged simply that words produce three effects . to disturb "that sinking. without any a beauty of sound. Understandably. . of smell beautiful as it regards every sense" 5 and smoothness and sweetness. and weak. and is a conventional application of the assodational theory to language. finally. which is the characteristical effect of the 59 and a beauty. Burke conwhole system. The an inward sense of melting and languor (together with a somewhat comic collocation of outward manifestations) sug- common effect gests at once. great variety or quick transitions 5S that melting. to a mind attuned to the suggestion. that languor. These beauties of the various senses serve once again as the instances to which the Method of taste is Agreement to be applied in ferreting out the common causes." firms this hypothesis by showing that each constituent of beauty has to touch is maniseparately a tendency to relax the fibers: smoothness and sweetness to train smoothness 5 festly relaxing. or without raising images at all." of the elegant. clear. does this prove that they are the same 5 does it prove that they are any way allied $ does it prove even that they are 62 not opposite and contradictory?" fifth part of the Sublime and Beautiful treats of the production of sublimity and beauty through words. how- A ever. is a tension continually relieved $ 61 which ap- proaches to the nature of mediocrity. . each very naturally produces its best effect when pure: "If the qualities of the sublime and beautiful are sometimes found united. even. for through the inferiority of fineness to beauty is accounted combination in fineness of qualities which are inconsistent in their physiological effects: "The affection produced by large bodies adorned by the spoils of beauty. The gradual variation. and heads the by relaxing the solids of the taste. is by taking off Presumably the regularity from the various and even flow of the similarly inferior. And although the sublime and beautiful are often commingled.g6 erate Beautiful and Sublime warmth. "presents ideas through clear the mind but little 5 poetry stirs the emotions images affecting through 64 obscure images. to it is this part of the treatise which has proved most attractive modern literary scholars." concludes. "that beauty acts 60 As before. smooth. beautiful. smallness." 63 And William Guild Howard poetry depends upon finds here the germs of Lessing's differentiations of poetry from painting: Howard "Painting. McKenzie judges this the most interest- ing part of the inquiry because Burke is "directly opposed to the notion of his contemporaries that the power of specific imagery. . and color follow in sequence.

as McKen- may 69 zie says. nor is the pound abstract. errs in thinking that the usual absence of distinct images in poetry allocates poetry to the sublime. "for images that were accurate." Howard." Words. Now. may strongly than the things they repre- effect of sent. clear. or at least not angular outline 5 - they . but by having from use the same effect on being men66 tioned. This whole account is associational compare it." he is thinking of the association of particular ideas in the form of images. that Burke deserves credit for popularizing an important idea in criticism when the general taste was. 67 the description at all the less upon this account. however 5 the "picturesque connection is not demanded. and the affection of soul produced by either or both of the foregoing. simple abstract (which "stand for one simple idea of such compositions"). In terms of their mind of the hearer meanings. however. represent things which may be seldom or never experienced in reality. abstract words of attributes j simple abstracts are the single qualities or connected groups (for "square" 65 names of are one of abstracts Burke's instances apparently simple. vivid. for they carry the contagion of sympathy and impassioned ex- pression. Aggregate words. and of the various relations between them"). the compound abstracts produce only the first and third of the possible effects of words j they operate "not by presenting any image to the mind. of complexes which are not even is compound The power of words to raise affections is little hindered by the absence of the image. that their original has when it is seen. however. they commonly do not do so in the hurry of actual use. and that the clear ideas of painting allocate it to the beautiful in y noting that "paintings are apt to be comparatively small. words are distinguished by Burke into aggregate ("such as represent many simple ideas united by nature to form some one determinate composition"). with of association. affect us even more indeed.Edmund Burke in the 97 the sound. and combine circumstances in a way more affecting than nature. that is. and special. the picture. and compound abstract ("formed by an union. are names of substances." And though aggregate and simple abstract words can raise images. an arbitrary union of both the others. and suggestive of smoothness 5 their figures are of undulating. and operate just as do the com- names surely no simple idea!). because no real picture is formed. instead of association of mental habits with the sound of it Hume's study of abstract words in the Treatise When McKenzie speaks of Burke's "disregard of Human Nature words$ be granted. for instance.

" Burke replied that the whole bent of his mind had been turned from such subjects so that he was less fitted for such speculaa tions than in youth. Lessing." 71 collection of aesthetic data but as negligible philosophically. . of merit not historical but absolute and permanent. I cannot share it 5 if the physiological theory of Part iv were replaced by a more thorough analysis of association if it were simply deleted the Sublime and Beautiful would remain a brilliant if incomplete system. Er hat alle unstreitig annehmen muss. ungemein brauchbar. not glaring. When his theory after the second edito him to rework years later. to regard the Sublime and Beautiful as valu- Kames and others.gS Beautiful and Sublime are delicate. unhappily. and it is very doubtful that he would have desired to subtract from it. . . in 1789. die der Philosoph bey dergleichen Eraugnungen und WahrUntersuchungen als . and observation of thirty years could not but enable him to improve considerably. but diversified in color. the book stands an isolated monument of speculation. reading. for a "Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences" which Goldsmith projected but which was never actually un72 dertaken. including an abstract of the Sublime and Beautiful. Malone proposed the Sublime and Beautiful. It is very probable that Burke would have had nothing to add to his treatise in later life. "which the experience. wenn schon des Verfassers Grundsatze nicht sein viel taugen. writing to Moses Mendelssohn. but several writers have since gone over the same ground. Lord Somewhat earlier. and that in any event the subject was then new. There is a tendency among aestheticians and scholars." Howard confuses with the painting as an imitainextricably the painting as an object tion. 73 Materialen zu einem guten System gesammlet. said of Burke as early as 1758. so ist Buch doch als eine Sammlung aller nehmungen. "Das heisst ohne Zweifel sehr commode philosophiren! able chiefly for its Doch." And this condescending judgment has been often echoed since. however in 1773 Burke had agreed to write an article on aesthetics. 70 Burke never revised or expanded tion.

and the examination of his aesthetics should begin. And although he writes before publication of any of the treatises of the Scottish school. though it continued in use as a textbook 5 and Bosanquet. 1751). writing in 1892.. he anticipates the Scottish answers to Hume 5 his philosophy has a reactionary cast. as the major effort of philosophical criticism in eighteenth-century Britain.CHAPTER 7 J^ord Barnes F Elements of Criticism of Henry Home. accordingly. alongI AHE side Archibald Alison's Essays on Taste. Kames had some pretensions as a metaphysician. But with the and Britain. testify to the 1 and widespread prolonged reputation of Lord Kames. mains today one of the most elaborate and systematic treatises on aesthetics and criticism of any age or nation 5 and it ranks." treating them as stimuli to or anticipations of Lessing. and his 99 . The Elements went through six editions within a dozen years of its first publication in 17625 and more than thirty subsequent editions in the United States editions both complete and abridged. for the "definitions" are arranged not as a glossary but in a logical sequence which gives a succinct conspectus of the system. mentions only a few scattered thoughts of "Kaimes. Lord Kames. Notwithstanding the obscurity in which the 2 Elements is now in- volved. the extensive and various aesthetic and critical system it propounds remains of singular philosophical interest. reJ. the Elements lost its influence among thinkers. gradual predominance of German philosophy during the nineteenth century. The Appendix is of especial importance. Like other philosophers after Descartes. with an exposition of his metaphysics $ that metaphyics is developed in the first two chapters and Appendix ("Terms Defined or Explained") of the Elements> and in the Essays on the Principles of MoraUty and Natural Religion (Edinburgh. Kames seeks principles in the contents of the mind.

so prommentin Hume's the reductioiTof a givenTange of phenomena to other and in place of more basic phenomena is minimal in the philosophy of Lord Kames j Hume's analytical subtlety in reducing all phenomena to a very few principles. at bottom. he may seek to re-create from these an image of the universe in all its variety. "we are too apt to apply such arguments without discretion j and to is call that demonstration. The most he shares with the entire Kames's thought. It is not easy to give an orderly presentation of Kames's upon us in kaleidoscopic complexity. Kames rarely emerges from the former. which. although the emphasis and order of presentation vary. the chief end is the of our of sics. there is a vast proliferation of principles approall attested by an appeal priated to the various classes of phenomena. is thejiendengfjo reduce every phenomenon directly to some sense or intuitionjpeculiarly de^_ thought JProvidential design. Treatises on aesthetics. from sense and feeling. a trait which striking characteristic of Scottish school. are liable to two opposed defects. a conviction but nothing which work silently. the existence and attributes of the Deity. Our perceptions. to sense and feeling. we can demonstrate every proposition.IOO effort Beautiful and Sublime is constantly to reassert the truths obscured by the skepticism the identity of the self. which we 3 perceive to be true." cautions "Fond of arguments drawn from the nature of Kames. are apt to be overlooked 5 and we vainly imagine. for neither the explanation knowledge . These ob- Hume to a variety of "senses." Hume is repeatedly criticized for substituting subtle reasoning in place of the plainest feelings j and no doubt he would counter with the observation that Kames takes every asso- ciation of ideas or impressions for a direct perception. the reality of the of Berkeley and external world. There are no differences in doctrine between the two works. pitching upon some few principles as indemonstrable verities. like other intellectual efforts." jectives are achieved largely through appeal faculties giving intuitive knowledge of the outer and inner worlds. things. or metaphyElements nor the Essays is a metaphysical work: psychology enters one as part of the groundwork of a system of morals and theology. The world of experience can impose itself it can be forced upon the Procrustean bed of a rigid dogmatism j and if Hume falls occasionally into the latter error. and without effort. Analysis. the other as substructure to a system of aesthetics and criticism. A writer may seek out in remote corners of the intellectual world the scattered and dismembered parts in order to form from these heterogeneous members the complete and perfect body of truth 5 or. In the Essays.

"is a branch of intuitive knowl6 edge. are so constituted by ." Until Berkeley. as to raise a direct perception of the external object itself. but that divine. is by the word belief. to disbelieve our senses: they basis of personal identity. is 1 01 determined towards this con- second. giving the doctrine beyond 7 a sinister turn. 5 Nor since is the authority of the external senses more Kames difficult to support. Perception of the self is direct. "That the objects of our senses really exist in the way and manner we perceive. There is an original feeling or consciousness of self. idealism led to little harm confusion in metaphysics. of course]." Kames declares. We is it in our Nor. and actions. and the order of development clusion. which accompanies all. or virtually all. contrived to "annihilate totally the material world. being a simple feeling. as to put trust in our senses. but is expressed [All belief]. and which is the nature. ideas. mediately or immediately. takes as unanalysable any feeling or perception which seems strong and decisive. Sight and touch perceive not only an assemblage of qualities but a substratum in which the qualities inhere a substratum termed "substance" in the case of sight. "body" in that of touch. and conceiving propositions. in general. that the immediate objects of perception are in the mind 5 and Kames's own anticipation of Reid is evident in the itself pronouncement that "an impression may be made upon us. part begins with the examination of belief." 4 This authority is not difficult to establish. for instance. and more speculative. a circum- stance which makes self-consciousness the most vivid of perceptions. and Kames's judgment is that "there is a certain peculiar manner of perceiving objects. And a later writer [Hume. power have authority with us irresistible. whereas all other subjects are known through attributes. other impressions. is the doctrine that it is possible to conceive of .Lord Kames Deity. too. in such a manner. moreover. cannot be described. . founded upon the authority of our senses. ." In a lengthy note added to the third edition of the Elements^ Kames observes that from Aristotle onwards the fallacy has imposed upon mankind. by an external object. terial world as well as the material j leaving nothing in nature but *vacuo y without affording them a single images or ideas floating arguments might with equal m 8 for shelter or support. its true Of importance. should be accused of this wild skepticism." It is perhaps one of the striking ironies in the history of philosophy that two writers each of whom thought mind he was at length placing our belief in the external world on and firm foundation. The which. discovering that Berkeley's success be applied against immaterial still more ventures boldly to reject by the lump the immabeings.

. An intricate chain of reasoning. before turning to his deism depends for its philosophic justification on still more perassured of power (i. always simple." 13 The sight starting point of differ and hearing Kames's aesthetics is the observation that from the other senses in that they perceive objects at a distance. the direct perception includes the idea of an intelligent. arguing that "power is perceived as a quality in the acting body. a perception. it is no wonder that arguments for the existence and attributes of Deity can be pretty largely dispensed with. however. But granting with Kames that . Another internal sense assures us that nature is uniform that. to be sure. 14 Impressions of unusual intensity. in its perceptions generally. Kames rejects Hume's explanation of the feeling of necessity as mental custom. and by no means is an operation of the mind or an easy transition of thought from one object to another. 10 ject.102 Beautiful and Sublime 9 from any (though not from every) attribute. perception is of the object as qualified. a benevolent cause as well. The perception of power includes the notion that the cause is proportioned to the effect. For we are direct in external force) perception through the eye when objects by It is we observe such objects to effect alterations. and if the effect exhibits adaptation to an end. 12 moment faculties. of pleasure and pain. is devoted to explaining away the greater part of evil in the universe and ascribing the rest "to the pre-established order and constitution of things." ll Here as in so many places." being. the power of a cause continues to exist after the of exertion. Kames's refutations of "skepticism" stating the issue in such a depend upon an ignoratw elenMy upon way as to make refutation of his oppo- nent's views almost superfluous. for "as an action is not resolvable however is an of act complex the obsense. Attrisubjects divorced of their subjects. with no consciousness of organic impression and no sensation accompanying the perception. merely. Kames's aesthetics. and to the necessary imperfection of the nature of all cre- ated beings. in contrast. alterms. must be exceptional to this generalization 5 and Payne Knight was later to base one part of his aesthetic system on the notion that the eye is conscious of organic impression. that interesting to note. of causal ceptions and intuitions.e. In abstract either can be represented in reasoning by though not of its qualities any case." as With all this "grand apparatus of instinctive Lord Kames rightly terms it. into parts. cannot be conceived independently butes. for example. which to wholes the of nor parts independently they belong. designing cause if a good end.

the true source of criticism." . in an ingenious and ing to the latter. handled abstractly. ." art have such a moral influence. and by cultivating "a beautiful. . it follows that the impressions of pain and pleasure accompanying visual and auditory phenomena not only are but seem to be in the mind." says Kames. elegant. to explain the nature of man. are the matter of aesthetics. for which only it is fitted in the which are suited to ures of nature and self is life. and circumstances. as in the fine arts are chiefly 18 employ'd to raise agreeable emotions. ". 20 considered as a sensitive being capable of pleasure and pain. and descend21 Helen Whitcomb Randall. The author's plan and experiments 5 in"is.Lord Kames this is 103 from those o the grosser a circumstance which sets perceptions of sight and hearing apart and elevates them to a position less senses. invigorates a just taste in the arts harmonizes the temper and moderates the sympathy and the social affections. inferior to the perceptions of intellect. following work. ertions of the sciences j and by analogy it enhances our capacity for the reasonings which regulate conduct. . criticism provides a rational it enjoyment 3 by strengthening our more strenuous exreasoning faculties. or 16 magnanimous." The pleasures of eye and ear." 19 Indeed. but criticism itattended with advantages intellectual and moral. in order to regulate them $ "the investigates in a labored dedication to George III. in architecture or gardening. proper. by qualifying the human mind for a succession of enjoyments from the lowest to the highest. Kames admits that "all along he had it in view. is a just relish of is what fine preparation for discerning what is beautiful. to ascend gradually to principles from facts stead of beginning with the former. elegant. relations. Kames aims to establish practical rules for alongside the criticism which is his declared subject. the development of prepares us gently for the selfish affections. to those refined and sublime pleasures 13 Not only do the aesthetic pleasmaturity. leads it by gentle steps from the most groveling corporeal pleasures. The dignity and moderately exhilarating character of these pleasures. Morally. . Intellectu- beginning of its ally." the arts not in detail. treats of the fine arts. but "to exhibit their fundamental principles drawn from human nature. in writing or painting. and attempts to form a standard of taste them by unfolding those 17 of every individual. then. are devices whereby "the author of nature. in character and behaviour." principles that ought to govern the taste By inquiring into "such attributes. just. and ornamental." The organization of the treatise is adjusted appropriately to the philosophic standpoint and the results aimed at. and the Elements .

The succession of perceptions and ideas. In the "empirical". two points of peculiar importance for aesthetics are made: is 22 a principle of order "implanted in the breast of every man" which governs the arrangement of perceptions. but (secondly) this principle of order is counteracted in scientific reasonings and in some other cases by the that the natural delight in the dilatation of mind which results from precisely the opposite process of going from small to great (a modification of grandeur) or of ascending from particular to general (a modification of elevation). for transferring grandeur and sublimity from material to intellectual objects. but different in that passions are accom23 desire are raised ) panied by through perceptions of eye and ear. the cause the effect. considered merely as a succession at a certain tempo. is of a curious nature 5 for though it is accom- . the principal the accessory. Passions and emotions (both internal motions or agitations of the mind. subsequently. so there is whole precedes the part. satisfies this natural bent of the soul. by proceeding from particular observations to general principles. It is not merely that the method a natural delight. and "dissocial" passions (which last involve no motives but only instinctive impulses). it provides Elements of the ("Perceptions and Ideas in a opening chapter Train"). has itself numerous consequences for the arts 5 but it is the theory of "Emotions and Passions" making up the lengthy second chapter of the treatise which is most fruitful in aesthetic consequences. has advantages in terms of Kames's own theory. and actions. The method which Lord Kames adopts in the earlier parts of the Elements. ideas. though the contrary (deductive) method would have better satisfied the sense of order. and the business of art to appeal through those senses to the natural and cultivated capacities for agreeable passions and emotions. is in accord with the method add that I can wishing to depreciate Newtonian influence." so important subsequently in the analysis of drama. principles. The "sympathetic emotion of virtue. Kames it is works out an intricate apparatus of distinctions of passion proper from appetite 5 of instinctive from deliberative passions 5 of social. Only two points concerning the efficient causes of the emotions and passions require mention. and so forth . Beautiful and Sublime shows that Kames's procedure of "ascending" from facts to general principles of man's psychological experiments and for art on those and then sensitive nature establishing the "rules" But without Newtonian philosophy. however.IO4 plausible account. then. The movement causes of the mind original resemblance of feeling between the in illation from particular effects to general and mounting upwards affords a basis. selfish.

as well as pleasant or painful. however. There appears to be no correspondprompted by emotion of vice/' presumably because of an original ing "sympathetic observed." he . ". emotions are too of and the complex to recount decay ing growth 28 . and for pleasant passions to it ought to be 5 and upon that account it be disagreeable. The agreeableness of emotions themselves is governed by the rule that every "feeling that is conformable to the common nature of our species." But emotions are sometimes taken reflexively as our objects. . pleasant agreeable invariably the case that a pleasant emotion is produced by an agreeable object 5 and this is not a mere tautology. notes. analogous to the desires instrumental music." 27 The principles governpositions in the philosophy of Lord Kames. then. follow that painting has more power over the passions than history and non-dramatic poetry." to be "specific" to be agreeable on survey. is less the art which most completely effects ideal presence 5 painting is powerful 3 and reading much less yet. in that it "requires the constant exertion of an operating cause. and in such case they are felt to able or disagreeable.) Pleasure and pain can be treated only after this study of the efficient causes of emotions 5 and Kames is as fertile in distinctions as ever. Kames notes.Lord Kames 105 panied with a vague impulse to imitate the virtue exciting it when is an impulse without an object. without reflection. fancy. allures only by 24 conjoining vice with wit. . and what is planted in us for wise purposes. and ceases when the cause This denial of Newton's first law reads strangely for 1761 (and casts some doubt on the Newtonian character of Kames's method). The theater. since the "agreeableness" is a special perception separate from the pleasure and imIt is what is is agreeable. but is of a piece with other reactionary is withdrawn. is perceived by us to be regular and as 26 must appear It is. "Agreeable and disagreeable. . and equally productive of emotion 5 such ideal presence is quite different from reflective remembrance. The second point with an especial bearing upon criticism is the raising of emotion through ideal (as opposed to actual) presence of objects. eral. of course. from real presence. possible for painful passions which we feel agreeable. emotions we feel. this repugnance to vice 3 licentious comedy. be agreein gen- Now is pleasant. (It does not. for its confinement to a single point of time limits its influence. Emotion resembles mechanical motion (Kames urges). or language may evoke an ideal presence indistinguishable. are qualities of the objects we perceive 5 pleasant and painful are qualities of the 25 . Memory.

for (among other anticipations) Hogarth had remarked upon the sympathetic uneasiness from apparent instability." case his originality is not entire. through "That many emotions or feelings bear a certain resemblance to the power of harmony Kames remarks. a low sound depresses the mind. alternation. the observation has not been made by any writer. This system not the neatness of Hume's analysis 5 Hume's study of the passions. and and the disparity of proportioned to the similarity of the emotions their causes. and in the present their cause. or dissimilar emotions arising from unconnected causes. &c. become one complex emotion. tend to alternate until one gains the ascendant or both are obliterated.$ and of course . Dissimilar emotions forced into union by connection of weaken one another . combination two kinds of pleasure an additive pleasure. is more comprehensive in scope yet requires less proliferation of original principles. Kames is rich in analysis of addition and alternation.IO6 Beautiful and Sublime emotions have great here. but only partly perceives the utility of conversion as an analytical device and does not treat the possibility of a tertwm quid except in the very different sense that the emotions produced visible object. totally opposite emotions. But Kames illustrates the principle much more fully sluggish motion causes a languid feeling. must be agreeable) would conflict 5 this view belittles to express the disagreeable without conversion of the passions. an elevated object makes the spectator stand erect. His aesthetic occasionally suffers from these limitations as. "is a truth that can be made clear by induction j though. and conversion). compatibilhas the elaborateness. so far as I know. to be music. and Gerard had stressed the conf ormance of the mind to its objects." 29 Lord Kames's frequent claims to originality often exceed the real limits of his innovations. chemical combination. but ity of the attendant desires. Coexistent passions are governed by an additional principle as well: their causes tend to fusion depends partly upon the coincidence of tendency. greater in similar and more closely proportion as the mixed emotions are more connected by their causes (a "double relation of impressions and 5 an harmonic pleasure ideas/ as Hume would have termed it). being disagreeable. for in- stance. or by the separate qualities of a single by concordant sounds. and of their four modes of interaction (vectorial addition. but those describing the coexistence of emotions Coexistent produce from their significance aesthetically. a conformance which in some cases at least is a resemblance. in the declaration that music should not accompany words expressing disagreeable passions because the passions and the music (which.

to which of all the divine attributes is to man the most important. because the means are ever subordinate to the end. Kames 107 the sympathetic emotion of virtue is also an instance of this general truth. I consider this to be a philosophical vice. For if explanations are sought in a purpose can be a teleology. and Lord Kames does philosopher. and in fact our curiosity is always more inflamed by the final than by the efficient cause. If we have (as Lord Kames assures us we do have) an inborn 31 tendency to complete any task under way. wisdom is not less conspicuous in the final cause. But his concern with final- (together with a reluctance to force nature into an artificial system) too often leads him to dismiss the problem of efficient causation . and in contemplating the mechanism by which few causes give rise to many effects. Nothing. Certain modern aesthetics have pitched upon an aspect of this principle but in the ciple (empathy) and used it as a foundation for an entire system j more complex systems of the eighteenth century. the prinremains an incidental part. moreover. and it is not surprising to discover that these feelings are made subservient to beneficent purposes. 30 A concern to vindicate the Architect of the Universe leads very nat- urally to an emphasis on finality. our curiosity is what end. and another such determination to rejoice in order and connection. and. wisdom and power be display'd. Kames always sees finality as deliberate purpose. This preference is no where more visible. excited points. Of the two. deist that he is. this is the final cause. and it is in overcoming these that the sublim- must delight would be displayed. and from it only can we infer benevolence. The analysis of passions and emotions terminates with an appeal to final causes. can ignot. to be sure. that the real difficulties lie. It is in finding efficiency.Lord. difficulty can be ended as readily as invented 5 if the immediate consequences of some circumstance appear happy. and if the reverse. it upon two how was made. the latter is the more important inquiry. No efficiency. we turn our eye to reity of genius mote and nore ity indirect consequences. is more characteristic of Lord Kames than the regular detection of be- nevolent contrivance in every phenomenon: By every production that shows art and contrivance. we must in consequence and unanalyzable usually with the postulation of a sense which and to replace such investigation with desire to see effects traced back to their ultimate efficient causes. next. first. and. One of the conspicuous features of Kamesian aesthetics is the tendency to stop short in the investigation of efficient causes is original specious indications of finality. indeed. than in contemplating the works of nature: if in the efficient cause.

lo8 in too offhand a Beautiful and Sublime a class of mental manner." first such property Color. for association transfers the beauty perceived from the effects to the object which Intrinsic is their cause. His nature involves almost as many distinct causes as classes of and passions is followed by a general chapter of emotions series of chapters treating in detail of certain emotions peculiarly pertinent to aesthetics. perception so various and ful j A to express anything agreeable not other but and intellectual also moral traits. physical qualities only Kames confines his analysis. and circumstances. ated by providence for wise. phenomena proves he too readily posits an internal sense appropri- When human effects. and beauty remains in all cases an "attri- bute of single objects. the fine arts are chiefly employ'd to raise agreeable emotions. however. relations. not the relation. Yet relative beauty is perceived as belonging to the object. and figure. Attnbutes of single objects." 34 Even maintaining general of this literal beauty there are two species: an intrinsic beauty inherent in single objects. Intrinsic beauty is perceived immediately by sense . 33 "in its native signification. "I propose. I proceed to my chief aim. Dispatching followed with particulars which depending on relations." Kames assures us." beauty results from size. which is to establish practical rules for the fine arts. motion. 82 The beauty. to be m in single objects." says Kames in one of his occasional indications of the plan he pursues. the beauty of color is "too familiar to need explanation" (one might suppose that this familiarity . denved from the principles is above explained. or at any rate plausible. and a relative beauty dependent on the relations ties." The term "beauty. is appropriated to objects of sight. size. resistant to analysis. The to confine as my inquiries to such attributes. are not found next some coincident matters. figure. color. motion all the visible qualities may be beautiand the object in which several of these beauties coalesce yields a complex emotion still more pleasant. for size more usually pertains to grandeur than to beauty. the "most noted of all the qualities that belong to single objects. to the literally beautiful qualiso striking easily lends its name of which is that they all produce emotions "one character of sweetness and gaiety. purposes. yet the last is treated in the only chapter on beauty. as the most simple. common denominator of things. shall take the lead. relative involves an intellectual beauty recognition of fitness or utility.

then. and order as traits of the constituent parts. appears to follow Addison in detecting a specific beauty not wholly dependent on ordinary beauty: "The beauty of the human Kames figure." 35 But the remark is casual. a large irreducible surd. and no stress is laid upon this specific beauty. that the nature of man was originally framed with a relish for them. is found pleasing because it permits a single and more telling stroke upon the mind. by means of the particulars mentioned. in order to answer good and wise pur36 poses" purposes which are expounded forthwith. would. Beauty of figure. for instance. by a special recommendation of nature. however. There remains.Lord Kames is 109 is what requires explanation). I am afraid. upwards. termed ordinarily beauty is handled by in part at least the general rubric of relations beauty in his own terminology being a property of single facts. however. Slight explanation is given of these circumstances. and undulating. appears to us supreme. is resolvable into regularity and simplicity as traits of the whole. Some account is given of the mechanisms by which the properties of general beauty please 5 simplicity. and uniformity. One would expect an inquiry how rest such various properties as simplicity. the determination of our nature to see it as objective attaches us to external objects and promotes society. in terms of the velocity and variety of the train and the different modes of pain and pleasure . and because the mind in elevated mood descends only with reluc- tance to minute ornaments. accel- erated. order. proportion. and the produce such similar effects. be a vain attempt: it seems the most probable opinion. But this question is dismissed: "To enquire why an object. though it is clear from Kames's own observations (that. They prove to be truisms: beauty is an aid to apprehension 5 it adds to the delight of life. amid the great variety of beauteous forms bestowed upon animals. for instance. the treatment of variety and uniformity. cor- respondent in speed to the natural rate of flow of perceptions. is managed very skilfully in terms of the train of perceptions which was the starting point of the Elements. after all such explanations. proportion. undulating motion is more free and natural) that the phenomena could be explained A great part of what is by association. an agreeableness greatest when the motion is regular. ap- pears beautiful. and motion treated with respect to both beauty and grandeur in another chapter. Beauty of motion is caused by the inherent agreeableness of motion itself. His judgments on resemblance and contrast are in no wise novel save in his forward-looking Kames under views on gardening .

however applicable to one or other species. and numberless are the beautiful objects of sight that have little is far The foregoing definition . . be in any degree beautiful. Such a method and aim require that the key terms be loosely 53 defined 3 if we are to speak of the "variety of a still life and of a 55 law of physics. can be conceived by reflection. of figures. affords no pleasure. in contrast. from being just with respect to beauty in general* variety contributes no share to the beauty of a moral action. I presume it will be evident. a consequence merely of two term "in different senses" 5 for the senses in which they employ the term are consequences of their general philosophic orientations. Again. method is literal and analytical. . 37 for uniformity amid vanety among ugly objects. that this definition. however. among applicable which indeed a due mixture of uniformity and vanety is always agreeable. we are assuredly going to use the term in . that Kames understands variety in a different sense from that in which Hutcheson (if it is Hutcheson here alluded It is Variety to Kames involves a succession of perceptions of he can say truly. nor of a mathematical theorem. is only or no vanety in them. definition. terms will be multiplied and 1 one beauty which is the essence of all the various modifications of beauty. But the surface of a globe changing direction at every point. when it is commonly held to be a necessary ingredient in beauty of whatever kind. obvious. in that the incessant change takes place according to a single rule. provided the particular objects. Looking at the theorem as Hutcheson did. that there is no variety in a mathematical theorem. to find variety treated as only contributing a tram of perceptions pleasant. and his aim is to find "variety a variety of senses If. writers taking a Such differences are not. the least various j and is it is certainly true that half a globe is perceived at one couy d'oeil. different kinds: it does exhibit unity in variety: for it is true of multitudes of instances which. and the aim is to discriminate all the different aspects of things which are in one way or another agreeable. . then. Hutcheson's method is analogical. and Sublime which Kames the Hutchesonian casually demolishes law of beauty: to some readers. however. to) took it.1 1 Beautiful result.. though not actually perceived.." But after the subject is explained and illustrated as above. according to the It may surprise make "That beauty consists in uniformity amid variety. to a of number objects in a group or in succession. and in this light we can say with Hutcheson that it exhibits maximum variety conjoined with greatest uniformity. separately considered. Kames speaks of a globe as the most uniform however.

The terms "grandeur" and "sublimity" come to be used figuratively of other objects. which raise in us emotions similar to those of literal grandeur and sublimity. In the figurative applications of "grandeur" and "sublimity. sublimity as merely significant of force or other moral traits. It is conceded. in which this argument is considerably revised." observes Lord Kames. is a property of single facts. He decides the controversy between Boileau and Huet over the Mosaic . Lord Kames produces experiments to show that grandeur and sublimity are distinct emotions from all others. moral. that grandeur requires less of these qualities than beauty 3 indeed. than great force. great elevation. propriety. it is eviunexpectedness. and like beauty has two species. like beauty. and makes the spectator endeavour to enlarge his A bulk. The third and later editions." 38 Great magnitude produces the feeling of grandeur. physical. If variety is discrimand from novelty. its more impressive manifesan enthusiasm raises (or impatient of sublimity) grandeur confinement and the strictness of regularity and order. inated from the several species of simple beauty Sublimity. ." the distinction It between them is largely lost. sublimity. should be mentioned that Kames admits that the sublime may be attended with a humbling of the mind in some instances. emphasize that mere bulk (though agreeable as such) does not constitute grandeur. and so on. "hath not more remarkably distinguished us from the other animals by an erect posture. are clearly distinguishable. . in tations. but that some regularity. though there is nothing parallel in the distinctions. proportion. however. regularity is less required. and intellectual." 39 In the first two editions of the Elements. dent that variety is not going to be the great leading trait of all things. moral. great object dilates the breast. physical. congruity. No quality is more Kames mentions. and that they are in every case pleasant in themselves 5 and he argues that in proportion as an object is great. not only in the internal feeling.Lord Rames their III meanings more narrowly ascertained. but even in their external expressions. that of sublimity. "The emotions raised by great and by elevated objects. or other beautiful qualities are requisite to make the magnitude grand. An elevated object produces a different expression: it makes the spectator stretch upward and stand a tiptoe. "Nature. . attaching us to every thing great and elevated. grand. especially when exerted a sentient by being $ but this grandeur derives from the association of there is in Kames no tendency to interpret material and impressions. and intellectual. than by a capacious and aspiring mind.

Kames appeals to an internal sense or senses. which creates surprise. but accena subject tuates. Now this something like a theory of conversion of the passions: a pleasant emotion is transformed into a painful and more powerful feeling. In making each differentiation. "in fewer power of the Deity: that the emotion it belongs to the present subject to remark. . nor even greatness. unlike causes. when moderate. no systematic necessity 5 . novelty hath the most powerful influ41 ence. phenomenon. custom from habit. may at the same time have an opposite indirect effect: it may aggravate terror if the new object appear dangerous. but then Kames lasting. unable to support itself in an elevation so much above nature. Novelty." noting that Boileau has rightly perceived that the primary effect of this passage is an emotion of grandeur. or that abstract and general terms should be avoided except where they com- prehend multitudes of individuals. of sublimity raised by this image is but momentary ." Kames argues that novelty. Let there be light. and it remains an which gives rise to wonder. and that the mind. any emotion which it accompanies on which Kames is more than usually acute in pointing out efficient distinguished prise. . It is "scarce possible. in fact." to convey so clear an image of the infinite remarks.) The differentiation of novelty from unexpectedness is an- other instance of a tendency pervading the system to dichotomize feelings or qualities often taken as simple. in concluding his discussion of sublimity. congruity from propriety. some rules for achieving the sublime in art rules of a rather disappointingly general character. and the properties or relations treated are duly connected with the economy of the universe. one and many. This dichotomizing never yields dialectical distinctions of real and apparent. . (Surwonder. while agreeable in itself as gratifying curiosity. and thus the risible is distinguished from the ridiculous. from unexpectedness. not excepting Kames appears to follow the list beauty. dignity from grace. has no definite character of its own. and so forth. as that capital circumstances should be gathered together and minute or low circumstances omitted. of topics marked out by Addison. for after beauty and greatness he addresses himself to novelty: "Of all the particulars that contribute to raise emotions. and there was light. but that Huet has seen more deeply that this emotion is but a flash and that the depressing effect is more sensible and words.112 Beautiful and Sublim0 "God said. immediately sinks down into humility and veneration." 40 Kames devises. Thus grandeur was dis- tinguished from sublimity. changeless and changing: it has. is But Kames does not generalize is this isolated curiosity in his system.

Kames writes as if he owed no debts and anticipated no objections. are. Hume. tend equally natu42 rally to ignore a quality of such slight importance in their subjects. Kames's bent for elaborating literal distinctions is nowhere more evident than in the denial that con- 43 gruity is an element of beauty: "Congruity is so nearly allied to . are led naturally to treat of the ludicrous j writers whose concern is with painting and sculpture. already noticed 5 these are "primary" relationships. for suffices one sense both. On writers are Burke. But there are also "secondary" relationships dependent upon the peculiar structure of the mind and without ob- There jective existence 5 such is the sense of congruity and propriety. and interweaving the doctrines the contrary. is not pertinent to the present enterprise. architecture. and does so by exhibiting matters not important enough to engage serious feelings but in which there is some excess or defect not deviating so far from the ridiculous norm as to become monstrous. having a real existence independent Among of the perceiving mind. the relationships yielding agreeable emotions are the resemblance and contrast. since it Kames enters upon a pretty elaborate account of ridicule and wit 5 but the exposition of these matters. he often regards himself as the first to investigate many of these phenomena. most aestheticians tended to ignore the ridiculous and beauty. and although Kames must have been familiar with the books of Addison. and Gerard. In the presupposes the senses of propriety and under falls the rubric of relations a mixture of the imdignity. Hogarth. singly objects Throughout the eighteenth century. the aesthetic doctrines of these nowhere canvassed in the Elements. group treating of the aesthetic qualities of taken is devoted to the risible. picturesqueness. The risible (I return to Lord Kames) provokes the emotion of laughter. subdeal limity.Lord Kames there is 113 simply an extraordinary proliferation of clear-cut literal disThis elaborateness of differentiation without systematic nethe Elements an eclectic air but Lord Kames is not ecleccessity gives 5 tinctions. or external nature itself. words. two related properties 5 but since propriety is nothing but the congruity of sensible beings with their thoughts. interesting and often subtle though it is. the variety and uniformity. Only largely with literature. in which the comic element plays a pronounced role. and actions. proper with the risible causes contempt to mingle with laughter. tic in the sense of explicitly adopting of his predecessors. Hutcheson. and still more those whose chief interest is in risible The final chapter in the and to confine themselves to the serious traits those writers who gardening. as usual. which.

1 1

4

Beautiful

and Sublime

beauty, as

commonly to be held a species of it; and yet they differ so essentially as never to coincide, beauty, like colour, is placed upon a single subject, congruity upon a plurality: further, a thing beautiful in itself, may, with relation to other things, produce the strongYet another internal sense is that which "Man is endued with a sense of the perceives dignity and meanness: worth and excellence of his nature: he deems it to be more perfect than that of the other beings around him; and he perceives that the
est sense of incongruity."
44

in virtue of perfection of his nature consists in virtue, particularly term the the highest rank. To express this sense, digmty is appropri45 ated." The "rank" of virtues, incidentally, is not determined by but (consistently with Kames's system) by the direct impresutility

sion they make upon us; man being, in Kames's estimation, more an active than a contemplative being, the active virtues of generosity,

magnanimity, heroism are the noblest. That elusive quality, grace, is treated in a few pages appended to the chapter on dignity in the
third

and

later editions of the

Elements;
46

it is

finally defined as "that

agreeable appearance which

arises

from elegance of motion and from

a countenance expressive of dignity." After a discussion of custom and habit, in which the various phenomena are drawn out at some length and brought under the proper

and final, the argument begins to move gradually from these universals to the species and genres, the components and techniques, of art. The transition is made through a study first of the external signs of emotions and passions, then of sentiments, then of language dictated by passion. Thus far, the method is to move from causes (emotions and passions) to effects (gesture and expression,
causes, efficient

sentiment, language). The argument then begins constructively with a theory of language itself, upon the basis of this theory, together with the psychology of the emotions and the account of qualities and
relations already canvassed, a theory of comparisons

and

figures

is

constructed; then a critique of the modes of writing (narration and
is developed; and finally, theories of particular genres 47 (tragedy and epic) are devised. The practical bias of the Elements, the aim of forming taste and regulating creativity, becomes more ob-

description)

vious as the argument leaves the realm of universal traits and relations: positive rules and the elaborate classification of faults enforce

doubly the practical bearing of the complicated analysis. Kames follows in each part of the discussion of language and literature a rather mechanical plan adapted to his practical purposes: a list of
positive

rules

is

set forth,

based (usually explicitly) on aesthetic principles

Lord Kames

ijr

and elaborately
faults are

illustrated

both in fulfillment and defect ;
is

then

enumerated, proved to be such when error

obstinate,

and

illustrated at length. These latter portions of the system appear to free from the faults of which I have complained hitherto. For, the

me

apparatus of universals once established securely (however artificially) with their original senses and final causes, Kames can analyze the complex particulars of art altogether in terms of that apparatus. His criticism as distinguished from his aesthetics has great particularity

and

precision,

even in the minutiae of criticism 5 the distinction of inverted and natural style, for instance, hinges on the argument that substances can be conceived independent of any one attribute, whereas attributes can not be conceived independently accordingly, a style is inverted when the attribute precedes a circumit and its subject, but is still natural if the subject precedes the intervening circumstance.) The external signs of passions and emotions are partly voluntary, partly involuntary 5 and the voluntary signs are either artificial (words) or natural (gestures and actions which express the passions, usually through resemblance to them). But external signs of what-

consistency. (The thetic principles can often be discerned

a very considerable degree of systematic reduction of critical principles to more general aes-

and

stance intervening between

ever kind produce other emotions and passions in spectators. Pleasant passions have agreeable signs which in turn produce pleasant passions according to the usual rule the ac5 feelings of the
spectator,

cordingly, vary with those of the patient. Painful passions which are disagreeable have external signs which repel j painful passions agreeable in survey have signs disagreeable in themselves (and which raise, therefore, painful feelings in spectators), but which nevertheless, by a skilful contrivance of providence, attract. Distress pictured on the countenance, for instance, inspires the observer with pity, which,

although painful in itself, nonetheless impels him to afford relief. Kames's explanation of this phenomenon of sympathy turns, quite characteristically, on an original principle and on a conception of finality in nature, in contrast with Hume's account in terms of association of ideas and impressions j Kames, moreover, rests interpretation of the external signs of passions on intuition rather than experience.

and especially for paintwhich ing, depends so heavily upon gesture and expression. And the doctrine that agreeable painful emotions produce in spectators painful but emotions to Kames's contains, attracting mind, the answer to the problem, why tragedy pleases: "The whole mystery is explained

All

this has clear implications for the arts,

Il6

Beautiful

and Sublime

is attractive, by a single observation, that sympathy, though painful, the in an and attaches us to distress, opposition of self-love object us to fly from it. And by this notwithstanding, which should prompt

curious

mechanism

it is,

that persons of

any degree of
48

sensibility are

This view does not, attracted by affliction still more than by joy." in the difference response to actual and however, account for any
simulated catastrophes. Besides the natural expression of feelings in gesture and facial aspect, there is an artificial and arbitrary expression through language 3
chapters on "Sentiments" ("Every thought prompted by passion 40 is termed a sentiment" ) and on the "Language of Passion"

merely,

accordingly conclude this division of the Elements. The ensuing treatment of language as such, as sound, signification, or imitation, contains what is perhaps the most subtle and extensive treatment of
versification in the eighteenth century.

In treating of these problems,

and those of comparisons and figures, Kames is able to refer the multitudinous phenomena to the principles already established, so that his study is not only minutely detailed but also rational and ordered.

The numerous
the
senses

strict sense:

"beauties" pointed out are not, of course, "beauty" in they are only excellencies appealing to our various

simile

Beauty in the proper sense appears but rarely 5 a a involve may comparison with some object literally beautiful which the words call before the mind's eye, and such a simile, approfaculties.

and

priately employed to embellish or clarify the context, is beautiful not only in the more narrow sense but also in the sense of being meritorious as a simile. Similes and some other figures may also be grand by

representing great or sublime objects, thoughts, or actions $ and occasionally the distinction of great from sublime may be noted in the
subjects of a simile. The discussion of narration

rules

and

analysis

and description contains, beyond the of blemishes which we expect, a "curious inquiry":

why the
critics,

depiction or description of ugly objects may please. For many one answer would serve for both this problem and that of

tragic pleasure 5 but

Lord Kames
is

characteristically divides

and

dis-

tinguishes.

The

case of tragedy

painful emotion which is ugly, however, the pleasure of imitation itself (in painting) or of language (in poetry) overbalances the disagreeableness of the subject.

singular, involving as it does a nonetheless agreeable. In imitation of the

In tragedy, accordingly, the attraction
is

is

greater as the distress
is

represented

greater $

but in description there

"no encouragement

Lord,
to deal in disagreeable subjects,

Kames

117

greater where the
able."
50

for the pleasure is incomparably the subject and description are both of them agree-

Disagreeable subjects

or whatever

ugly, disgusting, unmanly, horrible, from the pleasure of a performance. subduct, then,

Terrific objects, however, constitute a kind of exception, for they "have in poetry and painting a fine effect. The picture, by raising a slight emotion of terror, agitates the mind; and in that condition

every beauty makes a deep impression. May not contrast heighten the pleasure, by opposing our present security to the danger we would
51 be in by encountering the object represented?" This is clearly conversion of the passions j yet Kames does not employ this principle in accounting for the effects of tragedy, presumably because of the

curious interpretation he gives of tragic fear (of which below). It must be remarked, too, that Kames does not connect the terrific with

the sublime ,

it

serves rather to heighten sensibility to "beauties" or

excellencies of (presumably) whatever kind. The conventional literary kinds are at last arrived at through the constructive argument which has been described. Since these genres

are not defined as objects of a certain kind (in the manner of Aristotle), but rest all alike upon a general theory of the mind, they are

not sharply differentiated. "Literary compositions," says Kames, "run into each other, precisely like colours: in their strong tints they are
easily distinguished; but are susceptible of so much variety, and of so many different forms, that we can never say where one species

ends and another begins."
sions;

52

The

fine arts generally are distinguished

from the useful arts by being calculated to make agreeable impresand this differentia of all the arts may be supplemented in
the case of particular arts, genres, or varieties, by instruction. Of course even those works which have no didactic aim affect the char-

proprium than a differentia. The species of are determined, poems accordingly, rather through the ends subserved by such compositions than through distinctions in conacter, but this is rather a

narrative

struction as such. Aristotle's division of simple

and complex plots

is

accordingly replaced:

"A poem, whether

dramatic or epic, that has no

tendency beyond moving the passions and exhibiting pictures of virtue and vice, may be distinguished by the name of Apathetic. But where
purposely contrived to illustrate some moral truth, by showing the natural connection betwixt disorderly passions and ex63 ternal misfortunes, such composition may be denominated moral"
a story
is

Both

varieties of plot

have a moral influence, for the pathetic plot

Il8

Beautiful

and Sublime

cultivates feelings producthrough the sympathetic emotion of virtue the tive of virtue, and through exercising sympathies humanizes the mind; but the moral species "not only improves the heart ... but 54 Moral tragedy raises instructs the head by the moral it contains."

of fear fear not for the alongside pity the self-regarding passion 55 similar errors. Once into fall we lest protagonist but for ourselves,

the distinction of pathetic from moral is effected on these ethical can be devised, action begrounds, so that criteria of suitable actions comes the principal part of the poem, and manners are adjusted to the fable, sentiments to manners, and diction to sentiment.
It
is

not

my

aim

to enter

upon merely

critical

questions in

any de-

unities cannot be entirely tail, but Kames's treatment of the three His over. is the most philosophical treatment of this vexed passed

topic in English criticism, both preceding
analysis,

and surpassing Johnson's

which has rather undeservedly got credit for extraordinary when properly and acuity. Unity of action finds support, courage the unities of but Kamesian m the of aesthetics, qualified, principles time and place go by the board. Arguing from the conception of ideal
presence, ous acts,

Kames urges

and comparative freedom from these rules

preservation of these unities within continuin intervals be-

tween

acts.

But despite keen

interest in critical issues in the arts

and the deter-

mination to establish rules, Lord Kames's concern remains rather more with the "elements" than with the "criticism." The arts entertain by raising agreeable feelings in the mind, and critical questions
therefore always illustrate, and are always resolved by, principles of psychological aesthetics. Such reference might handicap the arts if

the psychology were narrow; but Kames's aesthetics, however superficial at some points, is not dogmatically constricted, and the number

which can be brought to bear upon the particular phenomena of, say, tragedy or landscape gardening is adefor of some of the most quate explication complex problems of art. Kames's aesthetics is not a mere ad hoc sanctification of modes of art
principles

and variety of

originality of the system is striking (for instance) in the discussion of gardening (chapter xxiv), which is equally free from dogmatic attachment to the
style of gardening

currently fashionable.

The freedom and

prevailing

on some rigidly conceived set of reforms. Kames's a conception of garden is, that every part should exhibit beauty, but that each part should be characterized by
insistence

and from

some expression supervening

to the

beauty

grandeur, melancholy,

Lord Kames
gaiety.

119

These

parts, seen successively (for a large

garden

is

a temporal

as well as a spatial art), give
trast;

maximum

pleasure by variety and con-

near the house, regularity should be studied, but at greater distances a wilder and more various style is proper. Kames admired the

gardens of Kent, but his theory calls for gardens far more varied and expressive than these it looks forward through the era of Capability

Brown
is

treatment

far different

to the gardens of the picturesque school. from that given by Price and

The

theoretical

Knight
is

rather

more

like that of

Repton

but the taste which

it

justifies

as broad.

The

prescriptions for architecture are, though in precision and comprehensiveness less adequate to the subject, equally forward-looking.

Uniformity, proportion, regularity, order, utility, expression, congruity, custom, and yet other principles are introduced into the discussion, a discussion which, worked out more fully, would yield a

system of architectural criticism
atic, as that of Alison.
56

as detailed,

though not so system-

Elements of Criticism culminates
ard of
ars to
taste. It is

in a demonstration of the stand-

by

a curiously perverse tendency among modern scholthat the philosophical critics of the eighteenth century, argue aesthetic tracing responses to their roots in passions, senses, facul-

ties,

and association, subvert the neo-classical system of rules and absolutes, and thus open the way for rampant subjectivism. McKenzie, who speaks of the "nearly incurable subjectivity" of the whole "mech57 anist" tradition, considers that Kames's escape from this welter of individualism was "simply to assume that standards exist as the result of many men's experiences and to expect the critic to acquaint himself

the validity of the method, since
empirical approach"

with them," a solution evolved at "very considerable cost to it is directly contradictory to an
being, in fact, an insidious outgrowth of outThis interpretation appears to me to be indeneo-classicism.
58

moded

fensible.

absolute, and

Setting aside the fiction of neo-classical rules, arbitrary, objective, it is apparent that each philosophical aestheti-

cian of the century subscribed to the idea of a standard of taste superior in authority to individual predilections j each supposed himself to

be placing the admitted standard on

its

just foundations.

All

found the standard connected in one way or another with human nature, a nature universal and in some sense fixed. The derivation of the standard from human nature could, and did, take many courses.

With Lord Kames,

the argument involves, consistently with the rest

of his thought, postulation of an internal sense which discerns con-

120

Beautiful and Sublime

of a right and wrong formity to our nature. Since all men speak so universal a pracfor nature in foundation a must there be taste,
tice j

the foundation

is,

that

a sense or conviction of a common nature, not only in our own This common nature is but in every species of animals. . species, conceived to be a model or standard for each individual that belongs to

we have

.

.

the kind.

.

.

.

in particular, we have respect to the common nature of man, a conviction that it is invariable not less than universal; that it will be the

With

same hereafter all nations and

as at present,

and

as

it

was

in
.

time past; the same
. .

among

in all corners of the earth.

We

are so constituted as to conceive this

common

nature, not only

to be invariable, but to be also perfect or right; and consequently that individuals ought to be made conformable to it. Every remarkable deviation from the standard, makes accordingly an impression on us of imperfection, irregularity, or disorder: it is disagreeable, and raises in us

a painful emotion.

59
.

.

,

perverted, still are conscious of the comgrant that it ought not to be subjected to their peculiar taste. All this by no means denies that men's tastes in art and morals is actually highly variable: how is the true taste to

Even

those whose taste

is

mon

nature of

man and

be ascertained? It

is

fixed

by appealing

lasting preferences among polite cacy have been cultivated. The good
taste,

most general and nations where rationality and delito the

judge has natural delicacy of improved by education, reflection, and experience, and preserved by regular and moderate living. But the standard need not be determined by an intricate and uncertain process of selecting good judges 5
for

Kames

as for Gerard,

it

is

to

be arrived at deductively from

the psychological principles governing the sensitive part of our nature. "In a word, there is no means so effectual for ascertaining the stand-

ard of
to lay

taste, as a thorough acquaintance with these principles j and a foundation for this valuable branch of knowledge, is the 60 declared purpose of the present This demonstration undertaking." of the standard of taste appropriately concludes the Elements of

Criticism, for, while all the foregoing analysis serves to establish the particular principles of taste, the proof of the perfection and universality of the standard reflexively ascertains the principles already

brought to light. A few words should yet be said on the connection of aesthetics and morals in this system: judgment arises in each case from internal
senses 5 these senses are in each case devised for beneficent purposes 5

Lord Kames
aesthetic feelings

121

may have moral consequences, and moral feelings be taken as the matter of art; the theoretician may pursue parallel inquiries in the two sciences. Some of the aesthetic senses,

may

in character ; prothe of all priety, dignity, agreeableness passions depend on our sense of our specific nature; and even those aesthetic senses which address

moreover, are essentially and exclusively moral

themselves to physical properties and relations may apply also by extension and analogy to the moral world. But the "order" of the
physical world
is

and "beauty," which

not really identical with that of the moral world; in its proper signification designates a secondary

property of visible objects, is extended to mental properties only through the resemblance of the effects on the percipient; the same
association accounts for the figurative "grandeur" and "sublimity" of the moral and intellectual realm. Moral standards, moreover, are

more

fixed with the progress of civilization than are the aesthetic; for, objects of moral feeling being more clearly disdefinitely

tinguishable
definite.

from one another, moral
this

And

feelings are stronger and difference exhibits contrivance once more:

more
were

aesthetic feelings stronger, they would abstract attention from matters of greater moment; were they less vague, there would be no

differences in feeling,

and

in consequence

no rivalry and improve-

so, despite the manifold connections and between ethics and aesthetics, aesthetics remains a separate analogies science with at least partly independent principles and criteria.

ment

in the arts.

61

And

1 1760 given only to students of the UniBlair became Professor of Rhetoric in 1760 and (where versity Professor of and Rhetoric Belles-Lettres in 1762). but the almost entire absence of 122 . and critical 5 theory. after in essentials for the quarter-century of Blair's professor2 ship. Lord Kames. there are more than sixty ecEHons oTthe Lectures in English. literary life of Scotland. a^popularizer ofaesthgtic." 3 That Blair "kept up with" the aesthetic discussion of the is evidenced a footnote discussion age by in the printed Lectures of the on the Imitative Nature of Appendix added to the third edition of Gerard's Essay on Taste as Poetry recently as i78o. in behalf of the intellectual and was the establishment in 1748 of a series of public lectures on language and literature. and translations into Though he was neither a comprehensive nor a profoundly original writer. con- stitute Blair's contribution to aesthetic. Spanish. Though Blair spoke of "adding to and improving" his lectures. 4 The Critical Dissertation Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres. 6 Blair's rhetorical theory still studied.CHAPTER 8 Hugh ^Blair the various activities of A^ONG versity of Henry Home. and the appointBlair. litterateur and distinguished preacher and minister of the High Church of St. remained Regius Blair's lectures. Blair was of immense importance as German. Giles. French. is Italian. unchanged is there no reason to question Schmitz's judgment that "a student who sat before Blair in 1760 heard very much the same lectures as were delivered in the class of 1783. rhetorical. ment fell to Hugh in 1759 the post was vacant. the Son of Fingal. the year of Blair's retirement and publication of the lectures. and_cntical speculation. together with A on the Poems of Ossian. and Russian. almost fifty editions of abridgments. Adam Smith delivered the first lectures at the Uni- Edinburgh .

The connec- and indeed. it will consist in an endeavour to lowing substitute the application of these principles [reason and good sense] in the place of artificial and scholastic rhetoric 5 in an endeavour to rhetoric is His a systematic return to the Ciceronian explode false ornament. commonplaces $ but Blair's lectures carry Rhetoric. to recommend good sense as the foundation of all good 8 composition. of Eloquence properly so called. of Style: Fourthly." Yet there is often real novelty concealed beneath the platitudinous manner so characteristic of Blair. and finally the two branches of composition rhetoric and belles-lettres in which style is applied last to subject under the influence of heart and imagination. both in prose and verse. and not indispensably prerequisite to it. out the program in earnest. or Public Speaking in its different kinds. and prepare 7 it for the enjoyments of virtue. introductory lecture of Blair's course is a recitation of truisms designed to enforce the importance of the study of writing and the The advantages of the pursuits of taste. then language given a character expressive of a writer's manner of thinking and peculiarity of temper. those of pure intellect. the consideration of Language: Thirdly. . The pleasures of taste refresh the mind after the toils of the intellect. Secondly. and upon the sources of its pleasures. tion of the opening dissertations on taste is less evident. to be sure. First. from the trope-and-figure tradition on emphasis argumentative content: "If the folLectures have any merit.Hugh comment on disregard into Blair 123 his theory of the sublime and beautiful testifies to the which his aesthetics has fallen. some introductory on the Nature of Taste." The four dissertations groups are arranged in an evident synthetic pattern: language merely. and the labours of abstract study 5 and . There is no striving for paradox or novelty as Blair reiterates a sentiment which echoes down the century: "PROVIDENCE seems plainly to have pointed out this useful purpose to which the pleasures of taste may be applied. the essays of this part constitute a subsidiary unity within the lectures. Lastly. and . which is confined to the first group of the lectures as Blair outlines them: "They divide themselves into five parts." Such generalities are. a critical examination of the most distin9 guished Species of Composition. they gradually raise it above the attachments of sense. by interposing them in a middle station between the pleasures of sense. to direct attention more towards substance than show. . and simplicity as essential to all true ornament. however. intelligible apart from what follows. falls outside the scope of this study.

Blair may treat of it as a preliminary. the doctrine is conventional. His Taste must be esteemed just and true. which coincides with the general sentiments of men. [that] there is no disputing of Tastes. "That which men concur the most in admiring. be a perfect standard for the Taste of all others. very much abbreviated. for that reason that it does please?" and others had done before him) that no its full extent. the is to construct his we must rest. be13 Since yond doubt. however. "can only have place where the objects of Taste are different" that is. and Burke is a mark of Blair's eclecticism . "according to the proverb. . In this standard the determinations of such a person concerning beauty. so independent of supported. certain natural and instinctive sensibility to a founded on mately of its operations." men as various as But the eighteenth-century Gerard and Kames. defines the faculty as "the power of receiving pleasure from the beauties of nature 10 and finds this power to be "ultiand of art". problem judgments hypothetical^. Determination of the constituent faculties of taste gives the material cause j formulation. But direct contradiction of preference does also occur." n This any particular philosophic context reference to Gerard. and in distinctions and terminology appears to be based very largely on Gerard. in all works of Taste. and there is a Beauty though legitimate latitude and diversity of objects of taste. indeed. by a footnote and consideration of the culture and improvement of these natural powers yields the formal cause a good taste. Discussion of "correctness" leads to the problem of the standard: are we to hold. lie. Truth is manifold. Such diversity. and here a standard is requisite. must be held to be beautiful. Kames. and beauty. and (further) that is one. Human nature. Here." though reason "assists Taste in many He serves to enlarge its power." such an ideal critic does not exist. taste Beautiful is and Subhme the faculty appealed to in disquisitions on the merit of composition. would. Du Bos. where different aspects of the object are isolated for commendation or reprehension. too. whose internal senses were in every and whose reason was unerring and sure. instance exquisite just. Hume. his aesthetic doctrine is less a system than a conspectus of eighteenth-century opinion. however.124 Since. D'Alembert. provides it: "were there any one person who possessed in full perfection Blair observes (as Hume one really accepts the proverb in all the powers of human and nature. however. To the sense of mankind the ultimate appeal 14 must ever critics. of course. but 12 that whatever pleases is right. The psychology underlying these distinctions is in Blair. Hume and Johnson.

declaring that "the advances made since his time in this curious part of philosophical Criticism. and depends too heavily upon ascending from particular instances to general principles. to assign some reasons of his decision. the a priori part of the process is too abbreviated. and to reduce them under proper ." 16 marking that "it is difficult to though some ingenious writers This inadequacy is explained by remake a full enumeration of the several it is objects that give pleasure to Taste . He who admires or censures any work of genius. By no means. more or ment. afterwards connecting these with established principles of human nature by deduction consilience constituting verification. even ultimately. For his principles.. like Gerard. in which the light of the in He appeals to principles. Taste is a sort of compound power. are not very considerable j have pursued the subject. no other cntenon of what is beauthan the approbation of the majority? . His conception of philosophical method in aesthetics is oversimple. in treating of Gerard's method. more difficult to define all those which have been discovered. or so aware of the existence of cultures which do not. coincide with Western culture in preferences 3 and he suggests that the rules of art can be determined inductively from works which have in fact commanded general approbation.Hugh were wont to Blair 125 al- leged universal consensus. of course but to the feelings men have about the general properties which make up objects rather than to the superficial feelings evoked by complex objects themselves. does call for ultimate deductive verification. I have already argued. if his Taste be any degree improved. understanding always mingles. 15 less. matters of Taste as well as to the subjects of science and philosophy. there are principles of reason and sound judgment which can be applied to But have we then. Although Blair. it will be said. is always ready. with the feelings of senti- Reasonings on taste always appeal ultimately to feeling as criterion. unanalyzed by reason. demonstrate the inadequacy of the argument from and Blair is not an exception: tiful. Following Mill and one of Gerso many able when ard's argued for the inverse deductive method: obtaining provisional empirical laws by direct induction and I own pronouncements. Blair is not so sensible as Gerard of the difficulties of establishing a consensus. that mere ascending induction from the empirical data is questionapplied to problems where the contributing causes are so and subtle as in aesthetics. and points out the grounds on which he proceeds. Blair turns back to Addison..

and elevating This mental sublimity "coincides in a great measure with magnanimity. and investigate the efficient causes of the pleasure which we receive from such objects. Our viewing them." in finding obscurity sublime: "In all general. nature seems to have covered with Like Addison. as he says. here. heroism. even approaching to severity. farther. and as the narrowest and most precisely definable of the pleasures of imagination. whatever bespeaks a high effort of soul. This is not an auspicious beginning." sensation. an impenetrable veil. finally. Sublimity. He declines to distinguish "Grandeur (with Kames) grandeur from sublimity. which it cannot well express." effect The moral and favourable to the impressions of their Subsentimental sublime. and generosity of sentiment. only the investigator who disregards fihave the enthusiasm for efficient causes requisite to discan nality covery. yet more intense than that of length but less so than no effort is made to account for these differences. Sublimity is found also in loud sounds. or shews a mind superior to pleasures. such as darkness. produces "an is extremely similar to what itself. . as a topic traditional for rhetoricians. we find ourselves at a loss. Beautiful and Sublime when we would go . as through the mist of distance or antiquity. and even bordering on the terrible." Sublimity produces "a sort of in- and expansion 5 it raises the mind much above its ordinary state and fills it with a degree of wonder and astonishment. unboundedness of space or 18 time or number. Blair makes the conventional observation that the effect of height is that of depth. which are. and silence.in more readily aesthetics. unless "sublimity" be merely in its highest degree. is the first quality of which Blair treats. above These first principles of internal all. to dan- above . objects that are greatly raised above us. or far removed from us either in space or in time. Great power and force are the most copious source of sublime ideas . Blair takes refuge in final causes. 20 is limity." 21 produced by the view of grand it objects in nature. and "all ideas of the solemn and awful kind. tend greatly to assist the Sub19 Blair follows Burke lime. 17 as in biology. the burst of thunder or the shouting of multitudes. ascertained. filling the mind with admiration. Whatever discovers human nature in its greatest elevation.126 classes . and. raised by beautiful objects. The emotion is certainly delightful 3 but it is altogether of the serious kind: a degree of awfulness and solemternal elevation . . solitude. commonly attends it when at its height 5 very distinguishable from the more gay and brisk emotion nity." Simplest of the qualities of objects productive of this emotion is vastness. are apt to strike us as great.

" Burke is described as proposing the theory. and to and Two discover. These devices do perhaps necessitate some subtle analysis. as far as appears to me. without violent strain24 This is not an adequate statement of ing." does not say quite this. steps an of adequate account remain: to find the common traits (if any) in virtue of which the various qualities produce similar effects." is Blair's account of the theories of his predecessors tells scarcely just. sublime 5 but we have seen that amplitude is confined to one species of Sublime Objects 5 and cannot. qualities which produce it." Blair's procedure thus far has been to describe the emotion of sub- to collect the chief limity. however: only that sublime objects are capable of exciting terror.. for Gerard has a pretty complicated set of devices (several species of relations and associations) through which the manifold phenomena of sublimity can be connected with the simplest and most evident of them. "That terror is the source of the Sublime. . but might be defended against the charge of "violent straining." 26 is. is either whatever is extent. when he represents the Subis . but that the remission of them does. be applied to them all. "have imagined that amplitude. joined with simplicor the fundamental quality of immediately. It indeed true. "whether we are able to discover some man one fundamental quality in which all these different objects [productive of sublimity] agree. tal Blair 127 and to death 5 22 forms what may be called the moral or sentimen- sublime. Burke does not maintain that danger and pain constitute sublimity. or of pain. an ignoratio elenchi." as Blair puts it. on several occasions. or are associated with terror. "Some." Gerard's position. and that no objects have this character. but such as produce impressions of pain and danger. "A question next arises. and which is the cause of their producing an emotion of the same nature in our minds? Various hypotheses have been formed concerning 23 this 5 but. or act upon our "nerves" in a fashion analogous to terror. . to be entirely separated from them. Burke lime as consisting wholly in modes of danger. the intervening steps of the mechanism. remotely. or great ity. and one of which a host of critics 25 of Burke are guilty. And in any event. and. that many terrible objects are highly sublime 5 and that grandeur does not refuse an alliance with the idea of danger yet he seems to stretch his theory too far. hitherto unsatisfactory. Blair's point that "the proper sensation of sublimity appears to be very distinguishable from the sensation of [danger and pain] . quantity.Hugh gers. . preferably by deduction from established principles of hu- nature." he us in patent allusion to Gerard. then.

has a better title. or are not. are merely elegant. without having the most distant relation to proper Sublimity 5 witness Sappho's famous Ode. diction. whether accompanied in alarming us. as shall give us strong impressions of them. power. not artifice. perhaps ever 5 because it less to the requires less the assistance of Sublime than to any other species whatornament. For Longinus. then. after the review which we have taken. which are in themselves of a Sublime nature. either enter not directly." 80 Since Blair defines the sublime of discourse in terms of the natural sublime. the discussion of these faults must come it is through this analysis that he defines the sublime. to as. strength. Ruling out at once the conception of subwhich Jonathan Richardson and a variety of others had given "any remarkable and distinguishing excellency of comthat of limity in writing position" Blair does not hesitate to censure Longinus himself. or exhibition of sentiments. intimately to some with the idea. at least. "such a description of objects. is Beautiful and Sublime own that conjecture. that by Payne Knight. would raise ideas of that ele- first." 29 The sub- lime pertains to nature. presented without much effort at substanti- with terror or not. if presented to our eyes. foundation of sublimity in writing. composition) "have no more relation to the Sublime. than to other kinds of good Writing. there does not occur Sublime Object. "Unless it be such an object as. by leading our thoughts astonishing power. because The ." And Longinus' very plan is defective. for "many of the passages which he produces as instances of the Sublime. for the three heads dealing with language (figures. as con- me any cerned in the production of the object. however. frigidity and bombast. if exhibited to us in reality. whether mighty force or power. of course. employed be the fundamental quality of the thing that has yet been mentioned. into the idea of which. in this respect more like that of Longinus than like Gerard and Burke. operating in purely literary terms. than any or in protecting. and the true conception of "Sublime Writing" is. on which he descants at 28 considerable length. 27 very closely related to the doctrine later advanced the sublime turns on energy. Blair's principal concern in the lectures is. and he treats of the sublime in "objects" only so far as this in- vestigation his concern is is ancillary to a consideration of sublimity in discourse . he can put off to a kind of at end the of his treatment of the two opposites to appendix chapter the sublime. to Sublime. the literary This conjecture is arts. is in the nature of the object described. and associated force.128 Blair's ation.

" 33 Often in the course of the Dissertation on Ossian. and diversify the transactions. by a mysterious attachment to the objects of 35 compassion." this commingling of strains. rules which find their ration- The and made up of stnbng circumstances. though like it serious and intense. even whilst we mourn. indeed. and to deck it round and round with glittering ornaments. It is not enough to admire. are peculiarly favorable to the strong emoBlair's tions of Sublimity. clothe themselves in a native dignity of be looked for every where in nature. description. class. swells. in comparison of that deep interest which the heart takes in tender and pathetic scenes 5 where. which we call Sublime 5 the however finely drawn. than the mind begins to fall from its high elevation . which enlarge indeed. if it come at all 3 and be the natural offspring of a strong imagination. which." a coupling which requires comment. concise. if they wanted the softening of the tender. Blair speaks of "the sublime and pathetic. but disguise the manners of mankind. bold ancient The expression. but the subgood writing.Hugh vating. and the rude unimproved state of society. But no sooner does the poet attempt to spread out this when sentiment or description. would be in hazard of giving a hard and stiff air to poetry." In all over." and no art can isolate them. we are pleased and delighted. Ossian is the superior of Homer. in its native form. poems of nations disclose to us the history 3<J of imagination and feeling "before those refinements of society had taken place. for "the sublimity of moral sentiments. The sublime "must come unsought. the transport is lime is 32 gone. Its sources "are to truly noble." 31 Blair 129 and magnificent kind. ale in the nature of the sublime emotion: "The mind rises and a lofty description or sentiment is presented to it. the sublime lies in the thoughts." view accords with the fashionable primitivism of his age when he opines that "the early ages of the world. Blair uses "pathetic" in such contexts to refer not to passion generally though this ts often the meaning in other contexts but to tender and melting emotion opposite to the astonishment and elevation of the sublime." Such poetry offers some of the highest beauties of poetical writing: "Irregular and unpolished human we may expect the productions of uncultivated ages to be$ . violent passions. is not entitled to come under this description of such an object must be simple. The two great characteristics of Ossian's poetry are tenderness and sublimity 5 he "moves 34 In perpetually in the high region of the grand and the pathetic. Admiration is a cold feeling. when language. the beautiful may remain. that awful." to glowing imagination.

his hypothesis concerning beauty turns on cause which association of like impressions. . Beauty of figure is of several sorts: regularity. that veheThat state. with that enthusiasm. which are the soul of poetry. "the feelings which Beautiful objects produce." 39 Blair's hypothesis that power is the root trait of all sublimity is grounded on association of ideas . very objects. and the efficient Blair postulates is the structure of the eye. is beautiful chiefly "on ac- count of Variety its suggesting the ideas of fitness. differ considerably. though he grants without emphasis that association of ideas has influence. brisk serene. therefore. many objects slight variety while others . to a great number of the graces of writing 5 to many dispositions of the mind 5 nay. from Homer. though unfit for other imexertions of fancy and provements. but also in kind. less elevating but more serene. Hutcheson's combination of unity 41 amid variety will not serve. propriety. "on which. ciety). and use. at the same time. certainly encourages the high 37 The passages of sublime and pathetic which Blair brings passion. from one an- and other. or the ear." The term "beauty. is equivocal. from the insipid elegance of artificial so- Beauty is distinguished from sublimity by its more gay and brisk emotion.Beautiful and Sublime but abounding. with its emotion both gay and soothing. more soothing." accordingly. an emotion felt to be calmer. The simplest beauty is that of color. not in degree only." Blair re- marks. according to him. I presume." Blair doubtless considers Hogarth an enthusiast who has taken a part for the whole. and supported his doctrine. Ossian. somewhat of the same nature j and. the Beauty of figure principally depends 3 and he has illustrated. and Milton (whose subject and character alike withdrew him. Blair suggests. . to several objects of plausibly that there is no mere one abstract science." 40 is a more powerful principle. . has the common name of Beauty given to it 5 but it is raised by different causes. being "applied to almost every external object that pleases the eye." forward are most often drawn from such works from Scripture." 38 Blair infers common trait among beautiful ciples of is and that beautiful things please by means of various prinhuman nature j the "agreeable emotion which they all raise. which human nature shoots wild and free. and susceptible of longer continuance. and Hogarth is vouchsafed some condescending approval j "he pitches upon two lines. As this list of traits already suggests. in mence and fire. by a The tone is a little supercilious j surprising number of instances. however not even for the beauty of external figured for beautiful have objects.

yet sufficiently similar "as readily to mix and blend in one which we general perception of The beauty of motion the roster of Beauty. Beyond the unmeaning use of "beauty" to mean merely "good. cheerful. and such as are of a softer and gentler kind . nor agitates it very much. and 44 There is. which suit from such a scene . object as its cause: for Beauty is always conceived by us. "such as raises in the reader an emotion of the gentle placid kind. "imitation likeness is is performed by means of somewhat that has a natural and resemblance to the thing imitated. Blair is led to moral and sentimental beauty." ascribe to the whole haps the most complete assemblage of beautiful objects that can any where be found. mildness. and ascendingcompletes merely physical beauties. art. and of consequence understood by all. and the distant view of a fine building seen by the rising sun. those "social virtues. as something residing in the object which raises the pleasant 42 sensation j a sort of glory which dwells "Perupon. and animals grazing. But Blair makes no effort to see associations with these beauties in external objects. as compassion. but diffuses over the imagination an 45 agreeable and pleasing serenity. and invests it. friendship. that gay. where there is a sufficient variety of objects: fields in verdure. scattered trees and flowers. a style like that of Virgil. similar to what is raised by the contemplation of beautiful objects in nature j which neither lifts the mind very high. If to these be joined. Although poetry and eloquence have greater capacity of affecting us by their representations than other In a truly mimetic arts." is its employment to designate a certain manner. finally. The beauty of discourse is less a problem than the sublime. undulating." bare the inadequacy of the elementary principles of beauty which Blair has brought forward." Fenelon. fection. Blair 131 gentle. or Imitation yields a pleasure of taste. Each of these a distinct properties yields feeling." whereas "the raising in the mind the conception . as a bridge with arches over a river. or Addison. running water.Hugh are intricate." art. 43 we then and placid sensation which enjoy. In treating of the beauty of the countenance. some of the productions of art. for it is less a definite and isolable quality." Blair illustrates. and the almost total lack of middle principles connecting these with concrete phenomena. in the highest percharacterises But such an assemblage of beautiful objects really lays Beauty. though a pleasure distinguished by Blair from that of beauty. smoke rising cottages in the midst of trees. an intellectual beauty of design and generosity. they are not (in general) strictly imitative. "is presented by a rich natural landscape.

and the last require (it appears) no explanation to the status of . previous to treatment of the literary forms in which they are bodied." arbitrary or instituted symbols" 46 Given these definitions. the justice of Gerard's argument for the imitative nature of poetry (in the tion of the Appendix to the third edi- Essay on Taste}. Blair omits for the first do not bear upon rhetoric and belles-lettres. however. huand mor. it more clear that only dramatic poetry is strictly imitative j a footnote to the published lectures concedes. wit. ridicule. The single paragraph accorded to novelty testifies to the demotion of that relation an incidental effect. em- . Melody and harmony.132 of an object by means of Beautiful and Sublime is is some properly termed "description. Other pleasures of taste Blair does not analyze.

for the discourses were delivered by an artist to an audience of artists and connoisseurs with the practical aim of directing the practice of painters and forming the taste of amateurs. without attempt to single out for analysis Reynolds' views on beauty or sublimity. as well as of consider133 . This circumstance is attributable partly to his stature as a practicing artist. and. It is a matter of importance to this study. the coherency of his doctrine and the purity of his method are usually disregarded both his critics and his defenders interpret his thought in the light of modern preconceptions. ical. which. and accordingly. As is usually the case in such dialectics. the entire system will be reviewed here. standing in some measure apart from the general current of eighteenth-century empiricism. Yet although Reynolds is widely read and respected today. which has transferred an adventitious authority to his critical doctrines. But in part also. philosophical. or histor. Reynolds' still flourishing reputation as a critic is due to the peculiar character of his thought. indeed. has better escaped the dogmatic reaction of the nineteenth century. critical. Nevertheless. Reynolds alone among the philosophical critics and aestheticians of the eighteenth century is generally read today.CHAPTER Q A Sir Joshua Reynolds t I AHE Fifteen Discourses of Art 1 of Sir Joshua Reynolds are JL more a system of criticism for painting than a philosophical in- quiry into the universal traits of aesthetic experience: and this is quite natural. the very method and viewpoint he adopts tend do away with any sharp distinction of aesthetics from criticism: his between the most general issues of psycholand the most ogy particular questions of technique. Reynolds repeatedly enters upon the higher and more philosophical issues. it is not possible to separate for analysis one to dialectic plays constantly element or part of the system without prejudicing the intelligibility of the whole.

. more recently attempted to show "how the diversity of meanings and (3) to signify Michael Macklem has at- tached to the idea of nature indicates the diverse principles of neo- Reynolds concurrently and inconsistently of art as producing a general image of nature. his talents lay in the direction of portraiture happily with the demand coloring.134 Beautiful and Sublime able autonomous interest. to re-establish the aesthetics of Reynolds as a system self-consistent." 6 . asserts that "inconsistencies in Reynolds's statements can 4 paper in the Idler appeared in 1759." The correlation of theory and practice (a matter often brought to the fore in discussions of easily be detected j for the first last and the Reynolds) is not germane to the present analysis $ but I may observe that Reynolds' theory involves a hierarchy of genres and styles. in the steps of that great master. address was delivered in 1790. In recommending to artists to follow the path which Michael Angelo had marked out. the criteria on which Reynolds based his choice of "fields" were more personal and social than philosophical. There is. Modern criticism of the theory of Reynolds has concerned itself neither has been stated in such wise chiefly with two issues. a feeling which has persisted since the attacks of Blake and Hazlitt. that it is not possible to acquit Reynolds "of confusion of thought and inconsistency in the use of words. Roger Fry observes. and fruitful. Reynolds says: "I have taken another course. the artist did 5 not always practice what he preached. Thompson. so that every genre and style has its appropriate excellence (however low in the total scheme) and level. systematic. Moreover. (2) "in an Aristotelian sense as an immanent force working in the refractory medium of matter towards the highest perfection of form. taste of the times in live." used (r) to designate visible phenomena not made by artifice. artists may exercise their talents legitimately at every Accordingly. coinciding of his age for portraits executed with fash- and ionable splendor of style. . I would tread . a sense of baffling contradictions in the thought of Reynolds. and that the "rules" are analogically applicable to each. one more suited to abilities. in admirable edition of Reynolds' Discourses. too." 3 what is inherently agreeable to the mind. in the first place. and to the my which I to that were I now attempt. as representthought ing an Ideal transcending nature but from which nature is derived." and he instances (among other inconsistencies) the aphis parently incompatible senses of the central term "nature." finding that and as affording a wish-fulfilling idealization of the actual. to Yet however unequal I feel myself begin the world again. classical art. though 5 as to admit of a solution.

he says that by imitation only. are variety and the other hand. . traces three stages in this development j the Idler papers constitute the first. for instance. and which Reynolds . might almost be taken to stand for the whole number. . ." aesthetic of his time.Sir Joshua Reynolds 135 Joseph Burke courses display: specifies more of the contradictions which the Dis- In the first rules of art. in the third Discourse. . ready stated. and in the fourteenth. definitely thought of as yond Aristotle. by referring art to human These hypotheses of self-contradiction and chronological development are obviously devised to account for the reiterated paradoxes which are so prominent a feature of the discourses. . Fry argues that "it was probably that Reynolds actually derived his from a passage in Bellori main ideas. Bredvold urges that although "the analysis and formulation of Neo-classical principles for each specific art was of Ideal Beauty generally a form of Aristotelianism. In the third Discourse he states that there are no precise invariable rules. In the sixth Discourse. he had aloriginality of invention' produced. In some cases the detection of inconsistencies depends on overlooking or confounding the several stages which Reynolds prescribes for the edu- more popular 8 cation of artists." the conception "is nevertheless a conception which leads beall the arts underlying . the inconsistencies are found by juxtaposing passages without regard to the "level" of their argumentative contexts. Discourse Reynolds recommends an implicit obedience to the and adds that the models provided by the great Masters should be considered as perfect and infallible guides. The second persistent theme in recent discussion of Reynolds is his Platomsm or Aristotelianism. and two of the Discourses. "the seventh and the thirteenth. 3 7 Those writers who do not emphasize outright contradictions in Reynolds' theory usually escape this conclusion only by discovering a progressive development of his thought. More often such obvious misreading is not involved j rather." and that the ultimate source of such Renaissance art 9 theories was Aristotle. "Reynolds makes a tentative advance toward the nature. that the perfection of art did not consist in On 'mere imitation. that the moment the artist turns other artists into models he falls infinitely below them. Clough. epitomizing as they do his middle and last periods" 5 the early discourses exhibit Reynolds' "adherence to the standard neo-classical code. The reconcili- ation of the paradoxes is readily accomplished if allowance is made for the methodological devices which Reynolds consistently employs." but by the time of the thirteenth. nor are taste and genius to be acquired by rules.

depends for of the method of adequate statement and for solution upon study the Discourses. nature. of subject or taste or genius. and Plato's reference was ultimately to a reality independent of the mind. of invention or imitation. like that of his doctrinal consistency. to see yet the dialectic of the eighteenth-century critic differs sharply from that of the Grecian philosopher. The distinction of course general and particular is the constant analytic device. Whether the disis of nature or of art. ethics. the universal. then. . . from Platonthat Reynolds "shows a tendency away bridge argues 11 ism much more prominently than any attraction to it. but organization. however. and internal fabrick and 15 of the human mind and imagination.136 Beautiful and Sublime 10 Platonic rather than Aristotelian. social. and its critic in a world from other matters. Though denying the Platonism of Reynolds in regard to his philosophic principles. Plato's system did not encourage the demarcation Reynolds as the intellectual descendant of Plato j 14 of an aesthetic realm which could be treated in detail apart from moral. and the many. This problem of Reynolds' Platonism. Trowbridge points out that in method Rey- nolds might justly be dubbed a Platomst." Aristotelian Macklem. Trowural experience. too. its of discourse largely divided off changing. and universality the invariable criterion of excellence. . * the general idea of notion of nature comprehends not the forms . yer contra. as I also the nature may call it. finds both an and a Platonic strain in the Discourses. My that presiding principle ." ." that "the true 5 of Reynolds classicism is not Plato but John philosophical affinity Locke." and that Reynolds adapted the traditional Platonic theory of painting to be consistent with an empirical metaphysics and psy12 chology. the first in the in the Ideal transcending natconception of specific forms. and theological considerations . therefore. treats the work of art. or in taste. despite his analogies between aesthetics. only which nature produces. and science. the changeless and the transient. its subject. and the unthe Nature to which he appeals is con- mind human nature "The first the source of his philosophic principles: idea that occurs in the consideration of what is fixed in is art. Reynolds. the second In opposition to the consensus. and upon distinguishing problems of method from 13 those of philosophic principle. It is natural. tingent upon the faculties and functions of the rather than cosmic nature is producer. the analysis proceeds in a dialectic of the one of style. The primary and ubiquitous principle of Reynolds' aesthetic system is the contrariety of universal and particular.

work. and attribustyle). is discussing the participation of individuals in transcendent universals. Sometimes it fails. since its statements are of the nature of universals. Nevertheless. I think thereshift in orientation is seen in the "The fore the true test of all the arts is is is not solely whether the production a true copy of nature. the elements which enter into the discussion (artist. But Aristotle is discussing the probability or necessity by which a poem has an inner coherence independent of accident. his work (subject and and the audience which appreciates or judges it is the charthe system which some critics have taken for a resemblance to Aristotle j for it is this concentration on an aesthetic realm which permits the elaboration of rules fitted to particular arts. Frances Blanshard argues from this passage that Aristotle Plato's attack on art. The passage usually cited to indicate Aristotle's supposed endorsement of this theory is his remark that "poetry is something more philosophic and of graver import than history. Reynolds does make occasional excursions outside the restricted domain of art. These may be regarded analytically as relics of the acoriginal universal dialectic. but whether it answers the end of art. But to explain the generalizing for Aristotle. and used the empiricism of Locke and 17 process. and something else succeeds. the confinement of the scope of the dialectic to the aesthetic world the artist. though historically it might be more curate to see them as tentative efforts to expand a more rigidly con- . whereas Reynolds. like Plato. acteristic of tions to Aristotle are valid only if by "Aristotle" we mean the interpretation of Aristotle by Platonizmg critics and philosophers." 16 The characteristic of reference of these and other problems to human nature is 3 Reynolds age.Sir Joshua Reynolds 137 This treatment of the end of art: end of all the to arts make an impression on the imis. whereas those of history are singulars" (Poetics b 145 i 6-8). which to produce a pleasing effect upon the mind. The imitation of nature frequently does this. Reynolds (we are told) took this up. The real Aristotle was not the author of the theory of Ideal Beauty. great agination and the feeling. and audience) are analogous to the elements of Aristotle's theory of rhetoric rather than to those of his analysis of 'poetic. to consider art as essentially supply- Hume ing knowledge would be a confusion of the poetic and theoretic sciences. Reynolds) was trying to answer and that this answer consisted in showing that (like by imitating the general form of a species art gives knowledge of nature's unrealized ends.

the techniques of their production. are here. an "imitating without selecting" in which the "pow- sible by. The interrelation of art and nature is discussed in terms of "imitation. however tentatively. It is the very same taste which relishes a demonstration in geometry. their subjects (for the great source of inspiration and often the model of imitation is the art of the past). We pursue the same method fection each. . for both "nature" and "art" are analogical terms and have multiple meanings in the system. The subject only is changed. durable . 18 And as here taste analogized to virtue. of arts. the contrariety of general particular. aesthetics. the practical. Thus." 21 Art imitates nature. and disposition. . and touched with the 19 harmony of musick. . However this may Reynolds frequently stresses the affiliation of aesthetics It has and ethics. or from the correspondence of the several parts of any arrangement with each other. acquire this true or just relish even of to find something steady. and are resolved by reference and . . by extending our views in our search after the idea of beauty and per- m ciety. The theoretic. results from the real agreement or equality of original ideas among themselves. that the good and virtuous man alone can The same works of art. These paradoxes are made posto. the Good. all are in some sense art. the True. and the Beautiful become. the same desire actuates us in both cases. the training of the artist. from the agreement of the representation The whether that truth of any object with the thing represented. of virtue. and the formation of taste in the audience . . which Aristotle carefully separated. that is pleased with the resemblance of a picture to an original. by looking forwards beyond ourselves to sothe same and to the whole. merged: and these easy analogies are not found 20 among the literal writers of the them are of paralleling ethics and century. when perfected. however fond many of Nature and Art are related complexly and paradoxically in the aesthetics of Reynolds.138 tracted tradition. taste and virtue: been often observed. equivalent: all are Nature. so it may be identified with the love of truth: natural appetite or taste of the human mind is for TRUTH. Beautiful and Sublime be. and that great art transcends imitation. Of course "art" as opposed to "nature" always means something learned or made: the works themselves. m manner to all ages is and all times. substantial. and the productive sciences. Imitation in the lowest sense is mere copying of particular art works. yet it is equally true that art may imitate art.

a continual invention" 23 ) and from a true and proper imitation of the masters. Possess yourself with their spirit. Reynolds urges: "Instead of copying the touches of those great masters. but what it in individual nature. either of the ideal specific forms of ex- ternal nature or of the principles of the mind. or figure from another painting. transcend all.. copy only their conceptions. a natural representation of a given object. imitation of general nature.Sir Joshua Reynolds 22 139 and composition . that 25 is not to cease but with his life." Taken in this sense. and apply to that reason only which informs us not what imitation is. when completed. All "the arts receive their perfection from an ideal beauty. action. and ." Imitation of one master is discour- aged." 27 . a general and eclectic imitation demanded 5 yet the artist can enter into a generous contention with the men whom he imitates. The entire course of study which Reynolds lays out for the student is a course in imitation. a subjection to the same discipline 5 in a passage often compared to Longinus. This higher imitation is a catching of the spirit." It is distinboth from a of guished "borrowing" (incorporation thought. superior to what is to be found For "a mere copier of nature can never proraise and enlarge the conceptions. The last stage of this training directs attention to the imitation of nature rather than of art 5 and Reynolds can say in one discourse that art is not merely imitative of nature without contradicting other pro- nouncements that it is it is essentially imitative. and the narrow theories derived from that mistaken principle. Instead of treading in their footsteps." 26 duce any thing great 5 can never is natural for the imagination to be delighted with. it is plored. then of the manner of great workers in the art. first of the object set before him.. . When imitation is de- imitation of particular nature j when it is applauded. Consider how a Michael a Raffaelle would have treated this subject: and work youror Angelo self into a belief that your picture is to be seen and criticized by them road. endeavour only to keep the same . . which "is so far from having any ers of invention thing in it of the servility of plagiarism. or warm the heart of the spectator" 5 all the arts "renounce the narrow idea of nature. that it is a perpetual exercise of the mind. imitation is "the true and method only by which an artist makes himself master of his profes- 24 sion j which I hold ought to be one continued course of imitation. This progressive broadening of the object and manner of imitation culminates in the formation of a mind adequate to all times and all occasions. then (while imitation of artists is not discontin- ued) of the abundance of nature itself. lie torpid.by correcting what is peculiar in each.

Thus. for beauty to Price does not depend on comparison within a species j Richard Payne Knight. which improves "that grand style of the general and partial representation by 28 nature This nature. recombination. or the sources of the terminology in which they are couched. the chief subject of the discourses reality. that object and inits tention of all the Arts is to supply the natural imperfection of things. in the imitation as nature of imitation in the (on the other) obtains the of artists: "Upon the whole. consistently with general in the mind of the a conception Reynolds' philosophical principles." It is noteworthy that in the Discourses Reynolds does not advance the peculiarly literal conception of general nature which he expounded 80 in the third of his Idler papers. attempting to subsume previous theories with the aid of a theory of philosophical language. and was found to be the medium or center of the various forms of a species or kind (that form which is more frequent than any one deviation from it not necessarily an average) . Accordingly. it seems to me. diverting attention from the systematic interrelations of Reynolds' ideas to their sources. Beauty was there arbitrarily confined to form alone. Refutations of Reynolds' theory from the eighteenth century to the present day have more often than not directed their battery against this paper." invariable ideas of is. Sir Uvedale Price. from exabstraction artist 5 for although the conception is formed by the ideal itself has only a potential existence prior to ternal Indeed. 29 and often to gratify the mind by realizing and embodying what never existed but in the imagination. rarely see has Reynolds' thought as more than a $asticcio. and that there could be no comparison in point of beauty between species. the same distinction between copyand improvement ing (on one hand) and invention. criticizes the Idler theory sharply. sees Reynolds as confining his notions to the intellectual qualities of things exclusively 5 and Dugald Stewart. partly associational. either directly or by reading the Discourses as an expansion of it and criticizing them accordingly. who employs an elaborate faculty psychology in accounting for the several "beauties" of the various faculties. but Roger Fry at least deemed the theory of the central form of refutation. 82 I shall not enter worthy upon the question of the validity of this doctrine j rather. comprehension. this definition carried as corollaries. who attempts to account for beauty by a mechanism partly nervous. 81 The moderns. that the beauty of an individual could not be judged prior to the collection of statistics on its species. I should like to consider briefly the formal or constitutive . finds the Reynolds view narrow and inadequate.140 Beautiful and Sublime is painting.

but I will now have done. I . If it be asked. and which Dr. everything that gives delight. commenting on the manuscript of the essay on beauty which Beattie had submitted to him. as we are more used to that form in nature (and I believe in art. In a letter to Beattie in 1782. I have proved in a little Essay which I wrote about twenty-five . ." If meaning of "beauty" in the Idler papers. he observes: "About twenty years since I thought much on this subject. I think may without violence be put to the account of habit. that each such term receives definition in each context by comparison with and opposition to other terms of the system 5 in each application the meaning of the term emerges from its use in the this indeterminacy of terms is a prea for Platonic system that is not to be dogmatic. Johnson published in his Idler. think. . The peculiar virtue and merit of a Platonic system of or "ambiguity" of its criticism consists in the flexibility terms. the freedom of the dialectic is unimpaired by dogmatic definition. viewed in this light. indeed. a flexibility which permits their analogirange of subjects and the consequent isolation in those subjects of the universal traits or "ideas" to which the terms refer.Sir Joshua Reynolds 141 question of its appropriateness to Reynolds' system as a whole. the first of which was delivered ten years after the Idler papers were written.. my My good order by so excellent a view of the question did not extend beyond my in such mind put own profession 5 it regarded only the beauty of form which I attributed entirely to custom or habit. the "dialectic. Ideality or given statistical delimitation. upon a supposition and that we are so. years since. . May not all beauty proceeding from association of ideas be reduced to the principle of habit or experience? You see I bringing everyold principle. . are I am aware that this reasoning goes that we more used to beauty than deformity. including. Yet Reynolds never abandoned outright his early theory. how can undefined terms isolate anything? the cal application to a reply must be. it is apparrequisite ent that Reynolds erred in attempting to tie down so literally the argument. 33 is not to be defined In the Discourses. every mental and corporeal excellence. it is a misstep. for fear I should thing into am my throw reply] this letter likewise in 8* the fire [the fate of an earlier and longer . You have taken a larger compass.." And blandly (if not plausibly) Reynolds subsumes Seattle's system under his own: What you have imputed to convenience and contrivance. I think that. and am now glad to find many of those ideas which then passed in metaphysician. . too) which is the most convenient.

and Reynolds occasionally bifurcates his concept of These two the beautiful. the little The purity of taste. for the instant at least. that this coincidence of doctrine occurs in discussion of landscape. which in 35 . felt to be unworthy of our notice. will always produce beauty. preis where the difference of the two systems minimum. and are. for instance. however. . Reynolds draws. in any event. and in the disall of cause habit is not advanced as the single beauty. that no room is left for attention to minute criticism. abruptly angular and elle in balance gradually inclined branches. it is difficult to see how there could be more than one is ideal type of general nature Reynolds' mode of reasoning automatiand beautiful." When Reynolds is treating of the first 38 and of art. Raffaelle stands for him "foremost when attention is directed towards genius painters. The elegant may be paired with taste and fancy. off all the courses the earlier theory is quietly modified by sloughing this case. the sublime. treated in the manner of Reynolds. and takes such a possession of the whole mind. between bold projections and gentle slopes." But every other. It is significant. has the energy and grandeur customarily associated with the sublime j and. In land- . the exquisite grace [ele37 gance] of Correggio and Parmegiano. too. indeed. sweeps all before it: "The sublime in Painting. the elegant may be judged sensual. is supreme. which characterize Raffaelle. while the sublime is connected with genius 3e and imagination . Reynolds speaks of "presenting to the eye the effect as that which it has been accustomed to feel. and a lower. The correct judgment." characters are not co-ordinate 5 the dichotomy is between a higher beauty. so overpowers. all disappear before them. But the sublime. alternatively. Yet a cally obviates the distinction between sublime distinction so pervasive in the literature of the century is certain to leave its mark. By so doing.142 Beautiful and Sublime same In the discourses. There are passages in which Reynolds' sublime and elegant correspond pretty closely in application with Burke's sublime and beautiful. lose all their value. as in Poetry. It his on the concept of beauty. the inescapable contrast between the sublime landscapes of Salvator and the elegant scenes of Claude." then Michael sublimity. as in literal limitations made ory. Reynolds one of the permanent alternatives of aesthetic thesystem apparent that beauty. and so forth. though he cannot match Raffa- but and completeness of artistic equipment. clouds rolling in volumes and gilded with the setting sun. elegancies of art in the presence of these great ideas thus greatly expressed. Angelo. the elegant. setting the sublime against the "elegant. .

" a faculty which judges in the productive. and the distinction between their styles is literal and descriptive. operates within a scheme of separate sciences and is in search of closely literal definitions of the aesthetic qualities he treats (even though those qualities pervade both nature and art). Burke's famous distinction had become a verbal commonplace for succeeding aestheticians. whatever be the subject. "speak to the general sense of The criterion of taste for . cellences rest Burke. The occasional verbal and doctrinal resemblances. the aesthetic ex- upon very different foundations from the moral virtues. Burke's literal distinction of beauty and sublimity often dissolved by Reynolds. or which form a judgment of. the works of imagination and the elegant arts. 39 Even the essay on taste prefixed to the second edition of the Subkme and Beautiful (to which Thompson and Bryant assign some weight in determining Reynolds' 40 For opinions) has no clear relation to the theory of Reynolds. to be sure. taste is faculty of the mind by which we like or dislike.Sir Joshua Reynolds 143 scape. practical. while Reynolds tends always to analogize the sciences and to "define" analogically and dialectically. are less different than their counts is fashions of accounting for their tastes 5 but the difference in their acis radical. and another between beauty and truth. test of enduring and unithe from fashion (false art) by tinguished versal fame. and when not abandoned it is so transformed in content and established on so different a foundation that only in isolated contexts does any considerable resemblance appear. the sublime is not of higher order than the elegant . Reynolds is of course generality. Not only should the audience whose taste is appealed to be universal (always and everywhere). are only isolated points of community in systems 42 which are radically and fundamentally distinct. and theoretical sciences alike. then. Great works. "that faculty or those faculties of the mind which are affected with. both Claude and Salvator are painters of the first rank. to no two of whom did it convey the same meaning. Although Reynolds refers to Burke as< a truly philosophical aesthetician. but throughout the system of Reynolds there runs a recurrent analogy between beauty and virtue. but it should appeal to general prinNature (true art) is disciples in judging works and their producers. But in human subjects. the sublime springs from and appeals to higher faculties. 41 In the system of Burke." whereas for Reynolds taste is "that Burke. therefore. The tastes of Burke and Reynolds. and although Burke is the only writer so praised. in short. his influence on Reynolds' thought was slight.

each stage more inclusive than the preceding: comparison of works and first test "must have two capital demust be narrow. audience. ." Taste so conceived is no different from genius." refers to the eternal and immutable nature of things. but it is related to the universal in another sense as well. Many of the Longinian passages in the dis- courses center about this last theme: taste. the whole species 5 in which common tongue. are but different appellations of the same thing. "for it 46 effects. since his it own involves a collective effort. and this is not a contradiction. therefore. by the heat and kindly influence of . to suppose that we are born with though we are with the seeds of it. . "that this great style itself is artificial in the highest degree. then. is only the imaginative power of apprehending general nature.. It is this taste." 43 Yet at the same time. is developed through art." 47 Genius. but Man. requiring for its cultivation the enthusiasm inspired by works of genius: "It must be remembered. the mind swells itself with an inward pride. the appeal is never to the untutored taste of the multitude (which will always exhibit local and temporary the natural potentialities of particularity) but always to the taste criticism both is an art and For which have been cultivated by art. style. and is almost as powerfully affected. all the elements of the system artist. and it must be uncertain" 46 ) 5 comparison of arts and their principles with one another j and comparison of all such principles "with those of human nature. for these have sloughed off fashion and rejected particularity they are not men. every thing grand and comprehensive must be uttered." Reynolds declares. and the great style. it presupposes in the spectator a cultivated and prepared artificial state of mind. Indeed. from whence arts de- masters within an art (which fects $ it rive the materials which style is at once the highest upon which they are to produce their and the soundest. and subject are merged when in their perfected state: "The gusto grande of the Italians." 44 There a hierarchy of criticisms as there is a hierarchy of imitations. an absurdity. as to "Whoever has so far formed his be able to relish and feel the beauties of the great masters. "for." says Reynolds. each artist being inspired by predecessors. is may be ripened in us. as if it had 4S I need not quote the eulogy produced what it admires" 5 . save that to genius there supervenes a power of execution. merely from a consciousness of this relish of the right. genius. Indeed. which. genius. and taste among the English.144 Beautiful and Sublime . has gone a great way in his study. the as his his great predecessors artist may envisage an elect few are the few who audience.. the beau ideal of the French.

. from the lesser truth 5 the larger and which addresses addressed tions to itself to from the more narrow and confined. abstractedly taken. 54 . Keeping. other discourses. from that which is solely . The active contrast 5 the pasprinciple of the mind demands variety. they must have their cause." rules." 63 But natural powers are only a potentiality. "to dis.. followed of 52 . most of opinion my . begins. ." marked upon. that even works of Genius. participates in generality: it consists in "the power of expressing that which employs your as a whole? 49 contracting into pencil . Thus the relation of genius to rules can be stated variously: the opposition of genius to the narrow rules of any rigid intellectual system is a conventional topicj nonetheless. of .. be stated in terms of taste ("My purpose in the discourses . and. how to realize natural endowment and how to direct its efforts. ing practice. "what we now call Genius. Reynolds deals with what is within human powers to alter. more liberal idea of nature in order to reconcile conflicting precepts. however. to the aspect of the discourses which centers upon genius it was certainly not Reynolds' view that natural powers have no efficacy. novelty..Sir Joshua Reynolds 145 of Michael Angelo with which the discourses conclude. or (more widely) as an aesthetician addressing artists and critics with the view of forming taste and directcourse . . of course. not where rules. is. end 5 but where known vulgar and trite rules have no longer any place. the purpose of the Because of the identifications already rediscourses can also. that the imagination. . and as a professor addressing students. and its suf- 50 ficiency in great works. or that an Academy can make a Michael Angelo of any daubing student 5 a "man can bring home wares only in proportion to the capital with which he goes to market. as necessity be. must likewise have their These rules depend on the imagination and passions. Reynolds urges. . indeed. It must of like every other effect." ). Even the 5 "genius of mechanical performance/ the painter's genius qua painter. . has been to lay down certain general positions. tinguish the greater truth . . which seem to me proper for the formation of sound taste" 51 ) or in terms of the art itself (it became necessary. [The] different rules and regula- which presided over each department of art. The paradox that genius is the product of art is the chief purport of the discourses: "The purport of this discourse. the eye. one whole what nature has made multifarious by working up all parts of the picture together instead of finishing part by part. . to caution you against that false of the imaginary powers of native genius. . not with what is given by nature $ the question is.

But it is generally true of Platonic the relations systems of criticism that instead of "rules" governing of parts in a whole directed towards a specific end. is Beautiful and Sublime all uniformity. as far as they do not counteract each other ." Such concessions. Reason (as discriminating faculty) plays its role not in dictating the subjects of art but in assisting the artist to "consider and separate those different principles to which different modes of beauty owe their original . But their peculiar form 3 Reynolds view of the faculties is neither original nor complex 5 sense perceives. and of art. 55 In the ought to be taken to avoid. noticeable is the slightness of the axiomata media under the guidance of which the universal qualities are found or embodied in particular works. they operate as and the whose office it is to truth. the arts depend upon it for their higher qualities. since imagination is the combining and generalizing power. however guarded. and the a on complicated balancing of artists who embody the emphasis various aesthetic virtues and defects." truth must be regarded by the artist. Since the root is not a supernal nature but a terrestrial. for that is the grand error which much care same way. "whilst these opinions and prejudices continue. . mellow is in Reynolds' aesthetics by the dialectical method and psychological orientation of the system. . must direct itself according to opinion. So while Reynolds occasionally vouchsafes a rule (as that the masses of light in a picture be always color). of taste. these rules are few and slender. as well as instruct it. whereas for Reynolds. for whom the highest art of Reynolds would be second-best. such an identification is prevented by the laws of the mind. are given of a warm. please the mind. the ideal universe being a product of imagination. mark the difference of this system from that of Plato. the faculties of the mind play a crucial role. both these qualities of the mind are to have their proper consequence. true art is dialectic." 5r Reason and taste may be identified with . opinion as well as and its authority is proportioned to the universality of the prejudice. All the problems of genius. then. "touchstones" are supplied which facilitate the recognition of the universal virtues in their concrete manifestations. repose . fancy combines. to discriminate perfections that are incom- patible with each other. for Plato. scension to the necessities of evitable. custom. art. and perfection lies in a mean. as well as a love of the sublime. . Appropriately. and art strives to give each faculty gratification: kind of sensuality about it.. reason distinguishes. Such condescension is in- "Our taste has a however.. or it will not attain 5e its end.146 sive. human and upon sense only by a condenature. This obvious.

. from common nature. Reynolds' elaborate hierarchy of styles and species is made possible by the differentiation of mental powers and aesthetic characters which gant. animal painting. . or less.Sir Joshua Reynolds 147 partial one another in some contexts. Fancy is sometimes "capricious" and connected with the picturesque. This tendency more Taste and Fancy . has been outlined. landscape. there is an obvious differentiation of artistic powers paralleling the contrast of the arbitrary. 58 truth. and so on many of which classes are themselves susceptible set of distinctions One of subdivision." painting ." must give way in art. . the other in Michael Angelo's energy. Raffaelle's materials are generally borrowed. works seem to proceed from his own mind entirely. and beautiful. there is "the same distinction of a higher and a lower style j and they take their rank and degree in proportion as the artist departs more. . depends upon dignity of subject: history. . but when reason is "grounded on a view of things/ 3 in contrast with the habitual of imsagacity it agination. imagination is "the residence of The distinction of levels of bifurcation of concepts argument is often accompanied by the and the identification of the concepts on the is in Reynolds sometimes imperfectly realized or difficult to trace. still-life. Imagination and fancy. The one excelled in beauty. portraiture. Michael Angelo more Genius and Imagination. genre. for instance. genius. The distinction of sublime from ele- and the identification of taste. and style on the higher have been enough insisted upon. . fashionable. dled similarly in terms of object and manner. for instance. and ornamental with the natural. level. imagination of the spectator by ways belonging specially to 61 hanare from means different Arts employing . ture is his own. . sage are they explicitly contrasted: "Raffaelle had . are not consistently or radically distinguished by him 5 in only one pas- higher level. the grand ornamental style of Venice and Flanders 5 and in the lower genres of the art. . Cutting across this hierarchy of genres is the contrast of a higher and a lower manner. . 60 But although the distinction made familiar by Coleridge is here sought in vain. although some media may render the lower manner intolerable: sculpture (which Reynolds instances at length) must design in simplicity proportioned to the simEven the "non-imitative" arts of architecture plicity of its materials. . imagination rearranging more freely and powerfully. and makes it an object of his attention to strike the style of Rome and Florence is set against the art. In history. simple." 59 The here couplings though the noble strucsuggest a difference of de- gree.

in subject attention returns always to the grand style. by association rather than imitation. and it is erroneous to introduce the grand manner lower rank to which a different mode of achieving a qualified is generality appropriate. In portraiture. style concerns itself rather with "that ideal excellence which it trary to truth." But Reynolds 3 62 stone of the arch. peculiar to the cast of mind of an individual painter j while such peculiarity is not referable to a true archetype in nature. Gainsborough). lar and in style 5 it is beautiful by abstracting from the particuforms of nature. connected with utility and sense. simple by rejecting the influence of fashion. it has its and unity. and is proper excellence in consistency not a proper object of imitation." 64 ." Still another dimension is introduced in discussion of the "characteristical" style. and never to attain. Although grandeur requires simplicity which is truth it is still con- The particular and historical. when truth 63 is grand is the lot of genius always to contemplate. excellence in a lower style is preferred to mediocrity in a higher (a principle which Reynolds illustrates in the critique of into a . however.148 Beautiful and Sublime with the higher quality related and the lower and music exhibit parallel to the imagination distinctions. the keyThe grand style is universal in cause and in effect. universality is achieved not by idealizing beyond recognition but by catching the likeness "as a whole. "as if the whole proceeded from one mind. The argument is always flexible. for instance.

an- among ticipated (in print) many of Reid's teachings. 149 . it may be compared favorably 4 The paucity of comment on to contemporary German aesthetics. the conclusion appears to me in- and added escapable. the brief and perfunctory essay on taste to his Intellectual Powers under his only for the sake of systematically drawing all psychology favorite principles. George Campbell. a considerable (and as I think. moreover. were all associated with Reid 5 Kames." is Reid's only contribution to aesthetic theory. as in other ways." ulation. and Alison. Indeed. for thirty years before he published his major work. 2 The eighth and last of the essays. undeserved) reputation is grounded. and Dugald Stewart were the leading figures of the group. Aberdeen. REID James Oswald. and Robbins maintains that "Reid's aesthetics is the most philosophical and least amateurish of the this whole English eighteenth-century spec- way. "Of Taste. in contrast with the numerous discussions of his metaphysics and ethics.CHAPTER 1 Thomas was the dean of that group of Scots whose to be known as "the Scottish philosophy/' a devised to combat what its took to be the philosophy propagators of and Hume. Upon this brief statement. 1785). Lord Kames. however. indeed. the Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man (Edinburgh. however. declares that Monk Reid's was the "first attempt to use the sublime as an integral factor 3 of a philosophical system" (a goal at last achieved by Kant). the only work of Reid which touches upon the phenomena of aesthetics. In Reid's aesthetics. Gerard. pernicious skepticism (more especially) James Berkeley THOMAS thought has come Seattle. that Reid cared nothing for aesthetics $er se. suggests some doubt that Reid can be either profound or original. and later as Professor of Moral Philosophy at Glasgow. 1 Reid had expounded his thought in lectures at King's College.

fancy. Berkeley." The analysis of this faculty is conducted in the terms characteristic of the Scottish school: the sensations of taste are distinguished intuitively from the real qualities of which they are the signs." Reid notes." 8 But this is mind and the causes of these in objects. [so that] there is no beauty in any object whatsoever 5 it is only a sensation or feeling in the person that perceives an opinion which no one ever held the "modern philosophers" (Descartes. without anything corresponding to those feelings in the external object ." 6 And in precisely the same way.. to resolve all our perceptions into mere feelings or sensations in the person that perceives. from the quality of the object which causes that emo7 tion. "Of Taste in 3 General/ Reid pur- sues an extended analogy between taste the external sense and taste the internal sense j a discrimination of the differences from the re- semblances of the two faculties permits a description of taste adequate for Reid's rather limited purposes. is called taste." Further analogy between external and internal taste is found in the diversity of the sensations in each of these faculties 5 in the influence of custom. Hume) make just the analysis which Reid performs. Sir William Hamilton very justly points out that the position which Reid struggles to refute on secondary qualities is a fiction: "There is thus no difference between Reid and the Cartesians. "we are led by reason and reflection to distinguish between the agreeable sensation we feel. "In the external sense of taste. the establishment of a standard of taste is implicit in the distinction already drawn between sensation and real quality: "Every excellence has a real beauty and charm that makes it an agreeable object to those is who have the faculty of discerning what we call a good taste. "when a beautiful object is before us. and 5 whatever is excellent in the fine arts. "except that the doctrine which he censures is in fact more precise and explicit than 9 his own. Reid complains of the "fashion among modern philosophers." Hamilton concludes. Locke. Indeed." 10 To its beauty." This is commonplace and unexceptionable: the only novelty is that Reid should announce such doctrine as if it were novelty.. The initial "definition" of the internal sense is conventional: "That power of the mind by which we are capable of discerning and relishing the beauties of Nature. and the quality in the object which occasions it. finding sensations or feelings in the it. there remains the chief .150 Beautiful first and Sublime In the chapter of the essay. we may distinguish the agreeable emotion it produces in us. and casual associations on both 5 and in the subordination of the determinations of each to a standard. and this faculty be sure.

Why contrary of what I mean?" n Reid perpetually argues in this fashion from the forms of language: he even asserts that "no instance will be found of a distinction made in all languages. depending on ante- cedent perception of the nature of the object: one may hear the ringing of a bell (Reid illustrates) with no other perception of the bell. The internal sense differs. and therefore I shall adopt as to comprehend all the a sense extensive in so often taken beauty I have met with. not in the more ready solution of problems. who have given objects of taste 5 yet all the authors upon the is a division of the objects of taste. far less is it a sensation in the mind to which it is new 5 it is a relation which the thing has to the . from the external senses in that it is a reflex sense." 12 This device really results. but in the shifting of argument from the things themselves to the implications of the idioms of speech about them. un- of the effects we (and thus resembling the second- ary qualities perceived by external taste). This division is sufficient for all I intend to say it observing only. which has not a just foundation in nature. grandeur. make beauty one species. So much for taste. and my feelings." curious that Reid should retain this antique and exploded 13 It is classifi- not properly a quality cation. to three to wit. and Dr. "the necessary consequences of this opinion is... have reduced . 151 much are to ascertain these objective excellences? But this that in taste are gained. for he observes at once that "novelty is of the thing to which we attribute it. and beauty. and like primary qualities of matter can be isolated as causes all of our aesthetic feelings. but it is impossible to perceive beauty unless the object is already perceived by some other faculty the ear must hear the bell before taste can appreciate the beauty of its sound. The objects of it "Mr. I mean not to say anything of the poem. without any belief of excellence in the object." he cries. however. that subject. he is overturning the "mod- ern philosophy": "If it be said that the perception of beauty is merely a feeling in the mind that perceives. but only something concerning myself should I use a language that expresses the Consistently with his intuitional system. Reid very evidently considers that by introducing judgment into the decisions of taste.Thomas Reid question. other beauties are explicable. that when 3 I say Virgil's 'Georgics is a beautiful poem. The internal taste differs beauties it from the external feel in this: that though some of the known causes perceives are indescribable and occult. moreover. Addison. Aken- side after him. novelty. disputes put on the same footing as in of truth affirmation or denial of beauty disputes questions 5 every is how we expresses judgment.

and disposes to the most heroic acts of virtue. but though a key concept in the system." a reply which begs the question proposed. is not this simple objectivism which bypasses the most intricate and important questions. Reid pauses to does not. "Because they really are excellent. but his denial that matter itself can have aesthetic cellence. and not to the mind we is 1T that perceives it. and beauty to which uniformly the object. grandeur. why do we value certain qualities? Reid answers." This feeling is raised in us by perception The emotion admiration. divisible. which dread Such excellence is found above all in Deity. can conceive of a constitution of human nature which would prefer (what we now consider) inferiority to excellence? As so often. including reference to final cause. then in human virtue. striking feature of Reid's aesthetics.152 Beautiful and Sublime 14 Reid lays no claim to originality in his knowledge of the person. but the argument consists only in an appeal to the judgment of mankind as "expressed in the language of ascribes excellence." which would lead us to suppose value only in our minds and not inherent in objects." together with the rhetorical question. raised by grand objects. of objects raise? 18 . Reid involved in an ignoratio elenchi: the "modern philosophers" were engaged in the inquiry. soland serious" the highest form of it is devotion. and mov- able substance. because it produces in the mind an emotion that has some resemblance to that admiration which truly grand however modified. Dread and admiration are alike grave and solemn. it not borrow this quality from something inthe effect. "excellence" remains undefined and unexammed." it will be recalled. "a serious emn. If asked to account for our awareness of this ex- behind an intuition and declines the challenge. and his treatment. Reid retires The most value: When we consider matter as an inert." 16 argue against the "spirit of modern philosophy. or to which it bears some analogy? or. then in matter considered as in some wise the effect or sign or analogue of mind. there seems to be nothing in these qualities which we can call grand 5 and when we ascribe grandeur to any portion of matter." of "such a degree of excellence." observations on novelty. is conventional. as merits our 15 "Admiration. 5 recollected temper. however. Reid finds. was one of the in- ferior degrees of Burke's terrific sublime 5 Reid's piety and his realism alike preclude his accepting terror as the basis of the grand. or sign. in one kind or another. perhaps. may which it is tellectual. which inspires magnanimity. all nations. extended. but differ in that "admiration supposes some uncommon excellence in its object. is "awful. or instrument.

in objects of sense. And it is this position which was to be adopted by Alison but adopted into a different systematic con- by elaborate inductions. the whole. from the notion of excellence as the essence of grandeur.Thomas Red 153 This doctrine follows. it is by giving on careful inducof these detailed (our own tions. tion. but rather a differentiation which preserves the Longinian "sublime" as a character of discourse: "What we call sublime in description. For Reid. which is such an analogy Between greatan object of external sense. naturally transfer to one what truly belongs does not explain in any detail this associative process. Reid But to the other. too. only by ties of is. there is ness of dimension. since men clearly speak 20 habit accounts Reid tained to matter. And matter may exhibit a similitude or analogy to text and justified acts and affections of mind. adequately. 22 of The matter. is irresistible. last borrows its name from the first." is in contradiction with his criterion of linguistic matter of grandeur of beauty and grandeur as if they perusage. and. that this grandeur reflecthat it is discerned. the name being common. as the light we the perceive in moon and planets is truly the . is a proper expression 21 thusiasm which the subject produces in the mind of the speaker. since it is difficult to see what "excellent" would mean as applied to matter as such. On account of this analogy. the expression of the grandeur the action. and that the grandeur which is an object of taste. matter is connected with mind through the relations of cause and effect. sign and significatum. however. should be noted that Reid preserves a distinction between grandeur and sublimity not that which Lord Kames had maintained. primary truth . agent and instrument. originally properly. or in It of the admiration and enspeech of any kind." combustible sublimity of midst thrown into the the Iliad of the mind of then. though it should be artless. this is a a not derivative. Reid subordinates art to nature and finds the true sublime to rise from grandeur in the subject and a corresponding emotion in the speaker: "A proper^ exhibilike fire tion of these. leads us to conceive that there is something common in the nature of 19 Robbins objects that Reid's denial of the beauty and the things." Like the other aestheticians of his century. tion. "I humbly apprehend admiraenthusiastical an raise such a degree of excellence as is fit to in and qualiis found. or that of the persons true that grandeur is concludes with unction. for our we the other to relative 5 of transferring these qualities from one know mind and very excepted) only as expressed in matter. mind. grounded expositions Alison converts this doctrine from a dogma to a philosophi- cal theory. perhaps. that phenomena." Reid of "Upon Homer.

It gives a value to the object. and joy. hope. What of sense. but our responses to these various beauties: "First. or even imagined. partly instances (Reid mentions the colors and forms of flowers) we peror excellence the causes of which in the object ceive an occult Our sense of beauty is we may grandeur which we ascribe to qualities of that which we ascribe to material objects. please. "the emotion produced by pleasant. Beauty tion between the beauty cannot analyze 5 in others (as in a well-contrived machine) we can and point to the perfections which give reasons for our judgment be original or derived. it becomes clear that "every quality in or another. grandeur. of speech and is found common to the beauty of objects of actions. It to is sweetens and humanises the temper." of taste. they produce in the mind. every benevolent friendly and angry passions. two circumstances common to of no identity or similarity quality." 23 Reid treats of beauty in the same terms as of grandeur: feeling and judgment." every real perfection and excellence excited differentiate the two characters. and. sometimes grandeur. must. disposes of love. including novelty and all to so extended as Ac- objects comprise so restricted as to be confined to objects of sight. and be well founded. and that those who look for grandeur mere mat- seek the living among the dead. for the object of and esteem beautiful. It may still be difficult to fix the precomcise limit betwixt grandeur and beauty 5 but they must together that taste a to please is. This agreeable emotion is or feeling of their having some perfection companied with an opinion or belief 24 The term "beauty" is sometimes or excellence belonging to them. To ascertain the meaning. secondly. in one degree object pleases good have either grandeur or beauty. grand." ment of excellence in the object. is thought. this must be true or false 5 when the judgments of men concur. affections. such as those and the gay and mind. a that an taste. Reid had adopted the trichotomy of novand beauty $ novelty being excluded as a mere relaelty. and if "the distincitself rational. so is the judgment a judgits utility. and tends to allay sullen it to other agreeable emotions. tion and no objective quality. In some partly instinctive. Like all judgments. that of love beautiful objects is More fully. this dis- . It enlivens affection.Beautiful and Sublime in sun 5 light of the ter. and characters. of arts and sciences. When they are pera certain agreeable emotion ceived. we may conclude (Reid assures us) that there really is an objective excellence. good prehend everything fitted by its nature 2o The emotions admiration is in the objects we contemplate. mind. subjective response and objective excellence. abstracted from 26 As the feeling is in the mind.

I doubt. depend upon transference between sign and significatum. taste . agent and instrument. and in the cool blood of a philosopher. "I am proud to think that I first. cause and effect. to the "ancient philosophers. and Akenside "handle the subject of beauty rather with the enthusiasm of poets or lovers. and in its active powers. though but slightly be held an impartial judge. and the chief expressions of mind are in fitness and design. Shaftesbury.Thomas Reid tinction of the beauty of objects will easily be 27 Derived beauties analogous to it.) Reid does not stress the grandeur of though he does mention cursorily that "we admire great taland heroic virtue". and agility have also an original beauty. end and means. though the bodily talents (we are told) are perfections because they render the body a fit instrument for the mind. In an oft-quoted letter to Archibald Alison. that any of these authors." and among the moderns to Shaftesbury and Akenside." his major contribution to aesremains Reid himself. maintained that all the beauty and sublimity of objects of sense is derived from the expression they exhibit of things intellectual. (It is a question. acknowledging Alison's complimentary copies of the Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste. however. would subscribe to the opinion as Reid has developed it 5 his originality is greater than he claimed in his pubtalents. Reid attributes his opinion that beauty originally dwells only in the moral and intellectual perfections of mind. in clear and explicit terms. he states that Plato. "the whole train of the soft and gentle virtues. why the physical talents. are not derived rather than original beauties. is and bodily talents like health. developed by thetic theory. . in every form. classical or modern." he continues. cheerfulness. and cannot claim that to 30 This doctrine. and upon inexplicable similitude. and that these are the sources of all the beauty of the visible world. being thus instrumental to the mind. But in this I may deceive myself. however. wit. which alone have original beauty." talents like sense. strength." 155 admitted as perfectly Original beauty sought in those qualities of mind which are the natural objects of 2S Intellectual love. ents lished works. "On these grounds." and Hutcheson and Spence (to all whom Alison had attributed the doctrine) do not really seem to subscribe to a view like his own. Minds other than our own are perceived only through their signatures impressed on visible objects. than with the cool temper of philosophers. 29 intellectual power and physical strength both seem more admirable than lovely. save where (as in the human person) there can be a direct expression of moral excellence.

from which (I think) Reid draws his rubrics for treatment of human beauty from of Spence's Crito color. Reid even appears conversation are acoustically harmopersons engaged in amicable The admonition nious 5 this is "forcing all nature to submit. at the which regulate the operabest. color. and can serve. What is lacking in Reid is an aesthetic of form and color. perhaps. thinks of the botanist as the proper critic of floral beauties and surely fitness and design.) is altogether nugatory. such as that which Alison was to devise without abandoning Reid's prin- matter has no inherent beauty. no devices fit for equally noble ends. The slenderness associations aside) us that tells Reid when is (casual apparent system the beauty of coloring depends solely on the expression of health and . and grace pointing out." its ^ general. form. He the soul of an in tracing the "thousand beautiful contrivances of Nature [in plants]. to throw an amusing light on the laws 33 In the case of concord." What Reid truly which Dugald Stewart directed to Home Tooke is perhaps applicable to Reid as well: "to appeal to etymology in a philosophical ar- gument where the word itself is of philosophical origin. which feast his understanding 32 There are.Beautiful and Sublime matter "derives to which it is subservibeauty from the purposes mental qualities which other of or wisdom of ent. he must of bird as a beautiful paradise? If Reid have recourse to the inexplicable and occult beauty which is apprehended instinctively and occult causes are not satisfying as explanations. expression. but it is unrealistic to appeal to etymol"concord" and "discord" literally ogy. Reid is led to ignore tions of human fancy." cases (excepting. emotion and character except where such expression is patent (as in is the countenance) 5 his analysis. as in the remarkable argument that the terms "concord" and "discord" are literally applicable to conversation and only analogically to music. Is an ostrich as specific forms." artist would wither for comparing in point of beauty different consequence. form. or from the signs 31 of expression of beauties the Reid slights In it exhibits. dwelling upon more that of a natural theologian than that of an aesthetician. and motion. in more than their external form delighted his eye. that all are ultimately expression. is occasionally fanciful. of this course. equally is to deny that it is. in those the mechanical pleasure of little harmony in favor of a subtle analogy or no pleasure proceeds. ciple that does say on the derived beauty of sound. There is a partial truth in this view etymologically. for in actual usage men apply social to to music and figuratively interchange the evidence of lanto say. that the voices of guage is against Reid.

beauty. unanalyzed principles. lacunae. Actually. which accounts for the sketchy treatment of grandeur. Even the beauty of expression proper shares is form this beauties. implausible reductions.Thomas Reid liveliness. are nonetheless not exclusive. though between them they exhaust the realm of taste. In some instances the very qualities which are beautiful in ordinary degree become grand is this circumstance. which express "the most perfect propriety of conduct and senti- ment in an amiable character. either of the whole body. gentleness. delicacy and softness in the female. he is grandeur able to approach the more extensive quality. Reid seems to have been little interested in aesthetics. of meekness. or of a part or fea- simplism indications And ture." 34 Grandeur and beauty. It aesthetic of grandeur. different system. which provides no discussion of the grandeur is content to make his point that material a reflection of mental with this 5 principle in hand. the "last and noblest part of beauty. and to have His thought. 157 delicacy. it is at any rate more comprehensive and detailed than the in extraordinary. &c. would be of minor importance had it not provided a printo such effective use in a very ciple which Alison was shortly to put had slight aesthetic sensibility. perhaps. Inadequate as is Reid's aesthetic of beauty. Reid is manifestations. in its principal of the material world. benignity are grace." consists in those motions. or that beauty of and in the fair sex softness and expression of strength or agility in the male. The content of a Reidian analysis of grandeur must be arrived at by extrapolation. . perplexed with intuiand gaping tions. apart from the desire methodically to fill out his system.

Brown's fifty-sixth lecture (printed in the Lectures of 1820) treats of Alison's theory j and other references to it in philo158 and those thereafter reprint . 5 Editions in quick succession in 1812. to be sure. who played Huxley came to Alison's Darwin. and 18425 Jeffrey's critique as a prolegomenon to Alison's treatise. complexity. (1792). 1815. This edition met with a far different reception. 4 But this is the Essays on Taste had pretty well gone under when the second and enlarged edition was published in 1811. Principles of Taste appeared at Edinburgh in 1790. the theory of associationism appeared this last to be widely accepted as the new gospel. to the in first the his Elements of the volume of approbation Essays Philosophy of the Human Mind. The philosophers Reid and Stewart knew and esteemed Alison and his treatise. was little heeded. 1817. appeared in the Monthly. his Essay on the Picturesque and its sequels without Alison the anonymous author of Essays on 5 Repton and alluding to the Sources of the Pleasures Received from Literary Compositions Price had written (1809) do not mention him. This edition of a book which was to revolutionize aesthetic specula- REVEREND A and which exhibited an originality. and in the Philosophical Essays of 1810 enters upon the only serious discussion of Alison to astically to all 5 appear before the second edition of the Essays? Burns wrote enthusiAlison on reading a gift copy of the treatise. but he wrote a letter of considerable interest on receiv2 Stewart refers with ing complimentary copies of Alison's Essays. tion in Britain. and coherence unmatched in British aesthetics. Reid's works were all in print by 1790. Favored by the proselytizing efforts of Jeffrey. the reference must have puzzled many a reader.CHAPTER 11 ^Archibald ^Alison THE first Archibald Alison's Essays on the Nature and. logical l but when Payne review. Knight mentioned Alison slightly and slightingly in his Analytical Inquiry of 1804. 1825.

in novelty three inquiries for Alison. suggests the three inquiries which the total investigation would include: certain 'properties of things produce certain states of mind through the medium of a certain faculty. but is beyond the scope of this study. Bosanquet has condescended to notice the importance of Alison as an influence. the traditional method of British aesthetics 5 the Alison's theory is in the causes discovered. that when Sir Thomas Dick Lauder in 1842. Accepting as he does most of the traditional voas an analysis of the emocabulary. the opening sentence of the treatise. considered as that Faculty of the Human Mind. Alison's purpose is essentially speculative rather than practical. First (i) comes ascertainment of the effects This is. The importance of Alison's work to the theory and practice of the romantic period has never been assessed. and never at length. then. does Alison draw out the critical rules which depend from the aesthetic. Alison naturally sees this inquiry tions of beauty and sublimity. viz. what is accidental in association and what is 6 not." was untouched by the associational writers). It is symptomatic of the change. edited Sir Uvedale Price on the Picturesque so partly with the idea of supplying the proper associational underpinnings for Price's theories. an essay designed to "shew that all the Phenomena are reducible to the same general Principle. "TASTE is." 8 This. though he sees the influence as pernicious (arguing that "the real problem. ." Alison writes. by which we perceive and enjoy whatever is BEAUTIFUL or SUBLIME in the works of Nature or Art. "To devote a separate Essay. Involved by implication is another and subordinate investigation (IA) into the origin of the beauty and subthis subordinate Inquiry I shall limity of the qualities of matter. to be accounted for.Archibald Ahson 159 sophic and aesthetic literature. with aesthetics as a branch of psychology and metaphysics rather than as a science directed towards establishing rules for His investigations of course do have practical implications: practice. of course. in general. is His concern "They have an immediate relation to all the Arts that are directed to the production either of the Beautiful or the Sublime 5 and they afford the only means by which the principles of these various arts 7 can be ascertained. especially among the Scottish school. There are." But only on occasion.. and the problem is to determine through what mediating links the properties of natural and artificial objects are efficient in producing these emotions. This is a causal analysis: the emotions of taste are the effect. his introductory "Essay he did on the Origin of Taste" being a version of Jeffrey's version of Alison. and I turn to examination of the system itself. become frequent.

for Alison to have followed out his plan in full would have necessitated intolerable repetition of argu- ment and illustration.160 Beauttjul and Sublime in and that the Qualities of Matter are not beautiful or sublime themselves. in the same fashion. the artist is able to awaken this important exercise of imagination. that art. Indeed. The system is de- . (m) sion is "to investigate the NATURE third principal inquiry of that FACULTY." emotions of taste will uncover a certain mechanism of association .' Subjoined to this that familiar problem. affords some insight into Alison's views on nij and the coda to the final chapter of the second essay is really IIIB. into (IIA) 7 n how and into painful subjects can be beautiful. and will determine "what is that exerdse or emmeans by which. Finally. It rather hard upon that certain types of ideas are almust be granted that it presses the second inquiry. after all. this subordinate inquiry will ways the involved in the association. strictly speaking. the sources of sublime in nature and This investigation will show that any sim- ple emotion. ployment of imagination is excited 5 and what in the different Fine Arts. but as they are . however (as I have suggested above). We may regard the existing Essays as consti- tuting the basis and outline of the entire system. a divine) proposed to illustrate (IIIB) the final cause of this constitution of our nature. and to exalt objects of simple and common of LAW MIND. this are the pleasure. of the sublime from the beautiful. may give rise to emotions of taste. The Essays as written correspond. This leaves us lacking only the discussion of the two cruxes the pleasing effect of painful subjects and the standard of taste. in actual life.. The treatment of i. together with the appropriate activity of the imagination. I do not think it difficult to conjecture at the approach which Alison would have used in treat- ing these two problems. involves much of the material which would be employed for n. both in the emotions and in their causes. Alison (who was. the Signs or Expressions of Quali9 The main inquiry into our ties capable of producing Emotion." is And subordinate to this discus- treatment (IIIA) of another familiar crux for the empirical aestheticians the standard of taste. inquiry are two other investigations. of those QUALITIES that produce the Emotions of the beautiful and is. The discussion of IA. and affords pretty good hints for IIB. into objects of Beauty or Sublimity. by which these 12 The Emotions [of Taste] are received. whether in nature or in art. (IIB) the distinction. which is (n) to "investigate show NATURE IQ TASTE" to determine.. according to which. to inquiries i and IA.

these emotions are unfelt or unperceived. "Thus. But both approaches have general law of our mental been based on the delusive notion that the emotions of taste are qual- of Alison's analysis is designed to itatively simple 3 the first stage show felt that they are complex. which conBeauty are felt. same whatever tends to increase this exercise of mind. The conclusion of the first essay 13 is that the emotions of taste are "WHEN THE IMAGINATION is EMPLOYED IN THE PROSECUTION OF in detail in it 14 A REGULAR TRAIN OF IDEAS OF EMOTION. for we find for the first time in aesthetic theory an adequate inductive argudivision of that ment." I shall examine the reasoning which leads to this summary proposition. the emotions of Sublimity oi whenever "that for this judgment: of Imagination is produced. and the associationist theory relations which connect them. tends in the 15 The first of these three increase these emotions. of the two essays is intended to separate the emotions of taste from their acddental concomitants and to resolve them into first The their several components. It is not necessary to recapitulate in full the content of the analysis 3 this exposition will be accomplished establishes incidentally in investigation of the logic by which Alison his hypothesis. fallen into one or other of two errors: either (as with artists had and amateurs. or (as with introspective of taste into some more philosophers) they resolved the phenomena constitution. though in truth the concomitance of imagination is rather asserted than with this associative activity proved 5 complete for the instances are rather illustrations than the basis characteristic style. supposing a sense or senses appropriated to the perception of beauty and sublimity." Alison observes in a . induction. Previous aestheticians. that and that is prevented." proportion to of Agreeevidences is manifestly an application of the Method 16 of the emotions of taste ment. as Alison saw it. The first major effect signed to prove that the argument (the first chapter) produced on the mind by objects is de oi in evocation of an associating activity beauty and sublimity consists words suggest the three evidences own Alison's the of imagination.Archibald Alison 161 veloped by specifying as closely as possible the two variables in an the component ideas and impressions. that exercise when this exercise sists in the indulgence of a train of thought. who attend more to the causes of their emotions than to the emotions themselves) they traced the emotions of taste directly to original laws of our nature.

Alison notes. but "the seasons of care. our hearts swell with emotions. and Alison's proof is as firm an induction as can be obtained. the emotions of taste are unfelt. as to obstruct the play of fancy. are sufficient to render Alison's theory credan hypothesis. for the phenomena coincidence of which is indicated in this fashion may be joint effects. as no adequate cause. unless accidentally. of grief. however. is at another indifferent to usj on the former occasions." practical desire. we have fulfilled (considering this result conjointly with that of the first section) the conditions of the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference. aesthetic sensibility is correspondingly dulled. and this is really all that the Method of Agreement can do. or the we are conscious of a variety of images in our of a tempestuous ocean. have other occupations. Secondly (I return to the three evidences for the indispensability . that if the state of mind is such section are three. 17 which have passed with so much rapidity through our imagination. in the same proportion that they produce a state of mind unfavourable to the indulgence of 18 imagination. the mind is unembarrassed by engrossing ob- jects of thought and free to receive all the impressions which the obMeets before us can produce. in recalling our attention. lustre of a m minds. and destroy. ible as Such instances. our sensibility to the beautiful or the sublime. the savage majesty of a wintry storm. The second section of the chapter goes much further towards a conclusive proof 5 if it be successfully proved that without the excitation of imagination. Indeed. however.1 62 Beautiful feel either the and Sublime when we the beauty or sublimity of natural scenery. or of business. Here is the disinterestedness. and we are never when. morning gay wild magnificence evening. is insusceptible of conclusive application of the Method of Difference. or may be casually and indiffer- ently combined while plurality of causes obtains. this employment of imagination. The particular phenomena adduced within the first. in some of the instances the conditions of the Method of Difference itself are very nearly fulfilled 3 the subject. we are unable to trace either the progress or the connection of those thoughts. o which the objects before us so seem to afford much satiated with delight. Trains of pleasing or of solemn thought arise spontaneously within our minds. the detachment from on which the German aestheticians have insisted so strongly as a characteristic of aesthetic experience j the simple practical emotions do not involve. a radiance of summer mild or the spring. for the time at least. very different from those which the objects themselves can present to the eye. The sunset or the poem which at one time is so affecting.

in such an employment. abstracted. at sensitive j such cases go beyond the crude application of the Joint the Method of Difference. is can only be done by relaxing this vigour of attention. at another approach as taste can be brought under the chological phenomenon so complex amid strictest the sense. 19 it our thoughts. to make them its attention and review. But it can be strengthened 5 if it can be shown that aesthetic sensibilas the mobility of imagination. Alison remarks that permanent relation in differences sensibility. historical. An object is picturesque if it is . or pauses imagery the composition before it can excite. Of course. is lost. is some of its minute and solitary amid the rapidity of its conceptions. rected by habits of business or of philosophic investigation. and chiefly operative men differ by nature in their susceptibility to this relation 5 those who those whose associations are diare attentive rather than imaginative.Archibald Alison 163 of this role of imagination). Alison makes clear in the final section of this bility does national. are so far insensible to beauty. the Method of ity varies directly Concomitant Variations lends its force to the conclusion. "The mind. and resigning ourselves again to the natural stream of wished to be recalled. the exercise of the critical faculty diminishes or destroys the perception of beauty. The corresponding in the associative trains of taste is resemblance. has already been adduced amounts to a tolerable induction. every variety of association personal. That^ sensifirst so vary. and if it ingly. at another at leisure. It must be noted that this third evidence is less for cogent than the two previous. "instead of being at liberty to follow whatever trains of either fettered to the consideration of parts. it involves a comparison of differ- ent persons. this same effect Obof enrichment is produced by what Alison terms "Picturesque techor The term "picturesque" becomes here a systematic jects. however. whether of beauty or sublimity." Alison writes. for it is impossible Method of Difference in has element one that such intermixture of effects to be certain only been changed. The same individual. the strength and character of the emotions does vary proportionately can attach themto the kind and number of these associations which selves to the object of immediate experience. no psyMethod to may be at one moment one moment critical. In these operations. accordof the objects the emotion. it has a meaning derived from ate to Alison's mode of analysis. What chapter: professional may and swell our emotions of beauty and sublimity." and peculiarly approprinical term." And acter produce differences of charthirdly. Again.

the second and third to the inductive proof of these two branches. is the influence circumstance another confirmatory picturesque. Alison's of the ideas comprised in aesthetic trains of position on the nature in objects. more of taste the landscape artists in forming the essay has constitute which This opening chapter of the two to the emotions that trains of association are indispensable proved through of beauty and sublimity. Picturesque objects such circumstances. Alison asserts. "u/. it is composed. "That no Simple Emotion. but such as are productive of some association is. or qualities felt either as beautiful or sublime. . to add as a One is (and I think a stronger) instance. 20 Thus. as coincide. But attended by such emotions. In respect of the Nature of the ideas of which ideas productive of Emotion: and 'idly. The the first three sections of the second chapter of the essay are devoted. quality. time and of depend on the mode of existcausation. are. into being. the of tinct from but capable general character is blending with. for trains of association constantly pass feeling. as a whole is calculated to excite. but are not necessarily connected with the character of the scene or description.X 64 Beautiful and Sublime such as to awaken a train of associations additional to what the scene are "in general." is an exhaustive distinction. relations space Alison When ence of the related ideas. . that they are a part of the cause of aesthetic a part only. by a . in fact. and which. objects. and quan- while three identity. (It will be recalled that of Hume's seven philosophical 21 This relations of ideas. Yet the of an early acquaintance with poetry upon appreciation of nature. at first affecting the mind with an emotion of produce afterwards an insurprise. to the statement of the two branches of this doctrine. recent times.) develops a thorough treatment of each of these variables. by their being distinguished by some of connection. tempted parallel the influence of the seventeenth-century landscape painters in formor that of the great British ing the taste of the eighteenth century." 22 Such emotive ideas Alison terms. tity depend on the nature of the ideas related. four resemblance. The pethe mind without being which defines aesthetic trains of thought consists. which subsists through the whole exculiar character general principle tent of the train." at sunset whatever is disbell an a of middle evening deep wood. . For in an asare two variables only the nature or there sociational psychology and the fashion in which they come quality of the component ideas. contrariety. he has exhausted the potentialities of his system. an old tower in the creased or additional train of imagery. by their being In respect of their Succession.

c A~ gardening. The doctrine here to be supported is. are founded upon this experience. "that." His contention is supported by noting that some simple affection is always excited before the more complex emotion of taste is felt. that no qualities are felt. Alison ofjx)mposition in a series of arts examine_tb p p^ n ^p1f. the insistence of taste upon achievement of unity is proportionately more exacting. however. in which the different parts beit most fully unite in the production of one unmingled Emotion 5 and that Taste the most perfect. either as beautiful or sublime. so subtle nor so complex as to demand minute criticism. in point of expression." 23 The reasoning on this head is not. cc of the four arts fulfills the conditions of the bad" instances are adduced). narrative and Dramatic jxjgtiy^ course. in all the Fine Arts. where the perception of this relation of 24 Notice is most delicate and precise. over their materials. then. al- He an induction manque. that objects of the most acknowledged beauty fail to excite their usual emotions. The peculiar aesthetic pleasure. an impossible task with artifacts which do not have a common specific nature j rather." objects. The conclusion is. But the organization of the final section of the chapter is neater and more systematic. must be "composed of the . bnrJ^pft paintilLjLJ does not. "Ideas of Emotion..Archibald Alison sort of 165 metonymy. that Composition is most excellent. assemble all the instances for a complete induction. is sup- ported by a series of observations: "if it is found. And as the poetry. That this in turn is true. that while the discussion of each art individually is a cursory application of the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference (since both "good" and Variations. To establish this point. but such as accord with the habitual or temporary sensibility of our minds . enjoy yet greater power power of the art over its subjects is greater. when we regard them in the light of any of their uninteresting or unaffecting qualities 5 and that our common judgments it of the characters of men seems that there can be no doubt of the proposition itself. whereas the components of an ordinary train of thought are connected each with the adjacent ideas before and after but without any one general relation informing the entire train. that the ideas composing a train of aesthetic association are strung on the thread of a single pervading emotion. he gives illustrations which call upon general experience in support of their implications. It is still an inductive argument. the consecutive handling Method of Concomitant For painting exceeds gardening in its power of selecting and combining into wholes of greater purity and simplicity of exand above all narrative and dramatic pression 3 descriptive poetry. of scriptive poetry.

" essay in the proof taste are felt "WHEN THE IMAGINATION complex emotions of EMPLOYED IN THE PROSE26 is CUTION OF A REGULAR TRAIN OF IDEAS OF EMOTION. the effect being only from its causes 5 or they may different an effect wholly in producing from themselves. that Matter in itself is unfitted to produce . or blur these distincrate be possible for an Alisonian to elect the tions. This. as produced by the union of of pleasing Emotion. The beautiful and sublime of material qualities is a crux for Alison. is the that the "metaphysical. yet coexist with produce an effect distinguishable or elevated. that in discussing the outline of Alison's whole plan for his system. to argue that in beauty caused by. Be this as it We have followed the reasoning of the first. Alison's observation that beauty is always cheerful. it. that the two pleasures coexist without producing son's opinion still discern in their union the separate any tertium quid. these established 5 arguments had proved that positions previously the emotions of taste were caused by (/) excitation of a simple emo- and (2) stimulation of the imagination in a certain way. the serenity or gaiety might be the experience. The suggestion that the term "delight" be appropriated to aesthetic "pleasure" suggests the third 5 yet other passages suggest the first. certainly -. that we can not follow necessarily from the does components. is annexed to the exercise of Imagination. by the constitution 25 AliI judge our nature. and the investigation into the qualities producing the emotions of taste." to be. their coexistence they may perish commingled." essay (rather The SCCOnd more than three quarters of the treatise) source "Of the Sublimity and Beauty of the Material the determining World. for it appears to comprehend both "IA" and "n" both the inquiry into the origin of the beauty and sublimity of matter. with the primary emotion upon which it is based. The explanation of this difficulty is not far to seek. this feelaes- was the stimulus of the alongside whatever emotion may." It will be recalled.Beautiful and Sublime attend the exercise of these faculties [paspleasures which separately sion and imagination]. in other words. or. It would at any third of the alternatives I have specified. All beauty might be still beauty might be thought (as Poe thought ing existing thetic feeling. gaiety or serenity. however. since he thinks that "it must be allowed. according rules out the second of these three alternatives. sad. it devoted to was difficult to locate this second essay with precision. yet that the beauty qua perceptible throughout characterized by a feeling peculiar to itself. say. Now there are three manners of causation: the causes may continue to exist tion. with the pleasure which. it) melancholy.

when the material qualities cease to be significant of the associated qual- . Still remaining for his second division. II. Yet it involves causes too. or in other words. is not explicable unless McCosh great ciation] ? considers that Alison's treatise leaves untouched two train [of asso- problems: "The and a question arises. I suspect. from experience. and to the train? 2S I do not conceive that the supporters of the association theory. And. That when these associations are dissolved. produce upon his mind. that in no case do they produce Emotion. but this. 33 these objections are fatal to Alison's theory. Solution of the paradox that material qualities produce aesthetic effects although matter is inherently incapable of arousing emotion occupies the bulk of the essay 5 the argument is succinctly stated by Alison himself: The illustrations that have been offered in the course of of this ESSAY upon the origin of the SUBLIMITY and BEAUTY some of the principal qualities of MATTER. Alison thus led to treat matter produce emotion by associa"n" together with "IA"$ his plan could not be completed as originally sketched without repetition. when simple and unassociated. seem to afford sufficient evidence for the following conclusions: I. that much of his analysis depends from a theory of the passions which is nowhere presented to us. or that he need postulate An some objective beauty to evade them 5 it is true. would be the knotty problem of explaining how mental properties produce emotions in percipients in terms of final causes. or the exercise of some moral affection. for the qualities of is tion with mental traits. That each or from of these qualities is either from nature. accident. and that he does not discuss the interaction of association and attention in channeling the mental train. of course. the sign of some quality capable of producing Emotion. is Sensation and Perception 3 and whoever will take the trouble of attending to the effect which such qualities. The various qualities of matter are known to us only by means of our external senses 5 but all that such powers of our nature convey." This is a problem in the nature of eQectsy and may appropriately be treated in connection with "i" ascertainment of the effects to be accounted for. may disclose to our view an objective beauty and sublimity very much overlooked by Alison. or the exercise of any of 27 his affections. however.Archibald Alison 167 any kind of emotion. What starts the farther question follows. once removed by association. What gives the unity and answer to these questions. or rather to this harmony question for the questions are one. will be satisfied.

that If these conclusions are admitted. Method of Agreement. is perception of a face. that the qualities EXPRESSIONS or SIGNS the sublime or beautiful in themselves. idealist doctrine. a major point and most other British aestheticians. argue in one fashion or another that matter is in itself aesthetically efficient (though of association). either in an explicit Alison 33 is no decisive indication of this acknowledgement or . One to be sure. and the perception attributes. and in this case Alison remains real and irredesign and use) . be considered as to of matter are not consequence. duce pleasing or interesting emotion. is the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference (sometimes approxMethod of Difference) and from these imating very closely to the 5 the general conclusion is arrived at by the particular conclusions. whereas for Kames. Alison refers to Reid on this very question in the conclusion of the second essay. that Alison gets the impression. All Alison of contrast between 32 Such an the picturesque school. Some of the contradiction between Kames and Alison can be explained part away by noting Kames it is that for Alison perception of the object as qualified. too. then. but as being are fitted to proof such qualities. the difference from ducible. at any rate." are "only ines so many aesthetically significant properties of matter that the last generalization is fect induction" not mere Agreement but approximates a "perwhat is true of each is necessarily true of all. is. He knew Reid 3 Reid had already maintained that 31 the beauty and sublimity of matter is derived wholly from mind . that is. perception of the features of the countenance forms. by the constitution of our nature. Such a view he could have imbibed from Reid.Beautiful and Sublime ities. it appears necessarily ascribed not to the the Beauty and Sublimity of such objects is to be and of material qualities themselves. the emotions. had found they do not deny the role the properties of matter affecting independent of expression. For is is of qualities. not of mere thus immediately connected with other also find a ceramic tile beautiful in it- Yet Kames would the object does not include a mind (apart from self. contemporaries of Alison. to follow. either of Sublimity or they cease also to produce Beauty. as. but to the qualities they signify. Lord Kames. It is repeatedly asserted that the associational system employed by in the but there is that of Hartley 5 debt in the essays. in examining each class of material properties. Despite Alison's disclaimer that his inquiries 30 it could be argued that he examdetached observations. knows a priori that matter cannot produce emotion. The method.

Archibald Alison

169

character of the psychology. There is no trace of a physiological basis for association 5 Alison's is ideal. system Indeed, it bears a wholly far greater resemblance to the of than to that of Hartsystem reduce Alison's instances of associaley, and a Humeian could

Hume

easily

tion to contiguity, resemblance, and cause-and-effect. Alison does not often appear to have consciously in mind, however, and there are a number of points at which his language or thought contrasts

Hume

Alison's speculation might well be regarded as in great measure his own reflection within the general tradition of British empiricism after Locke.

with that of

Hume. 34

Curiously enough, Alison thought that his analysis of material beauties into mental coincided with the doctrine of the "PLATONIC

SCHOOL," a doctrine traceable ("amid their dark and figurative lan35 ) in the philosophical systems of the East, and to be found guage"
in

modern times

in Shaftesbury,

Reid. 36 In his

first edition,
is

doctrine that "Matter

Hutcheson, Akenside, Spence, and Alison appeared anxious to qualify the not beautiful in itself, but derives its Beauty

from the Expression of MIND." 37 Granting, to be sure, that the beauty of matter "arises from the Expressions which an intelligent Mind connects with, and perceives in it," Alison nonetheless hesitates

"MATTER is beautiful only, by being expressive of the proper Qualities of MIND, and that all the Beauty of the MATERIAL, as well as of the INTELLECTUAL World, is to be found in
to proclaim that
38 ." For there are objects of QUALITIES alone. and taste which are neither knowledge qualities of Mind nor qualithere are "Qualities which arise from RELATION 5 ties of Matter from the relation of different bodies or parts of bodies to each other $ from the relation of Body to Mind 5 and from the relation of differ-

Mind and

its

.

.

ent Qualities of
ness, utility

Mind

to each other.

.

.

."

39

Novelty, harmony,

fit-

all these are relational.

The

conclusion which Alison

finally formulates is, "That the Beauty and Sublimity of the Qualities of Matter, arise from their being the Signs or Expressions of such Qualities as are fitted by the constitution of our Nature, to produce

In the second edition, however, Alison reformulated conform to the "Platonist" position. The various "relations" are shown to be merely indirect expressions of mental qualities, and the ultimate conclusion is restated accordingly: "that the beauty and sublimity which is felt in the various appearances of matter, are

Emotion."

40

his doctrine to

finally to

be ascribed to their expression of mind 5 or to their being,

either directly or indirectly, the signs of those qualities of mind which are fitted, by the constitution of our nature, to affect us with pleas-

I

jo

Beautiful and Sublime

41 And Alison adds an elaborate classificaing or interesting emotion." from Reid, of the ways in which derived a scheme in evidently tion, effected. The qualities of matter is mind and matter the association of

may

be either

I. [ACTIVE MIND] immediate signs of 'powers of mind; thus works of art are indicative of the various capacities of the artist, and works of na-

ture
II.

powers of God; or material properties may be [PASSIVE MIND] signs of affections of mind, either A. directly, as voice, facial expression, and gesture are immediate

may

indicate the

B.

expressions of mental affections, or indirectly , by means of less universal

and

less

permanent

relations,

such as
/.

experience, through which material properties may the means of producing affections (as with utility
ness),

become and fit-

2.

analogy, or resemblance of the qualities of matter with those
of mind,

5. association ("in the proper sense of that term") by means of education, fortune, or historical accident, and finally,
4.

individual association to our private affections or

remem-

brances.

42

In

this reinterpretation of the Platonist doctrine

(which, Alison con-

stated in general terms, has somewhat the air of a paradox")? anything dialectical in method or mystical in purport is
cedes,

"when

replaced by the empirical and literal. Alison adopts the usual position that aesthetic experience is confined to the senses of hearing and (more especially) sight. I shall not
enter into a recapitulation of the intricate details of his analysis of the aesthetics of sound. It is, however, of interest to observe that he

volved.

divides his subject neatly in terms of the kinds of associations intreats first, simple sounds (in order of increasing complexity, those produced by inanimate objects, by animals, and by the

He

human voice), and
is

then composed sounds

(i.e.,

music).

The procedure

(I deliberately oversimplify) to show that sounds similar in themselves are productive of very different effects when the vehicle of
different expressions, and that sounds very different in themselves this is, produce similar effects when conveying similar 3

expressions

Agreement and Difference working both ways simultaneously establishing that the physical sound is not the cause of the aesthetic effect, and that the attached associations are. Sometimes Alison is able to arrange an experiment conforming
of course, the Joint

Method

of

Archibald Alison
to the

171

Method of Difference 5 thus, a sound which had seemed sublime becomes indifferent when an attached association is suddenly stripped
away (as when we discover that supposed thunder was only the rumble of a passing cart). But although the effect of any sound depends upon the associations which it evokes, it remains true that rules general emerge from
our experience j
it
is

possible to assert, for instance, that (caeteris
is

-paribus} the most sublime sound

loud, grave, lengthened, and in-

creasing in volume. Such principles guide us in responding to sounds

with which

we have no more particularized associations, and they afford the basis for an art of music. In the treatment of music, Alison

is obliged to skirt a that by "a peculiar difficulty for his system law of our nature, there are certain sounds of which the union is 43 The agreeable, and others of which the union is disagreeable."

difficulty

is is

avoided by insisting that the "mechanical pleasure" of

qualitatively different from beauty j any complicated of harmonies, moreover, even if not expressive of any composition is expressive of the skill of passion, composer (and performer), and

harmony

this expression

but such beauty, too, is distinguishable from the physical pleasure which the harmonies afford. In general, Alison's remarks on music suffer from inadequacy

may

be the basis of beauty

of technical knowledge and the drastic oversimplification which he imposes on the subjec5 it might well be possible, however, to de-

velop on Alison's principles a musical aesthetic which could provide a basis for practical criticism.

In treating of the beauty and sublimity of objects of sight, Alison hampered by no technical inadequacies, and his system is most intricately complex. The sense of sight is, of course, vastly predominant in our aesthetic experience, a predominance which Alison atis

tributes to the fact of our seeing "all that assemblage of qualities

which

our imaginations, the peculiar nature of such to our discovering by sight most of the relations among objects," 44 associations are transferred. which objects through
constitute, in

and

beauty of colors presents a problem very like that of the beauty of harmonies, for there is a "mechanical pleasure" independent of the aesthetic pleasure. "Whether some Colours may not of themselves produce agreeable Sensations, I am not anxious to dispute," Alison declares, "but wherever Colours are felt as producing the

The

Emotion of Beauty ... it is by means of their Expression, and not from any original fitness in the Colours themselves to produce
this effect.
.
.

,"

45

172

Beautiful
is

and Sublime

Form, however,

the chief source of aesthetic experience, con-

"The most obvious definistituting as it does the "essence" of objects. "is that of remarks tion of FORM," Matter, bounded or cirAlison,
46 His treatment of it, accordingly, is almost cumscribed by Lines." wholly in terms of lines, simple and composed & treatment which

minimizes the influence of light and shade in defining form. Although
it is

in general, less important aesthetically nonetheless a lacuna in the system. The aesthetic character of form falls under the heads of natural beauty
is,

true that chiaroscuro
line, this

than

omission

is

and sublimity, relative beauty, and accidental beauty. The natural sublimity of form is found to turn partly on the nature of the objects distinguished by the forms (so that forms characterizing objects of danger, power, splendor, solemnity, and such are sublime), and
partly

on the magnitude of the forms. Alison's system does not lead him to reduce sublimity to one original, and he avoids, in consequence, the endless disputes whether sublimity is based on fear, on power,

on energy, on size, yet without falling into a vapid eclecticism. Lord Kames's differentiation of sublimity from grandeur appears when
Alison notes that magnitude in height expresses elevation or magnanimity j in depth, danger and terror j in length, vastness or infinity j

and duration. The treatment of beauty in the same way subsumes all the partial theories which Alison's predecessors had elaborated that beauty consists in proportion, or in
in breadth, stability

variety in uniformity, or utility, or specific norm, or peculiar line. philosophical error of systematic oversimplification and the vulgar error of supposing original and objective beauty in each of

The

to

the multitude of beautiful forms are alike skirted 5 beauty is reducible one principle association but that principle is of such a nature

that the multiplicity of experience can be reconstructed from it. Hogarth's prindple, for example, is caught up when Alison notes
that natural beauty of
delicacy,

form

arises

from the expression of
is

fineness,

and

ease, the last of

which especially

so often indicated

by

the waving line. But in a series of ingenious inductive experiments, Alison shows that the beauty of line depends on expression, not on serpentinity: that common language refers beauty to expression rather than to form as such 5 that when other lines than the serpentine ac-

quire the same expression, they become beautiful j that when serpentine lines fail of appropriate expression they are not beautiful. Yet in
Alison's judgment, Hogarth's is "perhaps of all others the justest and best founded principle which has as yet been maintained, in the 47 investigation of the natural Beauty of forms." Note, however, that

/LrctnbaLd /LLtson

173

what for Hogarth was the operative law of beauty has become for
Alison an approximate empirical generalization applicable to one
species of beauty.

Hutcheson's uniformity in variety also appears transformed in the Alisonian aesthetic. When a form is characterized by the composition of angular and curvilinear lines (instead of being determined by a line of single given character), Alison concedes that the union of uniformity and variety is "agreeable, or is fitted by the constitution of our nature to excite an agreeable sensation in the Sense of Sight" 4S but this sensation assumes a place in the rank of mechanical pleasures,
together with harmony and color. The beauty of such composition so far as it is natural beauty depends upon associated feeling, greater sameness being required by strong emotions and those bordering on
pain, greater variety
49

by the weaker emotions and those belonging
50

to

positive pleasure.

It follows that

mum variety
1.

is

false 5

Hogarth's rule for practice the true rules are:
selected as the

maxi-

An

expressive

form should be

ground of the com-

position.
2.

The

variety of parts should be adapted to the nature of this ex-

pression.
5.

4.

In independent forms, the beauty is greatest when the character, whatever it is, is best preserved. In dependent forms, the beauty is greatest when the character
is

best adapted to that of the milieu.
distinction

51

The

which pervades British aesthetic theory between

beauty is of course natural to systems the chief terms of which apply to both nature and art. Alison makes more of
artificial

natural and

this distinction

so

is

more adequate on the

than does any other writer of the century, and by doing side of art than most of the eighteenth-

a niche and century aestheticians; most principles of criticism can find an explanation in his aesthetic theory. The beauty of art, as far as different from that of its natural subject, is termed by Alison "relative beauty."

Like natural beauty, relative beauty is expressive 5 it exof affections, however, but efficient and final presses not a content art to be the product of design, and are moved causes. perceive

We

by the exhibition
ceive
it

affords of the powers of the mind; and we perto be adapted to an end, whereby both the -fitness of the adapit

tation

regularity

and the utility of the end affect us. Alison produces experiments which indicate that the beauty of is wholly attributable to the expression of design. This ac-

174

Beautijul

and Sublime

count of regularity explains very neatly for Alison the course of hisdevelopment of the arts, a history which in turn lends support the to theory. The development of each art, as Alison sees it, exhibtorical

three stages: a primitive period in which the novelty of art causes stress to be laid on the design which differentiates it obviously from
its

nature, so that uniformity is the governing principle; a stage of mature development in which variety is increasingly introduced and becomes the leading principle of art, which comes to express the passions rather than the artist's ingenuity 5 an era of decline in which the
in the audirivalry of artists and the unregulated desire for novelty ence make the display of art itself again prevalent over the expres-

of design sion of the subject. just taste requires that expression should be subject to expression of character j for expression of character is more deeply affecting, more universally felt, and more permanent, arising from the invariable principles of human nature. One of the omitted parts of Alison's plan, it will be recalled,
discussion of the
is

A

enjoyment of painful subjects, especially as represented in art. Alison alludes only cursorily to this subject, but it is
possible to conjecture at the judgment he parent that artistry may yield a pleasure

might have made. It is apwhich can overbalance pain

produced by the
tation.

There may

subject, especially since this pain is weakened by imiin addition be "mechanical pleasures" accompany-

ing the beauty of design which might reconcile us to loss of the beauty of character. Yet Alison's principle that beauty of design is of an order inferior to beauty of character would necessarily relegate

works handling painful subjects to an inferior rank. This principle is less limiting than might be supposed, however, for Alison's conception of beauty
casually
art 5
is

term "painful" are

so comprehensive that many subjects one might really beautiful in actuality as well as in
is

melancholy, for instance,

eminently

fitted to

be the substratum

of beauty, the physical signs of age are beautiful as representing or suggesting a range of moral sentiments and so forth. The artist imitating such subjects, moreover, can point

up the beautiful

aspects

and

suppress or minimize the ugly, painful, and indifferent, just as he does in treating any other subjects. Cases would remain, doubtless, where

the very facts of imitation and design alone reconcile us to subjects with displeasing expressions. The question might be raised, whether

Alison could adopt Hume's notion of conversion of the passions, that the pain of the subject, weakened by removal, produces an excitement of the mind which can be turned to reinforce the emotion of

beauty evoked by the

artistry.

There

is

nothing incompatible with All-

Archibald Alison
son's

175

fact that he does not present it This limitation is, that he works almost wholly with ideas rather than with emotions 5 emotions are constantly referred to as the basis of beauty, to be sure, but there is no analytic of emotion in the Essays. I have already noticed that Alison passes by the question whether emobeauty has a

thought in

this idea.

But the

points to a limitation in his system.

peculiar

tional tone of

its

own, apart from that of the passion on which

it is

based and the pleasure arising from associative activity. And I think that he would not concern himself with the problem of interaction of
passions, to
cause, but

which the theory of conversion is a partial contribution. Relative beauty arises not only from inferences about the efficient

from apprehension of the

final cause.

The

complicated prob-

lems of proportion are brought by Alison under the head of fitness. The great principle of Reynolds the central form becomes a special case of proportion: in natural forms in which the fitness of proportions is not decisively determined either a priori or by experience,
"the
is

common Proportion is generally conceived to be the fittest, and therefore considered as the most beautiful.'' 53 The most curious
arise

problems of proportion
votes

with regard to architecture $ Alison de-

fifty pages to a minute survey of the external and internal proportions of architecture. His evidences are of the usual sort a

some

careful discrimination of sentiments, an examination of the customary uses of language, and a series of experiments which serve to determine the causal relations obtaining among the different variables. It

be useful to give a specimen of Alison's conclusions on such a architecture those topic. He considers the "internal" proportions of

may
of

rooms

and

finds that they

depend upon three

species of fitness:

for the superimposed weight, real or apparent 5 for the emotional character of the apartment (elegant, magnificent, gay, somber, or whatever) $ and for the particular purpose for which the apartment

Expressions constitute the PERMANENT M Beauty, and the third the ACCIDENTAL Beauty of an apartment." The first is really a negative condition, the second the source of posiis

destined.

"The two

first

tive beauty 5 these

the

first

two must unite in every beautiful apartment, as and third must in every convenient apartment. "The most

an apartment can exhibit," perfect Beauty that the Proportions of all these when Alison concludes, "will be Expressions unite 5 or when
the same relations of dimension which are productive of the Expression of sufficiency, agree also in the preservation of Character, and 5{J in the indication of Use."

Alison does not pause over the beauty of

utility,

merely referring

Ij6
the reader to

Beautiful and Sublime

Adam

Smith's Theory of the

Moral Sentiments. And

he hurries through the accidental beauty of forms, which depends

upon
is

temporary, or personal associations. Since accidental beauty thus limited, it has scant interest for a general theory of taste. It is
local,

interesting to note in this connection that associationism is often taken by its critics and by modern scholars as doing away with the possibility

Monk, for instance, argues that by translatand ing beauty sublimity into purely mental emotions, Alison's system shifted attention away from the object of aesthetic experience,
is

of standards in taste.

that if taste

a matter of association of ideas

it is

a matter of envi-

ronment and chance and we must fall back on the adage, de gusttbus non dis^utandum est> "itself the very negation of absolute beauty and absolute sublimity, as well as of a critical code which based its judgments upon a <prton conceptions of nature and beauty and truth." 56 But this opinion is not peculiar to Monk. Christopher Hussey tells
us that Alison "denied absolutely the existence of objective qualities inherent in objects, accounting for all emotions by the association of ideas aroused in the mind of the spectator. Anything might be beautiful if it aroused pleasant and therefore beautiful ideas. . The truth of Alison's theory cannot be denied. Its gradual abandonment
. .

has been caused, not by any fallacy, but by its devastating effect on every standard of beauty. According to it, every man's taste is as 57 Kallich tries to show that Alison, while a hygood as another's."
percritical neo-classicist,

was

at the

same time a romantic

relativist.

58

And McKenzie

urges that given Alison's method, it is impossible to 59 the of individual experience. reflection But it is entirely get beyond clear that Alison saw no such implication in his theory, which is a
if it

remarkable circumstance

be so obvious as the
it

modern

scholars

apparent that Alison would have carried out his projected analysis of the standard of taste by making ithe obvious distinction between universal associations and those which
believe. I think

would have us

are local, temporary, or personal.

The

test of truth,

Alison remarks

'(quite incidentally) at one point, "must finally rest upon the uni7 60 formity of our sentiments.' Again, he observes that

only through

knowledge of philosophical

criticism can the artist tell

whether

his

creations are "adapted to the accidental prejudices of his Age, or to the uniform constitution of the human Mind." 61 The scholars cited
all

veiy

much

universal traits of

exaggerate the idiosyncratic aspects of personality 5 the human nature, the common core of experience,

really bulk far larger. It may be true, as an historical proposition, that Alison's views, distorted and quoted out of context, have en-

beauty is proportional to expression of char- The normative all not being equal 5 when such expression is incompatible with will be most universally and most ^permanently in which the Expression of Utility is most fully prebeautiful. and posiexpression of physical fitness or propriety . acter. when the different beauties of form can be preserved together." 63 second and subsequent editions of the Essays were embellished with an additional chapter of two hundred pages' length. devoted to the analysis "Of the Beauty of the Human Countenance and Form" 5 burden. and those associ- ated to the body moved.Archibald Alison 177 couraged and justified antinomianism in aesthetics 5 that the doctrine properly understood has any such bearing is. Alison devotes a chapter to motion. attitude." Alison maintains. the aesthetic predominates effect is most perfect when the two expressions coindde. and that of direct expression of transient affections of the mind. to form. The most beautiful. The associations into which he resolves motion are of two kinds those associated to the motion as such. as The we anticipate. is that of slow Motion in a line of power (as effect of great In general. in all its most exquisite forms. In useful forms. felt as only which Matter. sublimity being the power. form. is always universality and permanence. to color. utility use. the sign of one great or amiable Character of Mind. beauty of character takes precedence over beauty of design. The conclusion with regard to the former is that both the sublimity and the beauty depend upon the expression opposed to external compulsion). of mental of whole beauty and sublimity of and gesture is attributable to expression. beauty of moderate or playful power. that of direct expression of character. and of course beauty of design over accidental beauty. "is that of rapid Motion in a straight Line. In ornamental forms. criterion. direct or indirect. "that Form Since the sense of sight perceives not only color and form but also motion. as he had to sound. I maintain. false. 62 even though the beauty of utility produces a sentiment served" in itself weaker than that evoked by beauty of character. is that the countenance. "The most sublime Motion." in is 6* With regard to form. of Curves. each is perfect when the composition of the face preserves pure form and and unmingled the predominant expression 5 the highest beauty or the heart of the Spectator sublimity is attained "when all fall upon as one whole. is The conclusion with regard to the countenance (more particularly) that there are three beauties: that color (as previously analyzed). the doctrine is that its beauty rises from the as a precondition. the expression of the body moved over that of the motion itself 5 naturally. traits. however.

proceeds by this method in arguing that since the sublimity and beauty of matter are not the result of material properties as such. or some law of our nature by which such colors appearing in the countenance immediately pro- ties duce the emotion of beauty. for aesthetics. but there has been no occasion to adduce an instance of the Method of Residues. that is. and evidence drawn up inductively under several heads is marshalled in confirmation of this inference and It in explication of the particular qualities signified by the variable colors of the countenance. except in the broad sense that the whole procedure of the second essay is the Method of Residues. Instances of four of Mill's canons of induction lems. But enough: the analysis is subtle. they must be the consequence of material properties as signs of something else. method have been cited hitherto . is Lord Kames important to observe especially as a point of contrast with that Alison never begs the question whether the knowl- edge of the expressions of matter is implanted in us by nature or arises through experience. the consequences of the hypothesis are drawn out and found to be in contradiction with experience.) But it will be illuminating to exam- method in the details of the system. intricate. of interest to determine the causes of this phe- . The second alternative is now shown to be unfirst tenable. he lays it down that the beauty of color must here arise from either an original beauty in the colors themselves. and exhaustive 5 and it fairly represents the power of an associational psychology to deal with the most complex of aesthetic probCertain problems within this analysis have a bearing on Alison's generally.178 tively Beautiful and Sublime from the expression of interesting or affecting characters of and that the beauty of composition arises (as in all other cases) mind. It is a question which. and accordingly we find the most elabine the application of this orate applications of it in this final chapter. When Alison considers the aesthetic character of the variable colors of the countenance. By its Method of the Residues will be employed most usually very nature. (The second essay. from the unity of expression. provided that the -fact of the expression be clear. in the latter parts of a system. or their significance to us of certain qualicapable of producing pleasing or interesting emotions. moreover. Now. need not be settled. the of these alternatives has been already ruled out in the chapter on color 5 no color is originally beautiful (though some may yield a mechanical pleasure). The Method of Residues now points to the third alternative. But one feels more certain of the fact itself when its ground is known 5 and it is.

human a The chapter on the human face and form involves Alison in another problem. which man derives his constitution it is is framed. both the presence of a lofty standard of character and conduct. is to reduce the number of inexplicable principles in great advance in philosophic method. and of the habitual government of itself by this high principle. kind of finishing touch to beauty and/or sublimity." 73 eighteenth-century aestheticians and certainly not a divine could treat of beauty and sublimity without exhibiting the final causes Few served by such a constitution of our nature. . The chapter now under consideration illustrations of Alison's cautious procedure. 66 and of the Alison endeavors to isofigure. 68 On power of other occasions. Grace is "different from 72 Beauty. late cursorily the experiences the associations. not only of design. Alison tells us. Alison. why motion with no why we always attribute regularity 70 visible cause or suggests volition. how- apparent that this inquiry into final causes no necessary ." 74 Despite this asseveration. following a tradition inherited from continental art critaestheticians attempted in a variety of ways to assimilate that elusive quality. It is found in the positions and motions of the human figure. feels obliged to treat of grace. he leaves the issue unresolved 5 earlier in discussing the expressive he does not attempt to determine 69 to design. . Throughout the century. had underlying He done the same much tempo in music." being distinguished by an emotion of respect and admiration apart from the nexus of feelings touched by simple beauty or sublimity. substantive rather than methodological. 67 sion of the features. power wisdom with which purposes for which ever. which appears in his system (as elsewhere) as a ics. "of that self-possession which includes in our belief. of self-command. but of benevolent design: vantage own mind. it is from inquiry into the laws of his which it gives to his own addition is much less in the or wisdom. in the movements of some animals. and the magnificent is formed. than in the evidence which it affords him of the . and (by personification) even in insensitive objects 5 and it is the chief object of painting and sculpture. how we come But to interpret the "language" of gesture the tendency of Alison's system to explain such and attitude. too. nature. grace. tation of the permanent of the In treating of interpre- of the exprescoloring countenance. ordinarily superimposed upon expression of emotion. to a variety of systems.Archibald Alison 179 affords several vivid 65 nomenon. though nearly allied to it. 71 phenomena. "until it terminates in the discovand the great adery. Curiosity is not satisfied in scientific inquiry. It appears to consist in an ex- pression.

or winds animate the face of Heaven. life heart those original conceptions which it is the if tendency of the vulgar pursuits of destroy. as if his majesty of nature. perhaps. with magic hand. wander where we will. and as conducting us. or melt in the dreams of moral good. Even upon the man of the most uncultivated taste. for Lord Kames. trees wave. final causes are like the providence of a deist without them. For Addison. in all its aspects around us. or the tenderness of his evening light. [the Creator's] providence. "nature. there are latent ties world are made to attract our infant by which they reach our hearts. to the throne of the DEITY. for Alison. touched. the pleasures of taste conduce to moral imrovement. to diminish. in the lone in his happier hours. to lead us.. things would go on quite as well These purposes of the Creator which Alison divines include the general and impartial dispersion of happiness (which would be arbiif beauty were "objective") and trarily and capriciously restricted the perpetual encouragement of the mechanic and liberal arts (which would soon become static if an "objective" beauty were once attained). clouds darken. all the springs of moral sensibility. the scenes of nature have some inexplicable charm: there is not a chord perhaps of the human heart which may not be wakened by their influence . by the universal language of these signs. and I believe there is no man of genuine taste. they are always the signs or expressions of higher qualities. kind of particular providence. But. to be born amid its nobler scenes. when once the key of our imagination is struck. who has not often felt." 76 . and rekindled in his of the moral or 75 intellectual excellence of his nature. to trains o fascinating and of endless imagery. and over the whole scenery.180 Beautiful and Sublime final causes were a part of the system. and in the indulgence of them to make our bosoms either glow with conceptions of mental excellence. some unseen spirit to dwell. not altogether to But beyond all else. ought only to be felt as signs of . There is not one of these features of scenery which is not fitted to awaken us to moral emotion. The moral influence of our appreciation of external naire is described in language as ardent as that of Wordsworth: While the objects of the material eyes.. mountains ascend. rivers flow. It may not be our fortune. But more important: since the emotions of taste are blended ith moral sentiment. which. 1 his noon-day. by which our moral sensibilities are called forth. to be adduced as deus ex machina whenever efficient causes proved esoteric . the sun sheds the cheerfulness of his morning the splendour of . and wherever they afford us delight.

is the limit which separates Vice from Virtue j which separates the disposiit was felt as expressive of . tions or affections 77 we approve. the only limit to the Beauty of the Human Countenance. This is sufficiently obvious from the whole of the second essay . . and he seems consistently to reduce aesthetic phenomena to ethical. the other mediately through the first to the passions and faculties of the mind. without dependence on trains of associated imagery. no physical law governs this beauty). Alison observes that "the union of every feature and colour has been experienced as beautiful. j essay to describe. . fall within the same genus as moral sentiments both are evaluative judgments relating one immediately." Yet the aesthetic phenomena do not become merely and purely For our sense of moral judgment pronounces directly and simply." throughout the Essays on Taste. when amiable or interesting sentiment j and . after demonstrating that beauty is found in the most opposite compositions of the countenance (and that. "the emotion of function of the first Beauty would be a simple and unassociated sentiment 3 and language everywhere would have conveyed it with the same unity and accuracy. but particular citations may give suitable emphasis to the point. Aesthetic feelings. as it does the sentiments of right or wrong. of justice or 7S he is only stating explicitly a distinction which is implicit injustice. consequently. When Alison argues that if there were an original beauty in the countenance. from those which we disapprove or despise. . . it is true.Archibald Alison 181 as these lead to the final question of this survey of the Alisonian aesthetic: is the precise connection between ethics Such views What aesthetics in this system? Are they even distinguishable disciwith distinct matters? Alison is a plines dealing subject and remarkably systematic writer. . Thus. But aesthetic feelings are differentiated from simple moral feelings by the peculiar mode of association which it was the ethical.

.

Sublime. and Picturesque .II Beautiful.

.

By mid-century the word was becoming a stock - epithet in description and criticism. [In] speaking. about scenery and buildings. and other similar adjectives. Johnson did employ it. Steele could employ the A word in dramatic dialogue in the sense "after the manner of painters. ". Knight." x This word "picturesque" had been naturalized in England for half a century before it was used as a term in theoretical aesthetic discussion. turesque century By 1705. William Aglionby had said of free and natural execution in painting. cities/ are familiar with the works of Gilpin. . or writing. as .CHAPTER 12 The Picturesque applied to the antiquities of Engdeclared the noted antiquary John Britton early in the nineteenth century. literature. sential and paramount import. romantic. it is a term of esful. in three instances at least. And although "picturesque" was never included in Johnson's dictionary. Pope praised two lines of Phillips for being "what the French call very picturesque^ 3 and notes to his Iliad pronounce two Homeric descrip3 tions picturesque. . Price. and It has become not only popular in English Alison. As early as 1685. to define other words. . hardly that of which writers of the picturesque school think. suppose of the Italian and French synonym. that is boldly" school a later. will be clearly recognised and unlish 3 WORD Picturesque. "This the Italians call working la 2 a usage strikingly like that of the picpittoresk. beauti- derstood by readers who sublime. and the etymologies contended for are usually employed to bolster theories of the pictur- Noneesque j but there is of course no doubt of the Romance origin. 4 Details of the etymology are mooted. Such a antedated development 185 . . but as definite and descriptive as the terms grand." though the manner in question was allegorical and academic. Dutch that the is reason to there "schilderachtig" theless.

" "pictoresque. it meant "eminently suitable for pictorial representation. "Picturesk" is a late effort at Angli- and is." also a rather late form." as affording a well-composed picture. he speaks of "poetical painting. figures." "picturesk. to the painting of Rembrandt: Dutch art critic of the early seventeenth century as Carel 5 Er Historian." 8 Writers less concerned with literature stress the pictorial sense of "picturesque. "picturesque" usually bore one of two meanings: when applied to literary style. ihme wohlgefallige It is possible that the concept has its origin in the Netherlands 5 but such speculation is at present too conjectural to pursue. sondern meistens einfaltige hat aber wenig antiche Poetische Gedichte. much in the fashion of Uvedale Price." and it was this sense which to become predominant and fashionable." and "peinturesque. Sandrart applies it. re(perhaps was invented to accord with) a different view of the 7 etymology a reference to the art rather than the artist. "Pictoresque" and "peinturesque." "Pittoresque. with suitably varied and harmonized form. Beside the usual form one finds "pittoresk. and descriptions as "picturesque. The first of these meanings became (and in some measure still is) a commonplace in the discussion of rhetoric and poetry 5 Blair (for instance) repeatedly up praises epithets. die doch voller aus der Natur 6 herausgesuchter Artigkeiten waren. Sublime." is early. as a painter could copy after. it meant "vivid" or "graphic." "pittoresque. and Picturesque van Mander was taken into word German and the employed "schilderachtig"5 half a century later by Joachim von Sandrart.1 86 Beautiful '. After the publication of "Estimate" Brown's letter on Keswick (1767) and Young's tours (1768-71). colors." like Aglionby's "pittoresk. productive of much speculation. the picturesque insinuated itself more widely into popular literature. of spelling "picturesque" is as variable as its meaning. But in Blair the two meanings I have and discriminated are rarely separate. cizing "picturesque" 5 flects In the early decades of the eighteenth century. and lights. reflects the Italian original as we shall see. the exceptional "picteresque" display equally clearly in their etymology a reference to the painter." as conjuring distinct and forcible images. sinnen lauffende. and to illustrate its use in was destined . these on canvas or in and sometimes when applied to imitations of words." The "picteresque. alludien oder seltsame und nicht in sonderbares Nach- und schilderachtige (wie sie die Niderlander nennen) Sachen gemahlet." declares that "a good Poet ought to give us such a landscape." by an obvious metaphor 5 when applied to scenes in nature.

when illuminated by the links and torches which the servants in his nightshirt. And Lismahago proves to be a highly picturesque appendage." Even to an ingenue. Jerry Melford finds the scene of Clinker admonishing the felons in their chains. acting Pierrot. just before Gilpin's picturesque travels set a picturesque taste. for a Rosa. I think. for although the picturesque point of view first introduction into England a strong tie with history painting. Matthew Bramble often finds sublimity 5 Jerry make pressed so deeply. yet he thinks that the Orkneys and Hebrides less has vision Here view. Vauxhall would not. or ascent to the gallows! what lights and shadows! what a group below! what expreswhat an aspect!" 9 Sir Thomas is eccentric in his humor sion above! but not in his sense of the picturesque.The Picturesque 187 standard for this period. picturesque fit for a Raphael." Sir Thomas cries out. what a subject! O. what caricatural O. or to their comic equivalents 5 but this is not the peculiar locus of the had on its picturesque. I shall discuss briefly the picturesque in Smollett's of Humphry Clinkery first published in 1771. have seemed "like a picture" but strikjects at . the grouping and expression. And Humphry Clinker abounds with appreciations of (especially Scottish) is not imscenery. "O che O. Jerry "The held up to light him in roba! his descent. he is chased by the skeleton. a Schalken! Zooks. And when he escapes from the fire at Sir Thomas Bulford's Melford reports the scene as a subject for rueful painting: aspect of the lieutenant in his shirt." 10 These examples have all referred to history or to genre painting. I'll give a hundred guineas to have it painted what a fine descent from the cross. a Rembrandt. with a fastened under his chin." And the sense plastic "pictorial" appears frequently. The use of literary "picturesque" "vivid" appears as Matthew Bramble claims for Commissary Smollett's "Ode to Leven Water" the merit The Expedition of being "at least picturesque and accurately descriptive. for serious writers too apply the term to comic scenes: Malone remarks of an early caricatura of Reynolds that "it was a kind of picturesque travesty of Raffaelle's SCHOOL OF ATHENS. His horror is "divertingly picturesque" when. made a very picturesque appearance. a "picturesque and romantic" picturesque which direct connection with painting j and there is one passage premore sophisticated sense of "picturfigures satirically the later and the meretricious and miscellaneous obthinks Melford esque" Lydia : Vauxhall "picturesque and striking. landscape soon became the field for picturesque vision. and his long lank limbs quilted night-cap and posteriors exposed to the wind.

are wholly turesque gradually declined attitudes omitted. and Picturesque is a fair synonym for some of the certainly was. finally. a closely literal survey of theory. the the differences never reconciled. a corresponding variety of meanings. and "striking" that term was in some measure after applications of "picturesque" ing it divorced from especial connection with painting. but without the superimposition of a more comprehensive theory of the which are his subject. RQSociety for Pure The most English . But the popular uses of the word which I have illustrated were soon supplemented. There are. as the picin public and critical favor. as my three ways in which such an acintroductory chapter has indicated. Once "picturesque" became a part of technical aesthetic vocabulary. just at the time when picturesque ignore enunciated by theorists $ the second implicitly impugns the inof the theories j and the third (which is here and had become generally adopted and when practical applications of the picturesque were being most fully developed $ the theory and practice of the nineteenth century and modern times. Picturesque. to give either an order or a termination to the account of the discussion. This study terminates at 1810. Sublime. as a philological inquiry. it is difficult problems never settled. a superior picturesque being historian . and so years. my account. like that of other philosophical issues. while ascertained from the vagueness of popular use. handled can be It count can be managed. is never brought to a close. previous theories of the examined in the light of a schematism.Beautijul. is the renaissance of the picturesque in very recent But before entering upon esque. with attenof the arguments conflicting tion directed upon philosophical issues where these are important. the It is this variety which makes a history of the picturesque term or the character difficult of accomplishment. it would acquire the systematic ambiguterms. with the influence of philosophical and methodological principles minimized 5 it can be composed dialectically. provided by the theoreticians can be written. it was inevitable that. it may briefly instances of philological and dialectical histories of be useful to describe the pictur- ambitious attempt to settle this philosophic problem in one of his by examination of language is that of Robert Bridges tracts entitled "Pictorial. As the picturesque was fitted into a ity of other philosophical the term "picturesque" acquired variety of systems of aesthetics. The first of these analyst upon the theories the intellectual causes determining the propomodes tends to sitions tegrity adequacy since discussion of the picturesque. attempted) has its defect too for.

stripped of all but the most general connotations. It is apparent that the definition of Bridges is of no use precisely in all those cases where accurate definition should be of most use in systematic and technical discussions." or use it." Now at these definitions. word pictorial should therefore come to own. to designate Hegel's mid-species. this can be true of writers like Uvedale Price. in this one sense alone? In sharp contrast to this verbal treatment of the problem is the discussion of Christopher Hussey in The Picturesque: Point of View. and has its proper definition in denoting an ultra-romantic school which has its own proprieties and excesses [i. denoting such 'forms' as have been commonly recognized by all painters as suitable and ef13 fective in their art. or species. Bridges considers that we must differentiate their meanings (even. The exclusion of all concern with ideas in the discussion of terms is made still more emphatic by the declaration that "What it was the fashion in his [Gilpin's] day to deem essentially is pictorial "pictorial" and "picturesque" ready to hand. this despite the use of two philosophical aestheticians in arriving is clearly a linguistic argument. Bridges imports HegePs accomplish this differclassification of art as Symbolic. how can conversational use be set up as a norm for philosophy or science to follow? And is it true that even in should always everyday parlance we always use "picturesque. Bridges does not explain. in come have How fact. I suppose." All painting is Romantic 5 but "the term picturesque has lost its generic meaning. the very title of which implies an examination of ideas Studies in a . if we subscribe to a calls for their identification). entiation. 11 the word "picturesque" must been appropriated to the meaning which "pictorial" has for vis. each of which genera contains three analogous this classification. however.e. who aim to diits vorce the term from reference to pictorial representation. For nothing of the philosophical principles or method of analysis of either Hegel or Ruskin is taken over. From and from Ruskin's account of the picturesque school in England. Even if these pseudo-Hegelian meanings be taken over for pop- ular conversational use. which he styles classical-Romantic." Bridges does not admit intrusion of philosophic principles into the eighteenth-century usage of "pictur- esque" 5 he argues. Grotesque. To Romantic. only a schematism of categories. "picturesque" romantic-Romantic] The = its .. a minor question. Classical. with both theory which Classical. "the right use of the words -pictorial and 'picturesque may be deduced." 12 Now.The Picturesque 189 mantic. that since the word "pictorial" did not into general use before iSoo.

. and the art of travel may 5 combination the single 'art of landscape. romantic art the imagination." a phase in which. in the aesthetic relation of man to nature. painting. but not necessarily 14 is the first step towards bad art. The period of imitalearnt had imagination 15 This is history arranged in accordtion is the picturesque period. arbe said to have been fused into chitecture. feeling through is the art of seeing [but] guide for how to see." Classic art addresses the reason. "Each art passed through a phase of imitating painting before develthat came after. but basing his and gaiety" of primarily upon painting. oreticians. to underrate imaginative. . and so forth. it could at the visual "accentuated qualities dropped. picturesque art that the first step should natural was it and values aesthetic abstract j nature in of visual be the through education of . felt at a distance. because painting as soon as the imagination had absorbed what painting had to teach could be feel for itself. and the intermediate process it.' transition from classicism to romanticism. "poetry. qualities appreciation the eye to recognize qualities which painters had previously isolated. . It displays taste. Picturesque art is imperfect art. Sublime. The might be called 'the " The was in the case of each art a picturesque phase Picturesque. and of expense of rational ones on the the other. through the pictorial appreciation of nature. and to prejudge the merits of the its artists and belittle its thepicturesque point of view. scholarship. ra- analyto involve me to it but smooth the 5 appears neat. from the monstrous baroque agitation of . Drawing from all the arts. progression distortion of many of the data. The dialectical Wylie Sypher has set the picturesque in a different distinctions framework.I go Beautiful. and "occurred at the point when an art shifted its appeal from the reason to the imagination. objective subjective. is and Picturesque universally acknowledged and I most valuable study of the rather than of words. and that "sublimity is a tremor. and "the picturesque interregnum between classic and romantic art was the imagination to form the habit of necessary in order to enable Pictures were in each case taken as the the ." Imperfect as it is. when the eye and the oping into the romantic phase to work for themselves. and wit j but Hussey has his own sometimes throws the picturesque theorists "point of view" which into a false Hussey sees the picturesque as "a long phase perspective." Picturesque art thus ideas on associated one hand. This book the acquiesce in judgment to be the topic. . gardening. . eyes. Sypher finds that the "suavity Burkeian beauty identify it with the rococo. ." ance with a scheme of dialectical contraries: classic tional sis is romantic. .

" Temperamentally. trivial even more than Hussey's. and the writers on the implication and without spectability. ysis. is available . "the XVIII Century found it embarrassing to surrender so recklessly. no (which are lyric) . a sentimentalized sublimity. ." 16 or otherwise inherent tensions. . abstract. but the picturesque has.The Picturesque igi Michelangelo or Milton. drama . Sypher's analysis. The picturesque was a characteristic In Sypher's analboth sublime and are more shallow than however. picturesque the baroque from which they derive. and thus in sought the picturesque. without pejorative refraction through an alien theory. . in its origins. the excitement of the sublime without its abandon. both are akin is to pathos rather than to tragedy. a more evident connection with beauty than with sublimity. . to restore the theories of the picturesque to some measure of philosophic re- picturesque. for not only do none of the theorists of the picturesque seem conscious of the motives ascribed to them. for they do not reflect "internal to either picturesque or sublime XVIII Century appropriation of the baroque. One purpose of this study will be to view the picturesque. In consequence. makes the entire picturesque movement and inferior." 17 Sypher's account highly and finds little enough support in the concrete data.

the tendency to consider rough and irregular scenes of nauses the is ture especially picturesque." the applicathe older and broader suitable for a picture. The definition given in the preliminary 4 is simply this: is which agreeable in a picture.CHAPTER 1 3 William Qilpin PICTURESQUE" by William Gilpin. who made attitude of was rescued from the indeterminacy of fashion it the key term of the new aesthetic earliest exponent." however.2 Gilpin which term "picturesque" conventionally: the picturesque is that suited to pictorial representation. Terms" more general "Explanation of "a term expressive of that peculiar kind of employed. In the youthful and anonymous Dialogue at Stow (i748). is execution. expression. in its various aspects of composition. In the later and more widely influential Essay on Prints? to be sure. which he was himself the The "venerable founder and master of the picturesque school. lighting. is very landscapes of Ridinger are praised for be- make tion is conventional. 192 . "picturesque. The word. and the term is acceptation. and so forth. however. though his analysis of the picturesque by the more subtle 1 and philosophical studies of was soon superseded Uvedale Price and Payne Knight." beauty." Gilpin exerted a profound and lasting influence upon the taste not only of England but of Europe. The sparingly ing "picturesque and romantic. drawing. in its The entire Essay on Prints implicitly a discussion of picturesque beauty in this traditional sense. the subject itself demanded that Gilpin avoid the appropriation of the picturesque to wild and intricate scenes exclusively. There is already apparent. to be didactic But when Ridinger's scenes of hunting are said and "least picturesque of any of his works. accordingly." a phrase applied also to the landscapes of Sadler 5 and this is the use of the word which Gilpin was to employed. to find in landscape the peculiar locus of the picturesque.

in which. were immensely popular affected British taste in natural and artificial scenery. between such objects as are beautiful [merely]. gardeners. Gilpin least impressive. all beauty to conand the face of nature to be examined only sist in pcturesque beauty by the rules of fainting" The pleasures of imagination are various. painters. "On Picturesque Beauty. unhappily. which please the eye in their natural state*. one source of beauty arises from quality in objects. and the middle deprinciples are applied in the six volumes of tours all which bear titles of the form. capable of being illustrated by 8 fainting" Gilpin is careful to emphasize that the picturesque is a his dedicatory letter species of beauty."*' the phrase. In Three Books. On Which is Added New Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty Illustrated by the Scenes of Forest in Hampshire. The problem of that mode: "What is that Gilpin's essay is to define the causes of 9 which particularly marks them as picturesque?" When Gilpin remarks that "in examining the real object. and in defends himself against the charge of "supposing. 10 we 1 smoothness. though philosophical dispute over its intension was later to en- gross aestheticians. fine aquatints. and Other Woodland Views. and On Sketching Landscape: to a Poem. and the picturesque is only one additional mode. that the picturesque of roughness and intricacy was defined and Gilpopularized 5 the extension of the term was pretty well fixed by pin. not a distinct character. On Landscape Painting? The general in these are reduced to principles of landprinciples developed essays scape in the Remarks on Forest Scenery. if a distinction were established. and amateurs. and which each claims the honor of terminating) about the nature of beauty: "Disputes about 3 beauty/ Gilpin declares. which please from some quality. The first of the Three Essays. or neatness.William. attention must be confined to the theoretiis cal essays. we shall that species of elegance. which began to appear in 1782. Gilfin 193 It was in Gilpin's picturesque travels. which certainly exists. Observations [upon some fart of Great Britain] vised in it Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty. an obvious conse- call . illus- trated by Gilpm's and greatly In this study. and those. 6 This work. "might perhaps be involved in less confusion. which find. indeed. Beauty. is of an intermediate degree of abstraction. "the real object? with art itself but with nature consuggests that his theory deals not sidered as a subject for art 5 and this is. The most theoretical of these works of Gilpin is his Three Essays: On Picturesque Picturesque Travel. and such as are picturesque between those." attempts to dispel the confusion (which all philosophers lament. however. then. 7 All of these volumes.

194

Beautiful, Sublime,

and Picturesque

quence of the general sense Gilpin assigns to the "picturesque." But in picturesque representation, neatness and smoothness, "instead of being picturesque, in reality strip the object, in which they reside, of
picturesque beauty."* In fact, Gilpin continues, forms the most essential point of difference between the "roughness that particular qualand the beautiful, picturesque; as it seems to be in makes which painting. I use the genobjects chiefly pleasing ity,
all pretensions to
2

eral

term roughness; but properly speaking roughness

relates only

to the surfaces of bodies: when we speak of their delineation, we use the word ruggedness. Both ideas however equally enter into the picas well as in the turesque 5 and both are observable in the smaller, 1S ." induction . of nature. supports this prinquick larger parts
.

A

an overgrown ciple: the painter prefers ruins to perfect architecture, dishevelled with face locks an a track to finished cart aged garden,

smoother beauty of youth, a human figure in action to one in repose, a cart horse or an ass to a polished Arabian. (Sydney Smith summed up the difference between beautiful and picturesque in reto the

marking that "the Vicar's horse is beautiful, the Curate's pcturesque"**) Price and others urge that the induction is imperfect but Gilpin casts about anxiously to discover reasons for what he conj

ceives to be this general preference.

ment

painter's love of the shaggy stems partly from the encouragea rough subject gives to a sketchy facility of execution. It is not only that a rougher touch is easier to master than a smoother and

The

style Gilpin does not stress this point, which is not likely to appeal to the spectator expecting skill in the artist 3 rather, "a free, bold touch is in itself pleasing." 15 Gilpin gives no reason for
this effect,

more elegant

though it is pretty clear that associations with ideas of unconstrained ease underlie it. But "it is not merely for the sake of his
execution, that the painter prefers rough objects to smooth. The very 16 essence of his art requires it." Picturesque composition, in the first

place, "consists in uniting in one whole a variety of parts 5 and these 17 parts can only be obtained from rough objects." Rough objects, again, alone yield what Gilpin terms "effect of light and shade"

massed and graduated lights and shades, with richness of minute variations, and "catching lights" on prominences. In coloring, too,
roughness affords greater variation. In sum, roughness is more various 5 the taste for the picturesque is a taste for a greater measure of
complexity and intricacy than either beautiful or sublime affords. Gilpin supports his reasons with an experiment. One of his aquatints
exhibits "a

smooth knoll coining forward on one

side, intersected

by

William Gilfin
a

195

smooth knoll on the other; with a smooth plain perhaps in the midand a smooth mountain in the distance," 18 while a companion aquatint shows the same general scene broken into irregular and jutting forms, marked by rugged rocks, clothed with shaggy boskage, and enlivened by two figures and a ruined castle. This experiment
dle,

can not, however, quite pretend to be an instance of the Method of Difference: the second print is not merely rougher; it brings with it all the interest of complicated imitation and all the charms of maniof the effect
fold associations. Gilpin passes over the crucial question, is to be attributed to these causes?

how much

He does, however, pause to explain away apparent exceptions to the principle that roughness is the ideal subject for art. Those really smooth objects which may have a good effect in a picture, he argues,
are apparently rough or highly varied: the lake seems rough from the broken light on its surface undulations, or from the reflection of' rough objects; the horse's smooth coat displays the play of muscle;
1

beneath ; the smoothness of plumage is only the ground for its breaking coloration 5 the polish of the column only displays the irregular-

Or (if the preceding does not convince) smoothbe may picturesque by contrast, adding piquancy to roughness. These explanations are specious, but it is clear that there is a difficulty,
ity of the veining.

ness

and that
this

it

has not been met so adequately as to remove all doubt;

Price was subsequently to direct a part of his criticism of Gilpin to

vulnerable point.
difficulty set aside,

however, Gilpin seems to have solved resumes the analysis: "Having thus from he his instead, a variety of examples endeavoured to shew, that roughness either red, or affiarent, forms an essential difference between the beautifal, and the picturesque; it may be expected, that we should point out

This

problem. But

is obvious enough, why the painter but it is not so obvious, why the smooth: prefers rough an essential diference between obquality of roughness should make 19 This suited to artificial representation" jects of beauty, and objects

the reason of this difference. It
objects to

The question is, why do we come to approve which would look well in pictures? Implicit in the very question is the recognition that our liking for the real obfrom an association with painting, but has an injects is not merely and obdependent basis (although, perhaps, a basis so concealed
is

a subtle distinction.

in nature of things

scured that a knowledge of painting is usually requisite to cultivate the natural aptitude). If this is Gilpin's point, he should be led here
into the kind of inquiry in

which Price

later

engaged;

if it is

not, his

!

96

Beautiful, Sublime,

and Picturesque

terminated with the determination of the reainquiry should have sons why the rough and rugged pleases in painting. In any event, Gilpin fails to discover the natural basis of the "esof natural beauty and those suited sential difference" between
objects

to artificial representation.

Four hypotheses are tested and rejected: art and delights solely in na(j) That "the picturesque eye abhors is only another with abounds art as ture: and that regularity, which with nature of and the irregularity, name for smoothness-, images which is only another name for roughness, we have here a solution 20 But art is not invariably regular and many art of our
5

question."

j

objects

subjects

are excellent et cetera drapery, shipping, ruined castles, is based upon the in (2) That the picturesque
painting.

and variety, to which the rough ideas es"ha-ppy union of simplicity 21 But the beautiful in general equally with sentially contribute." of its denominated picturesque is characterized by this that
species

art of painting can more readily happy union. (5) That the imitative imitate rough objects. This, however, is false in fact. (Gilpin had, to

be sure, asserted something like this in treating facility of execution; the present point, however, concerns -fidelity, not mechanical facility, of imitation.) (4) That painting is not strictly imitative, but deceptouches of the painter permit concealment of tive $ that the

rough

the deception 5 and that rough objects permit rough touches. But touches and these last are rough objects may be executed by smooth

then picturesque.

second excepted, these confrom considerations involving art. Now, the jectures are drawn to which they are addressed has meaning only if we supIt is interesting to observe that, the

question

difference of picturesque and pose that the reason of the essential beautiful is found in nature and not in art 5 for, if the delight in the picturesque is based only on some kind of association with art, the reasons already given for the painter's preference of it are sufficient, exists. Gilpin's conjectures, then, are an ignoratio and no

problem

elenchi; the answer to the question must be found elsewhere, peror Alison, or Stewhaps in the directions taken by Price, or Knight,
art.

Thwarted by

hands in despair: "Thus

his methodological error, Gilpin throws up his infoiled, should we in the true spirit of

the cause, and own we cannot quiry, persist} or honestly give up search out the source of this difference? I am afraid this is the truth,

we may assume. Inquiries into 'prinCould we even gain satisfaction in ciples rarely end in satisfaction. our present question, new doubts would arise. The very first prinwhatever
airs

of dogmatizing

William Gilpin
ciples of
is
.
. .

197

our art would be questioned. should be asked, 22 What is taste?" To clinch his beauty? argument, Gilpin pretends to examine the debates of the learned on taste 5 he hears authors contend for the cultivation of innate talents, for utility, com-

We

What

mon sense, a special sense of beauty, proportion generally, and particular canons of proportion. "Thus," he concludes, "in our inquiries
we go on without end, and without satisfaction. The human understanding is unequal to the search. In philosophy we inquire for them in vain in physics in metaphysics in morals. Even in the polite arts, where the subject, one should imagine, is less recondite, the inquiry, we find, is equally vague. We are puzzled,
into first frincifles)

and bewildered 5 but not informed,
words.
.

all is uncertainty 5

a strife of

.

."

23

Such a disclaimer can not be expected to satisfy the pride of philosophers 3 Gilpin leaves an opening here for re-examination of the entire question. Before advancing to such re-examinations, however,
I shall describe briefly the other essays of the present volume. Baffled in his search for causes, Gilpin turns, in the second essay, "On Picturesque Travel," to closer examination of the effects. Picturesque

beauty of every kind, but especially, of course, the picturesque. The distinction between beauty and sublimity might be expected to afford a corresponding
its

travel has for

object natural

and

artificial 2*

division of the picturesque 5 but since Gilpin has defined "picturesque"
to denote "such objects, as are frofer subjects for painting"
25
it

must be granted that "sublimity alone cannot make an object 'pic26 Mere vastness, the merely terrific, does not lend itself turesque"
to depiction 5 only

an admixture of the beautiful can render sublimity

the sublime, picturesque. Granted this proviso, Gilpin is ready to admit on scenes of even descants and an as of too, object picturesque travel, Addison's of The third member horror."^ triad, the "pcturesque
novel, is rarely picturesque 5 the picturesque eye is not attracted to the curious and fantastic, but "is fond of the simplicity of nature 5
2S These usual forms most beauty in her most usual forms." are not, however, insipid 5 the strongly marked, the "characteristic," to the is most picturesque. So essential, indeed, is the characteristic as a whole a beautiful scene of remarks even that Gilpin picturesque

and

sees

but with no strongly characteristic parts, that "it exhibits such a specimen of the picturesque (if I may speak in terms seemingly contradictory) as
is

not well calculated to

make

a picture."

29

"After the objects of picturesque travel," says Gilpin (with a
little flourish

of organizational skill),

"we

consider

it's

sources of

Beautiful, Sublime,
. .

and Picturesque

30 These consist in the pursuit itself and the at." amusement. come tainment. In the attainment we are sometimes so happy as to to are usually reduced admiring parts. upon an agreeable whole, but

great

be "scientifical," conjecturing amendments and of nature or works of artj but the forming comparisons with scenes scenes is enthusiastic: "We are most depleasure from natural

Our

pleasure

may

when some grand scene, tho perhaps of incorrect composition, . the eye, strikes us beyond the power of thought. . before rising enthusiastic an the of this soul, In this pause of intellect deliqumm
lighted,
.
-,

sensation of pleasure overspreads it, previous to any examination by the rules of art. The general idea of the scene makes an impression,

before any appeal is plation of the object

made

to the

31

judgment."

But beyond contemopen before us: our

to sketch, first general ideas are formed, of as a free exercise fancy, an exercise by way of remembrance, then even without the pencil. "There may be more which can be

itself, 32

new

vistas of delight

and from these we learn

indulged

pleasure," Gilpin declares,
in recollecting,

and recording, from a few transient lines, the scenes we have admired, than in the present enjoyment of them. If the scenes indeed have peculiar greatness, this secondary pleasure cannot be attended with those enthusiastic feelings, which accompanied the real exhibition.
be a calmer species of pleasure, it is more the idea of a sort of uniform, and uninterrupted. It flatters us too with

But, in general, tho

it

may
33
.

creation of our

own.

.

.

capable noteworthy that Gilpin finds objects of of nature. The picturesque travworks the than enthusiasm arousing some contempt for the haunts of men, to eler, in fact, is
It
is

art less

of

apt

acquire

on landscape. The unnaturalness of the garden, the limitations of painting become more obvious to the "The more refined our taste grows enthusiast of the
which have so often a poor
effect

picturesque.

from the study of nature" Gilpin generalizes, "the more insipid are the works of art. Few of it's efforts please. The idea of the great original is so strong, that the copy must be pure, if it do not disgust. But
the varieties of nature's charts are such, that, study

them

as

we

can,

new

varieties will always arise:
it is

and
it

let

our taste be ever so refined,

her works, on which

formed

(at least
5

when we

consider

them

as

and furnish fresh sources both objects,} must always go beyond 34 There is a paradox here: a system of pleasure and amusement."
which
defined by
isolates a certain property of nature for admiration, a property its excellence as a subject for art, comes at last to reject

William Gilpin
the art for the nature which was at
is

199
its

served above that Gilpin

only subject. I have obled to the point of redefining the picturesque as a universal complex of properties pervading both nature and
first

art,

and acting upon our physical organism or our mental
effect peculiar to itself.

associations

to

again a picturesque with a basis independent of art is needed to resolve the paradox of setting out to find the qualities of pictures in nature and returning with a

produce an

Here

preference of nature to pictures. Gilpin's third essay deals with one of the "sources of amusement" afforded by picturesque travel: sketching landscape. His precepts have a practical bent, yet they rest upon the aesthetic ideas of the first essay. The subject is handled in a natural order: composition
in

(both design in the selection of subject and its parts, and disposition arrangement of them), chiaroscuro, coloring the order of execu-

tion.

Sketching

is

based upon general ideas picked up in picturesque
in finished

travel 5 even
35

drawings and pictures, in sketches "general ideas only must be looked for; not the peculiarities of por-

more than

trait."

Before turning to the criticism of Gilpin's work by Uvedale Price, which leads directly into the burst of picturesque theory and practice
in the last decade of the century, I should

mention the observations of on the Mason as an intermediary, Gilpin Reynolds picturesque. Using

submitted a draft of his three essays to Reynolds as early as 1776. The latter replied with a letter on the picturesque, addressed to

which Mason forwarded to Gilpin. 36 Gilpin's distinction of picturesque from ordinary beauty is neatly reduced by

Mason, a

letter

Reynolds, whose dialectical method and generalizing tendency hardly allow for according the picturesque either co-ordinate status with the
beautiful or even that of a distinct species of the beautiful.

With

characteristic politeness, Reynolds seems to put Gilpin's argument on a firmer basis as he brings it into his own system:

An
good

object

is

said to be picturesque in proportion as it

would have a

effect in a picture.

applied with propriety, it is applied solely to the works of nature. Deformity has less of nature in proportion as it is deformed or If the

word

is

common course of nature. Deformity cannot [be] ; beauty only omits the picturesque. Beauty and picturesque [Reynolds regularly which does not article] are therefore synonymous. This is my creed, contradict any part of the Essay; but I think is the great leading principle
out of the
is

which includes

37
it.

200

Beautijul, Sublime,

and Picturesque

is certainly more Reynolds grants that "roughness, or irregularity this carries with because or smoothness regularity, picturesque than and various more of art, nature being irregular than it the

appearance
unless

art

generally

is.

stroyed,

... Where art has been, picturesque is we make this exception, which proves the rule,

dethat

nature itself, by accident, may be so formal or unnatural as to have the effect of art ... you may then make nature more picturesque like herself, that is, more like what she by art, by making her more 88 In fact, Gilpin's first rejected hypothesis about the generally is." satisfies Reynolds well 5 "my opinessential nature of the
ion

picturesque he declares, and he is puzzled that perfectly expressed" by it, the contrary it unsatisfactory. Reynolds explains away Gilpin thinks
is

instances

which Gilpin had adduced those draperies, ships, and ruined castles which appear to advantage in painting and with that "a painter's nature is whatever he imithem
Gilpin's principle
3d

tates,

whether the object be what

is

commonly
found

called natural, or ar-

tificial."

The

castle (for instance) is

to please

from "an

asso-

ciation of ideas by sending the some new sentiment

producing made a sort of natural object.

mind backwards into antiquity and or by being marked by time, and
.

.

."

40

For Reynolds, irregularity is nature, nature is beauty, and beauty this picturesque is not the shaggy picturesque of is picturesque. But and broken colors the rough textures, fragmented outlines, Gilpin, defects. Accordmeasure some all in to of which would be, Reynolds, last at was when Gilpin ready to publish ingly, fifteen years later, his essays and sent them again for the imprimatur of Reynolds,
Reynolds took a different
as Gilsuggesting that "picturesque" to the excellences of the inferior schools, pin describes it is "applicable works of Michael Angelo, Raphael, The the to than rather higher. the have &c. appear to me to nothing of itj whereas Reubens, and 41 This else." to have said Venetian painters may almost be nothing not to the definition of picturesqueness, the statecomment
tack,

applies

ment of its denotation as comprising objects suitable for painting, for suited for painting 5 it higher and lower schools alike depict objects which of the Gilpin's induction qualities description applies rather to
had indicated were peculiarly fitted for pictorial representation the connotation, that is, which does not (so Reynolds is arguing)
respond to the denotation.
to
cor-

Reynolds appears
sented themselves at

to retract, in the last

paragraph of

his letter of

1791, his opinion of fifteen years earlier:
first

"Whatever

objections pre-

view," he confesses, "were done

away on

William Gilpin
a closer inspection j
42

201
is

and

I

am

not quite sure, but that
to

the case in

regard to the observation,

which I have ventured

make on the word

pctwesque"
changed
at

But

it

does not seem to

me

that Reynolds has really

his mind. His earlier remarks, which appear to be directed the definition, reject this new aesthetic character as anything different from beauty; his later remarks, which appear to discuss the rather the than definition, accord the picturesque an indescription

ferior status, that already granted

it

in the tenth discourse,
43

which

was written almost
change,
it

at the time of the first letter.
is

If there be

might be that Reynolds

no longer so

insistent

any on exclud-

ing art works as subjects for painting} but this is no fundamental part of his doctrine, and, stated as flatly as he puts it in 1776, seems
false.

his brief

Gilpin sees the distinction of definition from description and in answer reaffirms the definition while confessing his igno-

rance of the grand style and conceding that his roughness is probably characteristic of the lower styles. This is implicitly an admission that

being based on a partial survey of painting, and that his description does not tally with
his analysis of the picturesque
as

was imperfect,

his definition
tinct.

although

it

may

describe something genuinely dis-

Picturesque theory developed by keeping the description and

seeking for

new

definitions

and for new causal

analyses.

Vague

as are the indications
it is

of the picturesque,

which Gilpin gives of a causal analysis he would have possible to conjecture that

been more sympathetic
count.

to an associational than a physiological ac-

He

is

through the imagination with tunics, irises, and retinas."
pears to

decisive in proclaiming that the picturesque eye sees that "the eye has nothing to do

picturesque

44

At

times, Gilpin's picturesque ap-

depend upon

association with concrete wholes, as in his re-

natural scenes. But this peated resentment at the intrusion of art into kind of association is not prominent in Gilpin } his picturesque depends chiefly upon associations with abstract qualities with roughness of texture, with irregularity of outline, with contrasting lights and shades, with variegated and graduated colors* These associations

he does not attempt to

trace,

and

this omission invites further explo-

ration of the picturesque.

Still more important.CHAPTER 1 4 Sir Uvedale Trice T TVEDALE l^J west PRICE. an important figure. the of the and combined philosspeculations picturesque principles." Price undertakes just he observes. Gilpin gave delimited the real scope of the esque qualities which unrealistically art. 1 involved in paradox: though Gilpin had left picturesque theory that which appears to adunderstanding the picturesque to be merely an account of picturvantage in pictorial representation. that Price bestill came. such a reformulation. Like Price his neighbor in adjoining Shropshire. Bart. a gentleman of landed property in the of England. a difference indeof the painter's art. His works on the pictur- opher the principal esque remain monument of picturesque doctrine. he was no mere theorist 5 Foxley. as champion said to anticipate modern views. he sought. But it is as a man and theorist of the picturesque. on Herefordshire his laid out estate. as a young man he translated from something of a classical scholar Pausanias. and yet had failed to discover the essential nature and efficiency of those properties." Noting that the popular sense 202 . "There are few words.. and late in life is Greek and Latin proprepared a study of nunciation which of taste. inconsistently with his painter's definition of the picturesque. 'Svhose meaning has been less accurately determined 2 than that of the word picturesque. with the practical taste of the artist. and in some measure remains. some essential difference in nature be- tween the picturesque and the merely beautiful. for party services j a gentleman farmer he contributed occasionally to Arthur Young's Annals of Agriculture. Richard Payne Knight. was a Whig parliamentarian he was created Sir Uvedale. Since Gilpin pendent of the special requirements some special relaof an out had pointed qualities bearing assemblage tion to the art of painting. the way was open for a reformulation of the problem which would avoid these embarrassments.

-Q 2 PL. <0 o\ .

.

.

.

. Price insists that such distinction must exist. has violated every principle of painting. objects. are to be judged of by the great leading principles of Painting. for no one supposes the terms synonymous. which uniformly produce the same effects in all visible and. which principles. Price aims. for the purpose of improving real landscape". not in what sense certain words are used . practically. to point out "the use of studying pictures. according to the same analogy. though they are really founded in nature. to determine the general causes and effects of the picturesque in all the works of nature and art. but Gilpin's definition. but of all visible objects whatever. . Price intends to show qualities "that the picturesque has a character not less separate and distinct than either the sublime or the beautiful. is "at once too vague. but never succeeded in isolating: What is it in the nature of picturesque objects which renders them different from beautiful objects independently of reference to pictures? Having determined. to solve the problem which Gilpin was constantly on the verge of stating. nor less independent of the art of painting. Gilpin erred in adopting this common acceptation as exact and "sublime. Price declares. in his general character of the picturesque. because of the exclusive reference to a particular art. is of course demolished.Sir Uvedale Price 203 ("depictable") is not properly distinguished from "beautiful" and which terms Burke had given precision. too confined. If I have succeeded in establishing them. His works on the picturesque are intended. and too confined": too vague. in objects of hearing and . rests the whole force of my argument. as Price puts it." to determinate. because it does not isolate the which Price and Gilpin agree in deeming picturesque from other qualities which please equally in painting. . . in short. first essay. the The next step was to shew. easily On these two besides banishing all picturesque effects. most and usefully studied in the pictures of eminent painters. theoretically. 4 The is inquiry. his books are to open new sources of aesthetic enjoyment and (more narrowly) to and (more narrowly) demolish the system of modern gardening introduced by Kent and aggravated by Brown. and totally independent of art. Price declares. of all the other senses. however. which. it If can be shewn that a character composed of these qualities. that not only the effect of picturesque objects. are. and . the system of modern Gardening." But Price's aim 3 is more comprehensive than this. points . . but whether there be certain qualities. .

corrects the languor of beauty.. so that combinations could be struck out a nerve organ. it would be a question why only these few harmonies are possible 5 why not a host of similar aesthetic characters? It seems prudent to avoid such fanciful con- not easy to conceive of any third possibility.. sublime. But in this case. or by any other name. that the effect of the picturesque is curiosity ." Now. Price professes throughout to be a disciple of that eminent man. an effect. osity] by its active agency keeps the fibres to their full [i. though less [Curisplendid and powerful. this notion is attended with a difficulty. Sublime. or by no name at all. Price makes a shift at following the same method but the j even less plausible physiological theory is considerably attenuated. which. How the stimulus of the picturesque. which is accompanied by relaxing the fibers below by melting or languor. but (as is usual) the master's doctrine undergoes considerable transformation in the hands of the disciple. with a logical theory greater might variety of kinds of fibers. it matters whether such a character . does universallj . "In pursuing the same train of ideas. "I may add. midway betwixt languor and tension how does this differ from no stimulus itself 3 at all? It qualities which Price treats might be allowed that the assemblage of somehow produces an effect peculiar to but the apparatus of elastic nerves does not seem elastic enough to embrace these new phenomena.. but with respect to the real ground of inquiry. Burke holds (as Price indicates in a brief but accurate precis) that the natural sublime produces astonishment by stretching the nervous fibers beyond their normal tone.. 5 The in part analytical apparatus which Price brought to this problem was borrowed from Burke. or picturesque. .e. and than Burke's. Burke distinguishes sublime from beautiful by means of a psychology of pleasure and pain and of the passions j he then isolates the material properties which are fitted to arouse these feelings . their nat- ural] tone 5 and thus picturesqueness when mixed with either of the other characters. has a more general influence. . it surely deserves a distinct little title. which keeps the fibers to their natural tone. and finally he conjectures at a nervous physiology to account for the production of such effects by such causes. . so that the motions of the soul are suspended as if in horror 5 the beautiful produces love and complacency their natural tone." Price continues. fiber endued with a certain orig- A inal tension may be tensed further or it a physioof elaborateness be devised. and Picturesque pievail from all others. or the tension of 6 does sublimity. so to speak. be called beautiful..2O4 distinct Beautiful. It may be relaxed 5 may be that but it is .

" 7 Yet he rarely appeals to this materialist physiology to account for details of the phenomena he investigates 5 his works are confined pretty largely to careful discrimination of the effects and painstaking analysis of the material properties which stimulate them." prefixed to Price's Dialogue on the Distinct Characters of the Picturesque and subsume both under the Beautiful. . whether in animal or vegetable life. that each 'produc- most beautiful in that particular state. that the distinction the of character is best moreover. towards detion of nature is cay. ." 9 No qualities are so accordant it (as Price had put in the Essay of 1794) "as those with our ideas of beauty which are in a high degree expressive of youth. the chief of which qualities are smoothness and softness in the surface. and owes fealty not only to to Sir Joshua Reynolds . which is different from either. fulness in the parts. symmetry Burke had included Hogarth's doctrine of the his and clearness and undulation in the outline. and to trace the mental associations and reactions possible to their origins.vigour. he contrives to employ both of these radically different systems to support his own. as of a critidsm includes Hogarth's thesharp reasonably interprets it. .Sir Uvedale Price 205 as far as jectures. before which her work would have a^eared incomplete and unfinished. and thus by implication of Burke and of Reynolds. . . Price begins to slip a new foundation beneath them. however gradually. that "if there be any one position on this sub- ject [beauty] likely to be generally admitted." Price suggests. and freshness in the colour. ory. urging real contradiction in the methods of that 11 own . the foundation is this. Price nonetheless sees no Burke's. and after which it would seem to be tending." 8 Burke but Price exhibits an eclectic tendency. . "of the general truth and accuracy of Mr." he states. Burke's system. and "it is It is from having pursued the opposite method of reasoning. health and ." 10 line of beauty in 7 Price very theory. but the last of Reynolds Idler papers. seen. in the particular material causes rather than in the general effects. undertakes to reconcile Burke and Reynolds and to Price. "that the distinction between the beautiful and the picturesque has been denied. it is. As he presents a rather full precis of Burke's views. "An Introductory Essay on Beauty. for it is the foundation of my own. but to leave unbridged the chasm between mind and body. That Price subscribed to the general method of Burke is unques- tionable: "I certainly am convinced.

in comparison. But Price can not ignore the obvious contradiction in doctrine. appear minute. and when allied with it. the knowl- edge of which Such a method abstract one likely necessary to a knowledge of distinct characters. than any more Sir which other method 12 singly. Yet despite Price's effort to champion the theory of Burke. tained." he declares. and sets himself to undermining that part of Sir Joshua's position which denies the possibility of comparing species in point of beauty 5 he even the "central questions the notion that custom determines us to prefer in a central consist form. and by the reflections they suggest to the mind. Commentators on Price have not recognized the importance of association in his aesthetics 3 Hussey. than the Joshua proposes. that those qualities which are supposed to constitute the beautiful. are in all objects chiefly found to exist at that period. "All external objects. To establish beauty in this fashion to make it a response to signs of freshness and youth is to establish it on the association of ideas. that which she may be supposed to intend in her productions. a state of perfect as clear. must be composed of it's qualities. indeed. "if it appear. be a grander way of treating the subject. either strengthen- ing.206 Beautijul) Sublime. a type isolated for the human figure by the Greek sculptors an "invariable general form/ 5 but not that which nature most fre- quently produces. ." distinct visible quali- Finally. though very distinct in their operations. often unite in producing one effect. as where little doubt is entertained. Price concludes with triumph. . that the one treats of the great general its abstract principles of beauty. each object is is . but not passed. "affect us in two different ways. and as being produced by attending only to the great general ideas inherent in universal nature. or giving a new direction to the impression received ." 14 when nature has atcompletion. yet. association assumes a place of very great though undefined importance in his own analysis. and Picturesque although the method of considering beauty as the central form. and though the discriminations of Mr. more general and easily apprehended. the reflections of the mind. we surely have on many other subjects. and as certain principles on this. rather. These two modes. Since both Burke and Reynolds appeal to the same model of beauty sons ference between 13 antique statues of young and graceful perPrice concludes that their notions coincide. denies that Price admitted any role to association. weakening. is more to produce a just estimate of the character altogether. after all." Price concedes that the beauty of form does type. Burke may. by the impression they make on the senses. "and the only dif- them is. the other of ties.

Price are associations of the sensible qualities of things with human traits and feelings. The weakness of his theory is not that he denies "subjec- tive" factors. which. or other affecting Or by the setting sun. Throughout." are of crucial importance j for it is thus that smoothness becomes beautiful to the eye. Concretes as such may exhibit util- design. It might be argued. and rarely troubles to make clear what aspect and proportion of the total effect is to be attributed to each severally. much even of the effect of the physical properties is traced to association. are still not "beautiful" $ for the mind. called association is unwilling to give them a title. historical connections.Sir Uvedale Price In this passage from "On Architecture and BuildPrice attributes to the "eye" the pleasures arising from form. light by the eye." of ideas." 15 ming from utility. its brilliant ornaments gilded the concrete wholes may. ings/' and and color 5 and to the "mind" the pleasures stemshadow. Elsewhere. though vegetation overgrowing them may have produced an air of softness and insensible transition. traits and feelings. imthe freshness of youth j or. at least. tangible properties come to be "seen. as I conceive. stances. associations of objects. as circumpoetical. in fact. Price notes. naturalness. . Still more pervasive in the perceptions of the different senses. indeed. propriety. and so forth and all which are repeatedly stressed by Price. preservation. and so forth. Price appeals both to inherent efficiency and to association.g. and the association of the picturesque with age and decay. signs. This problem of association can be clarified by employing the matrix of distinctions developed in my introduction. Associations among e. again. suggest historical. all which relations enter into the aesthetic response. a state of high and perfect plies 17 The connection of the picturesque with curiosity. There with ity. of concrete wholes. for instance. Of this that crucial connection between the beautiful and ideas of freshness and youth. that ruins. "from the powerful and extensive influence of that principle. human moreover. however. Blenheim. are. so that. may be dependent upon association of ideas as well as upon association of impressions through resemblance of the sense impressions with the passion. but that he constantly employs association as an analytic device without anywhere presenting a theory of association or an 16 outline of its implications for aesthetics. that these associations are the essential feature of the picturesque as Price understands it$ for the picturesque depends less on the nature of the concrete whole than on the visual and kind is tactile properties comprised therein. fitness.. social. congruity.

suggests further to the cultivated mind paintings in which it has figured. or the village washing scene becomes an image of from peace and security. is in fact eclectic both in the method and the substance of his theory. but to the the principles of their admixture. It is only his modification of Burke's principles which enables him to introduce the picturesque as a middle character co- ordinate with the beautiful and the sublime. has been minimized Price. and to which it had itself originally lent a charm. not to technique. It is because the use of associational it psychology is not accompanied with metaphysical fanfares that or overlooked. and shows how the attractively picturesque qualities of a hollow lane would be destroyed by "improvement. he refers to associations with the subjects of the art. but still more frequently he supposes an associational mechanism. and the viewer perhaps thinks of Alcina and Armida. and suggests the appropriate passage Homer. in a description of an improver at work ad- The gist of it is The organization set forth in the Essay on the end of the justing a Claude to his notions. The second chapter moves from art to nature. When Price speaks of the "poetry" of painting. remote or fascinating places. the faith of the middle ages. The associations constituting the poetry of painting may suggest to us modes of life. concluding. and when he speaks of "the art aesthetic characters and itself. and the third chap- . of this book is rhetorical $ it Picturesque of 1794. the abstract theory of which is presented only at the first part of the treatise. The opening chapter treats the of the for of study pictures improving grounds." he refers." It is true that Price often posits a direct nervous action of formal properties on the mind.208 Beautlfuly Sublime y and Picturesque seems an enchanted palace. It is perhaps the predominance in Price of such abstract association over poetical association that has misled scholars into considering him an "objectivist. is designed to lead the reader by gradual induction to Relieve in" the picturesque. 18 Gothic architecture. the violence. rich with associations to the romance." These instances suggest the reality of the picturesque character. The aesthetic characters which constitute the "art" itself are also. at least in part. but the associations are of a different order they are associations of the abstracted qualities of line and shadow and color with one another and with the basic feelings of human nature. histoncal epochs. in short. despite reiterated allegiance to the principles of Burke. associational. purpose with embittered irony. It is 19 now possible to turn from discussion of Price's method to the content of his doctrine.

Price turns then to detailed examination of picturesque material qualities. the second an art dependent on that science. quae nos non videmus!" is the motto from Cicero which Price prefixes to his book. yet nevertheless seen. Price's effort to establish picturesqueness parallel with beauty is and temporarily arrested by the circumstance of the obvious sublimity of the name. The final chapter of this first part introduces the negative characters of ugliness and deformity. one in aes- thetic appreciation generally.Sir ter. and that both science and art have consequences in practice. not like picturesque. and works out the analogies and contrasts among all five characters. This organization is appropriate both to Price's aims and to his general purpose of establishing the picturesque is accomplished in the first part 5 the narrow aim of investigating the utility of painting as a guide for gardening is handled chiefly in the method. tying the picturesque to painting. with an eye to improvement. differently. from the thing painted. takes Uvedale Price at large. But this etymology circumstance Price ingeniously and plausibly turns to his advantage. water. it might be said that the first division develops an aesthetic science. and of mankind. and hence unnoticed and unnamed by the run isolated admired. 209 up the question comparing this new quality with the beautiful in various works of art and nature 5 the fourth chapter performs the same function for picturesque and sublime. The qualities of picturesqueness are of this nature not immediately appealing. dwelling especially on the nervous effects of smoothness and roughness 5 he treats of form and light and shadow (in the sixth chapter). divided between denunciation of the current mode of gardening and appeal for the principles of painting to prevail. 20 and this difference is not wholly immaterial. and finally of color (in the eighth). and a final chapter is a peroration. the prolegomena of the first having prepared the ground." an painters are struck with numberless circumstances to which vident multa attention: little "Quam pictores in unpracticed eye pays For umbris et in eminentia. "Pittoresco" and the Italian word is the original of the French and English but from the painter 3 "is derived. The Put second part. the other in gardening especially. The fifth treats of the mixture of beautiful and picturesque. accordingly. the second discusses trees 3 the third. by . The second part of the Essay turns to examination of the system of gardening with which Kent and Brown had altered the face of England 5 the first chapter treats the general characteristics and defects of this system . with especial attention to breadth of light and shadow (in the seventh). the genius of painters $ and hence the name.

It may seem so far as it was necessary to avoid deformity. . it: the treasures of the sublime and the beautiful. .2IO Beauttjuly Sublime. in the preface to his second volume. the distinction of the two characters is brought under the aes- thetic principles peculiar to Price. and sculpture . is adverse to the picturesque. . "may mon own* with with Sculpture j but the Picturesque is almost exclusively its . since the difference in the sentiments excited is comparatively slight." Beauty is characterized by smoothness and gradual variation. but even in such instances 27 contributed to beauty only as a precondition." he possibly have been invented by painters to express a but in a manner peculiar to quality not merely essential to their art. This proposition is illustrated by a rich and various catalog of picturesque objects Gothic arises from qualities the 22 and old mills. and the like. The differ- ence between Burke and Price on this point is partly one of nomenclature: Price includes the symmetrical "elegant" within the beautiful. the other on those 25 of age. Beautiful and picturesque are further differentiated in that symmetry. Price holds. since Burke had explicitly ruled out symmetry as a trait of beauty. by the observation that "one [depends] on ideas of youth and freshness." is a misnomer. or upon temple. the paintings of Mola and Salvator. and the distinction I have given to its . furniture. joined irregularity. not all that can be expressed effect in painting. and even of decay. decayed cart 24 and wandering gypsies. remarkable that symmetry should be pitched upon as a principal point of distinction. but that which painting can. . ." 21 sanctions and the etymology of the word made of it. qualities which the picturnecessarily limit the variety and intricacy essential to 23 to and sudden variation. He admitted symmetry. "picturesque beauty. it shares in comwrites. ." Striking descriptions are given of the alteration of into beauty picturesqueness as time operates gradual 26 a a a man. Burke has so justly ascribed to it. to be sure. But the phrase. finally. Price suggests another and more ingenious origin of the term: the word "picturesque. or sometimes of plants and their parts. tree. cathedrals horses And which accords with beauty well enough. and of the non-imitative arts of architecture. are Roughness esque. but most diametrically opposite. the most efficient causes of the picturesque. for "in reality. gnarled oaks and shaggy goats. . cannot express the use I have character. the picturesque not only differs from the beautiful in those qualities which Mr." By "picturesque" is "meant. and Picturesque Again. Price's remarks on that symmetry show he had it in mind as a character chiefly of the forms of animals.

since character of boundaries. can never be infinite j so it is depends on the various and intri- and is indifferently gay or grave. both in its causes. and founded on awe and it terror. Form. and color are the topics. there is even picturesque conversation 5 but in the strict sense. The picturesque may be great or small. works show "how unavoidably an attention to mere beauty and flow 2S of outline. often uniform. Discussion of smoothness and roughness and the qualities associated with them is illustrated by lengthy and sometimes subtle disquisitions on the schools of painting. and finds a picturesque of sound. that the difference is beautiful and picturesque most sensibly felt. The sublime is great." 29 Great part of the irritation produced by roughness of whatever kind is attributable to association with the call makes us ation of beauty sensations of touch 5 it is in touch. and variety of the picturesque require a ground of them a harmony rather than a discord 5 this breadth produces a delight even from objects otherwise indifferent or ugly. produces an insipid monotony 5 even in painting this may be the case. Price's picturesque is a character of visible objects. spirit. literal or metaphorical. to make . conveys the idea of repose 5 roughness that of irritation. the sublime and beautiful are incompatible admixture Although of grandeur taking off from loveliness picturesqueness renders beauty the more captivating." and are blended the rose. Color. that exclusive attention to beauty. Price is fond of tracing the aesthetic characters through the analogies of the various senses. however. often infinite or is apparently so. to the total exclusion of the picturesque. insipidity. but. He has an interest in music. Price's doctrine is. will lead towards sameness and In nature. and preserves it from flatness and insipidity. of animation. light and shadow. indeed. is brought within Price's frame of reference 5 for even the intricacy to set them off. between Such automatic and necessary association plays a considerable role in the theory of Pricey and like Burke. and variety. that which gives it life and spirit. is emblematic of this mixture. The happy effect of such a union has its basis in psychology: smoothness. Nothing "but the poverty of language two sensations so distinct from each other [as the relaxand the lively irritation of the picturesque] by the common name of pleasure. with its thorny picturesqueness 5 beauty bush and jagged leaves. and Guido's cate rather than uniform. too.Sir Uvedale Price 21 1 The picturesque is its characteristics and equally distinct from the sublime. that breadth of treatment which unites a scene into one whole. Price dwells most at length upon breadth of lighting. Roughness serves as the ornament of beauty.

Ugliness alone. and the may Deformity. by the addition of deformity. and are justly termed picturesque. which. perhaps. though distinct from it. and is 32 ciation. what picturesqueness is to beauty. Price conand riety intricacy cedes that the beauty of color is positive and independent. and which is equally unconnected with the sublime. by that of terror . various richness. Price obliged to find a new ugliness 5 this "does not arise . never can adorn it. picturesque coloring . occa- sionally lead him make evaluative judgments similar to those of Reynolds. is consistent with the observa- Reynolds on that character. often accompanies it." rather than a featureless character. but these are in Price expressions of personal taste rather than consequences of a philosophic system and Price's taste is much more favorably The system liness inclined to the picturesque than that of Reynolds. What strikes one as different in Reynolds and Price is that Reynolds. in contrast. with the norm to greatly heightens its effect. Having used up Burke's ugly is make the pic- turesque. it depends not upon aggerated the physiological effect of the shape as ugliness does. because of his insistent reference to generality as criterion. and harmony of autumnal hues are more suited to painting. that unshapen lumpish appearance. instead. it becomes hideous. from any sudden variation [as Burke had urged 31 ] but rather from that want of form. but upon assoof the species or with regularity. What Price has to say about and circumstances panying the picturesque in color. no one word exactly expresses 5 a quality (if what is negative be so called) which never can be mistaken for beauty. It is the Venetians who exhibit 30 the Claude pursue the beautiful. The influence of Reynolds. but the are relative. Guido and Roman school and the Mannerists employ the unbroken and distinct tions of it colors appropriate to the sublime (to the sublime of history. lays out these qualities "horizontally" rather than hier- archically. Price. arranges these schools in a hierarchy of excellence: the sublime takes precedence of what Price calls the beautiful. it is often mistaken for it. of the picturesque is completed by consideration of ugto and deformity. and this in turn is higher than the picturesque. or lack of association. consists in an unnaturally expicturesque. and in form. "Deformity ugliness. according in vawith the other traits of that character. is merely disagreeable. at least 5 a greater adappears to me that the sublime of landscape requires mixture of picturesque breaking of color and shadow).212 Beattfijuly Sublime ) and Picturesque the freshness and delicacy of the colors of spring are beautiful. and in many cases arising from opposite causes. dependent upon accompicturesque and sublime of color associations. to and the taste of his age. the warmth.

. It mixes with ugliness. leads towards deformity. for the monotony of that quality when unenlivened by any admixture of the picturesque has more than once been emphasized. a broad sense of the term beauty" which signifies any kind of pleasing aesthetic effect. with sublimity. thence. been used to admire such picturesque ugliness with pleasure . and this monotony allies it to ugliness. as deformity is of the picturesque. but the defect only of the other It Picturesqueness enjoys greatest facility of union with the other aesthetic characters. and in some measure with the deformed. Its application to improvement. in painting. all which reduces the picturesque to a mode of beauty. of C course.. occupies the greater part Such is of Price's writings. at the original in nature. is nonetheless curious that ugliness is both the excess and the defect of beauty. a little exaggerated." among the five aes- thetic characters are difficult to reduce to diagram. tells against any theory . to the development stages of civilization. too. why are the analogous ethical distinctions so much more firmly established and widely recognized? Their superior influence in practical life has made all men involuntarily moralists. It may be asked. subtend to become limity. picturesque with time. is consistent with Price's view of beauty. however. and the development of new terms for of the union of the picturesque with beauty.. The aesthetic characters generally exhibit obvious analogies with ethical characters. This ability of the picturesque to combine agreeably with the ugly. whereas the piquancy of the picturesque. by association at first. and in this sense both sublime and picturesque are comprised within beauty j but in the same sense." 34 look and deformity. or with ugliness. It holds a middle station between beautiful and sublime. characters. Price looks forward. new aesthetic distinctions.Sir it Uvedale Price interrelations 213 w The may become sublime. whereas the aesthetic distinctions have been little attended to in the earlier in fact. and picturesque ugliness is agreeable in painting. and was the provocation for most of the attacks leveled against his system by gardeners and aestheticans* Yet Price's . envy and revenge are both modes of ill will though distinct from one another. 35 There is. Price remarks. although subordinate logically. the general theory of the picturesque. just as this mode of aesthetic thought appears to be established by analogy with ethical philosophy. This. will . Ugliness appears to be the undistinguished potentiality from which the others all may be formed 5 yet at the same time it is peculiarly the negation of beauty. in nature: "Those who have Beauty.

. as principles for all spatial arts the combinations are the co-temporary or spatial arts. the original compositions formed by improvers from the elements of scenery are to be guided 30 by the general principles of painting. . that the capacity to judge of forms. much less to the exclusion of it. Since in the taken in at one view. not only to form. nor have any of its works so withstood the test of time as to become classics indeed. unless to the study of natural scenery." 40 be objected. to 3T which his attention has been particularly directed." Price declares. and Picturesque to application of the principles of painting improvement is attended with such qualifications as should have safeguarded him from some at least of these assaults. colors. . . or even to reproduce the same kinds of scenes as are found in pictures 5 rather. "But. and of the various styles of gardening at different periods. and to on which the effect of all visible which it must be referred. and of referring recommend the study them solely to the minute and practical purposes of that art . '^because that art has pointed them out more clearly but they nection. "is the most comprehensive principle of visible beauty in its strictest acceptation: as not being confined to lines or curves of any kind. of pictures in preference to that of nature." Looking at nature looking at pictures merely with a view to forming pictures contracts the taste 5 with a view to improvement of our ideas of na- ture enlarges it. . grouping. as Price does take them.214 Beautiful. it has not been ready distinguished by artists of transcendent genius. why should one art dictate to another? Price is with his reply: the art of improving is new. that they may properly be taken. . will have a narrow pedantic manner of considering all objects. the If . union and har- mony. however highly I may think of the art of painting. is the most essential require"circumstance of insensible transition. It remains true. the very essence of which is con- The principles of painting composition. unity. but to colour. and combinations of visible objects "can never be perfectly acquired. Sublime.. and effect of light and shadow are so called breadth harmony." 39 These principles are so little affected by the peculiar limitations of painting as a medium. nothing can be farther from my intention ." 38 . and as extending. to light and shadow. . to all visible nature. ment.. For it was not his desire to reproduce in real scenes the compositions found in paintings 5 gardening is not to imitate particular pictures. are in reality the general principles objects must depend. The insensible transition of parts. . however. the improver adds the theory at least of that art. Whoever studies art alone. . compared with that of improving [prothan to tests Price]. and to every combination of it them 5 that is. .

Sir Uvedale Price 215 inevitable processes of growth and decay may always prevent the products of this art from attaining the venerable authority of the statues of Greece and the paintings of Italy. not by copying the particulars. and endeavors by original selection and arrangement of materials to achieve analogous effects on the same principles: "I am convinced. he desires to be formal but the ornate formality of the ancient style rather than the insipid and monotonous formality of level greens and serpentining walks. the marks of art upon it: as it is a work of art upon nature. so he should not attempt to imitate the particular details of uncultivated nature 5 here." Price's demands for shagginess apply chiefly to the grounds. and therefore not a picturesque attitude towards improvement. immediately adjacent to the house. writes. Just as the picturesque improver should not seek to imitate the particular effects of paintings. as in the imitation of paintings. and is governed by different principles." says Price. it is a a part of its beauty and perfection that it should appear at first sight cultivated spot convenient." which Price at least does. ac- and other cording to Reynolds. might be successfully imitated in a dressed place 5 but it must be done by attending to the principles. if not ostentatiously. he observes the principles by which uncultivated scenes please. "practical" opponents of the picturesque school. This moderate position goes pretty far. after a sheep track or cart rut. are addressed to a position duce. It is not necessary to model a gravel walk. and 42 These arguments. their effect in a painter's foreground 41 may be produced by plants that are considered as ornamental. had to Gilpin his disapproval "of reforming the art of gardenexpressed ing by the picturesque of landscape painting. "that many of the circumstances which give variety and spirit to a wild spot. which I The hold to be an art that stands on its own bottom. that every thing is in order. I think. valid or not. comfortable . "appears to me undervaluing the art of gardening. has nature alone for garden must therefore be totally devoid of its object 5 a picturesque art. anticipating a part of the argument of Repton. or drive. Reynolds garden. though very useful hints may be taken from them both 3 and without having water-docks or thistles before one's door. Reynolds. Mar- shall. inhabited. in abating the force of Reynolds' objections to picturesque gardening. It ought to have apparently.not hold. which a state of nature will not prothat it is Price describes the change from the Italian and Dutch styles of gardening to that of Kent and Brown by a succinct half-line from . or park 5 the garden in the narrow sense." The picturesque.

216 Beauti]uly Sublime. style both monotonous and the old had been. which only are in character with architecture. system. subject to An 45 neglect. Marshall. a problem of especial importance to improvers. a defect to which it was more subject than to the principles of painting. The "Essay on Artificial Water. that is. was the reliance upon time and accident as. The objections raised against these suggestions by Repton. Humphry Repton's challenge to set forth a method designed to meet of practical im- provement which could be acted upon. and on the Method in Which Picturesque Banks May be Practically Formed" really handles the whole problem of natural foregrounds. sin. These practical objections melted away in following years. who have less control than painters over the distant parts of their scenes 5 the "Essay on the Decorations near the House" the garden in the narrow sense treats avowedly artificial foregrounds. George Mason. the Essay on the Picturesque was supplemented on the practical side by a new volume of three essays. creating a 43 The great defect of the new affected. and others. The final essay completes the progres- from the extremities of the estate towards its center j it is "An Essay on Architecture and Buildings. In 1798. partly on mere habitual attachment to established modes of practice. All the particular defects notice. objections that they are theorizing dreams which cannot be reduced to practice. had in fact only in- more grand formality of regular curves in place of the old the of and simple straight-lined formality gardens. aspect of Price's system of "natural" gardening which was much ridiculed. though they meant to banish formality and restore nature. as Connected with Scenery. was and in which it was most stalled a new opposite "want of connection a passion for making every thing distinct and separate." 44 which I shall have occasion to its and tend towards this original The most characteristic features of "modern gardening" and belts are disserpentine drives and walks and canals. gardening by But Price does not suggest leaving natural processes un- . The new improvers. and Picturesque Horace: Mutat quadrata rotundts. in some degree arise from. its clumps second the in of the part 5 trees and Essay's opening chapter patched water. and Price may almost be said to have formed the taste of the early nineteenth century in gardening and architecture." sion the landscapist rather than the builder. and the practical suggestions which Price advances are carefully adapted to his general aesthetics. the chief materials of the improver. an aspect of peculiar importance in these practical essays. seem to me to rest partly on misapprehension of Price's plans. are treated in the succeeding chapters.

which is alone pleasing subsequently becomes insipid unless varied with some sharper . in a great measure. less picturesque scenes without any mixture of the at some future period may not be unnecesthe caution beautiful.Sir lived ale Price 21 7 Nature must give the finishing roughness to the gardener's the art of the gardener directs nature's but work. so far the character of the beautiful would decrease. 47 The characters remain analytically distinct. so Price says. then. . . in which . In the wooded river. (and to what than has so long." 4() what extent nature can Improvers have been self-defeated in their attempts at beauty. Price grants that the and in landscape these transitions are effected best two characters are rarely unmixed m nature. without any mixture of the picturesque. . and so idly been attempted sary. assumes the soft and mild character of beauty. I might urge an analogy with external taste: sweet and sour are not the less distinct for their being more pleasing when mingled.. usually not pleasing until we are made accustomed to it by productions. For the most essential trait of beauty is insensible transition. "As art is unable by an immediate create to those effects. . I have supposed roughness and abruptness to be so blended with the ingredients of beauty produce altogether those insensible transitions. Only this much is granted to the serpentine that the same bareness and formality cut into angles would be less beautiful yet. as to . operations \ nature must crumble the banks of the lagoon. and should not be unmixed in art. [But] it would be no . but the improver can undermine and support them in such wise as to determine where and to controlled. . It could be argued that this conception of natural beauty dissolves the distinction between picturesque and beautiful. operation that is.) attempt absurd to make to make beautiful scenes. flavor. to accident 3 whose operation. then the picturesque would begin to prevail: and in proportion as that distinct and marked roughness and abruptness increased. and in that sweetness. though she cannot imitate. But . consists the justest. should any of these rough. The analogy is the closer in that tartness (like picturesqueness) is artificial at first. but when manifested in concrete objects do not produce a good effect unless in some degree mingled. direct.. abrupt parts be more strongly marked . she can. and most comprehensive pnnciple of the beautiful in landscape. The whole. she must have recourse to nature. by their insistent repetition of smoothness and flowing lines. operate. by a certain degree and of irregularity roughness.

that is. then. especially and Buildings as Connected with Scenery. with sudden projections and abruptnesses . the smooth lawn to the forest glade. not merely human the emotion of most powerful in improvements. but in all things that are designed to affect the imagiwhat is striking. and Picturesque The upon excellence of Italian gardens. parterres. With some of its absurdities corrected. Structures designed for use and habitation can hardly be however j what does give such structures picturesquethe turning of their windows to views suitably framed by trees. with what nation. although Price condemns beautiful Dutch style. beyond the last terrace there with gravel walks sweeping easily among its ornamental shrubberies and trees 5 and at a distance the wooded park. are universally pleased with smoothness and flowing of the present style of lines..218 Eeauti]ul> Sublime. . is to mix according to circumstances. too. a smooth be would pleasure-ground. the less grand and even regularity rather than in serpentmityj canals hedges. The same principle seems to have been studied is simply pleasing. though they may towards the sublime. it serves as a transition from the formal architectural ideal estate.. garden near the house to the wilder park. with statues and fountains . consequent necessity giving it a picturesque from a of number appearance large viewpoints. The second volume treats of "Architecture The country house is than with other connected with rather necessarily scenery primarily and there is a of buildings. 48 The consists in symmetry and beauty of such a garden. but on the other . which. though in the hands of most practitioners it banishes equally all present decoration and all future picturesqueness. rests the combination of beautiful and picturesque elements: All persons . and straight the extravagancies of might be indulged. labyrinths. towards the esque. are more struck be only picturfor in all such rugged abrupt forms. The would have a grand Italianate garden near the mansion. and the plantations of ornamentals final essay of Price's to the intricate variety of wild nature. there is still a tendency mind. . Yet there is a use for the system of modern gardening. Ruins. . hanging and balustraded terraces. even in their perfect state. ness is made . The great point. -pari passM. are the most picturesque of buildings." the ruins of once-beautiful structures. gives the building an intricate irregularity as ruinous. in many of the old Italian gardens. in which the gravel walk gives place to the grassy lane. scenery. of course. with its topiary work. . and thence the great and general popularity hand those who have paid any attention to gardening.

on the basis of insensible transition. which is a principal cause . that the ruin is often more beautiful (as well as more picturesque) than the entire building. which. Building and the architetto- fottore the prophet of the new revelation. Only the artist well acwith the beautiful. is by the forms and characters of rocks. The difference of art from nature is more marked. at least. grand. in treating of the sublime in buildings. Since architecture is functional and creative rather than representative. involves straight lines. on the grounds that reduced variety and freedom 5 only in non-imitative arts is this argument overbalanced by other considerations. according to the effect intended. which both and landscape. But Price is not yet it free of difficulty 5 for it might be argued. what has most analogy to them 50 . and symmetry. 49 by disposing the offices Connection with the scenery is effected also subordinate to the central mass (instead of burying them underground or concealing them in evergreen plantations). a concern which minimizes the distinctive artificiality of art. called associadistinct is and hard. the waving line. some of the principal painters of different . is unwilling to give them a title. then. implies the freshness of youth 5 or. as by similar effects in nature: and. as I conceive. appears only to the limited extent that associations with function permit. of beauty in natural objects. when them. the lines of which are more avoided partly by observing that the beauty of ruins is attributable rather to the vegetation than to the fragmentary architecture. It is and in what degree to mix significant and characteristic that Price should remark. . therefore. angles. that "the effects of art are never so well illustrated. and picturesque will know when quainted to keep these characters separate.Str Uvedale Price 219 viewed from without." For Price is always ultimately concerned with the isolation of qualities which pervade both art and nature. however. This paradox tion of ideas. a state of high and perfect 51 Price's substitution of a new substructure under preservation." Burke's aesthetics has permitted him to modify Burke's conclusions without outright rejection of the master's authority. and by planting trees close to the house to break and vary its is regularity (instead of setting the house down in a thus brought under the principles of painting. partly by noting that "the mind. in history Price reinforces his analysis by considering "the use. the best illustration of buildings. in architecture than in painting 5 for architecture is not in the same sense an imitative art. Symmetry had of course been excluded from the beautiful by Burke. The beautiful in building. from the powerful and extensive influence of that principle. is meadow).

"one is Poussin we discover that of two pictures by come rather addressed to the understanding through the sight 5 the other to the " 3 which has attained the noblest end?" sight only: and who can doubt f we can conceive ourselves to be reading the academic discourses.220 Bwuttlul." Price's distinctions. to the simplest cottage from those which are in their time has most defreshest and most state. Unhappily. provides directly applicable principles. first it is necessary for me to return briefly to in the discussion. that they clear. In the 1810 edition of Price's works theorist of the picturesque. these notes were collected into an Appendix to first volume of the Essays the Appendix contains no new material. Especially useful are the ideas of village scenery to be gleaned from the Dutch and Flemish masters. Though Price's discussion of such village scenes turns chiefly on his enthusiasm for the picturesqueness of village life. therefore. the moral principle must prevail. since associations of utility enter into the aesthetic as well as 5* into the moral judgment. William Gilpin. to those which perfect 52 The judgments on history paintings are so faced and mutilated. of classification clear relation to Reynolds' styles and manners. at The 1794 volume number on the picturesque. Sublimej and Picturesque schools and countries have made of buildings. and its somewhat disjointed effect is an obvious consequence of its the mode of formation. and he dilates upon the expansion of benevolence which must accom- pany extension of pleasure in picturesque objects. Where it there is conflict. and eventually assumes an aesthetic guise. his humanitarian sympathies concur with his aesthetic inclinations in the improvement of villages. a appropriate points of lengthy footnotes in which Price set forth his differences with Gilpin. The discussion of architecture in history painting serves rather to clarify the definitions of the aesthetic characters in architecture than to architecture in provide practical precepts j but the employment of landscape painting drives close to Price's own concern with the combination of buildings and landscape gardens. The comparisons and contrasts of styles besome fifty pages. from the highest style of architecture. once one has the knack of using need not be dwelt upon. moral and aesthetic criteria do not invariably coincide. Before advancing into the tangled controversies among Price and the Knight and Repton. Price declares that Gilpin's Three Essays did not . and even hints for practice. of Price's Essay on the Picturesque included. bears a subtle. and the socially conscious gentleman must forego half-ruining the houses of his villagers to make them more picturesque. The practice of the great landscape painters. and the entire passage. When and Veronese.

remark the other methodological errors into which Gilpin is led by this initial misstep. for Price acknowledges having been influenced by Gilpin's earlier writings. however. "that distinction between the two characters. even when they appear most at variance. and a sort of anathema denounced 55 against any one who should try to clear it up. a concern which has distinction made him lose sight of the universal between picturesque and beautiful. Seeing that roughness is the essential point of difference between the two characters. Instead. When he first read into the "Essay on Picturesque Beauty/' Price says. or apparently rough. became less and less visible j till at length the beautiful and the picturesque were more than ever mixed and incorporated together. when instead of endeavouring to shew the agreement be- and for him. that notion only rough. no reason to doubt. he thought that his own work had been anticipated.. as in a calm lake. in no way derogates assertion. as Price sees it." . that line of separation which I thought would have been accurately marked out. since his critique originated as footnotes has little difficulty in to particular points in his own Essay). in fact." 37 Price does not. "so that. the whole subject involved in doubt and obscurity. "when we fancy ourselves admiring the smoothness which we think we perceive. difficulties like tween art and nature. this point in his letter to Gilpm (as we have seen above) concedes Reynolds. Price insists that the painter may represent objects exhibiting any of the aesthetic characters j those into which Gilpin is led by his exclusive fondness for painting "must always be the consequence." come to his hand until This which I see Gilpin. a mysterious barrier is placed between them. Gilpin was thus led to exclude smoothness from painting except where he could show by a kind of sophistry that what is really smooth is in ap- pearance rough. distinguishes between Gilpin's definition of the picturesque as "adapted to painting" and "his more strict by making roughness the most essential point of difference between it and the beautiful.Sir Uvedale Price 221 he had written a great part of his own work. but without recognizing that the concession requires a restatement of his theory." he continues. has followed a will o* the wisp in trying to find a definition of the picturesque which refers to the art of paint- ing only. overturning Gilpin's He objects please in painting. we are in 5e fact admiring the roughness which we have not observed. he descends it and pointed method of defining to details (naturally enough. "But as I advanced." Price himself." Price observes ironically. from Gilpm's historical importance. to surprize and keep at a 58 No comment could display more clearly distance the uninitiated.

in contrast." Mayoux notes especially that Gilpin observes picturesque . this difference is a remote con. in one case. swept away. will force all writers to submit. 60 To "picturesque" "beauty" nore. Templeman. a cote et audessus du beau avili. as the chief. suming art under nature. marque progres certain de Pesthetique romantique qui a commence avec Burke. Bosanquet.Beautiful. rather than towards the discrimination of the problems and art 5 but traits of art from those of nature. But Templeman is at any rate refreshingly literal in his reading of the texts 5 most commentators on these subjects have a Theory. I suppose. Price's "creation du un Pittoresque. it is simpler to treat aesthetics in terms of the more primitive phenomena (nature). Price "does not give a defi- abrupt. "what is rough and he finally ven- ig- Templeman tween Gilpin and sentence definition for a history of the term and a complex discrimination of the picturesque from related characters he does not define imply that Price ever denied the practical combination of picturesque and beautiful or ever abandoned the analytical distinction between them this is totally to fail to grasp Price's argument. or in defensible disagreement with Gilpin. the Germans with an forms or categories inherent in the mind. if not the sole representative of the world of 59 The British writers. Mayoux picturesque as a stage on the road to romanticism. the definition tures in his letter to Repton. Sublime. perhaps. by the enthusiasm cialist. ." Despite his pompous verbosity. then. Ultimately. for theoretical purposes. with sudden deviations. the differences in analytical method bePrice j to avow that because Price foregoes a one- to every point to make sees the it fit." is inadequate 3 and Price can no longer insist that the words and never be combined." by allowing for the effects of imitation and design adapt their doctrines to art. is of the spe- which is unable to discover anything in the three volumes of Price not in Gilpin's little essay j he doubts that Price "has much to offer in addition to Gilpin. in the other in terms of the more intellectual analysis of (art). Aesthetiaans of the Hegelian tradition also isolate universals found both in nature and in they analogize nature to art instead of (like the British) sub. declares roundly: "I have assumed that Fine Art may be accepted. sequence of metaphysical differences: the British empiricists begin with a history of the perceptions of the mind. and beauty. and in itj does. for instance. begin with nature. as nition of the picturesque" in his Essay. and Picturesque is the bent of Price's aesthetics which in this particular typical of the British systems towards isolation of characters which pervade both nature and art.

. knowledge especially great landscape painters of the previous century. "le pittoresque est de sensations successives. that poetic sensibility is less prominent in Price than the feelings excited by the . thetics. abstract qualities ever. . ranks picturesqueness above beauty. taking up the rather confused hints thrown out by Gilpin towards a general theory of picturesque aesshows their inadequacy. and develops a theory of the picturesque as a mode of beauty (in the extended sense) co-ordinate with the special beauty of Burke and with the sublime. It retains little of the connection with painting from which it sprang. Nor do I see in Price a "besoin romantique de changement". whereas in Price. led to a habit of looking at landscape as if it were a series of paintings. in fact. une des grandes separations du beau classique point scenes from On remarquera que Price au lieu de s'attacher au vue fixe de se plait a s'y mouvoir. howseems a consistent and integral part of his system . I believe that the of painting in eighteenth-century Engof the land. In reading Price. fait sentir son pro61 I do not think that Price. or indeed any writer on the picturgres. this observation is that which I have remarked before. this . C'est une difference primordiale au Pobjet vue de esthetique. . esque. de sensations renouvelees. of one system of thought insinuating itself under the guise of another." What is true in dissimule sous le detachement artistique. a habit not at all absurd if not pursued to the exclusion of other ways of viewing landscape. emphasis it should not be made the mark of a conflict. . and Mayoux does not allow this fact its due weight when he remarks that "c'est par la que la theorie de Price est curieuse. ainsi le besoin romanpoint tique de changement. and from the stimulus new knowledge of which other and more natural ways of regarding scenery were sure to follow.Sir lived ale Price 223 fixed points of view. Price." et du romantique. 62 . with Miss Manwaring. more and their composition. par tout ca romantisme visuel.

He felt that 3 2 the memory of "that great self-taught master. being one of the recipients. but rather something of a paradox. keen. The personality of Humphry Repton was T TRGED. had been traduced j 4 itself had disguised attack on the art [of landscape gardening]" denied the and the of its of virtually profession. robbed me of originality. instructing his detractors and the world generally and confides that he feels it "a kind of duty to watch. Deferential almost in the extreme in his "humble endeavours to gratify the royal commands" or those of his noble patrons." much pleased by Price's attention. . Collins in its mixture of pompous solemnity with servile humility in all that related to his profession. he "should have more guarded in my conversations with its been certainly who has author. Price. and has. tant idea that Price ." While his resentment was stances. he yet assumes a magisterial attitude when in the dignity of his profession. to exist. of which he caused some copies to be struck off for private distribution Price. every innovation on the prinsince I have been honoured ciples of taste in Landscape Gardening . he complains. If he had had the most dis- was writing such a book. doubtless surprised still 224 . in most ways. of course." mortal Lancelot Brown. Repton dashed off A Letter to Uvedale Price. with a jealous eye. his predecessor the imthat "a direct and un- which perhaps piqued him more personally. frequently adopted my ideas . with the care of so Repton was not many of the finest places in the kingdom. in some in5 . and. Esq.CHAPTER 15 Humphry Repton ambition of converting to his perhaps. Uvedale Price dispatched a presentation copy of his Essay on the Picturesque 1 to Humphry Repton.. he felt that some of his own ideas had been stolen and brought out in print while his own work was still at the printer's. right professors. pleasing enough like Jane Austen's Mr. by the fond \_) views the leading landscape gardener of the age.

and had provoked Repton especially by. and an Appendix to treat Price's opinions in the Essay on the Picturesque. some 1794. [the Red Book ject 6 of Tatton Park. but Repton decided against further enlargement of what he puffs as "my great work. on the Application of the Practice As W ell As the . with Sketches and Hints still hanging fire. came out early in 1795. But to throw this discussion into a proper perspective. Repton. together. waiting for dilatory artists to complete the colored aquatints which make that book today a collector's item of great rarity. however. "the attempt to make me an obof ridicule. This judgment is un- . as Repton puts it. is nonetheless erroneous. So much for the chronology of the early phase of the controversy. to append replies and apologia: a seventh chapter was added to repel Knight's attack. Price's Letter to Repton. The 1794 date has the sanction of Repton himself. too.Humphry Region 22$ by the quickness and tartness as well as by the public character of the retort. There has always been an uncertainty about the date of publication of Sketches and Hints. Repton was a professor of landscaping and architecture rather than a theoretical aesthetician. The Newberry Library of Chicago possesses. and standard reference works give. bound in bound with these two works are four manuscript letters among Price.7 This testimony. I795. copies of Price's Essay and Letter to Repton each of which was presented to Repton by the author. inexpugnable as it seems. But the great landscape gardener had been already affronted some months before the unexpected blow from Price. The delay permitted him. some 1795. and the publisher Robson. Principles of Landscape- Painting to tion. for in two passages of later works he refers to Sketches and Hints as published in I794. Repton's own Sketches and Hints on Landscape Gardening was languishing at the printer's. intention is to discuss the publications of Repton in such fashion as to give a proper view of his conduct of the controversy and of the later development of his practice and thought. The title-page bears no date. For Payne Knight's The Landscape had excoriated the improvers. I must first give a view of Repton's My system as a whole. by misquoting my unpublished MSS." While these attacks on modern improvement were issuing from the presses. as hastily wrote off A Letter to H." so that it finally appeared without allusion to Price's Letter. and these letters make clear that Sketches and Hints was 8 still awaiting publication on February 5. partly incorporated in Sketches and Hints'} . . Landscape-Gardening > this was a major publica- about eight times the length of Repton's brief letter. Repton y Esq.

In general. Gothic. and Picturesque affected by Repton's reiterated statements that to judge him by his published works rather than he wished posterity by the actual estates he created or altered ("It is rather upon my opinions in writing. that I wish my fame to be established. frequent contain. he is concerned with discovering or providing sources of pleasure. For these published a theoretical aesthetics. he never investigates metaphysics." he declares in the preface to Theory and Practice* }. but these principles constitute rather automata media of a high order than first principles. crete than those to which Price and Knight care to bind themselves. than on the partial and imperfect manner in which my plans have sometimes been executed. was given to making out lists of rules. Repton assumes two lists quite almost all of his psychology. Neither Knight nor Price. they preferred to bridge the gap from theory to actual making by a cultivated taste. and with a great concern for directing the creative work of others. and equally frequent is the list of "principles" of some style of art. though less analytical. moreover. without any propensity for philosophizing. Knight carried analysis as deep as aesthetics requires. Sublime. These psychological principles ductions of particular precepts which determine the manner in which the architect or gardener manipulates his materials to fulfil the re- quirements of his profession. the same). of the house. . of the town house or the and so forth. and thus removed one of the important controls on pecially since therefore prescribes taste in directions more conidiosyncrasy. a taste formed (so far as things visual are concerned) on the higher painters. propositions which are implicitly guides for practice in that style prin- modern gardening. They writings are an applied rather than of general principles (no enunciations to be sure. &c. rules for arched gateways. still gives much more o a psychology and a theoretical aesthetics than does Repton. consequently. and Price. but takes propositions implying metaphysical analyses for his starting serve only as the basis for depoints. Since He Repton is essentially reduce to order the many an unsystematic writer. can not leave so much to the variability of taste es- he wished to weaken the influence of painting on landscape gardening. it is difficult to principles which he enunciates. The two amateurs Knight most notably really worked out aesthetic systems. country Now all this forms a decided contrast between Repton and Price ciples of ancient or of or Knight.226 Beautiful. But Repton. is the list of "rules" for managing this or that part of the art of landscapist or architect rules for arranging the parts of an estate. One of the most frequent phenomena in Repton's books..

which Repton deems a perilous goal to aim at $ ( zo) contrast. the former may be referred to the mind. of parts with the whole. that he erects congruity and utility into the primary principles of his analyses: "The leading feature in the n good taste of modern times. and of the whole with the circumstances of the place and its possessor j (2) utility." So far from discarding them is Repton." This observation pertains to taste in genera^ with reference to land- scape gardening in particular. In the peculiarly Appendix against Price added and Hints. and comparative proportion or SCALE. ." if you will) from those attributable to the operation of ideas in association or judgment. historical or per- (13) grandeur. sonal. whether of water. or Repton. Nor is it strictly true that scale is referable to the "eye" only that scale is ordinarily perceived without reflection. Price" j (6) mtricacy." ferred to this dual head. very far. the latter to the eye. whereas the recognition of fitness often involves some degree of conscious ratiocination. (7) simplicity. but convenience. I think that they might be deduced from the joint consideration of relative fitness or UTILITY. A more proper distinction would distinguish pleasures referable to some physiological or nervous mechanism (the "eye. the appearance and display of extent of property j (15) animation. is the just sense of GENERAL UTILITY. Even this more accurate distinction. by which Repton means not profitableness. as in an avenue 5 (12) association. these sources are "generally adverse to picturesque beauty. to be discarded.Humphry Region common-sense way and without much to Sketches 227 without tracing out the causes of these pleasures in more than a effort to isolate those which are aesthetic in quality." Repton tells us. (8) variety. Yet Repton can not mean that all the principles of gardening can be derived from congruity and utility. would not of itself carry us. vege10 The first four of tation. (4) symmetry." These sources are: (/) congruity. however. comfort. or animals j (j<5) seasons and times of day. Repton suggests that "if any general principles could be established in this art. "yet they are not. a safer substitute j (jj) continuity. (9) novelty. as in a walk parallel with a straight wall. (14) appropriation. yet these two must be insepa12 And the observations in Theory and Practice are often rerable. Repton gives a list of the "Sources of Pleasure in Landscape Gardening. for he constantly introduces judgments based on other principles as in the sources of pleasure enumerated above. (5) picturesque effecty "which has been so fully and ably considered by Mr. and "everything that conduces to the purposes of habitation with elegance" 3 (5) order. therefore.

The perfection of Landscape it consists in the four follow- and hide the ing requisites: First. says Repton. appearance of things. Often the semblance alone of utility is sufficient to justify orna- ments: a pilaster deceptively seems to provide support. . it must studiously conceal every interference of art must display the natural beauties. of convenience and comforta matter instead. a southeast aspect for favorable gravel walks to keep our it must weather. that the interference of art shall never be detected. to imitate nature so 15 judiciously. Repton regularly opposes ornament ornee of Shenstone: "I have never walked through disfavor the jerme these grounds [Shenstone's Leasowes]. be because association has connected such circumstances with our more disinterested and apparently spontaneous responses to the general for the house. "the highest perfection of landscape gardening. Thirdly. The site for a house. Sublime. An exposed situation notions of rain and might "hurt the eye" by calling up half-conscious reflection. of course. in short. I think. Secondly. accessibility 14 view from the house. not only Shenstone must have experienced appointment which the benevolent in attempting to unite two objects so incompatible as ornament and 1S profit. that is. The utility Reppark. The first three topics together. it should give the appearance of extent and freedom. the first and second may perhaps come by association to be tinged with aesthetic feeling. shoes dry. but the third requires so conscious an exertion of the understanding that it can hardly. conscious without Perhaps a set of Repcold. a central concept in Repton's view of art. . "is. "without lamentthe misapplication of good taste." Farm and is. Now only the last of these is altogether an aesthetic consideration. Deception is.228 Bcauttful. in fact. objects of mere convenience or comfort." he writes. yet exciting ton's rules will serve to make this point more definite. is to be decided by four considerations (in order of decreasing importance): (i) the aspect 3 (2) the levels of the suras water supply. and. ton has in mind are incongruous. Insofar as this utility is an aesthetic excellence. be reckoned aesthetic at all." he declares. &c. natural defects of every situation. and Picturesque with profitableness 5 indeed. by carefully disguising or hiding the boundary. More at length. making all fourthly. Repton's "utility" has no connection and regarded with to profit. . if incapable of ." whereas formal gardening is an open display of Gardening art. but that constant dising. are branches of Repton's utility. such and (4) the and towns roads to $ space for the offices. rounding ground j (3) objects of convenience. the whole appear the production of nature only.

And. Repton thinks of himself as an eclectic. these walls were never considered as defects. 35 and rock scenery. and palisades. gardening. The Red Books of Hasells and Cobham of the latter as may call forth the 20 were written. scenery. . expensive iron gates. respect to objects of convenience." a good bit of discussion. Each of the four objects here enumerated. Price the recommended Repton . sham rums. . Thirdly. the landscape garden that has deceived us all at Modern some natural scenery. thus artificial rivers. and so much of the grace charms of natural landscape. to were ornamented with vases. render them more conspicuous. lakes. to adopt so much of the grandeur of the former as may accord with a palace. after it is detected 5 but in works of ART every trick ought to be avoided. and leading a renaissance of the best in the old style: "I do not profess to follow either Le Notre or Brown. 229 parts of the general being made ornamental. before estates and on both Mr. which may thus be stated. "in the year 1790.Hu?nph\ Repton or of becoming proper be must removed or concealed. that at last Repton could not throw a bridge ls across a real river for fear of making it seem artificial! Repton himself objects to art deceptively imitating art: "Deception may be allowable in imitating the works of NATURE . every surrounding object. 16 . by lofty walls." 10 not a pejorative term in Rep ton's writings. by which nature had been subdued. are directly opposite to the principles of ancient gardening. Sham churches. sham bridges. they as possible. were placed as near the house . selecting beauties from the style of each. Repton published his Essays". and I has occasioned formalism Repton's shall dwell upon it briefly. disgusts when the trick is discovered. . ." 1T It is stage into believing it to be England's amusing to see Repton occasionally en- trapped by deceptive associations of his own creating. Brown and he had built so many artificial rivers with terminations deceptively concealed by "bridges. the natural beauties or defects of a situation had no influence. so far from making gardens appear natural. it is clear. . can only be great by deception. and everything which appears what it is not. involves a constant and pervasive deNikolaus Pevsner has spoken of "the landscape garden that ception j tries seriously to look like Nature Unadorned. First. inheriting the best of the modern style But "art" is from Brown. states. Secondly. every expedient was used to display the expensive efforts of art. with . . lastly. but. when it was the fashion to exclude. on the contrary. but. and the mind acquiesces in the fraud.

open stairways. he did without question participate If Repton's memory is in the formal revival 5 but not necessary to give him credit for leading it." 20 (When Repton speaks of "acceding" to the term "land. all on cent scale and style. Sublime. the originator of what John Claudius Loudon dubbed the "gardenesque" style. Repton became. landscape and gardening. species. and that of a garden. and several in Repton's own manner an arboretum. with ivied stone balusdefinitely Italianate style near a magnifitrades. statuary enniched in hedges. an American garden. . they are more systematic and thoroughgoing in their formalism 5 and they rest their preferences on different theoretic bases. called landscape. This tendency became more pronounced in Repton's late work. Price and into print 5 they are Knight had developed their views before going it is independent of Repton. a winter garden. and between connected by him with the distinctions between nature and art and utility and the picturesque. to let the dressed grounds "rather appear to be the rich frame of the landscape than a part of the picture" from the windows. "And while I have acceded to the combination of two words. one is to please the eye. and Picturesque 21 retention or extension of formal terraces. Repton. are as different as their uses.23 and two with raised beds of flowers. and to provide a winter garden. 25 The tendency of the first three of these suggestions is to separate garden and park. the very sort of thing which Lord Kames had recommended. however. with its separate compartments and its attention to the peculiarities of type-plants of various. while the other is appropriated to man in the highest state of civilization and refinement." in the modern pleasure-ground manner. 24 especially exotic. "yet they are as distinct objects as the picture and its frame. Repton suggested numerous innovations in the landscape garden of his day: to reduce the size of the pleasure ground "within such 5 limits that it may be kept with the utmost artificial neatness/ to mark the separation of artificial from natural scene. The scenery of nature. the other is for the comfort and occupation of man: one is wild . . Even their taste in formal gardens does not accord with Price is for a Repton's 5 the taste of Knight and especially that of the house.230 Beauttful. in fact. a couple in a consciously antique style. until in such a report as that on Ashndge he de22 Five of these were signed "no less than fifteen kinds of gardens. accurate." Repton cautions. and this is a distinction often emphasized by Repton. leaned more and more towards the creation of a multiplicity of small and largely disconnected gardens curiously enough. to connect the garden with the house by a sheltered way.

we may realize the landscapes of CLAUDE and fully. But despite . granted. he creates the raised flower bed." 2T All this implies a preference for the garden rather than the park. and the taste. the smell.) The garden proper is defined to be "every part of the grounds in which rather than is to art. Repton presented his ideas more POUSSIN: but. he suddenly advocates grass glades for the accommodation of wheel chairs 5 and. in garden scenery. the park. Now in outline this is also Price's view of a large estate 5 it seems still more like Price when Repton tells us that "in forest scenery we trace the sketches of SALVATOR and of RIDINGER." he forgets that twenty years earlier. unable to stoop to pick a flower from the ground. Claude. he speaks in the conventionalized language of picturesque vision often repeating that the landscape and garden are as the picture and its frame. 20 Repton rarely shows any independent knowledge of painting. nature. making proper use of the materials of NATURE. in- dependent of 2S The influence accompaniment of distant scenery. and he is vigorously opposed to Price's notion of bringing gardening under the principles of painting. and the forest or open country.Humphry Repon 231 scape garden. we delight in the rich embellishments. for it turned Repton's attention more exclusively to the improvement of houses and gardens rather than of parks or forests. When garden in the nineteenth century. which went far to modify the character of the English he usually distinguished three "distances": the garden. In 1 8 1 1 Repton suffered an into his spine in a carriage accident. please the eye. Repton answered by speaking of the garden 5 and this bias increased pronouncedly in later years. Sometimes. but not disfigured." or again as "a work of ART. the blended graces of WATTEAU. by art 5 and where the artificial decorations of architecture and sculpture are softened down by natural accompaniments of 29 Price had used Salvator. Price remarks that whereas he had spoken largely of the park. and Watteau in the vegetation. in park scenery. and this fortuitous circumstance influence jury had a curious on the development of the art." same analogy in his Letter to Repton." of years and of infirmity is manifested in numerous details of Repton's theory and practice: after being a life-long advocate of the its gravel path (as opposed to the picturesque grass walk). in the Introduction to Sketches and Hintsy he had claimed the term as his own. he speaks of the design for Ashridge as "the child of my age and declining powers: when no longer able to undertake the more extensive plans of landscape. I was glad to contract my views within the narrow circle of the garden. where nature is dressed.

and nature than in a picture. whereas the gardener from many sites. usually lacking in the real landscape. . is so deriving and useful. "the first scape. The view down a hill is not representable in painting. for sale on different all why should we not rather copy the picturesque jumble of Schnyders and Rubens? Our kitchens may be furnished after the designs of Teniers and Ostade. Repton enumerates these. which the latter may be able to exe. . . 2. The former must conceive a plan. is The foreground. Repton denies that the three includes that part of the scene which it is in his power to improve 3 the second." which Repton chooses because the art can only be perfected "by the united powers of the landscape fainter and the practical gardener. 34 Watteau or Zuccarelli." All this the derivation of the term despite "landscape-gardening. . and is thus very aptly described by a French author. "is of a higher nature than that of painting. and Picturesque Repton consistently argues against the predominance of painting. that it ought not to be confined to gardening ingenious and building. . . that which it is not in his power to prevent being injured 5 and the third. or any 33 either The idea that painting to injure or improve. 4. all parts of may bear illumination. "The art I profess/' he cries. our stables after Woovermans. and stalls. where composition and keeping can be secured only by setting a scene 32 off light with shade) 5. In our markets. Beauti]uly Sublime." The mere cute. The point of view of the painter is fixed. will we may learn to dance from . /. And although conceding that the delight of the imagination in intricacy makes desirable distinct breaks between the reaches of a land- distances of a landscape painting in created real can be landscape (except in the figurative sense mentioned above). . The field of vision is greater m j. and fruit. so essential to the picture. . < est a la de? / est y a la f)oes\e et a la femture. The light on a real scene shifts. and (unlike painting." other.232 these locutions.'" Price and Knight into inquiring the differences of the two arts. for of the three distances of the improver. surveys his scenery while in motion. ce que la realite sl Led by conversations with scnytion y et I'ongmal a la copie. fish. gardener. should supply models for landscaping affords opportunity for the satirical excursions in which this controversy abounds: "This idea of our instruction from the works of great painters. for instance. that which it is not in the power of himself. instead of that formal trim custom of displaying poultry. "without some skill in painting.

The reason is. The admiration which Repton expressed for the aesthetic theory of Burke was no doubt fostered by the reflection that Burke's theory left no room for a character alongside the beautiful and the the picturesque ." "In the park and forest. Gilpin is in some sense nently pictorial. In the Letter to Price.eldom be able to form a just idea of nto execution. if intricate. and at the same time is often the handiest manner . and in his discussions of buildings "picturesque" is a term of praise rather than opprobrium. various. and with this clew we can follow scenes." for the though not less interesting pleasure grounds of the leisured. 37 This remark suggests that Repton thought pictorial chiefly what is wild. it is true. he remarks. Irregularity is emi- though enough and Price agree in this. Repton's conception throughout his writings. no way obstructed Repton's theoretical grasp of Burke's and his skill in theory employing it in the analysis and construction of actual scenes." which is a solecism in Price's system. limity of prospect that nature can artificial produce 5 but we must also provide . highly dressed scenes.. and shaggyj this is of Gilpinism. rugged. that the picturesque rough 5 Repton is in accord. in contrast. less wild. that the picturesque appears in (non-ruinous) architecture in the form of irregularity of plan and elevation and of intricacy of ornamentation. however. but he sees roughness only in what is wild and unkempt. and the contemplative roused from painter to gardener this he painter. consistent with it is the picturesque with beautiful a prime object of and sublime (although denying j that gardening) appears both definition and description from Gilpin. let the active mind be soothed with all the all the subBeauty of landscape. "let he painter be indulged with the most picturesque objects for his pencil to imitate . Repton speaks as often as not of "picturesque beauty.. does seem to Price's Repton accept conception of the co-ordinance of though this polemical interest in yet there is nothing in the other writings. "sees things by . to indicate such a conviction.Humph) y Repton . for Repton usually uses the term "picturisque" to mean "pictorial. sublime. Repton's taste is more like that of Price. For Price." ransfer 35 233 effects before they are carried Subsequently. Repton seems disposed to faculty of foreseeing effects j as they are? the landscape 36 gardener "as they will be" Discussion of the relation of painting to gardening leads to Repton's new of the picturesque." he cries. In architecture. I think. Repton Gilpin's usage. or in the principles underlying the Letter. are perfectly to take picturesque. and full of abrupt modifications of form and light.

Repton discourses on the picturesque: has. This image of picturesqueness is probably derived not only from Gilpin's nature- appreciation but style of landscape painting of the contemporary English school. outline of the faces. unless the gentlemen amused themselves with rifles or canvases. is more easy to be understood than defined. and Picturesque of building. . The "great principle on which the must depend. and that of their Dutch and Italian models. Utility and picturesqueness thus in great measure coincide in architecture. and from his clearly the picturesque style in architecture. His inis terest in irregular architecture was. and sharp-pointed pea-green Gothic porches. lastly. . it will include the pig-sties of Moreland. fitter for gypsies than for English gentlemen. as well as the . which specialized in subjects that were wild from the without being great. The This word . first work to his last Repton preferred Gothic to Grecian. In the report on Endsleigh (which I think was written early though published late). [but it is absurd to represent all that is visible without selecting what is most beautiful]." says Repton.filthy hostels of Teniers and Ostade. if it means all subjects capable of being represented in a picture. and picturesque gables of Queen Elizabeth's time. as accommodating a variety of sizes. and recesses. picturesque effect of all Gothic edifices is at the top by towers and pinirregularity of outline. with all the garish frippery of trellis. excited considerable interest and controversy. by breaking ent forms and heights 3 and. shapes." Elizabeth's Gothic" that Repton recommended most often rather 38 than castle or abbey Gothic. Sublime.234 Beautiful. of late. like many others in common use. by the ". and exposures for rooms and as permitting additions with greatest grace. a powerful force operatin which the Gothic Reing on the taste of the following generation vival swept over all England. in the outline of the tions. or elevathe in or nacles. in scenery Repton thought of the picturesque as wild and uncouth. the lofty open chimneys. . chimneys 5 secondly. in fact. It was "Queen building being placed on ground of different levels. and canvas. by projections the horizontal lines with windows of differapertures. in the outline of the base." Although Repton's notion of the picturesque in architecture came in application very close to Price's (however different the underlying theories). . but the word. and he laments the "mutilation of the old halls and manor houses. give place to the modern sashes and flat roofs. where the large bay windows. thirdly. or porticos of Grecian columns reduced to the size of bed39 posts. whereas Gothic in gardening (as Repton saw it) they were largely opposed. first.

the walk. as in the observation that Grecian buildings have a beautiful effect amidst pointed or conical trees not only from contrast but because Italian painting has so often blended Grecian architecture with firs and cypresses. as the spot on which some of the first public character performed his part. is so termed by Repton. 42 with the incongruity of mixing the Grecian with the Gothic styles. Like those of Price and Knight. and our English Mortimer. wholes represented rather than the ab- It is important to notice the importance of association in Repton's thought. though he is inclined to permit some mixture of the three Gothic styles. 40 is The picturesque consistently connected in this way with painting 5 and sometimes the connection becomes very particular. for "whilst every casual observer may be struck tical. Such association by resemblance with the subjects or modes of representation of paintings is of peculiar importance in Knight's account of the picturesque. though actual in appreciation it "is one of the most impressive sources of delight 5 whether excited by local accident. as the ruin of a cloister or a castle 3 but more particularly by that personal attachment to long known objects . by the remains of antiquity. are deemed picturesque. But it depends partly also upon our habits of vision as determined by historical accident j Repton denounces the incongruous mixture of Gothic and Grecian on antiquarian grounds." 41 stract qualities. in a polished and civilized state? Certainly not. What Repton by the name "association" is not order of importance in construction of his theory. events: . this But Repton appeals also to associations with qualities taken ab- claims as his discovery the observation that Grecian stractly..Humphry Region 235 subjects represented by Salvator Rosa. which is generally attended by great sensibility. or the spot endeared by the remembrance of past .. kind of association only and they are adventitious rather than inherent. such partialities should be respected and indulged. . though this is a superficial instance. Repton's aesthetic rules and judgments depend heavily upon association there is almost no trace of Burke's physiology but the classes of association stressed calls are not the same. as the favourite seat. the tree. are they fit objects to copy for the residence of man. since the association involves the concrete stract qualities themselves. to Such personal or historical circumstances involve associations with concretes rather than with abbe the guardian of it in others. architecture consists essentially of horizontal lines and Gothic of ver- He and the problem of purity or mixture of styles depends partly on the composition of these lines. since true taste. but. ought .

. and aesthetic. when ment The practical tant view of an active view of a farm gives non-aesthetic satisfaction 5 the disfarm scene may give a truly aesthetic pleasure from the gests. it feels an incongruity of character . their costliness and durability. for this depends also on the properties of the materials. tical only insofar as they are associational that utility and fitness are So long as we approve the utility of an object with a prac- aim in view. utility of and happiness which it sug- The which Repton most often speaks lends itself es- pecially well to aesthetic feeling 5 it is not that of a farm but of a retirement for leisure. began to complain of the "mixed style" of Queen mind is not for "a mixed style is generally imperfect: the easily reconciled to the combination of forms which it has been used to con- . The Fragments subsequently betray no dissatisfaction with the "mixed Gothic.236 Beautijtd. fitness. but does not have the detachment and freedom of aesthetic pleasure 5 it is only perceived sympathetically. and purposes. our feeling is perhaps pleasurable. in at Brighton which was to be in the Hindu style. or things 44 But this archaeological sensitivity is present with things past. that utility assumes an aesthetic guise. The merits Repton saw in formality . which is equally 43 It is interesting to note that Knight and Price." found only in the book explaining Repton's design for the pavilion sider distinct uniting. life with death. were inclined to justify Italian in the is so landscapes of the sixteenth and sevenfrequent teenth centuries. He desired to introduce a new and safe source of novelty into British architecture which would not be susceptible of corrupting mixture with the two accepted systems 5 and it was his interest to show that the accepted systems were not themselves wholly adequate in utility and style. Repton at one time became so particular that he Elizabeth's Gothic. and Picturesque the contour of a mouldyet the nice antiquarian alone discovers. Sublime. it is like one object.." Habitual association resulting from historical circumstances does not account wholly for our reactions to the materials of building. ideas of animation. with incorrect respect to their different dates Gothic. without direct practical concernor conscious reflection... by of the castle and abbey mixture that a of the or battlement. infancy with old age. and the detachment and freedom of leisure are associated to its conveniences. prosperity." whose habits of vision were formed proportionately more on paintthe mixture of Grecian and Gothic which ings. Such considerations lead us to that branch of associations Utility. and design all include such associations as these. it is with concretes which involves properties essential to the objects. shape ing.

Throughout his long career. But on occasion Repton becomes too its 237 picturesque ments to be town house practical for his judgconsidered aesthetic 5 his analysis o the differences of and country house. and j he never tires of altering "the melancholy appendages of solitary 46 grandeur observable in the pleasure-grounds of the last century. Repton's neat utility has a estate.Humphry Re ft on were of this kind.. are so largely in range of moral overtones which determine his taste in beauties. Repton preferred and open scenes with light and animation "cheerful" and "gloomy" are among his favorite epithets of praise and reproach. 4T beautiful scenery" is a matter of taste and character. and his rules for the of an layout terms of immediate function that they must be considered non-aesthetic 5 45 Price discusses these same points." 4S for any of the lonely parks that I have improved . a frame of "composed flowering shrubs and evergreens 5 beyond which are seen. though he was not insensible to qualities. but in terms of creating visual effects. which I would not exchange for others. and that constant moving scene. the cheerful village. the high road. His own tiny garden in the village of Romford was a frame to the landscape he preferred. but is at the same time a facet of his preference of utility to picturesque beauty when the two conflict." "favorite His propensity for humanizing. as well as animating.

is not. but to apply in landscape the principles of compogoverning all visual phenomena. was asserted by Price. however. Repton that "in the general principles and theory of the art. possibility. 1 to practice. but which of two scenes of the same character (whatever it were. which have considered with so much attention." 238 the Alps to a parterre. 2 The principles which undergo Repton's examination are. the haste with which it was composed . it is a question how they could be accepted even in theory if inherently insusceptible of reduction to practice? Price perceives this paradox and is quick to point out the "very singular contrast" between Repton's opening professions of agreement upon and the ensuing attack upon those very principles. principles isolated most readto be sure. very and since Repton proceeds to show that Price's (as he understands of reducing them them) are not practicable. Francesco Bolognese. He proposed not to copy picprinciples sition ily. "whether the Caracci. and that the picturesque consists in the wild and uncouth. would study landscapes in a flower-garden. that the painter's landscape is the model for the gardener. Neither of these works of REPTON'S of aesthetic controversy impresses as a powerful or profound piece the assault with his introduces conciliatory judgspeculation. from the general principles of their art." Repton's different from those of Pricey principles are really. of course. in its lack of system and orand this is the more der. Neither of these propositions.CHAPTER 1 6 The Price-Repton Controversy Letter to Price betrays. or S. I flatter myself that ment you we agree j and that our difference of opinion or. perhaps. "The question. tures in gardens.) had most of those qualities that accord with 3 And secondly. Rosa. relates only to the propriety. unfortunate since Price unimaginatively organized his much longer Letter to Repton to answer point by point. therefore. in the works of the great painters." Price declares. the picturesque .

convenience and yro-priety are not the objects of consideration: not that either of them from is to be neglected. of course. that by an attention to pictures. 6 introductory compliment and blow. only wild and unpolished ideas are acquired. apology for Brown's clump and belt." esque forest" the fate Repton foresaw Price observes in noting this coincidence. . for. 4 These two prinproving *by neglect and accident' ciples are in Repton's thought really only one 5 "it seems to me. After describing how a landscape painter might improve a scene. after three sections: the and the picturesque. than picturesque utility is effect. into an examination of the relation of painting first. gardening deals with the materials of na- ture. "that your principal aim through the whole of this Letter. he observes that "in all this." reputation for taste. the third. the elegance of Claude. called taste. and to the method of study pursued by painters." 5 Not so. Repton remarks in taking up the first of these heads. . that circum- stances of utility are not truly aesthetic in quality & point which I have hitherto considered at sufficient length. unless the gen8 The argument is. rather than of that more refined and delicate sense against either of them will give a eral effect of the and judgment. but the strictest observance of man but little pcture be good. the formal grandeur of Poussin (to look no farther) refute this notion. unlike architecture. but only that he should gam hints for design from observing the effects produced by neglect and accident. Nor. second. or in the direct nervous action of such qualities. a return to the offensive with a renewed attack on painting Repton's letter falls. did Price propose that the improver should abandon design to chance." 7 Price's reply to the argument revealing. However amateurs might be misled into supposing a great affinity amongst the several arts they cultivate. and good judgment. and it is doubtful that he would judge aesthetic any assemblage of concretes not enriched by associations with . moreover. mature consideration and practical experience have led him to realize that "m whatever relates to man^ yro-priety and convenience are not less objects of good taste. but that they are objects of another kind.The is Price-Repton Controversy 239 nowise incompatible with high ornamentation and the conveniences of civilized life. Any glaring offense them is disgusting. objects of good sense. is to shew. Price is chiefly interested in associations with abstract visual qualities. This use of accident is a consequence of the nature of the art. Price avows that he might even prefer the nation to be wholly finished by Brown rather than become one "huge picturif the "new system of im" should prevail. . the an and gardening.

"as that of deducing theories and systems from favourite opin- was therefore peculiarly interested and gratified by your ingenious distinction betwixt the beautiful and the picturesque . native temperament itarian) loves seclusion and reverie. that Repton is . Sublime) and Picturesque to and shade.240 line. and the chief part.* is the chief object of mod10 ern improvement. . that Repton had really no philosophical inheritance except those eulogies of Brownian gardening which were couched often in terms of utility. where the picturesque must often be sacrificed 5 he makes a park. color. In examining picturesqueness (I revert to Repton's Letter)^ Repton takes advantage of Price's distinction between beautiful and picturesque: "There is no exercise so pleasing to the inquisitive mind. and I think plausibly. And thirdly. and not 'picturesqueness. . ions: I . but the general principles of painting are always so. . secondly. and to the genius loci. Beautiful. Disinterested appreciation of utility is assuredly pictorial though assuredly different in feeling values y ought the two feelings to be ranked together? Here the habits of feeling and the philosophic inheritances of the two dis- pleasurable. Add to this. while Repton is prompted to consider a part. Price is by temperament highly sensitive to and (though a Whig humancompositional and to romantic values. and (his visual sensitivity not- and by the conscious withstanding) concerned more with use than with composition or disinclined from accepting poetic feeling." n Price suggests. the whole influence 9 of which was against admission of the useful as a cause of beauty. Price makes three observations which restate the issue cleared of the obfuscations which Repton's misreading or rhetoric had thrown over it." In reply. The picturesque. from into play. . Repton is by putants come habits of his professional duties concerned more with society than with contemplation. Price is temperamentally convenience as an aesthetic consideration. of taste. does more than make a garden near the house. instead of a liberal and enlarged attention to beauty in its more general sense [which would include the picturesque]. The landscape gardener." he avers. firstly. to character. is in not a reference to painting but a separate aesthetic character j it is many cases not applicable to gardening. but I cannot admit the propriety of its application to landscape gardening 3 because beauty. whereas improvers have exhibited "the dangerous tendency of recommending a narrow ex- clusive attention to beauty as a separate quality . it whereas Price built upon the system of Burke. in nature the picis mixed with the turesque usually beautiful. The question be decided is in a sense one of terminology 5 but the terminology hinges upon a discrimination of subtle sensations.

This kind of political analogy had been even from the beginning of the century a feature of discussion of gardening so much so that Nikolaus Pevsner declares that <fWhig is the first source of the landscape garden. and variety of our minds." and tells us that the landscape garden was 15 I. and deducing government from the uncontrolled opinions of man in a savage state. levellers. and so long as we enjoy the benefit of these middle degrees betwixt extremes of each [he concludes]. because it is the garden of liberalism. Brown and his followers. best effected in gardening by a natural style of loose arrangements . Repton cannot help seeing great affinity betwixt deducing gardening from the painter's studies of wild nature. but in leaving each part clump. The neatness. in the same manner as the English constitution is the happy medium betwixt the liberty of savages. as the happy medium betwixt the wfldness of nature and the stiffness of art. smoothers. and elegance of English gardening." 12 Repton introduces one argument on this general head which requires especial attention. Those insensible transitions in studies o which Burkeian beauty consists are. give place to tameness and monotony j should our opinions be prescribed to us. and on the other side by taking painters' wdd nature exclusively. But really. and. let exsome other periments of untried theoretical improvement be made m 13 country. "have been universally and professedly. . and the restraint of despotic government. Brown's effort at this beauty consisted in making the separate parts smooth or undulating. after all." he had declared in his 14 first book. clearers. the . have acquired the approbation of the present century. . . should the parallel you have made. simplicity. and makes an effort to relate picturesque the- ory to the political background in such a way as to be able to use the 16 terminology of politics for discussion of landscape." de Wolfe goes further. ever become just: should the freedom.The Price-Repton Controversy 241 influenced by a jalousie de metier> which leads him to misstate the issue on one side by taking gardening in the narrower sense rather than landscape gardening. be moulded into one form. like our places. and dealers in distinct serpentine lines and edges. the political analogy which is appealed to cen- in one form or another both by the disputants of the eighteenth tury and the scholars of the twentieth. belt. Price rejoins in like vein that his pride and exultation in the British constitution "would sink into shame and despondency. shavers. energy. walk. river perfectly distinct and sharply separated. says Price. "conceived in England." and so forth 5 modern improvement is "a species of thraldom unfit for a free country.

none makes dialectical assimilations of politics to aesthetics or vice versa. Having written this much. as Repton states question of the clump is merely one it: the is the simplest way of producing a group in future. however.242 Beautiful. literal-minded. men of these are All in or in in it Price. too. It is of interest that on clumps and belts at least. and accordingly returned to the attack on the painterwarns against amateurs "quacking" themselves. in which everybody delights. and they are never the principal arguments relied upon. . is inclined to suppose the belt adopted from vanity in the owners (to conceal the size of a small estate." and to refer contemptuously to "the spruce modern seat of sudden affluence. though he did make the inference is is many natural groups like clumps". Price in the and Repton drew together as Repton's interest garden and Repton even comes fects. 17 by means of this that he preferred distinctness to connection. Price. instead. Man loves seclusion loves liberty: the pale and safety: the park must be enclosed. Such arguments have no real conviction for them and are mere polemical brickbats 5 they are rationalizations. . not intellectual causes. for Repton was contracting . Sublime. however. The belt gives the reality of enclosure with the de- He ceptive appearance of freedom. Brown has been enabled it is mischief. be-belted. appears Knight. second of the principal divisions of Repton's Letter defends and belt. and "it system of making every thing distinct and separate. denies that Brown ever "made a clump like a natural group. but are makeweights thrown in to overwhelm already staggering opponents. and be-clumfed in the newest style of 19 the modern taste of landscape gardening. and thence he is so do such rapid and extensive much more an object of the 18 painter's indignation than his strait-lined predecessors." This coincidence of opinion is not an identity." Repton's defense of the belt. his appreciation of picturesque effect increased. Repton determined on having his letter printed. and Picturesque whether appeal to the British constitution is a mere rhetorical trick. rests upon expediency. or display that of a large) and laziness in the im- provers (since it is a formula applied without regard to particular circumstances of composition). The of means. He . to that that Mr. the most conspicuous features of Brown's style. clump Price. he contradistinguishes the prospect. Repton. to sneer at the "trim imitators of Brown's de- the pleasure grounds into a garden while Price (though formalizing them near the house) was transforming them into a forest park. must not show. from gardener. To stress them is to equivocate with terms and The clump to distort picturesque theory.

like this. and proclaims the love of prospect be "an inherent passion of the human mind" 5 20 he decides that painting and gardening are not sister arts but congenial natures brought together like man and wife (the controversy reaches its most banal) 5 he suggests that (as a man may from habit prefer tobacco to sugar) Knight and Price "are in the habits of admiring fine picboth live amidst bold and picturesque scenery. . but because. the good sense and good taste of this country will never be led to despise the comfort of a gravel walk. I trust. tells them. . where She displays the scene. and the circumstances attending them well have granted also the sublimity of prospect." which and tures. His discussion of prospects.The Price-Repton Controversy 243 to the landscape. "have rendered he may. spoiled by transfer to canvas. So does the eye a lovely whole collect From parts disjointed. the delicious fragrance of a shrubbery. Some In Critic say) Yet why (methinks I hear do ample scenes." 21 Price humorlessly takes up each of Repton's points. the soul expanding delight of a wide extended prospect. from a composition suitable for a picture. you insensible to the beauty those milder that scenes have charms for common observers of . The roving sight can fause. or a view down a steep because they are all subjects incapable of being painted. deformed. each of which Presents a separate picture. picture fail to flease. is ingenious. when every eye Confesses they transport on Nature's chart? Why. the composition of those parts which make separate pictures. And form distinct ^perceptions. in that the foreground and second distance are absent or minimal. both as to the particular . farts. too. of course. and swift select. 22 Price might . Thus as bees Condense within their hives the varying sweets. or painter's subject. in which it will not be necessary to follow him. whereon to fix. and therefore do not excite the curiosity which reality does. Gilpin. One of the circumstances the curious eye remarks in a prospect is. though unsuited for painting? The reason is that painted prospects "are not real. The question arises. and. From all she offers. found this fascination in the prospect $ after describing a various and extensive scene. Gilpin sings. 23 . A prospect is distinguished from a landscape."5 spots. ferhap. your palate certainly requires a degree of 'irritation' rarely to be expected in garden scenery. nay. . however. hill. why prospects Price alleges are enchanting in nature.

once made. To the refutation of Repton's objections Price appends a review of the whole question of the difference and mixture of the picturesque and the beautiful. Mr. Knight. neg. inclusive sense. "beauty. I despair of . granting permission for his Letter to Price to be reprinted in Price's answer. after reading with much his attention." narrower Burkeian breadth. finally. then (Repton misdates his copy of the letter 1795). The analogy of sense as comprehensively "all that allures. it "Mr. Sublime. 1794." may signify or pleases the eye in through the grand principle of union." 26 ) j defends Brown against misrepresentation 5 enters into the sources of pleasure in landscape gardening. 25 .244 Since the painted eye can not from Beautiful. prints a letter on gardening by William Windham. and Picturesque y seen at one coup d oed> the picturesque it select such separate compositions. every style. . Repton speaks of adding an Appendix to "the "I shall first volume of my great work" in which more fully enter into the question between Mr. The central term. and a narrow sense re"virtue" in men (courage) and women ferring to the most valued qualities and practical blending of beauti(chastity). In a letter to the publisher Robson. connection. 24 attracts." has both a broad. Price." Mr. philosophical writers feel about that confusion has enveloped the subject from the uncertain and licentious use of words. opposed aesthetical and ethical language is again stressed 5 like "beauty. for they have been canvassed in the treatment of Repton's He complains of Price's alleged idea-thieving 5 mentions the controversy over painting 3 proclaims his agreement with Price on artificial water (though eight years later he was to scheme as a whole. Repton had not added the seventh chapter (against Knight) or the Appendix (against Price).lect of some of which had misled Price and Knight 5 and. For he feels about Repton's criticisms as most panorama is the arguments of their opponents. As late as December 24. congruity. The analytical separation ful and picturesque are illustrated by some of Price's most luscious description. This Windham's says in little almost all that Repton had said at the length. key proposition is that "places are not to be laid out with piece of . But these additions. declare that manner of titioner Price has written an Essay to describe the practical finishing the banks of artificial water: but I confess. harmony. making any prac- comprehend meaning - . or it may have the to sublimity and the picturesque. add little to this exposition. Even the topic of gravel walks and mown lawns is a luminosity and order when drawn under Price's apparatus of given terms and distinctions. Brown & myself. .

notharsh sarcasms they leveled at one another in the withstanding print. and the differences over which they cut and slash in print they gloss over in correspondence." 28 When Price concludes his published Letter in a spirit of ac- commodation. Price and Mr." Behind the scenes of this logomachy. that I shall not be sorry to have provoked this kind of sparring. Theory the references to Price are mostly favorable. and still tilts at windmills in reading "picturesque" as "pictorial. so great." So far as the controis that which constitutes their beauty. Foxley is less romantic than Downton." 30 we either of us pretend in our publick con- personal animosity between Price and Repton. and therefore Mr. however." and avouching that "whatever sharpness there may be in my 29 Repton replied with generstyle. and more willing to allow some little sacrifice of picturesque 31 But the Analytical Inbeauty to neatness. the combatants speak well of one another. must not expect a billet-doux in return. Price's work & am so charmed with the animation of his Stile and manner." osity. Price is less extravagant in his ideas. From the first he had felt that there was "a shade of difference betwixt the opinions of Mr. In the Fragments on the and Practice of Landscape Gardening. The Observations on Theory and Practice contain a few sections devoted to the controversy. but to their uses. there is no rancour in my heart. candidly acknowledging that "the difference in our opinions is by no means troversy. When it Inquiry in 1805. that there became clear. Repton makes incidental appeal to Price as to an authority whose concurrence lends weight . excusing "occasional asperity" on the grounds that "he who writes a formal challenge. Repton naturally sided with Price. so long as we both keep our muffles on our hand & our buttons on the points of our foils. Repton declares to Robson that he "received so much pleasure in perusing Mr.The Price-Rep ton Controversy 245 a view to their appearance in a picture. Repton has softened little. Repton's last book. I think. . versy stems from lies at ciple which principle rather than personality. and the enjoyment of them in real life. near the house." him as a fellow vicquiry's critique of Price allows Repton to regard tim to the severity of Knight's criticism. Knight. this its is that prin- root. Repton did at first feel real relittle There was sentment for the affront offered in The Landscape (of which more hereafter). . . was an after publication of the Analytical intellectual rift between neighbors Price and Knight. . . . and their conformity to those purposes 27 . but towards Knight. which seems to have arisen from the different characters of their respective places. . as .

33 and even quotes pictores in Ciceronian motto. Repa ton remarks that the opposite opinions of two gentlemen in its vicinity [a footnote identifies Price and Knight] have produced that et in eminentiis." Most curiously. quae nos on Stanage Park. in writing controversy in which I have endeavoured to become a moderator.246 to Beautijul) Sublimey and Picturesque Price's his own 32 opinion." This is not quite the role in which we recall him! 34 . "Quam multa vident umbris non videmus.

appeared early in 1794. a mind marriage skeptical. but the works would be less dissertations scattered on happiness. through both The Land- rich without them. primarily concerned with inculcation of a certain taste in gardening rather than with exposition of a system of aesthetics 3 but that taste involves implications and as- sumptions of immense importance. And Knight has as well some claim 2 his system-building..CHAPTER 17 'Richard "Payne Anight rr\HE LANDSCAPE. Down- ton Castle. tolerant. JL dressed to a Didactic Poem in Three Books. AdUvedale Price. its author. Empirical aesthetics are perhaps always best grasped in their application to visible objects. The Landscape is. to the title of philosopher. love. his collection of antique coins and bronzes is today the basis of the British Museum's holdings 5 and he had the most valuable collection of Claudes in Europe. partly for but surely for the keenness of his insight into human scape motives. Richard Payne Knight. Knight conjoins the urbane cynicism of Gibbon with a sympathy genuine though not mawkish 5 and his thoughts on political society. just exhibit in its balance of polished intellect with undistinguished forced feeling. the first manifesto of the picturesque controversy. which he himself designed. The tangential dissertations morals. Esq. Knight was prominent in the Society of Dilettanti and one of the principals in the Elgin marbles controversy . and his park along the picturesque Teme in Shropshire are among the showplaces of England. and espe247 . The Landscape was a highly entertaining work and enjoyed a favorable reception & reception which roused a host of defenders of the old order. government and the Analytical Inquiry into the Principles of Taste interrupt continuity and shatter organization. was a scholar and connoisseur with an enthusiasm for the 1 picturesque and a knack for didactic poetry in the manner of Pope. religion. of course.

Destroys the charm it vainly would define. and conceaPd design. Sublime. to serrate. but general sympathy. T*adorn.o^8 Beautijul. 5 Do thoUy 'poet. O Instruct the and assist Price. and select With secret skill. please the fancy. The true rules for gardening are illustrated by a pronouncement on approaches: First fix the faints to which you wish to go. the effects of natural scenery without introducing artistic materials of its own. whether in painting or in landscape gardening: Nature in all rejects the j>edan$ chain. Then let your easy 'path spontaneous flow. to different 35 And leads through different ways ends *Tis just congruity of farts combined To please the sense. arrange. and Picturesque which involve few complicating factors. is And The Teach him 'plain truth in numbers to express. the jnend: dress. whose aesthetics connects a theory of the direct nervous action of color and light with an elaborate assodational psychology. For nature still irregular and free. 4 This congruity is not to be delimited by arbitrary rules. The opening argument the of much ironical flavor which pervades poem: But need not How To best to bid the verdant Landscape rise. and.counterfeit neglect. Acts not by lines. the song attend. I sing. shew its charms through fiction's flow'ry I0 the second verse) opposition of fancy and sensation (in of fundamental importance for Knight. the eyes. It reappears in the statement of the first principle of taste: 'Tis still one 'principle through all extends. The Landscape in have the faintly invocation and this study. The daily to natural objects an art which heightens and simplifies theory of landscape gardening. I is thus an excellent introduction to the problems of aesthe inclusion of justify further thetics. its J4 Which binding beauty in waving line. and delight Its various farts In harmony to join With art clandestine. and satisfy the mind. .

More and more. in fact. he urged limiting the size of parks. this preference. Knight appended a note on Repton's Red Book for Tatton. with shaggy foreground and rustic bridge the "beauteous whole" of harmonious roughhewn and picturtwo scenes the thinks some connection. To lead with secret guile. as Knight declares. he defends himself pretty successfully against the charge was to this passage that of catering to the pride of conspicuous magnificence. 249 J 55 With no To Whatever It is void of meaning gives offence. share True taste." to his Sketches and. He is. gratification naturally enough. as Knight read it. was embittered. and from others of his reports. or a ridiculous affectation of rural simplicity. and added a chapter of defense and rebuttal. using the turnpike milestones for the purpose) 5 but Repton is free of the desire to establish vast estates for solitary splendor. as the fnncifle of taste is sense. And jorm one beauteous. whole. as we have seen. Repton. from one on Knight's estate) "looks like the miserable expedient of poverty. the frying sight To where component fat ts may best unite. reveals is stores cautiously: Its greatest art > aptly to conceal. Repton (with justice) esque "serve rather to exemplify bad taste in the two extremes of artificial neatness and wild neglect. nicely blended To charm the eye and captivate the soul.Richard Payne Knight affected turn or artful bendy lead you round still farther from the end: For." and the rustic bridge (copied. Hints. it is true." thinks to develop prinKnight (we return tp The Landscape} 3 . and advised that the public be admitted to enliven them. Quoting at length from the Red Book of Tatton. Whigs though they its be. "Concerning Approaches $ with Some Remarks on the Affinity Betwixt Painting and Gardening. having read Repton as urging that the family arms might be placed on neighboring milestones. Knight subjects this of "purse-proud vanity" to excoriating satire. desirous of perpetuating a hierarchy of ranks and classes 5 but Knight and Price. J 9S Two plates illustrate application of this principle to landscaping 5 one exhibits a severely Palladian house set in a shaven lawn with an af- hard and fected Chinese bridge carrying a serpentining approach every part distinct 5 the other shows an intricate Tudor Gothic house half-buried in a wilderness. It was perhaps a little pompous to suggest erecting distance markers with the family arms (not.

he Hence The .250 ciples for Beautiful. With charts. and polish. let us learn. Thou great dejacer of the nation! Well did he use his scythe and broom! And now. they profess. scythe. &c. equipped with spade. . 28 5 This attack on Brown called forth Repton in defense 5 "the whole. by confounding the two ideas [of park and forest]. Hence." twixt painting and gardening. matching verse for verse. wrote elaboto Price's Essay on the Picturesque. Thy spade and mattock here at length lay down. which Mr. whom they come to dress. hence! thou haggard fiend. Matthews' ironical comment: mown thee [Brown] his heavy paw Has swept thee down his deep ha-ha. pedometers. We the opinions of Repton on this vexed question 5 but Repton did not spring alone to the defense of the art of Capability Brown. Knight endeavours to introduce. and roller. gardening by analyzing the three distances cries. and Picturesque of painting. however caWd. practical gardeners both. and rules in hand." he says. Around the tomb a half-dozen improvers. A Sketch -from the Landscape. Thin. "of that false and mistaken theory. need not examine again . 2 5& But ah! in vain: see yon fantastic band. and alike lay waste The forms of nature. Knight's adjuration to improvers to follow their master Brown to the tomb suggested Matthews' title-page rate replies to The Landscape and And John Matthews vignette. upon thy tomb Death has Pll four a suitable libation? . And follow to the tomb thy jav'rite Brown. struck off a parody. are spattered with the discharge and fall away holding their noses. . . proceeds from not duly considering the degree of affinity be4 . in real scenes. William Marshall and George Mason. Sublime. Advance triumphant. But shave the goddess. with glee. and the works of taste! T'imfrove. meagre genius of the bare and bald. which exhibits a fashionably dressed gentleman discharging the contents of a chamber pot at a tomb inscribed CAPABILITY. . adorn. z6 $ Hence. to trace true ingredients of the fainter*s grace.

The lovely locks round Nature's fhiz. with knotted parwork. to Knight's Account of the its Remains of the Worship of Priapus. is a caricature of a formal garden. Knight's mockery of improvers for "shaving Nature" turn mocked: is in its How How croft and shorn foor Nature looks! could these blockheads at her toilet Shave such a charming head. recall). 8 Than in such serpentines meander! Book II of The Landscape is introduced by celebration of the andent system of formal gardening . J Again. Matthews cries. a book generations ahead of age in understanding of sexual symbolism. shall nobly rise (Think not thy modesty shall 'scafe us) The God of Gardens thou shalt stand. which brought on Knight's head a storm of abuse for alleged obscenity and infidelity. facing the avenue and back to us is the yew statue of Knight. What shall the grateful world agree on? Thy In statue of Colossal size. two ladies are turning away in confusion (a statue of Priapus. can Nature meany On To frim-rolPd gravel fringed with green? No if I rightly understand her! trudge in dirt 'Midst brambles thick Fd rather chuse above my shoes. yew. That man should walk. and * sfoil itl Shave y then. no morey good friends> but friz .Richard Payne Knight 251 Another vignette at end illustrates the closing apostrophe: Triumphant KNIGHT! A to give thy name fassfort to immortal jame. ductile To fright improvers from the land. with the misunderstanding which Hearne's engraving was likely to suggest and entrenched interest to adopt. . and a cypress avenue. 6 A The vignette terre. of course. topiary huge and terrible Pnapus. This allusion is a clever but rather cruel stroke 5 it refers.

5 to its formal brother. Replace in even lines the ductile yew. 270 And With vary'd elegance of art. and Picturesque Ojt when I've seen some lonely mansion standy Fresh from th? improver's desolating hand) 'Midst shaven lawns. fall. eternal green? This exordium followed by development of principles of compicturesque park and new by oft-quoted lines on pic- turesque buildings Bless*d is the man. matured by time. Some vary'd tints and forms would intervene. so dull and bare. who. diffuse their shade. that jar around it creef In one And scattered clumpy Each eternal undulating sweep. in whose sequestered glade.252 Beautiful^ Sublime. Some 26 Or nodding o'er the stream that glides below. 'Midst sculftuSd fragments. is he. yet unenvy'd. combine the nature's softest tints. to whose humbler lot Falls the retired and antiquated cot. *5 To position for the break is this uniform. stiffly waving Tir*d with th? extensive scene. waving plain. shivered by their totfring remnants of its marble wall. 10 And flant Some To mark this flat. and the revival in the Renaissance. and turrets crown'd. ruined castle's lofty towers sees. Imbosom'd high upon the mountains brow. again the ancient avenue. And ^pinnacles Blessed too with clinging ivy bound. insijnd. that nod at one another. To Heav*n devoutly I've addressed my fray'r. warm influence of a genial clime. 'midst his tufted trees. And 275 This second book concludes with an account of the purity of taste 10 among the Greeks. its destruction by Roman tyranny and Christian bigotry. feature then. we should obtain. . Again the moss-grown terraces to raise. Its roof Nor with weeds and mosses covered o'er. Still Who And sees hamper he (if conscious of his <prize) some temple's broken columns rise. 2 55 Some ancient abbess walls With mould*nng windows perc'd. Where ev'ry beauty of correct design. at least. 3 And spread the labyrinth s ferflexing maze.

But both their merits. On April overgrown with moss and weeds. final The to the second Knight. the harmonious blending of tints and lights which constitutes the direct pleasure of the sense of sight. like those of Price. Knight's theory. which merges here and there into shades of greyish blue. and picturesque. on trees. traced Visions nice errors. Art dawned unsteady } with reflected rays. Thus it is that the tints affect the eye in a fashion at 33 u "Affect the eye.Richard Payne Knight Reviv'd again. The weather has attacked the stone. His prescriptions. their groupings and accompaniments. like Lysipfus* chisel. Knight writes of the ruins at Paestum. and on canvas flay. in patient Claude were joined: Natures own fupil. 4jo But yety in these degenerate days. who had given pendant an analysis of trees and shrubs. "harmonious. justified and demanded. was yet deliberately calculated to cultivate the tastes which Knight's theory. faifrite child of taste! Whose Sunk pencil. Lost all the 3 253 And general 'principle of grace > warring fancy left to take its flace. operates more in terms of light and color. This peculiar merit of modern painting is the picturesque. as is the wont of nor smoke. The Landscape. in Charles and Leo's days. and cater? d in colours bright The flickering flashes of celestial light. e*en to Greece unknown: Nature's aerial tints and fleeting dyes. 4*5 And taught the tree to spread its light array In mimic colours. Old Titian first imbody'd to the eyes. 42 5 partial jorm in general effect. in his Remarks on Forest Scenery. Even in the Sicilian diary of 1777 are passages containing the germ of 13 of that year. already formed. pleasing. dwelt chiefly on line and form. is logically only a and need not detain us. with feign'd neglect. "The colour is a whitish yellow. $olishyd and refin'd By toil and care. book of The Landscape. and neither blackened by rendered hideous by recent additions. ruins at Rome." and "picturesque" are all susceptible here of the which is technical analysis given in the Analytical Inquiry. are ." once harmonious. it shone With one perfection. Gilpin. and. while not a treatise on aesthetics. consistently with his theory of the picturesque. Next Rubens came.

or non-descnpt which have not yet been named or classed. simple. to distinguish qualities perceivable only by intellect. he celebrates the beauties of native scenery Nor y and wat'ry sky. Or blindly follow some preceding guide. that is reon picturesque principles. but think that the distinction of which this ingenious professor has thus taken advantage. [he warns]. undertook the subversion of Price's radical picturesque. It is . and every age rejects the values of the preceding. vague and extensive meaning. And crudely copies what it never views.. quired. so far as that work relates to the picTaste ciples of and turesque." Knight observes. Knight added a note which. "Containing a Scep- View of the Subject. and that the picturesque is merely that kind of beauty which -. beauties. yet no values are really general. were to of . whether a material substance. Sublime. sense . I cannot. but independent composition When a second edition of The Landscape was called for in 1795.. not imitation of Italian landscape. . the only standard is the generality of feeling. or the understanding j whatever the nature of it be. . real or painted. $lac d beneath our cool Attempt the glowing tints of Italy: For thus comfelPd in mem'ry to confide. Since taste is a questical tion of feeling rather than of reason. . "taking advantage of a supposed distinction between the picturesque and the beautiful. "The word Beauty. $ 10 One common track it [art] still pursues. a moral excellence. the imagination. after dealing an incidental blow to Repton for his Letter to Price. . and are therefore applied originally applied objects literal. moreover. and elegant ejects. are employed . applied indiscriminately to almost every thing that is pleasing. In the Introduction to the Analytical Inquiry. but neat. this is the thesis of the Analytical Inquiry into the Prina decade later. 12 This is the thesis of the note to The Landguided by that sense. or an intellectual theorem." Knight develops with some subtlety the uncertainty and instability of every standard." 13 All these applications of notwithstanding that "all epithets. Repton. "is a general term of of the most approbation. however [Knight declares]." scape.254 free of academic Beautiful." maintains that "his art was never intended to produce landscapes. is an imaginary distinction of beautiful and some kind of one. the term. belongs exclusively to the sense of vision or to the imagination. and Picturesque mannerism. either to the sense.

" "Imagination. 255 though not always 14 or imagination. Knight emphasizes a set of distinctions familiar enough to readers in the Scottish philosophy. for. to objects of intellect to virtue or the human form. . are utterly distinct in their causes. escape these supposed conclusions of skepticism. Hav- ing ascertained the principles of sensation generally. Knight can then move to the senses of sight and hearing." Whether applied figuratively. "I admit/' Knight con- that the word Beauty entirely changes its meanas it is applied to objects of the senses. . are the result of balance and proportion. . study. 16 and improved by exercise. Analysis naturally proceeds from the simple to the complex. The appropriateness of this particular here One psychology will be examined later j what is to be noted the advance such an approach represents over that of Price. though mixed in their effects. But these not truly the same. though these faculties are so mixed and compounded in their operations. but not in what he supposed to be Berkeley's denial of the material world and Hume's denial of the intellectual uni- verse as well. as used to signify a general discriminative faculty arising from just feeling and correct judgment implanted in the mind of man by his Creator. "All its [skepticism's] wandering clouds of To . and the passions. that it is extremely difficult to discriminate them accurately $ yet the pleasures of each. the association of ideas (comprehending knowledge or Improved Perception." 15 It is this analysis of the faculties which permits Knight to get beyond the expression of personal preferences. The three parts of the Analytical Inquiry are devoted to sensation. the confusion in which the psychological mechanisms underlying the aesthetic characters are left. then smell and touch. ." Knight was pretty well read in British philosophy as far as Reid. with the senses." and "Judgment").Richard Payne Knight transitively. "beauty" tinues. signifies "proportions" ". the imaccordingly ing the or agination. accordingly. and Knight begins. and with those least com- pounded with the higher faculties taste. "whose objects are the proper objects of taste in the more general sense of the word. He follows Berkeley and Hume in rejecting the special status of primary qualities. the analysis is conducted entirely in terms of the faculties involved in aesthetic experience. . understanding. In Knight. of the difficulties in Price's analysis. in the complicated mind of civilized man. and meditation. so that (whatever errors may be made in the conduct of the analysis) the argument always differentiates clearly the various causes involved. and one which has left Price is is exposed to much misunderstanding.

. and this difference is is crucial for aesthetics. are irritable. Sublime. of which 17 the mind is capable. a mental image and remote. according as the nerves are relaxed below their normal tension ("pleasure") or allowed to approach normality from ory.256 Beautiful. knowledge. whereas in Burke's nervous physiology there are two distinct modes of agreeable sensation. that cer- produce sensations. lose. But mere sensation a modification of the sense-organ is different from the perception in the mind." The influence of custom and that of novelty are allowed for." Thus. to signify 'perception. and the result is disso- . as not to produce. and which are sensations others. which are pleasant. and smell. "seem to have arisen from emsometimes in its proper sense to signify ploying the Greek word idea. remarks which are carefully however scat- tered in appearance. and almost every other operation. or result of operation. like other animal parts. that the sense-organs.. which are natural. Knight's theory does not readily acpleasure in this way.. on every re-application of . This normal irritation increased or decreased by external impressions. Knight remarks that "the case is. a change sufficient to excite a pleasing irritation. sometimes in others the most adverse and or vision. unpleasant 5 that there must be a certain degree of it to produce either $ and that. All that we know beyond the is. and all those which are unnatural. essentially the irritation commodate two modes of painful distention ("delight"). acquire modes of irritation strength by indulgence: for no strained or unnatural action of the nerves can ever be so assimilated to their constitutional modes of existence. its cause." 19 In this the- same pleasure results from an increase in deficient and from a diminution of excessive irritation. that all those tastes." he says. and by experience we learn that they are the causes of sensations though the sensations do not resemble them. . is faculties to discover. notion. Objects and their qualities exist really. a certain degree of irritation being always kept up by ordinary vital processes. The doctrine is. all 18 are painful. and Picturesque confusion and perplexity. Much taste of the later doctrine a consequence of the remarks on selected. beyond a certain degree. or its modes may may be be changed reach of tain 3 "but how human these changes take place . remembrance. we have a ferception of an object moving see or feel it (and even this is more than the sensation). with an acuteness and a cynicism altogether readily characteristic. afterwards 5 of the motion of the earth we have a remembrance and a notion "acquired by comparative deductions from other perceptions" $ of motion in general we have only general knowledge ab- when we stracted from all the above.

." 20 Burke's beauty. on the same principle which governs the pleasure of the other senses "that is. and angular reflections of light upon the eye. the pleasures of touch arise irritation. as may be seen by the manner in which painters imitate them. Knight finds. I cannot dis- cover. for. in our perceptions of them in nature. as a cause of visible beauty. are nevertheless real and positive pleasures: as when we gradually sink from any violent or excessive degree of action or irritation into a state of tranquillity and rebut why the sensation caused by the ascent of the scale pose . which. as the imitations of painting extend only to the visible qualities of bodies. The connection of color and light The with distance and magnitude touch." function of light and color only. to things. upon a moderate and varied irritation of the or21 Knight insists that this irritation of the eye is a ganic nerves. is One of Knight's crotchets is the tracing out rejecting of the influence of sexual associations on art this origin as aesthetic and what only in inferior degree." Knight postulates.Richard Payne Knight lution of Burke's dichotomy of sublime 257 beautiful. but . . we often apply very improperly to those of vision. and that caused by its descent. "there is a certain class. and "Among the to pleasures of sense. and these reflections are all that the eye feels or naturally perceives. but not confused. cast the most sharp. but yet brilliant and contrasted combinations of light. and found to depend upon "mistake of a particular sympathy for a general principle. from gentle comes from It inal. that which gives organic pleasure to the eye. . [of intensity] should be called pleasure. consists in "harmonious. of which the leading jected sexual ideas. . shade. delight." through association of Abstracted from such sympathies. they show distinct from all others. though smooth to the touch. harsh. smoothness is no source of pleasure to is Smoothness being properly a quality perceivable only by the touch. in the treatment of sight that Knight is most strikingly orig- sensual pleasure of the organs of sight depends. as distinguished by an eminent writer. and it applied metaphorically to the objects of the other senses. which. which the habitual concurrence of other senses has joined with them 22 in the mind. Visible beauty. and broken. trait is smoothness. those visible qualities fairly and impartially . is also re- by Knight. assigning smoothness. more particularly among those belonging touch. though arising from negative causes. and colour 5 blended. Such are all objects of cut glass or polished metal. and by the same the eye as such: of course learned by experience with token.

offensively harsh and . Painting can effect such dissociation because pleasure only. as it imitates only of bodies. to . . is devoted to influence please in and such do not us to accept those harsh oppositions of color which may actuality or in practical arts. why pictured imitations of the ugly or offensive glaring may (in Knight's language) beautiful.. all the magic instantly vanishes. splendor. and Picturesque not cut. Price proposed to remedy this insipidity by mixing "picturesqueness" with the "beauty. . in our ordinary perceptions. little or great objects. the mere sensual gratification of the eye is comparatively so small. as scarcely to be attended to: but yet. there is a confusion of terms from "attaching to the word beauty and those ideas. taper or spiral. dissociating from those qualities displeasing to the other senses. deceptions of this art unmask the habitual deceptions that mere modifications upon one flat surface can exhibit to the eye the semblance of various projecting bodies at different de24 . which the rest of mankind attach to the those. Painting separates qualities pleasing to the eye. The imitative . irregular trees. of which hereafter) ( j) the pleasure of the eye is wholly in broken and gradated : light and color. whether in nature or in art. This. that we are to seek for these 5 but in such as display to the eye intricacy of parts and variety of tint and surface. so that utility. and are therefore ing or imagination as well. long or short. propriety. and the imagination 25 avenges the injury offered to the sense. which the rest of mankind attach to the word word insipidity j beauty. . if there occur a single spot . Intellect and imagination are immensely predominant even in painting 5 "in the higher class of landscapes.258 Beautiful." This conception of the picturesque affords a neat solution to the perennial problem.. separates those qualities from all others 5 which the habitual concurrence and co-operation of the other senses have mixt and blended with them. moldering ruins in short. by showing . . ." grees of distance from each other. all that Price had described as picturesque. into masses: and it is not peculiarly in straight or curve. . the visible qualities Picturesque because "painting. or perhaps the understandplease. is Knight's conception of the simple picturesque (there is also a picturesque dependent on association of ideas. then. visible things and (2) the art of painting separates this aspect of from all others associated with it in practical experiit ence. of sight . . It is clear also how Burke's erroneous notion of making beauty consist in the smooth and undulating should lead a man of taste like Price to discover such beauty to be insipid. Sublime." 23 Such are shaggy animals." But though the taste thus displayed is correct.

but in reality is the consequence of knowledge applied automatically to the sensations as signs of non-sensory as signs of qualities qualities. as expression. is absolutely necessary to sustain that steady rapidity of 27 of enthusiasm j and utterance and exaltation above the ordinary tone of common speech 5 . In this view. Knight's work is reactionary. ." point is clear as regards sculpture. rate the elements of a complex impression and compare them with ideas already fixed in the mind produces the skill of a winetaster. and consequently it appears to me that a methodical arrangement of the sound into certain equal or corresponding portions. of Knight's aesthetics. belonging properly to the other The arts can be classified according as they afford immediate sen- sory pleasure or please only through improved perception. and also enjoyment of the arts as imitation. But improved perception extends beyond such universally acquired and automatic habits 3 the ability to sepa- The most elementary mode of association that. for instance. or senses. for writing after Alison. which he conceives to be an improve. howis from that of Burke 5 he has developed a theory essentially physical rather than mental. and not the principal part. a theory of impressions unassociated rather than a theory of ideas associated.Richard Payne Knight this 259 nameless amalgamation. Part II of the Analytical Inquiry ideas. The case of prosody is rather different. ever different his doctrine Knight has been operating in the mode of Burke. and calculated to produce pleasures merely sensual. for poetry is expressive rather than imitative. addressed to the organs of sight and The hearing. and visual pleasure results from color and light j the lights and shadows of sculpture are regular.. In all these instances the perception is in appearance the mere result of the sensations. "is the language of inspiration. there is a difference in the psychology supposed by the words. is devoted to the association of is "improved perwhich modifications of light and color by ception" inform us of distances.. "Poetry. called verses . are addressed entirely to the imagination and the passions 3 while painting and music are. The difference is merely a difference of words. for sculpture is imitation of form. Thus far. too. 26 ment of it. But this is only a part." Not quite. and either too much or too little broken to suit painting or to please the eye. "Sculpture and poetry require order and regularity: painting and music delight in wild and irregular variety 5 sculpture and poetry. . as virtuosity." Knight declares. in a degree. he at- tempts to restore the senses as avenues of direct aesthetic feeling.

and he shows that the melody of by a neat application of the Method of Agreement verse does not depend upon the sound. which often requires so much lost. lights . "Of this description are the objects and circum- for. To the medium of the objects. not a determination of the sensations as signs. mispronouncing Latin according to the of Latin verses . to a more visual with massed and shadows blended and truly imitation. they afford no pleasure. and shadow." to criticize sharply the English blank verse. and Picturesque which alone can give a continued character of enthusiastic expression 2S This view of prosody leads Knight to any extensive composition. The next step is examination of associations which do not so fuse with the or- ganic sensations 5 accordingly. since that hears a difpoints must be recognized not by ferent pattern in each language.260 Beautiful. This kind of association or artificial may attach to either natural latter. for modern Europeans. then. light. of pleasing effects of colour." 31 draws with exact Like Price. which operate through the medium of the imagination. than what the eye saw" ). as Price had his. and inversion to distinguish it from prose that rapidity of flow is 29 verse by Milton. but by accurate memory and ready so automatically that they "dupe the ear discernment. or to the former through a mind enriched with trains of ideas drawn from the pro- and ductions of the arts. Knight's obespecially the use of that servations on the musical quality of poetry are keen. but to persons conversant with the art of painting. Sublime. a chapter forming perhaps a quarter of the entire treatise. "Of Imagination" is the second chapter of this part on association. and stances called picturesque: sufficiently skilled in it to distinguish. not only art works but all the objects of nature society may afford gratifications through association with such ideas and imagery." 30 This is improved per- the sense itself but an effect of knowlception. each fashion of his own nation. except in the instances. The progress of painting. according to Knight. edge unconsciously employing Knight has dealt with those assodations which so fuse with the sensations exciting them that only by philosophy can we Thus far learn to dissociate the elements of the resulting perceptions. Knight labors the etymology of "picturesque" and this etymology into conformity with his system. before explained. was from and distinct imitation of details (which was soon found to be rather "copying what the mind knew to be. from the concurrent 32 testimony of another sense. and be really delighted with its real excellences. these incorrectness or agree fully on the correctness the ear.

and show them through an improved medium that of the feeling and discernment 34 In this comparison of nature and art. taste. was invented by Georgione about the beginning. and." and intellect a higher relish for the productions of each. consists in broken and blended tints and irregular masses of light and shadow harmoniously melted together 5 the 'pic- turesque is therefore beautiful in the strictest sense so far as it affects the sense. soon which the word made its first appearance in the Italian. which exless hibit blended and broken tints. And see the conse- quences: Knight's treatment of sensation had shown clearly that beauty in the strictest sense. decidedly and imagination. though it may reside in objects distasteful to imagination or . unclear. as applied to that which is pleasing to the sense of sight. and then only in those objects and combinations of objects. and perfected by Titian about the middle of the sixteenth century." affords that special pleasure from association j picturesque objects "recall to mind the imitations. they blended and melted them together with a playful and airy kind of lightness. in the very clear and manner of Wolfflin. which call picturesque. the Venetians and the painters of the Low carried this principle of massing to a degree beyond what appears in ordinary nature. I believe. and this beauty is independent of connection with painting. and departed from the system of strict imitation in a lines contrary extreme to that of their predecessors.) But this very relation to painting. Such are the objects.Richard Payne Knight 261 broken together. of course. and keeping their tints more separate. both eye of a great artist. This acquire picturesque of association with painting always involves sensual beauty. and a sort of loose and sketchy indistinctness not observable in the reality. Instead of making their more distinct. expressed by the word "picturesque. un- under peculiar circumstances and modifications of the atmosphere. and compositions of objects. than the visi- ble appearance of the objects of imitation warranted. (In that more comprehensive sense of "beauty" which includes all that affects intellect are. and genius have produced j and these again recall to the mind the objects themselves. In this remarkable passage Knight distinguishes linear and painterly. which skill. in 33 any language. or irregular masses of light and shadow harmoniously melted into each other. many picturesque objects not beautiful. although that art drew our attention to it and cultivated our sensibility. we properly distin- and we find that the style of painting which guished after them as such. Countries Still later.

the ideas of which it has been invariably habituated to associate. and congruity are not in the qualities which we associate with the acceptation (which refers to the sense of sight). neatness. Rembrandt.Beautiful. intellect and Picturesque a flayed carcass. for while the sensual beauty is complete. are picturClaude. do not have these qualities. and its remote consequence might be the "Interior at Petworth. incoherent. is a landmark on the road to impressionism. but in that looser meaning that includes pleasures of the imagination and understanding. But Price was actually defining the beauty of the regular arts in this way 5 Knight. a decaying hovel. require neglected paths. "fav'rite child of taste" 5 comthe indeed is esque. while strictly speaking more beautiful to the sense. though. Sublime. with powerful imaginative bining sensual beauty picturesqueness the ideal painter. sometimes even Raphael. does not define beauty unqualifiedly. that it affords less sensual pleasure 5 and its regularso angles sharper." But Turner's last phase would not. in this system. "although. very oppopicturesque. Since everything in painting is to that extent capable of representation to advantage of picturesque objects is possible . or absurd. the beauty of architecture consisted in regularity and neatness. otherwise the combinations will appear to be unnatural. Rubens. however. as Knight lays it down that "the requires propriety in every thing 5 that is. Led mind into a general discussion of far as these arts involve association. it has appeal. on the same principle of consistency and propriety. &c. but distinguishes the beauties of the different faculties here he speaks of an associational beauty quite different from sensual beauty. for to Price. picturesque Salvator. objects have so dissolved that to imagination and intellect 5 Turner's imitations there is less appeal of Claude would be. Knight is. ." 35 In gardening. we should. in Knight's sense. gardening and architecture. be approved by Knight. Claude. it requires that those properties. and in ruins. no catalog site styles are. I think. cc very close to Price on the beauty of architecture. he is for Knight been observed. we require all to be dressed and cultivated immediately adjoining the dwellings of opulence and luxury. we see. too. This tendency to think of the term "beauty" strict beautiful" as regular and fresh very naturally appropriates the term "picturesque" to objects which. if the same buildings were abandoned. The moldering rum in a Claude landscape picturesque. seaport seaport. should be associated in reality. therefore. architecture of a ity. Poussin. Knight's theory. and so Claude (albeit in less degree) is the magnificent and its uniform more are tints its because less The so. superior works of is art.

not only originally produced by art. picturesque in its varied it is and wilder forest-park at some remove. "bitterness of But sire apparent in the Analytical Inquiry that Knight did not dewild forest to the very portals of the house. But he consoles himself with the reflection that many of his opinions have been confirmed by being "disguised in other words" cites three stolen. Repton was partly in accord with Knight. Repton never directly met intricate textures. castle of picturesque these themes in later books. whom he had considered pretty nearly of a piece in their opinions. thought The Landscape good poetry (though this it the more insidious). ideas in evidence. art 36 Such neatness constantly employed and exhibited. and of between an open park even in The Landscape the preference for formality near the house was evident.Richard Payne Knight 263 rugged lanes. in contending with an adversary of such nice discernment. and wild uncultivated thickets. and such ingenious powers of expression. however. where it appears best in the form of Italianate gardening. "left no room for further controversy" 5 but Knight's book again called upon Repton to defend the art of landscape gardening. Repton had taken umbrage at The Landscape. such deep investigation. reprinting the parallel passages from his own writ- He . and the area of agreement appears ultimately to increase Repton takes to "enriching" his Red Books with 3S quotations from The Landscape } even on the topic of approaches! This happy accord was prevented for a time. "In perusing these works. From the first. in them- selves. but." Repton continues with some irony. by publication of the Analytical Inquiry." Repton's perplexity is increased by the con- troversy now developed between the two amateurs. more in which. though (as he complains) his own books were given 5 made no notice by Knight. and in the added chapter to his Sketches and Hints he protested Knight's cleanly" prejudice against all that is neat and which he traced to a fanatical insistence on pictorial effect. if not in their manners. park and forest are not to be is shaved and trimmed. which are. and genuinely admired Knight's 37 and He returns frequently to estate Downton. pleasing. of a 5 Knight's actual position." must be confined to the environs of the house. Price has examined my opinions. "the candid reader will perhaps discover that there is no real difference between us 3 but. but (like Price) thought of a formal garden near the house. however. it is difficult to say how far we are actually 39 of the same opinion. unfit accompaniments for objects. both to the eye and the imagination. and explained his own." wrote Repton. "The elegant and gentlemanlike manner in which Mr. but. that is in the Analytical Inquiry.

either of a Grecian temple or a Gothic abbey. and in its least varied forms 5 hence the regularity of Palladian buildings. The issues. congruity with the situation and the purpose of buildings. Knight justifies that mixture of Greek and Gothic which Repton had condemned. that Repton did not wholly grasp the subtle and comso that the controversy plicated theory of his amateur opponent. the comment was never disputed. those in Repton's quarrel with Price . have inflexibly copied the sacred (rather than the domestic) architecture of the Greeks. pure and un- varying. nor triumph in the concession of what and from Knight. which arise in the mind of the artist out of a just and adequate The real authority of style in building is the trained vision of the great landscape painters. The only truly general rule is. and hence the Grecian temple in the English park. Knight argues for the superior pic- turesqueness of a heterogeneous style. and this (I judge) would have granted . . and accidental circumstances upon which its congruity depended are changed 5 in such an imitation. accordingly. Knight protests. "the scale of its exactitude be- comes that of its 41 incongruity. but all the local. pronounce every ought such coincidence a plagiarism. The moderns. or less well defined than. . which they see produced. are either the same as.." The truth is. temporary. the controversialists understood one another imperfectly. but he makes light of that antiquarian Repton demand for purity of style which for Repton forbade the mixture. Such a temple is in one sense. ." The fundamental copy the error of imitators. then. 40 and it is unnecessary to enter into a more methodical analysis of them. and even on these points personalities aside. Knight examines the history of castle and ecclesiastical Gothic.264 ings Beautiful. and the best style for picturesque houses is. that they servilely effects. and Picturesque but Knight's similarity is unquestionable. instead of studying and adopting the principles. and discourses on the civil and military architecture of the ancients all with the view of dissolving the notion of stereotyped styles. however. Subhr?ic." 42 . In architecture. of on practice. upon which their propriety or impropriety their congruity or incongruity wholly depend: for principles in art are no other than the trains of ideas. hinged. to be sure. "that consideration of all such circumstances. or accidental circumstances. seems the of edition third the just: that when Inquiry) (in "to not author an the observations are obvious. "is. which guided the original artist in producing them 5 wherefore they disre- gard all those local. temporary. as beautiful in the lawns and woods of England as on the barren hills of Agrigentum.

. outlines. through the handling. as Knight ironically suggests." Hogarth's famous line is. rests on the idea that the eye is affected immediately only by light and color." This is an regular and distinct features. Knight's theory. in contrast. and the beauty of color was treated secondarily and by analogy with that of form. heighten the relish of beauty" 43 of without appearance deceit or imposture. since this style of beauty is esas higher styles of painting pecially appealing to those conversant with the masterpieces of classic And sculpture. (in which Knight comprehends on not at all on abstract reaassociation. it really constitutes a sculpturesque analogous to the pic- turesque. but incidentally. and Rubens is in this particular the most picturesque of painters. in which they always predominate. then. an art more fairly representing beauty of has neither tricks of light and shade nor can it leave anything to the imagination by sketchy brilliance of execution. in which they are never 44 employed. "The forms. free. Another variety of association in painting is that between handling style. . which are peculiarly appropriate to sculpture. for symmetry which Reynolds deemed requisite not in sculpture only but in the well. which have been called the lines of grace and beauty 5 how truly. and those of Raphael. The subtlety of Knight's system is shown nicely in the parallel discussion of form in sculpture. symmetry in limb and body. with facility of col- oring and composing chiaroscuro. Brilliant. the compositions of Rubens. Knight may think of the pictur- . and sketchy execution is peculiarly adapted to forms which are loose and flowing 5 the lightness of such work is peculiarly picturesque.Richard Payne Knight 265 mixed Poussins. both of the human figure and form than painting since it countenance. may decide. Such picturesque form consists precisely in "those flowing and undulating lines. therefore. This apparent contradiction is more than a difference of taste. the beauty of form entering his system only by associations of various kinds here by an indirect association. proportion) depends wholly son or organic sensation 5 nor is it far different from that ideal beauty associational beauty. really the line of picturesqueness rather than of beauty unqualified. But Price need not add this new character to his scale of taste. are directly the reverse of the picturesque forms above mentioned 5 this art requiring exact strongly indicated. muscles and joints 45 . and subject." since which characterizes the buildings of Claude and the it has no one manner o execution or class of ornacan but admit of "to contrast ments. so that Hogarth's psychology dwelt on the notion of the eye tracing form was fundamental in his conception of beauty.

. Price apologizes. the mercantile. &c. he writes. the pastoral.' says an interlocutor." 47 And Knight pretends to find the key to Price's philosophy in a remark made by the character Seymour in " 'All these Price's Dialogue: ideas. who. "All these extra pleasures are from the minds of the spectators j whose pre- [Price] supposes the picturesque to bear to the beautiful: for is certainly. . fect of which is attributable not to association with painting nor to the but to association with a variety pleasure of the eye in broken tints. or . elevation. a degree or two at least. Sublime. and elegance depend wholly upon mental sympathies and association of ideas. sustains his own part in his dialogue. . on this occasion. which prevails throughout the otherwise able and elegant Essays on the Picturesque. color. but Price's According to Knight's exposition of the influence of association. The grottesque. but this is not Price's conception 5 for Price.266 Beautiful. refreshed. differing only in "that while our ideas of dignity of attitude and gesture have always continued nearly of change is the same. depend upon the natural and permanent sentiments of the soul 5 but those of what is refined or polished 5 and pleasant. of beauty may be divided into as many distinct characters. than he sup46 And in this same strain of unfeeling poses the picturesque to be. of passions and to a reaction of the nerves. that ideas become objects of sight." the insipidity of beauty" with season "to is advised Price sarcasm. the classical. dignity. all the rest follows of course and the distinct classes -. further removed and reassociated by new. which only exist in the modes and habits of viewing and considering them. grace. as must c <bear somewhat of the same relation to the pcturesque. and Picturesque with complex associations to the art esque as sensual beauty together of painting. but correspondent impressions on the organs of sense $ and the great fundamental error. the picturand light the peculiar efesque is a certain composition of line. When there is so little discrimination between the operations of mind and the objects of sense. only a careless expression defense will be taken up later. is seeking for distinctions in external objects. he the grottesque from the insipid smoothness and regularity of beauty. those of grace and elegance have been in a perpetual state and fluctuation: for our notions of what is mean. and what elevated. the romantic. 'are originally acfrom use they are become as much objects the touch but 5 quired by 3 of sight as colours. existing trains of ideas are revived." Seymour was really intended by Price to stand for naivete and common sense 3 and the remark Knight ridicules was. Knight pursues his point with a whole train of new aesthetic characters. as there 48 are distinct ideas.

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" Association of ideas accounts not only for improved perception and imaginative connection. "Judgment. The great objection to institutionalized art is that the members quite naturally come to imitate one another. It is curious that Knight. attempt to direct by rules matters depending on sentiment and is. and critics numerous. vestiges of an aesthetic method al- ready antiquated. In truth. in proportion as criticism has become systematic. which elude the subtleties of logic. never safe but where they are useless 5 that in cases previously proved by experience." Knight states. which are inces- santly varying. even though such principles will rarely be universal and permanent. for although there remains no test of aesthetic excellence but feeling. "is more properly the result of a faculty than a faculty itself j it being the decision. depending as they do on the state of the human mind upon with variations induced by custom." 50 Critics. "in all matters of taste and criticism. however." This is the familiar . like general theories in government and politics. Disparagement of rules in the different stages of its culture and carries it a vigorous hostility towards academies. the powers of composition and pu51 rity of taste have. depend 40 267 much on artificial manners. that do not admit of mathematical demonstration j erly considered as a m which sense. Knight declares. "indeed. judgment may be prop52 mode of action of reason. to adopt a common style which deprives of their individual sentiments. through they alike differ from expression in the features Dignity and grace alike express the character of association in experience 5 and in this and the voice. the discrimination of modes and causes of feeling which all Knight is conducting permits a general judgment to emerge from the welter of conflicting tastes. both which are immediately cognized by internal senses. "the whole history of literature obliges us to acknowledge that. Knight returns repeatedly to the denunciation of rigid system and general rules in the arts. from the institution of which the decline of Latin eloquence may be dated. who makes so much of associational psychology. retains these additional faculties in his system." the soul mediately. like casuists. but for judgment as well 5 and this second part of the Analytical Inquiry concludes with a chapter on judgment.Richard Payne Knight the contrary. This objection applies equally to them mod- ern European academies of painting and Roman schools of rhetoric. general rules appear to me to be. which reason draws from comparison: whence the word is commonly used to signify the talent of deciding justly and accurately in matters." he says. in all ages and countries gradually decayed. This is not total skepticism.

" Artistic probapresent inquiry leads is the central concern throughout the discussion of "truth" or bility nature of 33 my judgment. and of the different as parts of the fable. or less certain against more certain indevelop any canons for checking differentiation of deimmediate his But for ferences. monstratively impossible for Ulysses to appear in two places matters are and of and "for difference time. where real actors are present to our senses as a part of the poem 5 poetic license is restricted within narrower bounds of probability. This principle has important application to dramatic poetry. if the mind be deeply interested. "for. with each other: for. the monstrative from habitual reason is enough $ unimportant in most matters of practical life. substance. however improbbut it would be deable. acproblem by the implausible Homeric count of Ulysses' three-day swim: this circumstance. Sublime. but judge of the probability of the events 55 merely by their connection with. as much from the resemblance of the fictions to real from the consistence of the language with the sentiments. purposes. does not destroy the interest of the story Knight illustrates the $ at once. and dependence upon each other. it always will be by glowing sentiments and fervid passions happily and naturally arising out of the circumstances and incidents of a consistent fable. the sen- .268 Beautiful. and incident what we can really believe possible to such men as we see. And unity of action becomes only unity of subject. where the events described or represented. associative reason is much too simple to Knight's analysis of this serve as a logic 5 he does not distinguish proof from probability. from one source. Unities of time and place find no justification on 56 Knight's principles and go by the board." and such an invention would have destroyed our ideas demonstratively false circumstances interest in the subsequent events. and sentiment confined to spring. a?id Picturesque distinction of demonstrative reasoning on relations of number and cause and effect and reon questions of quantity from that reasoning is of course true that It semblance which depends on association. space identity of demonstration by number and 54 quantity. for poetical prob- ability does not arise so events. for rules of comparison. of the sentiments and actions with the characters. do not obstruct the train of When our and feelings. we do not quarrel with fictions. it will never turn aside to any extraneous matter expressed. to which the bounds of just poetical me to apply it. in their natural order of succession. "it is of the utmost importance in fixing the fiction 5 and that is the subject.

. on refined conventionalization and idealization in the different arts all are pointed and taste for Unusual is his disMichael Angelo. . For Knight the sentiments are primary. a pseudo-substance with a principle of organization analogous to those of natural substances 5 and the reactions of the audience enter subordinately to this formal interest. for the sentiments. and cruel j whence new crimes excite new enemies. in making extravagance and distortion pass for grandeur and vigour of character and expression. the consciousness of which commission urges embitters the remainder of his life. each being. and his de. this argument of Knight on whole subject of poetical belief and probability with that of Aristotle. . ferocious. who departed from nature not in the direction of a superior and ideal perfection but in that of extravagant violence: "the evil which he did. operating with very different ideas. on the use of al- legorical agents and of symbolical figures. But with all this opposition. as matter is to form. but they need not be spelled out. "instigated by the prophecies of the witches rouses the aspiring temper of her husband. in contrast. and makes him suspicious.Richard Payne Knight timents of sympathy. which they excite. with character." his statement would serve for Aristotle as statement of the "plot. work from contrary directions towards a common 58 goal: statements about works which will be at once definitions of their forms and descriptions of their effects. Michael Angelo's art rests . which. still spreads 59 . it is remarkable how close the resulting analyses of particular works can be 5 when Knight describes the "subject" of Macbeth as the ambition of Lady Macbeth. a concern with the condi- which render the work of art a unity. the formal properties of the work are deduced as appropriate causes for such responses. and diction following in descending sequence. . carry that enthusiasm which is the essence of poetry. thought. Aristotle's chief concern is formal and artistic. Knight's concern. Thus for Aristotle." with increasing virulence of contagion. with the principles of the mind which determine audience reaction being fundamental. This dislike is really ingenious. clothed in appropriate diction. struction naturally follows." 57 It is interesting to contrast the all 269 verge to one centre. will and be connected by one chain. relative to the preceding. only broad and casual assumptions being made about auditions ence psychology." The two critics. and him the to of a crime. some consistent with (though I would hesitate to assert that it is a strict deductive consequence of) Knight's system. the primary element in a poem is the plot. is pre-eminently psychological. Knight's remarks on the realism of petty details.

Alison "seems to forget. any of those tender feelings. "The passions. dexterity. or morally. had the object of contention been less important. First step in the study of the passions (Part III of the Analytical Inquiry) is to distinguish the aesthetic from the practical role of the passions. which are called sublime. and since "expression. though Hume only to oppose what he takes to be Hume's skepticism. and these last into sensations Hume (which precede corresponding ideas) and passions (which usually follow them) } and this is the organization of Knight's treatise sensations." 63 . sympathy not with the suffering but "with the exhibitions of courage. in these combats of life and death. the influence. in fact. as ever to feel de- lem of delight in by light in beholding the sufferings of those who never injured them. considered either physically as belonging to the constitution of the individual.270 Beautiful. now been surveyed how predominating a role is not quite a disciple of Alison } association does not for him. more conspicuously and energetically than they would have done." outlines of the systems bear an unmistakable resemblance: distinguishes ideas from impressions. though he abundantly exemplifies. in the mind. as operating upon that of society. But the 60 every thing. in how great. which shone forth. that not true. The refusal to construct a system as ideal as Alison's or as sensational and pathetic as Hogarth's or Burke's is the consequence of filling out a matrix derived from Locke and Hume. or those exalted or enthusiastic sentiments. which the association of a favorite system may acquire in Knight's thought is very closely related to that of can not be quoted to this effect. Angelo's forms are assuredly not. as a gladiatorial contest which delight he traces to sympathy. Knight complains. and address. and Picturesque all on form rather than on color and light} the effect of is form results from expression." 62 Men "are not so perversely constituted nature. for he mentions he Hume." 61 Knight plunges directly into the prob- in represented suffering or even in real suffering. exclude other causes of aesthetic feeling. and it is apparent association plays in this system. which are called pathetic. vigour. ceases to be of forms } Michael expression/' truth is the foundation of the power true. do not come within the of it my present inquiry} scope being only by sympathy. that they are connected with subjects of taste} or that they produce. passions. as for Alison. to a severely classical taste. Sublime. Knight's account of association in aesthetics has its entirety. that by en- Yet Knight deavoring to reduce everything to the one principle of association. ideas.

therefore. as would overpower and suppress the pleasant feelings. for the danger is distress fictitious. away with the known pity-andto be unreal. or generous sentiments. "the sympathies. which Longinus justly states to Passions like pity. tragedy can not exhibit examples of pure morality without becoming dull and consequently as useless as in- affections 5 and its effect is sipid. nor awakens any 67 always rather to chill than to inflame. and much more strong and effective. while not as passions sublime. be the true feelings of sublimity. is There but "to hear a certain series of dialogues. but the sentiments are really expressed. whereas the esis.Richard Payne Knight but aJl 2JI and patience or of the more dexterity. the sufferings. which G4 we heard uttered." Knight's conception of poetic belief does fear formula for tragedy. can excite "sentiments and expressions of great and enthusiastic force and vigour j with which we sympathize. the to the theory of Longmus had Longmus after declared discussion of the sublime and Knight harks back had long and fear are incapable of reason alleged by Knight for this truth a selfish weakness. than if they were produced by scenes of real distress: for in that case. The appropriate expression of energetic passion . arising out of a certain series of supposed events. and gesture. are alike sublime j as they all tend to expand and elevate the mind 5 and fill it with those enthusiastic raptures. the suffering is known to be fiction. excited by the noble. whether they be of the tender or violent kind. whether exhibiting active or passive energy. that "no character can be interesting or impressive in poetry. In the case of delight in exhibitions either of the passive virtues of fortitude interesting active merits of courage and drama." 65 sensuality are neither sublime in themselves nor capable of inspiring sublime expressions 5 others. that acts strictly according to reason: for reason excites no sympathies. and not GG such are hatred and malignity 5 others yet with the passion itself" are sublime both in themselves and in their appropriate expression. excited by just and taken another direction that grief." On the same principle. that these passions display only the of sublime is "All sence energy: sympathies. would excite such a painful degree of sympathy. recited with appropriate modulations of voice. sorrow. are real and complete. any sublime expression. nonetheless no moral danger in tragedy. which we behold. tender. fear. 68 countenance. It follows also from Knight's doctrine of sympathy. for spectators do not attend the theater for examples on which to model their minds." Knight achieves an appreciation of . which they excite.

whence its feelings become sublime 5 so with vast natural objects. at the same time. and with the convulsions of nature. pathetic may be separated and opposed (as whereas "in all the fictions. as well as tenderness and 70 Even in actuality sublime and pathetic are sensibility of mind. that we may weep for sufferings. 69 It is degree. does not really contradict Burke. in scenes of real distress. Knight's declaration that "fear is the most 72 and therefore wholly inhumiliating and depressing of passions." in Burke's technical vocabulary. in fiction. and Picturesque of a moral lesson. from fear felt at a distance "when danger or pain press too nearly.272 Beautijuly Sublime. but rather that the sublime is a feeling from the remission of fear. pity may so far overcome scorn. darkness. works of others are signs of this power or energy. or are suggestive of something fearful. unless there be a display of vigour. silence. Some permit direct expansion of the mind. tragedy which does not require superimposition nor even postulation of an indirect moral effect 5 it is a view as disinterested as the mimetic analysis of Aristotle. they may be. they are inof capable giving any delight. whether excited by sympathy with external objects or arising from internal operations of the mind. had . or with those man which represent great labor or expense 5 and similarly with the general privations." 73 Knight ridicules this statement for its use of ." usually conjoined. sublime: for. in some distinctly. that are feebly or pusillanimously borne 5 yet." compatible with the sublime. 71 He resulting or by analogy or sympathy 5 the sublime is not pleasant but "delightful. All sublime feelings are feelings of exultation and expansion of the mind. or operate on the nervous system in the manner of fearful things. Tragedy entered Knight's discussion chiefly because is good tragedy sublime j the sublime and pathetic are his subject rather than the are best approached through analysis of literary forms. unless it be. Knight is willing to accept the catalog of sublime external objects established by earlier writers 5 in grasping at infinity the mind expands and exalts itself. contemplation of which permits same expansion. . there can be nothing truly pathetic. . Burke had argued that all of these phenomena are fearful in themselves. though. they are said that delightful. either of poetry or imitative art. and are simply terrible . who does not argue as Knight supposes that the emotion of fear itself is sublime. though they literature because it is here that the nature of sympathy appears most worth remarking that in real life the sublime and the tender to the exalted). scorn will always predominate. but at certain and with certain modifications. and both find their ultimate vent in tears. vacuity. and distances.

it must be a sympathy with power only. the poems of Ossian.Richard Payne Knight 15 273 to mean "degree" ("a stout instance of confusion even "distance with every allowance that can be made for the ardour of youth in an Hibernian philosopher of five and twenty" 74 ) j but by "distance" I presume that Burke meant not a lesser degree of the same passion." 77 . and the object of that knowledge is power. which the sublime finds its fullest expression is poetry. except the Sublime and ing. since the imagination. for the scurity which Burke had found a potent are brought before the imaginadistinctly the energies expressed tion. . is directed to the precision. it is clear. so that. by whom the philosophy of the Inquiry into as the brilliancy not and much was as ridiculed. and not terror. Knight's attention. "has principally appeared among artists. and not feeling or sentiment." 75 When Knight moves on to ridicule of Burke's physiological hypothesis. Suppression of irrelevant or disturbing circumstances in poetic description does not. and other extravagances . indeed. there can be but faint hopes of its ceasing or subsiding. perspicuity. of jects to perception cerned fear. . traces the sublime of apparently fearful object. grandiose and horrific painting. may know an object to be terrible j that I may know it to possess the power of hurting or destroying: but this is knowledge. raised to enthusiasm by the style of the poetry. justify the obcause of the sublime. I . and energy determinate" 78 . preposterous attempts to create the terrific in gardening. a meaning to which Knight could not strenuously obof course." influence of Burke. But quite seriously he charges Burke with fathering Gothic novels. I have never met with any man of learnfor. . which impresses some degree of is. sympathy with mind is most direct. and other persons not much conversant with philosophical inquiries: [Price]. the more effect 5 description "should be distinct without being more Quantitative measurements are best omitted. that alone power: "As far as feeling or sentiment is conis terrible. and admired. Knight urges that "while it is supported by such brilliant theories as those of the Inquiry into the Sublime and Beauti76 The ful. Knight. . and of the pernicious influence of Michael Angelo. will expand its conceptions to the bounds of probability. however. Beautiful despised and animation of its style were applauded. and the poet's power of selection and emphasis is confined by no such laws of strict imitaart in The for here tion as in the plastic arts. he drops argument for pure satire. a of but such degree probability or interest as permits us to see and be awed by the evil without engaging our direct practical concern for our safety. if any sympathy results from it.

partly on a divergence of taste. sublimity among the sublime with the passions. When we us that the fidelity of Ulysses' hound is sublime. ideas. but the difference between the two accounts is We not dissolved away by such translation. gluttony. . The 79 this system. and Picturesque of the language of description. as they show vice without and make human nature base without $ energy appear being atrocious. those belonging to selfpreservation or self-gratification (fear. vigorous and tender. Knight is conducting a genuine argument in the chapter on the sublime and pathetic. Knight speaks. This whole critique of Burke seems to me to rest partly on a difference of system. passions incompatible with the sublime. and calamitous 80 . tions of Burke's thought on this topic. Knight can not avoid recognizing a real difference in taste. too. whereas Burke's was centered upon the image created. The sub- lime cannot it comprises fall. Knight is unable to treat sublimity under the head of sensation.274 Beautiful) Sublime. the indeterminateness which Knight very like Burke's obscurity 5 sublime imagery consists that what Knight is saying appears to be. Burke. sublime receives the kind of treatment proper to it in Diametrically opposite to the sublime and pathetic "is the ridiculous: for laughter is an expression of joy and exultation 5 which arises not from sympathy but triumph and which seems therefore -. &c. are the usual subject of the ridiculous. and he is thus at once in inescapable contradiction with Burke's physiology. principle in malignity. passions." Those . which are not sufficiently serious to excite pity. Burke. vanity. since he supposes the eye to be directly affected only by light and color. After all. moreover. in distinct statement of the essential traits but with accidents of finds requisite to sublime imagery is magnitude and relative situation left to the imagination. in contrast. and the extent to which Burke's "terror" can be translated into Knight's system .). usually tinged with terror or horror "at a certain distance. of a peculiar heightening which may supervene when any but a weak or selfish passion is apprehended intensely 5 the expression of passions moral and malignant." for thereof mere associations rather than must. which are not sufbaneful and destructive to excite detestation $ and those ficiently to its have frailties and errors. are generally such as excite laughter. with those passions concerned with have seen the extent of Knight's misinterpretaself-preservation. Those vices. under "association. Knight passions had connected the treat fore. tells here and everywhere. avarice. . may all be sublime. speaks of a more special feeling which always involves a kind of awe." If these observations are just. "for.

therefore. Literature is for Knight an object of aesthetic appreciation." and indeed to one mode of tendencywit. for it is "a fictitious imitation of the examples of real life. wit and of the the ridiculous involves of ridicule. are not acknowledged. humor consists in junction of dissimilar manners rather than images and ideas . we return to the sense of flux which dominated the Introduction of the Inquiry. . the literary form of the ridiculous. Knight virtually limits the ridiculous to what Freud has termed "tendency-wit. of folly triumphant are open to all to imitate . that which serves the purposes of aggression. "Of Novelty. technique object . not an instrument of moral reform. departs equally with tragedy from common life. one exaggerating the general energies of human nature. the skeptical. the other its particular weaknesses and defects as modified and distorted by artificial society. through which the principal subject is distorted or debased. "harmless wit" and the other modes of tendency-wit the sexual. its examples of folly often. The sensations others. they excite the laugh of scorn 81 . The final chapter. and so forth. And despite recognition that the "proper" function of ridicule can be perverted. and not an example from which real life is ever copied. Wit requires novel junctions of contrasting ideas. parody involves degradation of serious compositions by analogous means . always some incongruous juxtaposition. "necessary to the enjoyment of all pleasure . Since the characters and incidents of comedy are drawn from the ordinary ranks of society. whether sensual or intellectual: and so powerful is this principle." 83 Perfection of taste and style is no sooner reached. but comedy is not therefore pernicious. &c. mimicry the peculiarities of individuals. than the restless pruriency of in- . not so violent as to produce a degree of irritation in the organs absolutely painful.Richard Payne Kmght 275 and vile without being destructive. are reduced by habit to insipidity. like all "Change and variety are." Knight declares. that all change. and preferable to any uniform and unvaried gratification." So much for the proper instead of the frown of indignation. its becomes no glimpse Comedy. Knight grants. accordingly. Knight has inherently antimoral tendency in ridicule. so that virtuous moderation rather than foolish or vicious excess of any object. and sentiments which have been reviewed. is pleasing. No one ever goes to the theatre to learn how he is to act on a particular emergency 5 or to hear the solution of any general question of casuistical morality." brings us full circle." 82 but only to sympathize with the energies or weaknesses of humanity free of the painful sentiments which such contemplation would occasion in real life.

Debilitation of the mind and the pampering of morbid sensibility are the moral dangers which Knight perceives in the fiction of his age. in the restless principle of change itself. is only in their civilizing and softening mankind by substituting mental to sensual pleasures and turning the mind to mild and peaceful pursuits the good which critics and The moral good of the arts phi- . but not imitated. a system of gardening. .276 Beautiful. This self-contained newness is an achievement in which art may for a time at least escape from flux. utterly impossible for the latter to afford models for the former. but in general. the moral influence of taste is found. and to subject the conduct of life to the dominion of abstract reason. and hence the changes of taste in landscape gardening. a passion satisfaction of which produces an unmixed pleasure universally felt. the instant that it attempts is. and. are modes of gratifying curiosity. is The end of morality to restrain and subdue all the irregularities of passion and affection. ceases to be poetry. so nature . and even exaggerate those irregularities. nature sophisticated and immediately produces vice and excorrupted by 84 effect of custom is to reduce usual The manner. which introduces variety and intricacy as its principles the and popupicturesque gardening which Price and Knight invented larized is novel not only in the sense of being different from the previous fashion. It necessarily 85 . or merely embellished nature. a standard is the novelty of mere fashion. then. of course. a cause of progressive improvement of taste. . "but. becomes tame and vapid. is to display. Sublime. when long as it is restrained to imitation of genuine it calls upon invention to usurp the place of imitation 5 or substitute to genuine. so that refinement must artificial habits. or chequered by all the fantastic modes of therefore. . but also as containing a permanent novelty of composition. it. Inordinate gratification of the taste for mere novelty is a moral. There of belles-lettres is slight. it be twice refined 5 hence the progress of all highly polished languages. and is a permanent novelty. But even here. and. Intricacy and variety and there innovation. its and Picturesque novation leads to abandonment 5 the pure and perfect continues is to be applauded. and the uniformity of established rule but the busi- ness of poetry . perhaps. The desire for novelty is also. and not merely an aesthetic. resulting in atrophy of real powers of sensibility and understanding. caprice. evil. and to exhibit the events of life diversified by all the wild varieties of ungoverned affections." of travagance to embellishment and refinement vulgarity. . anomalous and it vitiated habits. in short.

Elaboration of this theme evokes all of habitual attachment to Knight's acuity and his considerable powers of melancholy eloquence. renewal and extension of affections and attachments the unlimited and above all. ideas. . The Knight insists. of course. . depends on novelty j man's happiness means and not in the end: source and principle of it is. Our felicity. But custom steadily reduces the possibility of novelty. the . . as The Landscape had concluded. with an exposition of the general conditions of happiness. them makes the prospect of loss more painful than before. and the gratifications of our pursuits beyond the bounds of reality. Thus it happens that in moral as well as physical in intellectual as well as sensual gratifications. be a state of perfect misery. and to a limited de- gree. according to our present weak and inadequate notions 86 .Richard Payne Knight 2JJ losophers have agreed upon since Plato called for music to soften the temper of his warriors. Analytical Inquiry concludes. . in acquisition. acquire influence as their opposites lose it. while those of pain spread in a compound rate of progression. and we are protected from the effects of this irreversible tendency only by dissolution." 87 Though the objects with which we are familiar cease to give pleasure. and are only limited in their degree by the limits of our existence. the circles of pleasure are expanded only in a simple ratio. or the probable duration of existence. which prior to possession enhances the value of every object. consists in the and not in possession. A state of abstract per- fection would. "immediately afterwards becomes equally busy and active in exposing its defects and heightening its faults. which. . of things. power of fancy in multiplying and varying the objects. The tainment of new therefore. the results. novelty: the atthe formation of new trains of thought. Payne Knight is not only an aesthetician but a moralist of stature. imagination.

Airing the views of a Mr. and the argument of this dialogue is applicable to the more complete form as well of Knight's theory. the styles of particular pictures is omitted from the discussion 5 the is note to The Landscape intended rather to clear the ground than to erect the finished edifice of a complete theory. comment expanded by more en- thusiastic attack upon Burke's theory in the second edition $ and Price. Howard. THE isolate. one of the interlocutors is in possession of it needs only to triumph over the counterarguments from the debate 5 from the first and and objections of the other speakers. Knight ( 1 80 1 ) . Hamilton . guided by that sense. added a brief Appendix to his Dialogue for the 1810 edition finally. "is merely that kind of beauty which belongs exclusively to the sense of vision ." Knight declares. The Dialogue itself is not a true philo- sophical dialogue. for the truth does not emerge rather. and the two con- . So much for bibliography. Knight's partisan. Price countered this note with A Dialogue on the Distinct Characters of the Picturesque and the Beautiful. the definition of picturesque beauty as that kind of moderate and grateful visual irritation which painting serves to "picturesque. or to the I imagination. and analysis of the associations with painting." The second of these alternatives. of his works. Mr. Price himself recites in is to convince the simple dialogue form is merely a rhetorical device and intrigue the bored. The however painters. ESSENCE the separation of the modes of beauty proper to the various senses and faculties. Knight returned to the charge with comment in the Analytical Inquiry.CHAPTER l8 The Price-Knight Controversy of Knight's position on the picturesque had been presented succinctly in the note appended to the second edition of The Landscape: the distinction of sensation and perception. 278 The fragments the note to The Landscape. in Answer to the Objections of Mr.

the rhapsodies on the picturesque which view evokes from the connoisseurs piques the curiosity of Mr. likewise. Seymour. although distinct operations in themselves. and once in the picture gallery they find a Rembrandt of a flayed 0x5 they admire a prospect en route which is matched in the gallery by a Claude . essentially or accidenevery conception of the picturesque. they are become as invariably connected with objects of sight.The Price-Knight Controversy 279 2 noisseurs both seek the allegiance of Mr. explains that the picturesque is the beauty peculiar to vision or to the an imagination guided by vision. such as hardness. are originally acquired by the touch. nature abstracted from Seymour is not satisfied. Seymour (and if Howard comme un as . Price devises the incidents so that such comparisons arise quite naturally: the friends pass a real butcher shop in the village. it is true. a device which permits that double comparison of art and nature which is somehow involved. the naive arbiter. however. that is) is much gratified by the objections . smoothness. and to judge Knight protests. because they match well. a scene picturesque in every detail and radically removed from what is ordinarily this deemed beautiful. separately 534 he asks incredulously) 5 he can not see considered. in the language of Knight. but thinks that "perthe mind. Seymour perceives this difference well enough." Sight. of the distance and gradation of objects: all these ideas. is ugly? why beautiful objects should not blend and compose as well as the picturesque or ugly Howard has dwelt on. and that by the of the learns to to these in study pictures eye respond qualities He can not separate the visual from the tactile he can not properties. are practically inseparable. Seymour farle comme wn met&pbysicien)) distinguishes "not only form in general. but. adding hastily explanation of the difference between sensation and perception. Hamilton (Price. and sensation in the ception organ. The three friends. Howard explains patiently that the imitations of painting separate the visual qualities. . determine on viewing a collection of paintings at a manor house nearby. m <parle livre. and so forth. softness." 3 Mr. Mr. harmoniously blended composition ("am I obliged to call a number of colours beautiful. its different qualities. meeting by accident. and Mr. Seymour. . as the very perceptions of the colours themselves. they are delayed. neglect the beauty of the parts separately for the sake of their all others. &c. in amateurs stumble on a group of gypsies encamped in a decayed hovel on a gloomy heath. Soon our tally. roughness. continues Mr. Mr. Howard. but from use. some thirty pages by the charms of the real scenes they encounter by the way. though each of them.

not much only the size of objects. or defects and merits the on same the judgment 5 on any piece of natural. and in pictures 5 in which last. having these properly artistic is beautiful also in its parts which has. and even so those parts of the picture representing the separately. than of real moment. Already we have the fundamental answer of Price to Knight's theory of pure visual beauty: Price denies that dissociation ever proceeds so far that the parts of our complex perceptions originally attributable to different senses are discriminated and appreciated true that a picture of a flayed ox." Picturesqueness is for Hamilton the conthe pleasure which cept which solves all difficulties by its means. and pleasure a theory of dissociation as efficacious as Knight's." 6 The colour. a beau- tiful subject. Sublime. cuts the associative ties with the real scenes far enough to remove the unpleasant associations with the real obof imitation: here is jects. though the carcass would in reality be offensive 5 but then the odor and animal disgust are not present in the imitation. may please. Hamilton elicits from Seymour some further reasons why scenes displeasing in reality may be acceptable in painting: even '^without having recourse to the operation of the other senses. and Picturesque of naivete as against Seymour. our general we should pass nearly principles are the same. if executed by a Rembrandt.280 of Beautiful. and their detail. for A Hamilton argues that these merits make the picture only a welldone piece an excellent. lovers of painting derive from real scenes is accounted for without confounding our natural ideas of beauty as soft. "we may account for the difference between the effect of disgusting objects in reality. truly beautiful work is one which. "and that rather on a matter of curious inquiry. and I flatter myself of any work of art. that is. but also the scale both of light ered. but not so far as to destroy the beauty esqueness. graceful." Hamil- ton sums up. is equally lowdiminution of resemblance effected by change in scale. It is unattractive subject are pleasing only by virtue of imitation as such and because of the harmonious light and color. are in general very lessened. For a Teniers scene of a woman cleaning guts picturin a back . in detail. not strictly speaking a beautiful picture. or improved scenery j but our friend there [Howard] has taken a strong antipathy to any distinction or sub5 division on this subject. yet which does not and require abandonment of the distinction between in lighting. and lovely. which represent for him the candor the subtlety of system and he hastens to say that there is really but one point of difference between Howard and himself. excellences. elegant. All this fits with Howard's Knight's explanations too 5 but here the friends differ.

or. is the perfect building is more beautiful than the ruin in the everyday sense of %eauty. Seymour is made to your system whatever that. but 5 makes no other discrimination." though less beautiful in the purely visual sense less suggestive of our ideas less suited. . fer contra. underlying the verbal confusions." 7 The discussion wanders back and forth between beauty and pictur- esqueness. common and Knight (we are told) denies any difference between the picturesque and the beautiful in visible objects. Knight finds. is not absolute monotony. When Hamilton assures him that Howard still would have ruins. and that other arts or activities giving us special points of view yield analogous qualities none of them in the nature of things. consistently with his system finds the picturesque related only accidentally to painting. without association of imaginative or poetic ideas. is positive beauty. taken in your sense. The final conversion is effected by a Pannini view of St. But the beauty of St. Price. Peter's. "where in the art is employed on pleasing objects. Peter's not primarily this pure visual beauty. adds Hamilton. that the psychological systems of the two men are quite different. And." 8 objects as merely visible without compounding by perceptions derived from touch. founded in the nature of things . necessarily. is a does not that misrepresentation Knight say picturesqueness is merely the beauty of visible objects . for painting of painting and paintings less picturesque. and that this difference permeates all their disputes. or absolute dis. cord. then. "It seems to me. and Seymour rejects the theory of Price thinks it fair to Knight. therefore. he says that it is the beauty of such objects. In architecture the transitive meanings of %eauty" outweigh the sense which for Knight is strict . however. Is there. and excellent those who are less conversant in the mechanical part. -picturesque beauty: for that epithet.The kitchen is Price-Knight Controversy 281 of excellent but not beautiful 5 a Magdalen Guido is both as a picture. only confines the term to visible This. the suexcellence great perior interest will be felt by every observer $ but especially by beautiful. that the picturesque has an essential relation to painting. to regard this splendid edifice as more beautiful in sense revolts." edifices. once confusions are cleared away? 9 I repeat what I have urged before. all of them modes of beauty. no difference on this point between Price and Knight. all of them produced by special conditions in the mind of the observer. allege this consequence of Knight's for we all know that ruins are more picturesque than entire theory. ". according to object to Howard. with Seymour's native good sense leading him gradually towards Price's point of view. without suffusion by the passions. if you please.

with respect to colours. in short. and roughness unpleasing to the eye. sated with pictures. will not be beautiful without harmony 5 but neither can the most that. is the great principle of visible beauty 5 whereas. with beauexcellences combine which are those pictorial paintings and that as far as Pannini did this he is secure from tiful subjects. and the insipidity fall which follows from it in practice. that smoothness is pleasing. itself and Picturesque (though beauty. Can it still be maintained that Price is an "oband jectivist" Knight an associationist? lends his weight. walk out of doors again Hamilton and Howard todirectly into a Brownian garden. But he and Howard by the ears when Howard remarks that the Brownian garden shows just how little smoothness has to do with beauty. as well as to the touch 5 and these first ideas always prevail. and to modify them. If Knight should object that excellence is not practical taste. punctures the sophistical gether make short work of The and defense of the Reptonians that beauty-not-picturesqueness is the obby showing the limitations this formula really ject of their calling implies. rough objects soft and harmonious that. the mere absence of discord. It of course follows from Knight's theory. pointing out (among other eye." And. "the whole tenor of your argument [addressing Howard] goes to has been interested. and analytically distinct from the particular point which led the participants of the this Dialogue into by Panmm Knight would is (howand perfect architecture say that such a painting of splendid wrangle that picture ever meritorious) not doing the special work of painting. On a feeling in the mind). Hamilton it. per contra. I allow. it must be in colours: the general effect. Seymour declaring that "some of our earliest ideas are. and that the point at which becomes excessive depends on the extent to which the imagination is prove. against the theory of abstract vision. painful to the eye only in excess. too. he goes on. though we afterwards learn to discriminate. is not the that the best highest rank of picture . pictorial a subject confesswholly compatible with such a subject as Pannini's. objections) that while roughness light it is always unpleasing to the touch. and reiterates his theory of beauty as mild visual irritation. that smooth objects are harsh to the eye.282 Beautiful. Sublime. perfect . Price would say. we come to a difference in edly beautiful in some sense. that of smoothness to the touch like that of roughness to the 10 Hamilton replies at some length. the effect of roughness on the touch is like that of smoothness on the eye. three friends. if there be a positive beauty in any thing. then at last criticism.

. . ruggedness. that the issue had worn itself out. remained. There was from the first. a real difference between the disputants. Knight picked up the quarrel again 5 but the issue of principle was already joined. however. One feels. freshness and generally and smoothness and decay. bolstered as observation of Seymour's reactions during the excursion: it is by had I [says Hamilton] not observed so many instances at various times. had more to say on the issue of principle. and those which prevail others. and which in his note he had treated as imaginary. so limited. in reading these last words of the controversy. almost as admitted be to tall and and picturesque: youth age. and further discussion would have been mere combative and there of rhetoric. symmetry irregularity. but the resolution of this difference even clear and distinct recognition still it was prevented by misreading and misunderstanding. I must have given up one principal ground of my distinction. and make them u beautiful. Complaint is made (and with justice) that Price had distorted Knight's doctrine into the proposition that the picturesque is simply the beautiful of visible objects. distinct. and exhibits a lamentable inability to grasp Knight's point even though he had the answer ready to hand in the objections which "Seymour" had raised in the Dialogue.The Price-Knight Controversy 283 accord change the nature of dull or ugly colours. as the qualities of which jects themselves. and that discussion in the Inquiry which save on directed explicitly upon Price's Dialogue adds little details of the dispute. must." Seymour has hardly time to say so much before Hamil- ton interposes to pronounce once more his creed. of the indifference of persons little conversant with pictures to picturesque objects Its strongest foundation. are looked m upon in the same light. 12 In the Analytical Inquiry. is some concrete so that with respect to objects of sight "beauty" and "picturesqueness" 13 are synonyms. rests upon the direct and striking op- position that exists all between the qualities which prevail m objects which allow to be beautiful. Neither of the controversialists. Price returns to this issue in his 1810 Appendix. but not so Price's own cause for complaint Knight's attack on his alleged "objectivism. they are composed." w This triumph is imaginary. . and the objects in which they are prevalent give the same kind of pleasure to all persons the character of the obin be as truth. Price even detects that in the Inquiry his friend "appears somewhat inclined to make the same sort of distinction between the beautiful and the picturesque which I have made." an assault founded on misrepresentation. .

. Stewart at the superstructure of the "Phi- 284 . but which became more and more luminous and distinct as the century wore on. The Century England. it that age were an unconscious prolegomenon to Kant: may unconscious be said that eighteenth-century aesthetic has as its goal the Critique of Judgment.CHAPTER 1 9 T)ugald Stewart O OAMUEL MONK survey. Maintaining (as I do) that there is no tendency for multiplicity to reduce to unity in the British speculations of the eighteenth cenand in no historical tury. Monk partly recognizes the difficulty of and is supporting his hypothesis by a literal study of the texts. the book in which it was to be refined and ." of history any age can be viewed. excursions into wastelands on either side of the beaten track. as a progression towards some one culmination. no British aesthetician of the eighteenth century evolved a system resembling Kant's. If adequate allowance is made for backslidings. inclined to detect a blind Anders-streben at work in the mind of the century. proposition of his Sublime: A Study of Critical Theories in XVIIIthat the aesthetic speculations in the Britain of asserts. consequence simple progression from in- adequacy to completeness. In another sense. from error to truth. I can not erect any writer as goal and terminus for the inquiry. a vague groping for a truth beyond what the men of the age could formulate. without distortion. as the summary * Yet it seems to me doubtful that the intellectual reinterpreted. perhaps in contrary directions. unless in such occasional concurrence on particular points of doctrine as may be found in writers the most diverse. Assuredly. a terminus can be found in a writer who aimed to subsume and reinterpret the speculation of the considered himself the first worker century: Dugald Stewart. a . and new beginnings from fresh starting points. however. no generalization can hope to subsume these multifarious particulars.

though all our knowledge arises on the occasion of sensations supplied through our external senses." Stewart is concerned to enforce that view of the origin of our ideas which view is the leading point of his philosophy and of Reid's. the two volumes of of Man The Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers the second part of the system 5 the third portion of comprise Stewart's plan he never published." the second "Essays Relative to Matters of Taste" (as Hamilton terms them) j these last.Dugald Stewart losophy of the 285 Human Mind/ 2 3 requisite destructive labor of clearing Reid having performed the preaway the metaphysical rubbish of previous systems. which will be treated of here. have been almost wholly ignored by philosophers and scholars be a useful preliminary to state succinctly the place of the aesthetic essays in the corpus of Stewart's works. a third class of ideas arises in the mind . The "as a first part of the Essays "may be regarded. After publication of the first volume of the Elements of the Philosophy of the Human Mind in 1792. Accompanying sensation is perception. the apprehension of some external object which is the cause of the sensation 5 we have. The that is. comment on some elementary and fundamental questions which have divided the opinions of philosophers in the eighteenth cen5 tury. Yet. Stewart enalike. 4 The Philosophical Essays are an interlude in this larger program. culling from conflicting schools and systems data and principles which might be welded into a comprehensive theory of human nature. It may visioned his entire philosophy of mind as consisting of three parts: the three volumes of the Elements deal with the intellectual powers . though considering himself partly a disciple of Reid. the first comprising "Essays of a Metaphysical Purport. moreover. Stewart was in great measure an eclectic writer j in all his works he looks reflectively over the history of thought since the revolution of Descartes. these sensations do not constitute this knowledge. 8 There are two sets of essays in this work." Stewart explains. and partly an innovator in applying an improved inductive method in mental philosophy. knowledge of the operation of the mental faculties 3 and beyond ideas both of perception and of consciousness. there was a period of twenty-two years during which Stewart was prevented by ill-health and by the pressure of his duties from continuing that treatise. but Hamilton includes in the Works two volumes of Lectures on Political Economy compiled from MSS and student notes. through consciousness. a whole for which he supplies the unifying basis and method. The principal work published in that interval was the Philosophical Essays of i8io.

is is fixed by the etymology of the word. It suffices to say that Stewart attempts in the first four essays of his first part to show how the erroneous speculations of Locke. the essence of the meaning. God. and Picturesque by a suggestion of the understanding consequent on sensation and our own existence. genetic of philologists to direct us in the study of the etymology in a philosophical argument. attempted to analyze are here taken to be supplied on appropriate occasions by an occult mechanism or original law of our nature. and serves as a kind of link be- the essays of the first "On Home tween the metaphysical and the aesthetic essays. Priestley. causation. and that this element." philologists "are more likely to bewilder than to direct vis in the study . And the distinction of sensation from perception disposes of which Hume what Stewart conceives to be the fundamental error of Locke and his followers. of personal operation of the faculties ideas of its and of dimensions. and the English physiological metaphysicians (Hartley. truth. but that of matter in the most subtile and attenuated form which imagination can lend 6 it. to throw an amusing light on the 7 laws which regulate the operations of human Yet though fancy. Tooke's etymological explanations constitute an implicit induction to the effect that "the only real knowledge we possess relates to the objects of our external senses $ and that we can annex no idea to the word mind itself. He reprobates strongly the pretensions mind: ". an error prevailing since the Greeks. time. and Darwin) arise from misconceptions of the nature and origin of ideas. All those ideas. in short. Here as elsewhere. the followers of Locke in France. The last of the Tendency of Some Late part. at the best. Hume. . the uniformity of nature. perhaps. space identity. that ideas are the immediate objects of knowledge. Tooke's connected with the foregoing essays by the circumstance that theory it implies a theory about the origin of ideas: since the words designating the various phenomena of mind were originally borrowed from the sensible circumstances of matter. . motion. in those where the word itself is of philosophical origin." This theory Stewart had examined in the earlier essays. and so forth.) is altogether nugatory. Stewart carefully avoids confusing its problems with constitutive. and he needs here only to refute the alleged evidence of language in favor. Berkeley. cases to appeal to (excepting. Stewart refutes at length and with skill Tooke's principles that all the meanings of a given word have a common element. and can serve. theories of the treats expounded by Philological Speculations." Tooke in The Diversions of Purley.286 Beauttjuly Sublime. But it is not my present purpose to enter upon a discussion of Stewart's metaphysics.

Burke. for it is in part this ambiguity which allows such multiplicity of theories. Twining. with to previous writers its careful reference and its constant effort to bring together the best had been written into one systematic conspectus. Huet. or warmth of tangible objects. Gilpin. Pere Andre. Diderot. Akenside." and "On the Culture of Certain Intellectual Habits Connected with the First Elements of Taste. beautiful forms. to be concerned with the ambiguity of terms. nor do we apply this epithet to the agreeable softness. and Du Bos. Repton. Beattie." The qualities. of the beauty of poetical composition. and among the French to Boileau. more particularly towards a hisits tory of Imagination. Stewart considers that all previous writers on beauty had made an important methodological error: all had supposed that there was ultimately one common essence of beauty pervading all the various qualities called beautiful. Alison. they may yet (as I shall attempt to exemplify in the this volume) supply many useful materials towards a history of its natural progress." "On Taste. Gerard. of the We beauty of a mathematical theorem. "On treatment which Stewart gives these topics. Addison. beauof music: speak also of the beauty of virtue. and the Abbe De Lille. or smoothness." the Sublime. . D'Alembert. to ascertain the common quality or qualities which entitles a thing to the denomination of beautiful. of beautiful smells. Reid. Buffier. the Abbe Girard. La Harpe. Reynolds. justifies the role which I have assigned to him in the speculation of the period. or discovery. Lord Kames. of the beauty of a philosophical the other hand. . Knight." relation to the principles of is the transition to the second series of essays: in the essays on beauty and sublimity is to trace the progress of the mind in its apprehension of those characters. considered solely On in their relation to It has our sense of feeling. coming after a long suc- cession of diverse theories. long been a favourite problem with philosophers. We tiful pieces speak [Stewart urges] of beautiful colours. Hutcheson.Dugald Stewart of the 287 Second Part of Mind. Price. but the success of their speculations has been so in- . Hume. Stewart that refers to Shaftesbury. Voltaire. few names are missing from the roster. Montesquieu. of the beauty of style in prose. we do not speak of beautiful tastes. considered in 8 Criticism. Blair. . Adam Smith. It 9 is natural for a writer of eclectic temper. Ho- garth. and the fashion in which a common appellation comes to be applied to diverse This slender bond Stewart's aim The scope of the series is conventional: "On the Beautiful.

a basis for discussion undue modesty of the qualities to be studied. lies in diverting philosophers from vain attempts to discover a common essence in things possessing a common name as Stewart sees through habitual association. no tween A and B may produce a transference of the name of the first to the second . in their nature and properties. that no stretch of imagination can conceive how the thoughts were led from the former to the latter. through tracing out the associations underlying the transitive meanings." This apparent limitation led Jeffrey to remark that the essay on beauty of mon name in re-acting . . Stewart conjectures. and to illustrate the influence of this com1S on the Imagination and the Taste. Indeed. that to these usages must all be species of the same genus. D.288 Beauttful. in things corresponding Speculations endeavoring to find properties of language originate. he reminds his readers that his aim is "not to investigate the principles on which the various elements Sublimity give pleasure to the Mind. although the two objects may. Is it not conceivable. but to trace the associations. . 12 from B to C . "in a times from the scholastic prejudice which has descended to modern a of a admits when word variety of significations. but only at the prolegomenon to such a theory. in consequence of the other affinities which connect succession the remaining objects together. little and Picturesque 10 considerable. . E. Stewart repeatedly insists with that he does not aim at a theory of the beautiful or the sublime. that possesses some one quality A m B a quality in common with C . the I shall begin [he writes] with supposing that the letters A. . C. that the affinity bein three any objects same time. in consequence of which the common name of Sublimity has been applied to all of them. common series of objects. these ages. and must consequently include some essential idea common to every indin But a vidual to which the generic term can be applied. Sublime. that can be inferred from them but the impossibility of the problem to which they have been directed." genetic different significations view of language dispels this illusion: denote a with B. B. concluding his essay on sublimity. [et cetera] 5 while. from C to D . and that. at quality can be found which belongs in common to the series. the same name may pass m and from D to E ? In this manner. . This theory of transitive meanings is adopted from a remark in Payne Knight's Analytical Inquiry and converted by Stewart into the special analytical device of his aesthetic system. be so widely distant from each other. it. and in finding. The utility of his method. a common appellation will arise between A and E.

derived from colours. tracing the genetically. consequence of their being 17 organ. and the pleasures attached to the perception of certain forms blend with those arising from color so that the term "beautiful" is transitively applied to form. that the same is now applied to them indiscriminately. It refers primitively.Dugald Stewart is 289 14 "in reality. indeed. for their a certain effort of attention and of perception. I think. Long before infants receive any pleasures from the beauties of form or of motion. for. that they please on principles different. the first problem is to "A" the original application of the term Beauty. .) their eye may be caught and illumination. Stewart reiterates. find the Applying the device Stewart has adopted. agree in that they give pleasure to the spectator. thought. we begin with qualities color and light are the such which affect meaning of "beauty" sight alone and only qualities. For the most part. They all." 16 word this. This beauty of color is for Stewart in large part a mechanical or organic pleasure. m producing the same all perceived by the same bond uniting the various qualities under term. be a doubt. to objects of sight $ more narrowly. in all probability. Stewart does not always pause to account for the origin of the pleasures they afford. . he is content to refer to Alison's Essays on the Nature and of Taste for chiefly with the Concerned a common Principles . 35 15 Stewart's approach delighted with brilliant colouring. (both of which require. like that of harmony to the ear $ and these organic pleasures are "the parent stock on which all our more complicated feelings of Beauty are afterwards grafted. and then through form to motion. anses from their undistinguishable co-operation in agreeable effect. and at the same instant. It is not. essentially the transference of the solely word Beauty." of the transitive meanings of terms requires much prior explication of the real phenomena to which the terms refer. and to motion. or with splendid makes it almost inevitable that color will be the original beauty. to forms. from the first to the last. Form is conjoined . but there cannot. a sort of But explanation -philological dissertation. and Stewart's work is "philological" only in the sense in which Plato's Refubhc is an effort at definition. considered abstractly. Stewart concludes. and that common appellation. "The first ideas of beauty formed by the mind are. as well as the means by which the various exciting causes of these feelings are united and consolidated under the same in our experience with color. in consequence of the discovery of any quality belonging in common to colours.

Stewart's genetic Burke to find smoothness so approach. limits beauty to such qualities as affect through the sight 5 there is. and he censures the theories of his predecessors as extending too far proper only to some part of the phenomena. of course. It is this principle which leads essential to beauty. Stewart is emphatic in insisting upon the complexity of beauty. 20 may be in some circumstances inor effectual. I think. of Burke especially. of course. directly contrary to his own principle that inductive mental may legitimately concern itself with ascertaining the laws which regulate the connection of matter and mind. vibrations. and to custom.) That Stewart makes no effort to account his friend in the system 5 organic effect of colors is. which swept the day for associationism in for this pleasing aesthetics. the rough and angular may also be beautiful and Stewart begins to enumerate the various since all of these associations qualities But and objects of the limitations of Burkeian beauty. to be eschewed by sober inquirers. to other kinds of associations than tactile to the reflecting properties of smooth surfaces. association among the senses. though allowing reliance of color. recommended by so illustrious opinions 18 The taste. counteracted. it was the second edition. But this effect is limited to objects destined to be handled. from a similar awareness had termed pcturesque: . and Picturesque more to orexplanations of the separate beauties. or even reversed. The a name. to associations of tude or utility or design. are the Burkeian beauty consequent on Burke's supposition that there is some common quality in the pleasing objects of the different external senses. to sexual associations. Sublime. so that smoothness may become beautiful by association with perceptions of sight. championed by Jeffrey. and the principle is inapplicable to objects which we do not think of touching because of their magnisituation. it is.290 Beautiful. or (as with Burke) tensions and relaxa- merest conjectures. in contrast." the mislead are "calculated to bias and physiological critical inferences hypothesis of Burke Stewart scarcely pauses to overthrow . which Uvedale Price. 19 But the chief weight of Stewart's criticism falls on the limitation of tions. moreover. The beauty of smoothness is traced equally. in case the (Stewart's upon Alison. a serious lacuna the pleasing effect of harmony is very well accounted for by the for the alphysiology of the ear. is one of the few notices which the first edition of Alison's work received . but no such account is forthcoming legedly analogous case of color. ganic impression and whilom student. but not with efforts to explain in what manner they are united so that theories philosophy of subtle fluids.

" Stewart prefers Gilpin's sense of "pic77 that which is suited to the purposes of painters in which turesque 77 event "picturesque becomes not the name of an aesthetic character. this conclusion Mr. . kinds the Beautiful and the Picturesque. Burke. in representations of what is offensive: the pleasure of imitation itself y the annihilation in a picture of what is offensive to other senses 77 77 77 77 not beautiful this : - than sight 3 the influence of selection and emphasis (which are signs of the fancy and taste of the artist) . he has given to many observations. finding numberless ingredients in agreeable compositions. by his admission. In the progress of his subsequent researches. m are radically and essentially distinct. 22 air of paradox. though But Pnce 7 s sense of "picturesque" does not escape censure: "The meaning he [Price] has annexed to the word picturesque is equally exceptionable with the limited and arbitrary notion concerning the includes much of what Price terms "picturesque.Dugald Stewart According please. Burke's peculiar tenets as . . equally just and refined. an together. when he comes to compare . at his first outset. in consequence of . In both cases. Stewart thinks to avoid such confusion by drawing a distinction: some elements of beauty. Price was naturally. that the enumeration was partial and defective. . 21 Now. 77 beauujul. or rather necessarily led. to whatever qualities in natural objects with agreeable emotions. "pathetic. but a qualifying epithet "to limit the meaning of the generic name Beauty in particular instances. that so many could not be brought under Burke's enumeration of the qualities which "go to the composition of the beautiful/' he was forced to arrange them under some new name. as "romantic. however. of Mr. . it Stewart makes of this latter. which he has adopted from Mr. the skill of execution and design. . These. . and other such terms may also do. the circumstances which natural scenes and in the compositions of the painter. . the picturesque and beautiful this. he ought rather to have concluded. To incontrovertible axioms. Price [writes Stewart]. through the medium of sight. "relative" beauty. are intrinsically pleasing. The picturesque is not quite a species of beauty. whereas. he urges. for things may be picturesque which are is the old problem of pleasing imitations of unpleasa variety of causes for our seeing beauty Stewart notes ant originals. both Burke and sion of the Price had objected to so general an extenterm "beauty/ 7 on the grounds that it lumped together indiscriminately characters really dissimilar. he thinks. "classical. and extended the application of the affect the mind word Beauty. he has departed widely from established use 5 and. both to 291 are of two Mr. while others please only in a little state of combination.

colors. &c.) may representations of of the passions. The fourth point paralStewart criticizes Hume.) refer rather to smell." Stewart declares." practical tendency. A dis- of all the writers of the picturesque school Gilpin. of scale which Price had pointed out. in contrast. portant influence of change condemnation of Price's not have criticisms for the connoisseur. as eminently calculated. Knight of lines. Stewart nor Hume Neither far. finally. Stewart overlooks. Stewart is These disposed to cavil. in Aesop. immediate agency or to association. and other writings to points its its own manners its use by the vagrant poor appearance in Renaissance painting. and Picturesque The from Knight} but I second of these points is evidently drawn it with admit respect to touch do not see how Stewart can consistently dead fish. "but I esteem his work. coloring. in its 23 But to reform and to improve the public taste. &e. Stewart. Price and Gilpin emphasize instead its peculiarities of form. in the boldness of the artist addressing his pow- m taste: implied any "I not only agree with him in almost all the critical observations which he has introduced in the course of the discussion. the from subducted beauty of antness of the being simply original artistry is and representation really delighting the imers to such untoward subjects. Sublime. the original is merely disgusting. Stewart suggests ingeniously that these peculiarities may possess for the painter "important and obvious advantages over those which are more decidedly beautiful 3 inasmuch as these last. textures taken abstractly from the concretes in which of such qualities was attributed occur. is illustrated . lels Hume's argument in "On Tragedy". however. the unpleasthe mind is not stirred and no conversion can take place. and this whether the effect they to clined to lay as carry. by the immediate pleasure they communicate led to ascribe more effect to the belongs to it. for carrying drawn: pictorial be to has noted an important distinction necessary and his terrific or pathetic objects (crucifixions. and be more agreeable conversion actual an yield than gayer scenes 5 where. who except. examples (pictures of with visual properties the objects of which are less closely associated and are never seen as the objects of touch are. is inmore stress on associations involving the concrete objects wholes. tinguishing feature was their insistence upon the aesthetic significance and Price.2g2 Beautiful. with Price's causal explanations. less on those associations which the separate properties He complains that the "ingenious" Gilpin and Price had been mere visible appearance than really His own emphasis on associations with concrete wholes by analysis of the picturesqueness of the ass: Stewart its appearance in the Bible. too the point however. perhaps. and roughness of coat.

Dug aid to the organ. for the poetical picturesque pleases as a sign of understood beauties in the case of originals which are displeasing immediately.. while they surpass all the rest in variety and duration. as we have found. only to immediate visible beauty. conjures up at once to the mind's eye the simple and cheerful scene which it announces. comes to be re-transferred from the mind to the voice more especially. thus "the word Beauty. at least. connect their beauties with those immediately perceived by the eye. however. The uncon- . which is at first transferred from the face to the mind." pressive . whereby they present pictures to the imagination. and as the organs by which we receive from the material world the two classes of pleasure. further. Eye and ear. as the only media by which different Minds can communicate together. 26 But a difficulty remains: for the epithet "beautiful" be directly and immediately applicable to objects of hearing. Certain peculiarities of sounds." picturesque of physical properties thus becomes ancillary to the poetical picturesque by facilitating association. 24 The engage the whole o our attention to themselves." Objects of it is touch." 27 More important is the ex- power of sounds naturally pathetic. through association of conceptions of their pleasing sensations with the perceptions of the visible beauty. can "picturesque" be opposed to "beautiful" opposed. and the most nearly allied to the enjoyments of the intellect. Stewart 293 and to have a tendency to arrest the progress of our thoughts. as referring to the significance and expression of concrete objects. though sounds are not judged of by the eye.. In all these transitions and genraise. Only in the poetical sense. against objections which the picturesque school or disciples of Burke might Having in this Stewart turns to further generalizations of beauty and the corresponding transitions of the term. first. are the which. the significant power of sounds as beautiful. when its tones express such passions as we have been led . however. come to be seen as beautiful 5 in some measure even objects of smell or taste enhance beauty. eralizations. the occasion of the pleasure we feel 5 and it is on the eye done 25 that any organic impression is supposed to be made. as the great inlets of most completely removed from the grossness of animal indulgence. heard at a distance. through conventional speech. partly of causes. a pcturesque effect of sounds by appears to association they may call up particular scenes. are associated our acquired knowledge. way vindicated his conception of beauty by an argument treating partly of terminology. "the visible object) if not the physical cause. finally. furnishes. There is. as "the clack of a mill. to consider 28 There is.

and to its natural progress in the employment of speech. those which it gives us the greatest delight to see expressed exactly in the countenance . . help other with themselves blend pleasures of a their with which perceptions rank still nobler and more refined. that the word Beauty comes . and that it is communicated to material properties by association 5 but the are radically opposite. of this connexion the To with each other. ... . which. art's history begins with the material beauty of color. perhaps. Yet there is declares that Stewart between the accounts of Stewart and of Alison.. intellectual Taste. (though not originally) consists. we . The methodological difference itself may in turn be accounted for mind And by recalling that Stewart undertook his aesthetic inquiry as a part of a more general program of ascertaining the origin of our ideas: the historical method follows in consequence j "our attention.. and needs only work Alison's since he can refer to a curious contrast to point out the "transitions" involved. Sublime. Stewart of course acknowledges the original and mechanical pleasure of harmony 3 he has detailed all these connections between sight for the extension of the hearing with the view of accounting of one to those of the other. arguments they follow to reach this position Alison's technique is to apply induction directly to each trait of the beautiful and reduce each equally to its mental root 5 Stewart's is to Stewas the concept is enlarged. Like . sciousness and Picturesque ^ local impression on have. which fall exclusively 29 . of any the to peculiar facility explain our bodily frame. are grounded on that "intimate and through those associations which human the in face. for illustrations. in contradiction trace the history of the to Alison's great generalization that there is no material beauty.. in truth. "is directed to the natural history of the 31 Mind." conspicuous instance of the tendency of the doctrine of general Human A ideas to mislead theorists is afforded by the system of Reynolds. to be moral qualities considered abstractly. in both these senses. from the and term "beauty" objects The intellectual and moral associations in which beauty chiefly are treated very briefly by Stewart. or such as have a tendency . it seems to be owing." in part as Stewart says..Beautiful." Alison in urging that beauty is chiefly moral and intellectual.. may. under the cognizance of of organical pleasures. .. to improve the 30 Stewart is in accord with visible beauty which the features exhibit. The qualities applied to certain which are thus characterized in ordinary discourse are. the term "beauty" is transferred to moral qualities through association. . accordingly. It is these two classes. peculiar intimacy . connects soul and body inseparable union.

Stewart grants (much too readily. of geometrical propositions. and by combining and disposing these.Dug aid most writers of his Stewart 295 age (and of our own). "that power of the mind which enables it to form a notion of an absent object of per34 abstraction. that beauty depends upon custom. in every species. All sented to the Power of Imagination. but that even applied to things of the same kind it entails initial intrinsic effects." that Stewart performs is. "which selects the materials and directs their 35 The function of this compound faculty is "to make a selection of qualities and of circumstances from a variety of different objects. Comprised in it are fancy . "a power of summoning up. When Pre- abruptly truncated. in consequence of the regular profusion in which she exhibits forms and colours 32 intrinsically pleasing?" The second portion of the essay. and of separating the combinations which are presented to it"j judgment or taste." Stewart concludes." 3e ." 37 Stewart's pleasures of the imagination do combination. the corollary that no individual object can give pleasure previous to comparison with others of the kind. the central or ful. It the "power of considering certain qualities or attributes of an object . apart from the rest . is a compound faculty. "The only point in dispute. the power which the understanding has. in Stewart's system. whether the individual objects please in conse- quence of their approximation to the usual forms and colours of Nature j or whether Nature herself is not pronounced to be Beautiful. His approach throughout has been to trace the transitive application of terms following lines of association from rather than to refer to habits formed by frequency distributions j and he of course points out. Stewart takes the Idler 5 Reynolds' principles and it must be owned that these papers (and the somewhat simpler theory of Buffier which Stewart considers conjointly) are obnoxious to serious papers as a definitive statement of criticism. not only that Reynolds' theory affords no way of comparing species in point of beauty. he combats. I think) the "fact" that most common form is the most beauti- but the inference from this supposed fact. to point out the leading causes of the differences between the beauties of imagination and those of perception between the beauties of presentation and those of representa- must be noted that imagination. at pleasure. of philosophical theories. a particular class of ideas. and of ideas related to 33 each other in a particular manner" j conception. "is. or of a sensation which it has formerly felt" 5 tion. "On is the Beautiful. . ception. to form a new creation of its own. and we are left to conjecture by analogy Stewart's thought on the beauty of virtue.

and be expressive. Sublime. of mere conception world from the materials of the a creating a new $ poetical faculty world of perception. because. through the image attention. Language serves pleasures. they ration that ^ circumstances peculiar by some very remarkable to themselves. on pleasures defounded pleasures. concerning the essential constituent of Sublimity. to the numberless other sources which it opens. "On the Sublime. poet... then. understanding. Previous writers had taken for granted that there must be some common quality in all objects characterized as sublime. In imaginative conception the predominance of visual images is it is the -picture which in than that of still greater sight fixes perception. and "its judged beautiful: In the same manner in which the Eye (while we actually look abroad so great a variety of upon nature) attaches to its appropriate objects as to the so and moral. in Stewards and memory Stewart's imagination is language." Stewart its diction. on which we are able steadily to dwell. although ultimately characterized . from colours and forms transferred is word And as the naturally Beauty a common channel or organ for uniting to the other pleasing qualities to the various moral is same word which may be associated with these. are yet rived from our perceptive powers. both physical all the agreeable impressions of and the heart. despite "philosophical precision indispensably requires Addison calls secondary clusive limitation of that title to what Mr. add to the effect agreeable concomitants than by rather by the association of fugitive impressions or feelings." be to comes that poetical composition indeed. and Picturesque nor yet not. the conclusions to which they . this pronouncement could make clearer the contrast between aesthetic analysis and the Aristotelian. correspond to Addison's. was stimulated by the controversy between Price and Knight over the doctrine of Burke 5 and Stewart resolves the issue by a line of reasoning perfectly analogous to that of the essay on beauty. and the most fascinating charm 40 of of delight poetry. however. tells us. 39 It is. "In their researches. wherein beauty of mode genetic resides in the magnitude and order of an organized whole. that of Conceptions. so the qualities of which they may those from extended images which form at insensibly once the characteristical feature." 38 For Addison's secondary pleasures are often pleasures. cisely to Addison's do they correspond prean ex- Stewart's declasecondary pleasures singly. and that of No a poem in its architectonics rather than in The essay. are susceptible: the which the senses.29 6 Beautiful.

. the feeling caused by altitude is further qualified. they could possibly a circumstance the more relate to the same class of phenomena . in bending facts to preconceived systems" and opens his explication with the declaration that "none of these theorists have paid sufficient attention to the word Sublime in its or to the various natural associations literal and primitive sense founded on the physical and moral concomitants of great Altitude" 42 5 The clew of etymology leads us from the maze: sublimity is connected with altitude originally. that. the argument is given rigorously in terms latter case)." Stewart sees in the conjectures and partial truths of Burke and Helvetius. stimulates the soul. opposition. Stewart for may it opposes the sequence of be said to be systematically blind to Hume's argument. in Stewart's view. and the upward development of the human body coinciding with the advancement of the mind all which circumstances tend to give an . by the sublime of time would be co-original with the sublime of space. Removal in time "opposes" the natural flow of ideas more than removal in space because time seems made up cause of discontinuous events. to the numerous 43 note added after the essay was completed acknowledges Hume's prior discovery of the opposition of sublimity to gravitation. and connecting all other sublimities with this by historical analysis. and hence moving against the natural order of association causes such an expansion or exaltation. unanimously agreed. that Stewart insists (consistently with his program and method) in finding some one root sublimity. and recession into the past it more than removal into the future because and effect. of an opposition between the influences of passion and association on the imagination. though Stewart objects to Hume's ex- disposed to make from metaphorical uses of the term. The only real difference between Hume and Stewart is. the erect form of man.. if not overwhelming. that one scarcely suppose. philosophical 41 are. in the statement of these phenomena. and that of past to future time (denying the fact itself in this 44 In Hume. "a great deal of false refinement . literally so called. and the problem becomes the discovery of "the grounds of that natural transition which the mind is Sublimity. on a superficial view.Dugald Stewart 297 have been led are so widely different from each other. would critics remarkable. Blair and Knight. Kames and Longinus. by association with the upward growth of plants. In any event. with a few trifling exceptions." A planation of the superior effect of the sublimity of time to that of space. and the sublime of horizontal extent cooriginal with that of vertical.

although their sublimity might be very readily explained in other ways by extension. The sub- lime of power is closely associated for Stewart with the religious sublime. Stewart is led to rest upon comparatively insecure bases sublimities which in his own system could be given more certain ground. culallegorical character to literal sublimity. the of and heavenly bodies. But it is curious that terror makes no part of literal sublimity for Stewart not even in analysis of the sublimity of depth. checked and corrected every moment by a rational conviction of our security. Eternity and immensity. Burke. or of a cataract. Terror as the ruling principle of the religious sublime^ it would be nearer the truth to say.298 Beautiful." which "present to us one of the most of . with Mr. that the Terrible derives whatever character of Sublimity belongs to it from 45 he has evidently been misled by his enthureligious associations. prevented by ordinary means . and more especially depths. with what he conceives to be a universal tendency for religious sentiments to carry the thoughts up ward . their progress suggests. Stewart notes with formal magniloquence. and Picturesque as does also the rising. for instance. Sublime. in the form of a mountain torrent. for instance. Stewart's taste triumphs over his piety. And when Stewart tells us that "instead of considering. for instance. Heights. Stewart sees much of the sublime of the material world as a reflection of creative power. are dangerous and terrible from infancy 5 their sublimity is original: why slight this early and obvious connec- between sublimity and terror? Happily. which seems to impressive images 4e . while maintaining that taking power as itself the root of the sublime does not give so natural and easy a history of the development of the concept as does Stewart's own notion of an automatic psychological process stimulated by perception of physical height." impetuosity which terrestrial phenomena afford ). with all the analogies setting minating. altitude for though its this in turn is ultimately dependent upon physical sublimity. and. produce that silent and pleasing awe which we experience on entering within . and he in effect retracts this position by acknowledging in the succeeding chapter other connections of elevation with tertion ror and power (especially." siasm for following out a slender thread of association. It is pretty obvious how Stewart can explain the connection of power with sublimity. indeed. that of "masses of water. are made a part of the religious sublime. To the admiration and awe excited by such force is superadded an emotion of wonder when the actual fall is some extrairresistible . "it is this natural apprehension of impending danger. of a the notion of opposing gravity. in a Gothic cathedral.

exults and as if it had itself produced what it has glories. . always retains a decided predominance over the other ingredients." 48 Stewart inal and able to find additional support for his notion of the origliteral import of "sublimity" in the empathic signs of subis Mind is naturally elevated. of mathematical calculation to consider it. Like all the more philosophical writers of his age. Consistently with the plan of Stewart's entire mental philosophy. Stewart declares. . The analogy of greatness of mind with greatness of stature is. plainly iden- ticed tifies that effect with its Bodily expression . in the complicated effect which sublimity produces. says Stewart. of taste." 50 The that analysis of taste in Stewart's work is less a fresh insight into outworn topic than a restatement of familiar truths within the special framework of his aesthetic system." was nolime emotion. that. the apparent originality of the faculty is an illusion the more readily supported as the pleasures and pains which its perceptions excite attract attention to the effects rather than the causes. and so forth: all are apparently simple and instantaneous acts of the mind. . in some of the intellectual processes connected with it. It is in this point of view that I propose These other "acquired endowments of the uninclude not only the acquired perceptions of sight but derstanding" the phenomena of reading and writing. characteristically. assuming a certain proud and erect attitude. given by Longinus . Stewart regards taste as a compound and derivative facuity j his originality consists in employing. for it is merely relative. 299 . That "the 49 by Longinus himself. "the ground-work of the account of Sublimity in writing. to what takes place in various other acquired endowments of the understanding. the elements of taste and the mode of their acquisition are determined inductively 5 in analyzing the effects of the ingredients of beauty. all are really habits 52 In the case the acquisition of which is forgotten or unattended to. .Dugald Stewart their walls. it a genetic approach. "but it did not fall under the design of any of these writers to trace the growth of Taste from its first seeds in the constitution of our nature 5 or to illustrate the exists in a cultivated analogy which it exhibits." Knight's sublime of energy is easily brought within Stewart's system. only heard. . [which] may be re- garded as a demonstrative proof. "we . 47 ." 51 and inference in those accustomed to it. although he speaks only of the effect of sublimity on the Mind. by the true Sublime. the primary idea which has given name to the whole. and. . who. "a reflection from the sublimity of the Power to which it is opposed. Gerard and Alison had analyzed taste as mind.

renders both the beautiful and the right a function of fashion. Sublime. But this disadvantage is compensated for by the ease with which experiments in taste can be made ideally. . in the case of these diversified combinations. to those objects of affection. in the terms in which he couches this distinction. the romantic bias of his era for the 5 popular taste is a in certain of association grounded facility acquired through inter. as well as the natural constitution of man." Stewart declares. 56 reverence. how to suit his manufactures to Stewart betrays. deep and permanent. which teaches the possessor . though more profitable sa- gacity. Secondly.300 Beautiful. those which derive their eforganical adaptation of the human frame to the external universe j and. admiration." the market." and "beauties which have no merit but what de- pends on custom and fashion. whereas the philosophical taste "implies a sensibility. and emboldens him to trust his reputation to the 55 the of human and the of are which race." observations and comparisons can not be made precise and quantitative by measuring devices: the appeal is to pleasant and unpleasant emotion." and is characterized by "strong domestic and local at- course with society. suffrages ages yet to come." This latter and more extensive class may be subdivided into "such beauties as owe their existence to associations resulting necessarily from the common circumstances of the human race. "that humbler. Stewart writes. those which please in consequence of associations gradually formed by experience. "on the same general principles by which we are guided in investigating the physical and chemical properties of material substances 5 that is. and which interested . while yet a stranger to the opinions and ways of the world. those beauties resulting from universal associations together with the organical beauties "fall under the consideration of that sort of criticism which forms a branch of the Philosophy of the Human Mind" 5 and to these Universal Beauties corresponds Philosophical Taste. a habit of mind which." To the Arbitrary Beauties dependent upon accidental association corresponds a lower taste. or on certain peculiarities in the situ34 If human nature is conceived ation and history of the individual. which "enables a writer or an artist to rise superior to the times in which he lives. and Picturesque must proceed. we must have recourse to a series of observations and experiments on beautiful objects of various we kinds 5 attending diligently to the agreeable or disagreeable effects 53 These experience. of the circumfaculty consists in the discriminating perception stances which enhance or detract from aesthetic effect 5 and its objects fall into certain The fect from the general classes: "First. the youthful heart." to include the natural condition.

accompanied with that enthusiastic love of Nature. both of art and of plicity. pleasures which beauty affords. which. whereas when the powers of imagination have gained an undue predominance over the other mental powers. Stewart insists. The pleasures of artful design are. Higher than this technical taste is the taste of the connoisseur. and his observations are penetrating and merely repeating the saw that the are of imagination interposed betwixt those of sense and of pleasures and allure the mind to virtue. he develops with fitted to intellect. is the foundation of 58 good sense. inferior to those of expression and of nature. united with a love of truth and of nature. and with a temper superior to the irritation of little passions. more than any other quality of the mind. and upon . is the best In taste which surest presage of Genius. science. unlike the primary. While it implies a spirit of accurate observation and of patient induction. a taste based more on the study of models than of rules. there is a secof taste derived from remarking the skill of the artondary pleasure ist in his performance. in every department. Simand Truth. guided by an idolatrous compari- son of what it sees." 59 But the indigenous taste formed by cultivating and disciplining native capacity for the primary pleasures is alone entitled to be considered and just. we find and 57 an understanding. it evinces that power of separating universal associations from such as are local or personal. which technical taste. both in scientific pursuits. discriminating. and in the conduct of life. Stewart examines the culture and training of the imagination. comprehensive. is Beyond the primary susceptible of pain as well as pleasure.Dugald Stewart 301 tachments. Instead of subtlety the suggestion that in cases where a speculative bias has caused the neglect of imagination and of taste. which. philosophical criticism could serve as a link connecting habits of abstract thought with the some more ornamental accomplishments. for Stewart as for the writers of his tradition. applied to the most fugitive and evanescent class of our mental phenomena. "secretly." exists perfected. with the works of its favourite masters. sometimes original. will subject it to the supremacy of the rational powers in the more serious concerns of life. and often unconsciously. Early culture of imagination. for it is offended with blemishes in artistry. and unprejudiced. this same philosophical criticism could serve as transition to the general philosophy of mind. true all In the final essay of his series. the "momentary belief with which the visions of imagination are always accompanied.

302 Beautiful. imagination operates to a certain degree. What Stewart really did was to review the work of the eighteenth century. part of the general History of the Human Mind. and in the other. but in neither is the one. others made fresh beginnings. which withdraw the mind it and transport into a new world. no trace among rude tribes. or are inspired by the mechanical impulse of passion. and to draw from the various systems of that age insights which could. which they are apt to produce. indeed. but the metaphors they employ are either the unavoidable consequences of an imI find Now of this activity and versatility of imagination. highly metaphorical." he warns. without prejudice to the truth they contained. and others yet followed in the tracks of Kant and Hegel. . inasmuch as in is excited by passion. "when I speak. where it gains the ascendant over our nobler principles. Sublime. will vanish 60 for ever. called forth by the 61 pressure of necessity. of a cultivated Imagination. Stewart's work (review of which is now complete) did not have the influence which he anticipated: he did not lay that true foundation on which followers were to build. and Picturesque its pleasures depend. perfect language. British aesthetics lost in the nineteenth century what unity of approach there was in the eighteenth: while some writers elaborated facets of the work done before Stewart's efforts at synthesis. while that -permanent or habitual belief. to delight conjuring up from the present those ideal combinations objects of sense." Nor is Stewart the dupe of the fashionable primitivism which many of of the period. Their diction is. for these followers did not come. In both instances. it imagination the primary cause of the effect. I mean an imagination which has acquired its such a degree of in activity as to delight in own exertions. be included in a fresh system by arrangement in a genetic account. will continue unshaken.

and methods of argument which persist through the period and which constitute a distinctive tradition in aesthetic thought. and employs at this point to discover its nature is remanded to the Introduction. or which were causes of that progression. of the aesthetic thought of the is This book eighteenth century were attempted. The materials would be organized to display the parts of those changes selected would be those their stages or their aspects and the data most indicative of the progression studied. is the chapter a distillation of this book: it has a different purpose. is neither summary nor conclusion: not data for the induction of generalizations. is an indissoluble crystal. isolates a different aspect of the suba different method. for the systems have been treated as entities. which would distill the essence of a narrative. fixed.Retrospect for the object of this study has been to display the of the particular systems in the details of their unfolding. out of 303 . and to point out such shifts and tendencies as can be observed within that continuum. then. Rather. not as THIS summary a RETROSPECT . In this final chapter. Yet a system of thought. not logic a conclusion. in method. not a history: the selection of data. and the purpose are not determined by historical principles. distinctions. in principle. If a history. The reader who opens the book ject. a narrative of changes in subject. in this chapter I review the aesthetic speculation of eighteenth-century Britain in a different mode of analysis. The method I have employed to examine the structure of individual systems has necessarily subordinated the continuum of concepts. or set of summary propositions. a literal history. it is purpose to indi- my cate briefly some at least of these general characteristics of the age. its purpose must be to educe from the facts a summary proposition. In no sense. if considered as a logical entity. the organization of materials. and in purpose within the discussion of aesthetics.

predominant paswhich can sions. associationai patterns. and to note the various same light as it is transmitted through them. outside all system of thought. of principle. and we can grind ing these circumstances 5 we view our lens to The problem thought is the application. to be sure. For though reality may be one. but with those sets and systems of ideas which were then crystallized. the reflections of it in thought are many 5 we see only the image of reality through the prism of our own thought. then.304 Retrospect time and change. is beauty after all?" What beauty is in itself. highly kind. convictions and conjectures change. "What. however. in giving an account of a variety of systems of to establish a set of terms and distinctions comfit sufficiently prehensive that the concepts and arguments of the systems discussed can be compared without Where prejudice in the terms of the analyst. It is not their facets. Crane has observed that the neo-classical tradition in literary criticism was not a body of doctrine 5 it was "a large but historically distinguishable aggregate of commonplace distincof a flexible and tions. the it. the presuppositions which have equipped us with a vocabulary and prepared us to distinguish some aspects of the object and to pass over others. then. it is an examination of systems taken not as logical entities but as psychological concern. we can not. our habits of reason- make up that prism or lens through which what lens brings into focus. to more in our power after examining twenty systems of aesthetics than before to answer the naive and natural question. we see. It is only the minds of the authors and students of those systems their tastes. R. is really choices of subject. The interpret purpose which leads us to we the objects of our contemplation. has been not with the history either products. categories to which we refer it. My of speculation or of taste in eighteenth-century Britain. choices A literal intellectual history. the systems compared have many and major features in common as with these British systems of the eighteenth century this task is of course simpler. is indeterminable 5 terms in which inferences we describe by which we see only the image of it through the the it. to ex- amine refractions of the compare their lusters. but dispense with it. and of the causes of those choices . Different our reality lenses are of use for different purposes. S. of method a history of the made by the au- thors of systems. an image which depends more directly on the nature of that prism of concepts and distinctions and patterns of inference through which we look than upon the object of our view. habits of inquiry. out of which ambiguous many variant critical 33 systems and doctrines could be constructed 1 dis- .

Gerard's ical Essay on Taste is only the most elaborate and analytin this period. great variance of features of that manner. of a class of works common enough works having contributes as their chief subject analysis of the faculty itself. and picturesque than the miscellaneous which Crane describes. and not from 2 and though his "Pleasthe Principles of those Arts themselves" $ ures of the Imagination" papers were not devoted to analyzing the operation of taste and imagination (for he considered the efficient causes inexplicable). they this all The common found their problem to be the specification and discrimination of certain kinds of feelings. The tradition which we as were useful for solution of the problems to are here examining ical tradition is confined to a more narrowly defined and the discussions is subject crit- the beautiful. which were sensed and susceptibilities judged by those faculties. among the characteristics of human activity or of the modes of symbolic representation j one and all. "On the Standard of Taste.Retrospect tinctions such as general 305 and particular nature. his neat essay." likewise. and the like. The aestheticians of found their subject to be psychological: the central period for them was not some aspect of the cosmos or of particular problem nor was it found substances. Addison had declared that the arts were "to deduce their Laws and Rules from the general Sense and Taste of Mankind. giving the various concepts the interpretation and emphasis appropriate to the structure of his thought. and uncommon. is a kind of taste $ and his overarching purpose in the "Inquiry concerning Beauty" was to establish the existence of such a discriminating sense as propadeutic to his examination of morals in terms of similar senses. his attention was merely shifted to those qualities. Hume Lord Kames. Numerous inquiries were devoted to the faculty itself j and when this faculty was found to be derivative. "taste" is their fundamental concern. sublime. the beautiful. and of the impressions and ideas which excited them. critic uniformity and variety. and Knight open with . For this reason. and Blair. Hutcheson's "internal sense. Even when the faculty of taste was not itself the major subject. the determination of the mental powers and which yielded those feelings. Alison. great. yet here too there doctrine within a common manner. it was still fundamental to every inquiry. such inquiry could be complex enough." The treatises of Burke. those of Reid. consequent on special modes of action and interaction of other faculties. instruction and pleas- ure. sublime and pathetic. then. within this tradition might employ such of these distinctions A which he addressed himself. form a more closely integrated tradition.

Granted. Such ists empiricism is. to be sure. Our Ideas of the Sublime An Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of And when Payne sis is Knight entitled his into the Principles of and Beautiful: such titles are testimony. Retrospect elaborate. of taste and associated faculties as examination of its objects. . too. these experiential exare a feature of what is called planations. But they are not genetic or historical j they appeal instead to a priori principles and categories of thought. that is. It is the habit of the eighteenth-century British philosophers to analyze those principles and categories." Continental rationalisms. all the writers of the century begin with presuppositions about.306 accounts. also find their principles in psychology. one by his dialectical. then. still used their greater number of principles as used his more simple and elegant postulates used them. disclose their views. the implication was the same: this analy- the breaking down of the complicated phenomena to simpler elements and principles of combination. as simple elements Hume into which the parts of more complex phenomena could be resolved. of Beauty and Virtue. depending always upon determination of original impressions and the reduction of more complex ideas and feelings to combinations of of taste which all these writers these primary materials. though the fragmentary nature of Repton's works prevents a connected account. taste. who asserted a host of primary and original sensibilities and powers. a very different thing in the writings of a Hume or Alison from what it is in a Reid or Kamesj but even those Scots who took issue with the systematic reductions of Hume. and most with explicit discourses on. method from beginning with taste 5 yet one devotes a disthe other an essay to it subsequently. major empiricism. course. the other by his philo- some of them logical. merely introducing additions and alterations at need. to find explicable what the rationaltake as primary givensj and this analysis. Price and Repton. which is so often called "empirical. I take it. It is this trait of the eighteenth-century British systems. and Price takes the views of Burke for granted. Stewart and to a natural preliminary Reynolds are exempted. that though Gerard alone of the writers here studied devotes the greater part of his treatise to this as his central theme. work An Analytical Inquiry Taste . The psychology employed was genetic rather than a priori: their analysis of mental phenomena was essentially historical. and those British systems of the next century which were modeled on the German.

The rules examination of the beautiful. for his dialectical way of thinking requires neither such a set of elementary notions nor such analysis of complexes 5 the analogical principle of generality and particularity applies in one fashion or another to every branch of his subject. and the itself. 'demands of nature." 3 The subject of the present book has automatically selected for comment those writers of whom this new method was most requires characteristic: for to extract and refine the sub- lime and beautiful wherever they are imbedded in nature or in art who would mine and conventions of literary criticism might enable many a criticaster to pronounce on particular works with no more painful consequence than triteness. some degree of philosophic system was present from the first j the new character noted by Crane in the literary criticism of mid-century began in the "philosophical criticism" with Hutcheson. to within a criticism. hence. effects of those more complex phe- The writers: the notion of an unanalysable gestdt would be a fiction to these whole is resolvable into and explicable by its elementary the relations connecting them. Reynolds. is psyoriented. both in the simplicity of this of its principles and in the intricacy of its analyses. In aesthetics. considered as a codification of past artistic experience. to be trite is to be worthless only the logic of system is of value here. Reynolds and Shaftesbury. and even that might be redeemed by novelty of subject \ but in the more abstract and philosophical some "tincture of philosophy" in those such ore. One of the tendencies Crane has noted in the evolution of neo- classical literary criticism is critical "an important shift of emphasis in the writing of the mid-eighteenth century a shift that exalted the philosopher (in the current sense of an inquirer into the operations of the mind) over the artist or the mere critic as the expert best and that served. and only gives the faculty psychology of his age an unusual dialectical twist. Yet most of Reynolds' dicta lend themselves readily to statement in the chologically more conventional mode. After Hutcheson's In- .Retrospect 307 and from the effects of which the nomena could be calculated. too. accordingly. sharper separation between criticism bring about. too is exceptional to this generalization. That taste should be the fundamental concept in the aesthetics of the eighteenth century is a consequence of the philosophizing of criticism.' on which its precepts and judgments. qualified to determine the rules of art to be valid. if they are must ultimately rest. Alison's theory is the parts and type mode of philosophizing in aesthetics.

was this mode of aesthetics founded on psychol- ogy. but this has where human nature shoots wild and little society free. the chief discussion of the (setting aside Reynolds' Discourses. authored a lengthy and essay the purpose on the beautiful or the sublime. of sets out on his rambles the cultivation of the perceiving taste through the knowlart. or at any rate without a native bent for analysis Not and systematization. his central sublime. moreover. and primitive little to closely reasoned Essay on Genius. there is attempt to bring such studies into relation with the beautiful. problems of are treated subordinately to the emotions of taste. The artist's sidered as nical among powers. a work which. Such an orientation directs attention technical aspects of artistic construction properties of natural or artificial objects away from the and towards the universal which affect the perceiving mind. It is true the of aesthetics the of equally eighteenth century as of its criticism that principles are derived from the mind beholding beauty or sublimity. Indeed. and practice. from which principles are drawn. though he from the hand of nature. or on the correlation of powers of imagination with a vague Longinian sublimity. like the techartistic construction. the mind in which these characters subsisted as feelings. and usually associationist psy- chology: philosophic principles were sought in sophic method was found in human nature. philo- a mental atomism of elements and laws of combination. sublime.308 Retrospect qairy > no writer could pretend to importance as an aesthetician without credentials as a philosopher. . It is the perceiving mind. are conthe sources of aesthetic pleasure. only. works out in detail a mental atomism. Any psychology accounts of course for both perception and creation. as represented in his works. but there may still be a difference of priority and emphasis. And so with the other studies of genius in the period. but upon an empirical. genetic. and. and his to find scenes of art picturesque traveler. except for generalizations on the connection of the original genius. But alwrite though Gilpin might essays on sketching landscape. taste and genius. not the mind as creative. like Alison's Essays on Taste. artist's work in this tradition and even these tend to resolve controversy on the picturesque. Gerard. It would be plausible to argue that one difference between neo-classical literary criticism and that of the ciples of Romantic period is that in neo-classical criticism the prinexamination and evaluation are drawn ultimately from the nature of the audience. in Romantic criticism from the powers of the artist. then. to be sure. picturesque. genius into taste) is in the concern is edge.

uses his status only to authorize his analyses of taste. But this reasoning is plausible only if method is not analytic and genetic: for if we are to resolve the beauty of the complex into the beauties of its components and their relations. in When hand our these data have yielded to our analyses. A transcendental see in it simpler and less complete beauty of nature. or the sophisticated connoisseur sophistication enables whose very him is to allow for the effects of cus- the etymology of "picturesque"? To what objects was the epithet "beautiful" first applied? Questions such as these come naturally to the mind which habitually thinks in this vein. and increasingly in natural scenery in the gilded colors of sunsets. an excellent reason for beginning with. when we principles of unity in variety. education. Price and Knight. nature is we begin with nature or. and only might himself art: for the whole includes the part. another circumstance in the form a taste The nature of the subject militated against extensive consideration of art itself. and picturesque being feelings raised up in the mind from impressions and associated ideas. may we approach the complicated and derivative . again.Retrospect 39 returns preferring nature unimproved to the tinsel efforts of art. acknowledging this fact. What is it in colors which taste of and original the elelogical but also in a chronological fascinates the child? What is the men uncorrupted by artifical society the primitives of an heroic age. and vogue? What perience and prior to art both in the history of our exin the order of creation. or whatever they may be then. Repton. We will begin instead with the elementary ments being original not only in a sense. it was natural that the mind as perceiving rather than creating should have been the focus of discussion. the formless might of stormy oceans we find our problems and have data. the country gentleman remote from the fashions of London. as a practicing artist concerned to justify his art and himself as a professor of it. largely confining and to determine the beauty of art necessarily determines also that art. we characteristics distinc- tively artifidal. are likely to ignore or minimize in when we do employ them those art works as data. then. beautiful. the untutored but feeling rustic. the tangled intricacies of wooded glens. to which will both guide artists and gratify amateurs. In nature. to. Beauty. and only then. of the association of moral traits with line and color. and since nature is the simpler. sublime. have to do with genius or art only to the extent that they wish. At the same time. sublimity. and picturesqueness are found in nature as well as in aesthetician. Since tom. partly by study of the works of art. we will not be tempted to start with the whole.

or to a standard . whose principle of generality naturally accords it. and these are for him preferable to any Yet each of our writers owed allegiance to the standard. elaboration to art works as differentiated from natural things. we see them here in a new relauncover the effects of imitation. Crane has noted that in neo-classical literary criticism there was a shift in emphasis between the age of Dryden and that of Johnson. that there is no consensus except within a cultural tradition. likings and aversions. so long as taste is considered merely as a species of does not admit of a standard 3 not only do cultures vary. Reynolds by using his contrary of the one and the many. Stewart devised explicit arguments to demonstrate a rightness in taste.310 Retrospect products of art. with that argument). From them we derive additional principles: we discern the influence of design and of fitness (or. Gerard. that even taken over many ages the judgment of Peking and Tokyo does not coincide with that of Athens and London. Kames by appealing to original senses which testify to the universality and perfection of human nature. but each man's constitution and experience determine his sensation it peculiar other's. excepted tificial and only by secondary objects not distinguished from natural. Knight. that the standard was at first rested chiefly on rules induced from the works sanctioned by universal consensus. that as criticism became more philosophical the standard came theories of to more on human nature. Reynolds. implies that there is a noryet another mal taste. To exhibit the standard of taste is an object at which all these writers aim. Lord Kames. others skeptically eschew Gerard and Knight are as aware as any modern relativist made skeptical by excess of knowledge. or Reynolds. Reynolds or to ar- remains a constant characteristic of these aestheticians that their analyses apply to natural objects first. and many Burke. being common to all men. or at any rate having common potentialities. and we one by one from nature. Indeed. 4 The aestheticians be grounded we are here studying put the standard from the first on the basis of human nature 5 though some still laid stress on the argument from consensus as well (Blair. for instance. if we have seen design and fitness in tionship) 5 we account for the differentiae of art It the works of nature. Hume. There is common characteristic consequent on their taking as fundament human nature: that nature. Burke by examining the common basis of human faculties in the ex- . Each might justify the standard by his own peculiar Hume principles by shifting the argument from the impressions of sensibility to the idea of critical competence.

more on the culti- vation and eloquence of the dialectician. Gerard allows it to stand as one of the internal senses. The dialectic method of Shaftes- bury and Reynolds pronounces with equal force that there is a true Taste. to determine which are unavoidable. one would think for is co-ordinate character j but there no system in the . and the common response to these simple elements feelings of mankind may be a matter of may for these be a standard 5 but the proper response to the complex whole becomes a matter of computation after such analysis. a true Beauty. as a it. with the feelings of sentiment. and we feel it not then analytic method of this tradition is the method far excellence not merely of showing that there is a standard. Novelty. or our class. our era. but the showing forth of that taste and that beauty depends less on cold precision of analysis. Was there. Taste as judgment is referred to principles and is conscious of grounds. subtitle) 311 But their works were all (in the language of Hogarth's "Written with a View of Fixing the Fluctuating Ideas of it is Taste. and produced by the we feel amiss. no progress from shadowy intuition to the blaze of full illumination.Retrospect ternal senses. the prevailing method. the philosophic principles." All the treatises of the century are implicitly determinations of the stand- ard: if (for instance) the sublime be what Burke or Kames or Alison avers. but of determining what that standard is. like bioa record of haphazard mutation and opportunistic developlogical. So far. it is (as Blair put it) "a sort of compound power. great. common to all. and beautiful. which is not co-ordinate with the great and the beautiful. Neither the characteristic subject matter. ment. remained in the discussion for a time: Hutcheson mentions it. reduced to the operation of simple causes. The effect on us of a complex whole can be analyzed. in which the light of the understanding 5 always mingles. Intellectual history. then. no change. which accidental 5 which universal to all men. The causes assigned. But Hume and Hogarth ignored once and all." For possible to examine the causes of our preferences and aversions. I have been concerned with traits all. which peculiar to ourselves. and Burke struck it out. which common to our culture. Our feeling. In just this random way the century had opened with a triad itself to is of aesthetic characters: Addison's uncommon. or almost systems of the century. Akenside adopts it in the first edition of his Pleasures of Imagination. nor even the doctrines changed in any way lending ready generalization. more or less. no progress? Certainly there is no simple and straightforward development.

and textures of scenery. nor is to the a picturesqueness a major picturesque. which Nature affords. A sketch of the varieties of causal explanation adduced has been included in my Introduction j but a recapitulation in different terms may not be useless here. perit. and picturesque. stand pretty much outside the tra- . with practical rules for arranging Nature to suit man's convenience or for disarranging her and with poetical rhapsodies on the delights. aesthetic. Shaftesbury and Reynolds. and the systems do not fall into a chronological pattern. can say truly. only that the picturesque is a Gilpm. colors. The works of the end of the century abound alike with detached analysis of the forms. Another shift haps partly causes accompanies the evolution of the picturesque. not the inevitable rush of intellectual orthogenesis. performed but superficial analyses. or religious. Yet note: Alison. and which was with some later writers a Whether turesque a topic of engrossing and sublimity (like Price). it should be noted. or not important (like Alison) functions of the systems. But as the came into favor as a taste and as a topic. sublime. analytic genetic 5 yet to suit his wilder fancy. devotes lime. as I have 6 and some writers within the tradisuggested. book into two parts implies a more important shift in subject matter: beautiful and sublime become beautiful. The philosophic method employed throughout this tradition of discussion of the beautiful. place in the discussion.312 Retrospect 1 in 1 785 again introduces novelty history of systems. scarcely paragraph The division of this topic for Stewart. and that the inadequacies The opened the way to fresh explorations by Price and Knight: but these are the vagaries of historical accident. or though important not co-ordinate (like these variations are Knight). We topic introduced by major focus of interest. Discussion of scenery and gardening runs Addison is eloquent on these topics. a writer after Gilpin finds the picimportance and co-ordinate with beauty of analyst can note that it was the predominance Burke's special view of beauty which led to the distinction of the of Gilpin's analysis picturesque by Gilpin. subeven in 1811. or at any rate the effects of extra-philosophical causes. others pursued more searching inquiries and various authors resolved the gross phenomena tion j into different elemental principles. moral. though very properly rejecting its claims to independent status. through the century often an overwhelmingly predominant. the discussion of picturesque and of landscape landscape gardening came to occupy a far larger. and Reid as an organizing topic. and picturesque was.

not a other writers of related beauties. Hogarth's theory was brought forward. but before Gerard published. of arfurther analysis of these components. and noted some of the leading components of these characters rangement. Yet there beauty of color. he does not find much connection between physical and moral beauty. But though physical. Rather disappointingly. the demonstration of an internal sense of beauty. great. like the more literal and grounded their systems on psychological printheir method of inquiry was dialectical and organic. however. has little to say on those beauties immediately pleasing. His purpose. Disappointing. for instance. moral. The method . and beautiful. and more rigorand ously elaborately by Alison. but Hume's aesthetic is sketchy. 313 though they. of proportion. it been turned upon of Hume was developed by Gerard. led him to adopt a single analytical device the notion of uniformity in variety with which to reduce all forms of beauty. nor does it en- courage exploration of the sublime alongside that of beauty. suggestive. his system (in which and often one of interference with the perception of beauty) does not lend itself to penetrating investigation of their commingling and reciprocal influence. of the subtle analysis which his self was never the focus of powerful psychology could have yielded had such subjects. even though Addison had able a rudimentary associational theory. the consequence of Hume's always mentioning beauty incidentally to some other object of analysis beauty ithis attention. employing a method very different from Hume's but equally characteristic of this tradition. is the a of of sublimity which Hume invented. In the philosophy of Hume. theory fragment like the essays on taste and tragedy. the Addison distinguished the three characters. including that beauty of mind which Addison had left out of account. Considering. other obvious physical varieties both of sublimity and beauty are omitted 3 and the complicated interconnections between the physical is that. and intellectual beauties are all treated association plays a limited role.Retrospect dition methodologically. for differential writers. there is little and mental worlds are quite ignored. of course. these and other negligences are. and their set Beauty one. by Hutcheson. to a single formula. makes no effort to separate design and fitness from utility. too. an associationism is employed to analyze most of the phenomena of human nature to their ultimate constituents. ciples. avail- Hutcheson's far more philosophical theory pursued the analytic approach much further. uncommon.

and in Alison the beauty of virtue is distinct from the virtue. and so forth. more radically than most of the theories of beauty and sublimity in terms of constituent eleeach producing its own part of the total effect with- out interaction: the beauty of rate the components of an object has so many quanta of the beauty of smoothness. however. as it stress were. as for all analytic writers. and in the reciprocal influence of character and taste. Burke's atomism comes to lay a good deal more on the atoms than on the relations among them. variof lines: line bewhich. As in Hume. and with a strong bias towards the discovery of simple natural causes operating directly upon our sensibility. for even in Hutcheson. they are not tion. linkages among ideas and impressions. rather. are reduced to traits into Hogarth ety ? & c . the beauty consists in the dependence of both taste and virtue on operations of imagination. in a wider sense of the term. all is analyzed.314 Retrospect resolves beauty into a half-dozen elements fitness. in Reid. And although Burke makes use of association. treats qualities. in the similarity of the pleasures from these two kinds of excellence. associaand subtlety tional. designed to sepacomplex objects. system of Burke. Like aesthetic of the a distinct Hutcheson. is well adapted to such a system. flexibility of analysis. Though Gerard (like most pressions. of argument are partly attributable to Gerard's use of this powerful connection of physical and moral analytical tool. which are largely reduced to a matter of addition and subtraction. Hume's method is that largely pursued j the analysis is carried out in terms of ideas. his more distinctive analysis is into physiological stimuli j since the separate elements of beauty act individually upon the nervous system without being blended. eclectic though it is. even the capricious or disruptive. All of the analytic systems make The mental this school. in the mind. This trait . moral and intellectual beauty is different from physical 5 though some dispositions of lines can sigbeautiful by reason of this significanify moral traits. sublime. imof imagination. Hogarth does not develop not readily allow. for this his linear analysis would he reckons greatness only an excellence supervening to beauty. aesthetics. and its breadth of scope. Burke's logic. And comes the element which all manner of beauty for Hogarth. his system is. In the theory of Gerard. and operations the term "association" to designate eighteenth-century writers) uses the less close. Such connections of resemblance and of cause and effect are the marks of a system which essentially differentiates ethics from such differentiation.

The consequence of course. elaborate for the literary arts. that aesthetic phenomena are readily broken down into a variety of atomic elements. The components are so varied that analyses of very of this bent is. his synthetic theory more detached from the preceding analysis. and of Hogarth's too. for the sense is always prepared to respond to the appropriate stimulus. The defect can be minimized by choice of a single principle capable of many development of a large less. and one which he derived from. is the assertion of a multitude of original perceptions through separate senses provided by Providence for their reception. kinds of applications number of senses as in as in Hutcheson or by Kames. or any third character into his system. and kept by his eagerness to get on with the criticism . considerable complexity can be worked out. All of those theories. and the results are sufficiently precise that Kames can build from them a synthetic system of criticism. which suppose distinct responses by external or internal senses to separate aesthetic elements necessarily share this inflexibility. that sect of Scottish philosophy which arose to combat the reductive analyses of Hume. the associational analyses more purely Burke's postulated physiological mechanism enables him to draw the sharpest of separations between beauty and sublimity. in fact. Nonethe- have an inherent capacity for modulations and contextual adjustments which the systems reposing on a sense or senses lack. So definite was Burke's division of beauty and sublimity that even those later writers who wished to deny any absolute contrariety of the two characters Knight. each class perceived through a special sense. Clearly inferior to Kames in connecting his aesthetic with his criticism. and precludes him from admitting novelty.Retrospect 315 of the system produces a certain dogmatic inflexibility and a negligence of context in assessing the aesthetic effects of the simple properties. Blair's is purpose very like that of Lord Kames: to work out an analysis the results of which can be put to use in synthesis of a theory of the literary arts. makes it especially liable to this defect. The physiological apparatus of Burke's system. or as a member of. or em- ployed the concepts as organizing principles for their discussions. The distinguishing feature of the system of Lord Kames. less so for gardening and architecture. or Stewart. the picturesque. his results more general. or (outside the analytic group) Reynolds still often used the terms as if they constituted an exclusive and exhaustive distinction. But Blair's interest is more literary and less phil- osophical than that of Kames 5 his principles are fewer.

But since the powers and sensibilities of hu- . and both the merits and defects of Reid's aesthetic follow from that system. leaves Blair's system poorly verified and somewhat meager. Not only does Alison work out all the permutations of the elements of his system the component ideas and the modes of their combination but he employs the most rigorous inductive method. only keeps open the investigation modes various the resolve to effort cient causes but even makes some to be of sublimity into one by association of ideas (though allowing beauty one only through association of like feelings from the different of it). Blair nonetheless has one for finding special senses advantage: he is free of Kames's penchant of effinot he final and and causes. and his aesthetic system. he finds that beauty and suband since limity subsist as real and objective excellences in things. modes His deficiency in to leap middle first ever. beauty and sublimity must ultimately derive from itself mind. Alison develops an aesthetic both comprehensive and subtle. matter some can not be "excellent" except as connected with mind by relation. and Alison had. consciously organizing data and Hume. operating wholly in terms of ideas and habits of imagination.216 Retrospect from penetrating very far in the aesthetic. development by Alison. wherein plurality of causes and intermixture of effects abound. and their consilience alone constitutes proof. Neither Reid's purpose in treating beauty nor his characteristic method of thought lead him to undertake detailed or subtle analysis. With Reid. Because of Reid's theory of direct perception of the outer world. Employing an associational psychology. contains little novelty The analytic and genetic method is given its most systematic. the sublime and beautiful were brought within the framework of a philosophic system. contriving experiments to meet the requirements of inductive logic Gerard. his tendency from principles of analysis. which is in turn established intuitionally. recognizing that neither deduction from principles of human nature (whether these be indemonstrable or established inductively) nor induction from the raw data of taste is alone adequate for proof in aesthetics. the most complete grasp of the kind of logic appropriate to an analytic system. of these writers. Both deductive and inductive inference must be used. saving only the principle that all beauty is from either in doctrine or in demonstration. its most exhaustive. mind. equally adapted to formulating broad principles and to making delicate adjustment to particular contexts. howprinciple to particular instance. But Reid brings forward little evidence to support this position 5 it rests on deduction from the principles of his metaphysics.

and tends to see the deduction as only verificative of results already arrived at inductively 3 and yet he does not select his data (in the Essay on Taste at any rate) to meet express conditions for such induction. Hume. the deductive process can not be pursued safely without some view of the law towards which demonstration is to be directed 5 and such view is afforded by empirical generalization from the data of taste. and their more than operations ordinarily subtle. Gilpin initiated a new phase of the discussion by introducing mode . advanced beyond the later writers. Alison's concern is to establish the most general laws of taste. and with little Price. if it be judged unfair to men procedure than Alison. but contemporary with these men are Gilpin. Knight. The ratiocination man the principal part of the proof. from whom much It beyond might is of the technique may have been borrowed.Retrospect 317 nature which enter into aesthetic response are several. All that can be urged. Even Payne Knight. had in hand such a Iogic5 Gerard and Alison advance beyond him in applying it to aesthetic subjects. without pretensions to philosophy. In much the same way. in 1790. This is negligible as a generalization. It principles must be proved. be argued that one line of development within this tra- dition in this very matter: the perfecting of inductive technique and the co-ordination of inductive and deductive procedures in the process of proof. is that three major writers at the end of the century Alison. and Stewart had a more as to philosophic command of logic applied aesthetics than did any earlier cluster of writers. I think. has less grasp of inductive cite conception of it or. especially if we reflect that Alison. had Addison had set in progress the inquiry concerning the sublime and beautiful by discriminating the characters without the explaining of their operation 5 his very abandonment of the quest for efficient causes opened the question to other writers. though he is a systematic writer. and that part from which the bulk of the doctrine will be evolved. Blair and Reid will serve as well. even Hume. Here is the use of consensus: to suggest empirical laws which can serve as hypotheses towards which the ratiocinative part of the process can be oriented. Gerard lays perhaps too much emphasis on successively ascending inductions rising to more and more genis eral laws. well before mid-century. But there is no consistent evolution. those from which the more rules of and particular first is judgment criticism can be deduced 5 and such all. they are proved at inductively. if in the perfection of inductive techniques for establishing these most general laws that Alison is distinguished beyond any other writer of this tradition. Repton.

Knight's major work. the analysis moving by stages from simple sensation is to refined in the clarity with which the beautiful. for it is organized faculty by faculty. what was subordinate in Burke has become predominant. ambiguities of the terms "beautiful and "picturesque" are resolved with unusual elegance through Knight's theory of transitive meanings. though numerous systems lay ready to his hand. Gilpin. picturesque are related to these faculties that Knight's acuteness passion. which permits him to assign The . but it is thetic theory into purely associational terms.318 Retrospect the character of the picturesque without finding any plausible explanation of its influence upon us. sublime. 5 Burke. brought forward shortly after. the wavering between a notion of direct action upon the nervous system and an associational theory the reaches of which were not fully explored. though but half- acknowledged. too. course. and color. texture. The real. of had employed associational psychology but in Price. writing after an imperfect indication of a general transformation of aesHume had been an as- after Price still Gerard and Alison. re-introduces into the discussion a new is physiological hypothesis to account for the picturesque. sublimity. It is judgment and complicated and and 55 originality displayed. these elements into distinct characters. it is not easy to justify the picturesque by the theory of Burke. and their opposites. had attenuated the physiological part of Burke's theory. yet failed so signally to define his problem with accuracy. The special merit of Price's method his skilful comparison and opposition of the aesthetic characters. he defends Burke's theory mostly in foreign terms. Addison had few predecessors and no adequate tools of analysis . and performed his inductions with so little care. displays an interesting shift in the technique of analysis . that his effort served chiefly as an incitement to later inquirers infected with his taste but disappointed in his analysis of its objects. the psychological mechanisms were left. of beauty. basis of Price's theory is associational. but though The Price does affirm allegiance even to this. the Analytical Inquiry) left nothing to conjecture. For Burke the essential device used to explain the sublime and beautiful was a physiological hypothesis. sociationist before Burke 5 Knight. and of the composition of But his theory was left ex- posed to much misunderstanding because of the confusion in which. light. for though Price stands forth as the champion of Burke. The shift is real. after all. picturesqueness. through detailed analyses of the ele- ments of line. theory of Price.

introduces a novelty in method. and Stewart alone. My partial review of the writers of this school does not disclose strongly marked tendencies or presents. they allow Repton to draw up rules for the practice of his art. however.Retrospect 319 the different meanings to the objects and operations of the different faculties. takes the progress of the mind to be in principle like a chain. allows him in method concern freedom from the rigidities imposed by physiological hypotheses or the postulation of internal senses j but his own conception of linear and stepwise development along a thread of transitive meanings imposes its own restrictions. Stewart's view that inductive mental philosophy itself with the laws describing the connections of matmay ter and mind. Still more than the analyses of other writers of this tradition. his is historical and genetic. though the rules do not follow so inevitably from the principles as to prevent Repton's taste from undergoing considerable change in the course of his career. Stewart. a scattered striking variety of particular systems. Taken as topics of argument. Alison had been content to trace each of the various modes and forms of beauty separately to its mental rootj Knight to rest each upon an appropriate faculty and to treat the faculties in a sequence corresponding to the order of their development. however. But Repton's aesthetic is too much an ad hoc of his style in gardening and architecture to dwell upon justification his method. however. always consistently enumerated. The of terms. . within the limits improvements 5 rather. it of a broad common method. his general prinnot repeatedly though ciples. to treat the nature and conditions of an art (as with Reynor to justify a particular style in an art (as in Repton). and so with other writers each traced the kinds of beauty individually to their origins. The different purposes of the authors partly account for this variety whether the purpose is to complete a philosophical system (as with Stewart) or to prepare a prolegom- whether olds) enon to some other branch of philosophy (as with Hutcheson). but not with the manner of that union. are never systematically evolved either from empirical induction or Repton's aesthetic from a theory of human nature. is more applied than theoretic . and he follows it link by analytic device by which he traces the chain is the theory of transitive meanings which he adopted from Knight 5 the progress he studies is a progress in the wider and more various applications link. Stewart.

even and no prediction. or Price Burke's. Each this the state and momentum system. again. The philosophic allegiance dialecticians (like of the authors a factor too . an element of surprise and originality 5 the different habits of subtle to be categorized. or intuitionists (like reflects thorough analysts (like Hume and Ali- Kames and Reid). And doubtless each system reflects the tastes of its author and of its age j Hogarth's theory might be used to justify one set of preferences. whether they are Shaftesbury and Reynolds) son). there is still. philosophical and extra-philosophical. There is little pattern. are allowed for. . of current discussion: a writer may introduce a new problem dimension to discussion already in progress Addison didj or may add a new which Gilpin didj may incorporate previous efforts into a more comprehensive theory as Burke did Hogarth's. or may demolish false views which had gained currency as did Knight. There is thought arise from causes too perhaps an analogy with muta- tions in the biological world: causes presumably exist. as it appears to me. But after all these causes. Price's another. the grossest escape us. but all except in retrospect .320 whether Retrospect to find the roots of the principles of taste (as with Alison) or to form a new is taste (as with Gilpin).

NOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX .

.

XXIV (October. 49. 409 (June 19. VI. G. "Interpretation of Texts and the History of Ideas. Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste (4th 3. 1712). Alison alone denies that these organic pleasures are a part of the aesthetic response. I> IO 9 Archibald Alison. Crane. 2. 78. 2. 645-67. ed. xxviixxviii. Chapter i 1. Ibid. p. ed. There are two possibilities altogether. Gregory Smith (London: Dent. ed. Ibid. II (May. cit. 8. 6. 755-65. ideas of things fictitious involve powers of abstraction and combination.." 1.. 1712).. Arts. [Joseph Addison]. of the Pleasures Received is anonymous Essays on the Sources from Literary Compositions (London. Edinburgh. No. 7. Ibid.. cit. Ibid. 512. 4. No. harmony and In every writer treated there is the concession of an organic pleasure in in light or color. 1712). 411 (June 21. ed. 1809). 417 (June 28. [Joseph Addison]. The Spectator No.. and 323 . which more commonly ascribed to Edward Mangin. for a statement of the nature of a literal history of literature. not three (as Addison's suggest): ideas of memory include those of things absent. 1815).. I. 51." English Journal (College Edition). 29 (April 3. No. VI. Ibid. p. Ibid. 52.. Thorpe. 57. VI.. 3. 1897). the quotation was added in the second edition (1811).' XXI (1935. just a century from the time Addison wrote. and Arbor: University of Michigan Press.NOTES Introduction See Ronald S.. Ann Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science.. "Addison's Theory of the Imagination as Ter9. 1936). 56. The Spectator. p. cit. ed. See Clarence D. 1941). Response. grammar might " ceptive Letters. ed. 1935). 1711). College English. 4. cit. '. 1712). Ibid. I take Greenfield to be the author of the 5.. VI. 5. 56. See also Crane's "History Versus Criticism in the University Study of Literature. 411 (June 21. No.

VI. 20. for discussion of Reid's view on the triad in question. 73. 1935). 1712). 94-95. 29.. The Pleasures of Imagination (London. 21. 80 (August II. 267. I933)>P. An Analytical Inquiry into the Principles of Taste (3d ed. 14.D. Deity. 59. Spectator. 1712). 412 (June 23. 3. and components of Addison's psychology in Hobbes.' " 24. 315 (March Ibid. italics are mine. and the 'Natural Sublime.. 58.A Study in Critical Theories in XVIIICentury England (New York Modern Language Association.. pp. "The Association of Ideas and Critical Theoiy Hobbes. The 10. [Addison]. [Mark Akenside]. Monk. VI. 2.) 15. No. Daniel Webb. ed. Ibid. 12. we need locate no single source. 139-46. VI. Thorpe concludes. I. The eighteen papers on Paradise Lost are in the Spectator. 255. ed. 11. 27. Thomas Reid Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man. Ibid. 22. and Addison. I. 1744)5 Book I. 26. 10. i. 1712). No. cit. p. and Letters. fountains. Locke. Joseph Warton. .. . 257.. No. 1906). An Inquiry into the Beauties of Painting^ and into the The Merits of the Most Celebrated Painters. Adventurer. 35-36. London. 86-88. Ibid. 18. ed. 28. 13. 1880). No. p.. No 411 (June 21. 59. 60-61). 17. 60. 198 See Edmund Ideas of the Sublime and Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Beautiful. and the like is explained by referring to the perpetual shifting of the scene (ibid.. Locke. V. 27.136. every sixth paper beginning with No.324 Notes to Pages 7(5 /p Martin Kallich. Cornell No.. Theodore McGinnes Moore. IV. the imagination as an intermediary between sense and understanding" ("Addi" of the Imagination as 'Perceptive Response. 23. Thus our delight in rivers. Sir William Hamilton (8th ed. pp. [Addison]. 1 6. 180-89) Burke's more logical twofold division.. Spectator. [Addison]. No. (The first edition of Webb's book appeared in 1760. 1712). in The Works of the Right Honourable A Edmund Burke (London: Oxford. I. The Sublime. 1806). [Addison]. 416 (June 27.. written after Burke's A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). "The Background of Edmund Burke's Theory of the Sublime (1660-1759). In the second edition (1772). ed. 1764). Edinburgh Samuel H. dissertation. 493. XII (December. ed. "Space. 529-) But this is a commonplace in philosophy since the Greeks. cit. pp." (Unpublished Ph. 25. No. of lachlan and Stewart. 151-52. 412 (June 23. 57.. Thomas Reid. cit. cit. cit. cit. pp. . . Arts. XII (March. 1945)3 3O9ed.. 1712). Mac. the of most "furnished who was Descartes it that clearly conception Descartes. Ibid. 412 (June 23. and 185-86. DeSubhmitate 35. Spectator. See infra. and ii. i. 1951). cit. Ancient and Modem (Dublin. 5.' son's Papers of the Michiafter finding various Theory gan Academy of Science." ELH. Akenside adopts (Book I. 369 (May Burke. in The Works ed. Spectator. ed.. VI. 1712). University. it MLQ. 11. See Ernest Tuveson. VI. 10-5 6 (on Longiman sublimity) and 56-59 (on Addison). 1712). 6l. 11. 20-38. 19. pp.. Compare Richard Payne Knight. XXI [1935]. 1753).

1712]. . lb*d. cit. 9. 45. Ibid F. ed. Ibid. logical explanation) iv. * n Works.. ed. ed. 37. 7172 for the passage (wherein Addison concedes a debt to Freart).. necessarily subscribes.. 35. 416 (June 27. Addison remarks that "it disturb the passions via the imagination rather than pain the imagina- tion as such. Written in French by Roland Freartj Sieur de Chambray (London. 84. VI. see his "Addison and the Pleasures of the Imagination. [Addison].. No. 75. 1712). this ed. 325 VI. 1712).. 291 for the note. similar aesthetics Clarence D. 125. sums up Addison's achievements in terms. 62. cit. 415 (June 26. Ibid. 1937). 421 [July 3.. on the other hand. ed. Addison does not put forward the Cartesian account as one to which he the passage presents hypothetically what "a Cartesian" would say. No. Ibid. 34. No. No. the novel].Notes 30. See Spectator. 77. see "Addison's Contribution to Criticism. 1712). 48. cit. is cit. Burke.. 31. are absorbed the play and forget that 47. 63. 184-88. cit. 33. 71. ed. arguing that Addison illogiunder secondary pleasures. 1712). 38. 1113. 49. 412 (June 23. 17. sympathy. 81. No. 414 (June 25. VI. No. p. ed. and (for the physioVI. 92). 413 (June 24. that Ibid. ed. recollections and poetry under secondary... No. Works > I. [Addison].. is confused by this overlapping. 42. 32. Ibid... and that in general. VI. . No. Are these contrary objects disagreeable apart from expectation. Victor Hamm cally treats artifacts 36. 1712). conclusive. though they are present objects. ii." MLN. 415 (June 26. 46. Thorpe. cit. cit. Spectator. by 'Richard Foster Jones and Others Writing in His Honor (Stanford. Gregory Smith points out that Addison's passage is an almost verbatim transcript from John Evelyn's translation of A Parallel of the. 41. 14. VI. Ibid. Spectator. VI.. in I. 1712). 40.Antient Architecture with the Modern. 8 1. ed. Spectator. 477 (September 6. who has written more at length on Addison's than any other modern scholar. which are apt to fill it [the fancy] with Distaste and Terrour. 71. in proportion as we cit. 1712). 1712). Sublime and Beautiful. Ibid. 1664). 50. 1712). 418 (June 30. 66. ed.. 10-n. 62. LII (November.. 1712). 412 (June 23. cit.. Addison's reiterated denials that the nature of the soul can be known seem. 39. 416 (June 27." The Seventeenth Century: Studies in the History of English Thought and Literature from Bacon to Pope. cit. but he leaves this problem almost untouched. No. Ibid . p. and association? Addison's instances all Ibid. No.. to Pages 7924 cit. . . VI. and VI. . [Addison]. No. That account is not complete clear from the point made by Hume by we are the more affected it is and delighted an imitation. VII. VI. 44... 498-500. 43. p. for the Imagination is as liable to Pain as Pleasure" (ibid. [Addison]. ed. the beautiful. VI. Spectator. pp. 1712). or that (from another point of view) Nature ought to be primary and all art secondary. cit. No. Nature and the plastic arts should be handled under primary pleasures. their proper would not be very difficult to cast under Heads those contrary Objects [to the great. VI. ed. 418 (June 30.

109. 8. and section numbers Ibid. 287. p. 4. p. one No 412 so. ed. p. 6-7. p. . 1738 Subjects of Morality (London. i. 1900). cit. modifying Hutcheson's views. edition. Inquiry. With an Attempt to Introduce a Mathematical Calculation in followed in 1726. and finds accordingly that eighteenth-century critics tended to divide beauty into 9. ed. He sees the general and specific beauties in this light (thereby identifying reason with sex). 12. According to the Sentiments of the Antlent Moralists. Aesthetic Measure (Cambridge. 1742. 51. cit. final analysis be perceived immediately.. pp. i. Hutcheson's later works. Thorpe's concern with evolutionhim to view Addison's essay as ary development rather than logical structure leads "one of the great critical documents of all time. cit. [July. Ibid. 2. passage Scott 13." RES." 15. cit. 188 and 217 (in which with novelty). p. 1755). 10. ed. Hutcheson. 1756. Hutcheson. and finds Hutcheson's relative beauty rational.326 Cal. 1948]. 1943)3 45 2-67. 7. iii (4th ed. i. 1769* 1772." Philosophical Review. 55-56- Chapter 2 1. William Robert Scott. resemblance must always in the i. 1753. Alfred Owen Aldridge ("A French Critic of Hutcheson's Aesthetics. last 11. ed. I. Blair. But not species one reasonable.. 1516. viii.Established. L. 1790). XX two of Spectator sensible. Brett ("The Aesthetic the Literary Criticism of the Early Eighteenth Century. 1944]. R. Among p. 35. 1751. Ibid. Francis Hutcheson (Cambridge Cambridge Univer3. See Birkhoff. . Ibid. Lon- don. Ibid. later editions coming in 1730. 4. sity Press. Mass. 1951). Preface.. cit. Press. vi. another edition appeared at Dublin in 1728.. 199-213) works with a contrary of judgment and fancy. 1729. 1725). 1728. 324. Hugh I. (the last - 2.. LII (September. 75. the more useful recent studies is William Curtis Swabey's "Benev- olence and Virtue. I. but I shall indicate treatise numbers (according to the system given in the Swabey works in some qualifications apparently text) 6. (Glasgow and including the posthumous A System of Moral Philosophy London. pp. against Ideas of Moral Good and Evil Are." an estimate few will share. My references will be to the first 5. but these modifications are really present in Hutcheson in other forms. Inquiry. Francis tries to identify variety Hutcheson. . to facilitate reference to other editions. i. Inquiry into the Original of the Late Earl of Shaftsbury Are Treatises. XLV [February.. pp. p. Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres. Sense and Taste in p. ed. ii. 4.. 184) declares that this whole section "has no real } .. Full In Two Ex-plain* Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue . reason and taste.. I. Notes to Pages 24-29 Stanford University Press. Inquiry.. In Which the Principles of the Author of the "Fable of the Bees" and the d and title: An Defended. Editions in Hutcheson's lifetime). Scott. Harvard University MP 1933).. 39. since resemblance involves reason. I shall not consider in the present account. Hutcheson. 6. 14. I77 2 London.

p. 20915 for the clue which might serve to reduce the sense of dignity under the moral sense the nobler faculties. nomenclature of the senses is that of the "Essay on the Nature and is all contained in the "Inquiry concerning the Original of our Ideas of Virtue or Moral Good" (1725). 240-41. conceived by some intelligent 'designer' " (Francis Hutcheson. p. Preface. ed. Nature. I. cit. wherein "I" is the moment of personal good. pp. Press. London* Longmans.. ed. "S" is self-love. Ibid. 3. 9397... iii. Essay. the first The formula edition there was developed in Inquiry. p. abilities. p. eds. is (i. ii. pp. 2. T. 6. 10.. H.. in The Letters I> of David Hume. pp. cit. II.Clarendon 229. and the world created to match the 1 sense. Prosopopeia the figure eminent for moral beauty (ibid.. even though the earlier work is largely devoted to the moral sense." ed. There is a circularity in this argument: 17. argues that "beauty. The are less selfish or are presumably applied for public weal. 24. and pleasures 21. ed. See also on this question the letters of 17 September 1739 and 10 January 174. Y. J. understood as regularity or uniformity. honor and gratitude appear to involve distinct senses. ii. xvi xvii. I. cit. 7.). 25556. 23.. see David Hume. ed.. 3. I. 4). 27. ii. the question eluded some other" 1 is. 26. Hutcheson. II. 8. iii. ed. Essay. 11114. ii. 1882). ii. See Inquiry. ed. 5-6. is cit. Greig (Oxford. cit. Essay. II. In some ambiguity about "I" whether it stood for self-love or personal gain. 5.. Number and measure exhibit absolute . cit. for reduction of the public sense. cit. i.. but in event both are reflections of our own goodness in the feelings of others.. ii. both to Hutcheson. 165. has always with Hutcheson a precise refer- ence to an end. A Treatise of Human 25. 6.. 3 3-3 4 and 47~48. cit. For the analysis of sympathy.. II. ii (new ed. the sense is implanted to fit man for the world. i. Inquiry. one any 19. Inquiry. 1932)." Hutcheson is drawing out the sources . p. ii. Scott. T. 168-72. pp. ed. 7. Ibid. ed. the second edition clarified the matter by defining I = S X A. iii. See Hutcheson's statement in almost these words at the conclusion of the Introduction to the "Inquiry concerning Virtue. cit.. and for the sense of honor see Treatise. 20.. 6. the other detached. Ibid. 6. 7. In the Inquiry.. Hutcheson. cit. H. 6. cit. 3.. 191). in section 3 of the "Essay on the Passions. or away from. iii. Hume flatly denies any love of mankind merely I. P arts " and ii 1 of Book III of the Treatise are concerned with reduction of the moral sense to more original principles. 76. Hutcheson. metaphor and similitude relative beauty (tbid. 69. Hutcheson.. 5. cit. ed. ed. It is unnecessary and Conduct of the Passions" (1728). on the other hand. pp. ed. 242) 28. ii. Hutcheson. involving personal obligation. 3. and "A" abilities. where as such.Notes to Pages 2933 327 place in a treatise on aesthetics". All that is shown is consistent system instead of 1 self-consistency. pp.3. see Treatise. 3. 197-201. a discussion which introduces the most elaborate account of sympathy in the Treatise. but the doctrine false to read these two works as successive stages in a march towards. ed. Grose. i. Green and T. ed. pp. 3. 11017. ed. 2. cit. p. in.. This sympathetic notion of beauty virtue enters Hutcheson's thought more systematically than it does Lord Kames's. Truth. 22. why Ms self- 8. cit.

see also 5. 2. 8. . son's Aldndge and De MP. cit. 169-84. 78. Brunius discusses much scholarship on Hume's critical and aesthetic position in David Hume on Criticism." [1949] 5 Berkeley: Union Critiversity of California Press. I (November. 1882). 1875).. p. and criticism with impressions 307. eds. remoise. passim. "in considering merely the general outlines of HutcheVillette's systems. iii. to vice. Green and T. H. Inquiry. politics." II ELH. I shall not 3. ed. 1948). Logic deals with ideas. Chapter 3 passim. Political. morals. London. London: Longmans. 183-84). Inquiry. however. H.328 Notes to Pages 34-38 The of our passions. Teddy Brunius. feelings result from the reaction 3. moral feelings." Villette. Grose (new ed. 29. . 1740. Hume. ness: A Study XX Hume cism ("Ftgura. and aesthetic emotions.. however. analysis often differs rather widely. passions. The Sublime. if the sympathetic emotion of virtue gives rise to a imitation desired is successful. Critical Responsiveof the Psychological Current in Later Eighteenth-Century Criticism ("University of California Publications in English." No. XLV." XLV. University of Uppsala.Almqvist and Wiksell. Grose (London Longmans. p." 35. 31. 1949). as Hutcheson rather mars his analysis by adducing admiration of providence one of the emotions of tragedy. I and II of the Treatise were published at London. 1750). Studies Edited by the Institute of Art History. the present I. essay is The included in it De Villette's Oeuvres melees (Dublin. 1935). My page references are to the edition of T. "A French Critic of Hutcheson's Aesthetics. 2 [Stockholm. 4. Hutcheson. Vols. Vol. Essay." in Four Dissertations My references are to the version in Essays Moral. 1275 et aL 2. 6. H. 1952]). ed. Clarence DeWitt Thorpe. Literary. It appears to me. habits. my De information about from Alfred Owen as Aldndge's article. Three corresponding Hutcheson. together with "The Natural History of Religion" and "Of the Passions. desire of that virtue. Green and T. . Ill. we do not find fundamental differences. pity is felt only if suffering is disproportionate to and if disproportionate. "Of the Standard of Taste" and "Of Tragedy" appealed. See Monk. states that De Villette does less to is show us that Hutcheson's theory is wrong than that his essay MP. attempt in this brief chapter to comment on the immense body of secondary materials on Hume. that similar doctrines are upon different foundations. Oeuvres melees. and finds six passions arising from each of a number of senses. Gordon McKenzie. self-approving joy results. David 1. cit. pp. and himself enters into (London. superficial and incomplete" ("A French Critic of Hutcheson's Aesthetics. "A French Critic of Hutcheson's Aesthetics. 5 for discussion of On tragedy. 1739. the moral state and change of fortune of the pro- tagonist. 217-18. Introduction. a lengthy account from which. (February.) i. 178. 233. 33. 1757). MP. n. H.. ed. and T. draw 34. "Addison and Hutcheson on the Imagination.. XLV p. Ibid. cit. why admire providence? transgression 30. . that the difference is more set fundamental. ii. if not. Treatise. quoted by Aldndge. 32. 8. 158.

cit. Esq. 9.. Hume. 26. degree of quality (partly the same). Enquiry Concerning Monk. ed. i. cit.. This "vulgar and specious division" is emonly to divide his subject. Ibtd. its literal The Collected Works of Dugald Stewart." See Dugald Stewart.. Ibid. Morals. ed. 24.) 11. p. I bid.) pp. cit. 5. 19. I. 22. 74. Ibid .) Ibid. . "Of Ibid. chap. 347. 23. Scribner. p.. contrariety (different quality). I.. cit. An Enquiry Concerning Court. 8. Clark. For ideas. Hume. cit. 29. 20910.resemblance (same quality). 336. 5. 210-11. Ibid. II. 266. 32. cit. cit. 3. 2. Hume speaks of "grandeur" rather than of "sublimity. cit. cit. 890). degree of quantity. II. 59. Hume which may obtain beand can be determined tween Four depend only on the nature of the by comparison.) 3. in 27. Part II. . The Sublime. On the following pages Hume admits one the possibility of making interpolations in a Ibtd. 7.) pp. 76. . and can be determined only by experience: identity (same idea recurring).. The Sublime. 318. Philosophical Essays. 1877). 17. Ibid.. cit. EE. Ibid. ed. i. v. Sir William Hamilton (2d ed. I. 111. ed. ed. 11. 28. & T... 3. hence seek to have our notions buttressed by the consensus of others. i. 445-47. ii. 5. Ibid. ed. . Essay II.. II. cit. p. 8. 3. Ibid." Essays. 25. 21. ed. p. I. 322-23..Notes 5. Hume. II. ed. 268.. i. 1946). ii. time and space (ideas occurring contiguously). ii.. the Principles of Morals. 7. however. i. ii. 20. 151. causation (ideas with an apparent necessary connection).. three depend on the mode of existence of the ideas. ii. 95-96.. ed. Ibid. I. 207. trifling 6. ii. exception to this principle series without specific experience. ed. 12. i. pp. 314. 30. 85.. In contexts not involving literal or figurative elevation. Hume notes elsewhere that weak ideas are painful to the mind. 13 14. note the Standard of Taste. Ibid.y Treatise. 5. (New York.. ployed by Hume pressions 8. to Pages 38-4$ 329 Ibid. 96. I. 98. 15. cit. p. 8. 149. Ibid. II. . it must be noted. i (LaSalle. Hume of course refers tacitly to the etymology of "sublime" as well as to English signification of elevation. The Scottish Philosophy p. 96. iii. p. &c. V. .. 3.: Open 1 6.. ii. there are seven philosophical relations ideas. 31. ed.. 33. I. James McCosh. I. 3. p. Hume. 1 Monk. 11. II. 1 8. 10. that the principle of the distinction is similar to that of the distinction between im- 7 Hid. See Treatise. I. Edinburgh T. ed. 8. and ideas. . ed. 64.. 268 69. I.. II. II.. we Ibid.

. p. 8. 281. I. "The Lucretian 'Return upon Ourselves' in Eight- eenth-Century Theories of Tragedy.. 280. ii. 273. and envy. 56. and Treatise.. 2 for the opposition of sympathy and comparison. in" Reflexions critiques sur la foesie et sur la peinture (Paris. compassion. There is also a passing 3.. Ibid. ed. 49. cit. 46. 203. p. Ibid. Smith replied in later editions of The Theory of Moral Sentiments (i.. pp." Essays. 63. Hume. 54. 48. LXII (September. iii.. Ibid. 7J*/." ES.. 73*V. 270. cit. 2. 124. 60. /&V. I. p. 3. ("Observations on Hume's Theory of Taste. p. VI (January. ed. Y. 53. Ibid. 38." Essays. ii. in Reflexions sur la foetique (Paris. 44. I. 198. Press. 313. Ibid. p. 74-87) gives a clear account of the essay but does not remark its logical relation to Hume's basic distinctions. II. 4. Stuart Gerry [October. 35." For detailed Essays. Ibid.. 1944). Treatise. J. objective. 1956). Hume. Brown "Reason and Genius. See Baxter Hathaway. 7&V.. i. 39. see my article. argument of "Of Tragedy" in terms of Hume's system of logic developed in the Treatise. II. 45.330 34. "Of Ibid. 40. and completely fails to grasp Hume's argument." Bernard le Essays. XXIII (January. 1719). 672-89. 275. 3. The Letters of David 58. 6. malice. /^V. I. cit. ed. 271-72.." PQ. 8 for discussion of sympathy and comparison in Hume. 279. 273-74. Hume. ed. 19398). 258. "Of Tragedy. cit. 3. II. Hume. 47. 53. I. 414. 73^. ii. analysis of the 52. 61. See Hume. 36. Treatise. 259. 162. 272. Clarendon 1932). 55. 43. 59. 37. 1742).' Philosophical Quarterly. Notes to Pages 4552 I. reference to conversion in Treatise.. This subtlety does not resolve the issue. "The Logic of Hume's c " The Essay Of Tragedy. 3. 1938]. "Of Tragedy. 261. 42. . 43-52. p. p. Hume.. p. attempts to make out an internal contradiction between subjective and XX and classic. 277. Bovier de Fontenelle. 269.. 7. 11.. 57.. "Of Tragedy. "Of Tragedy. p. 3. Brunius (David Hume on Criticism. Treatise." PMLA. 9. ii. romantic 50. T. Hume. 9. Essays. ed. Greig (Oxford. pp. the latter only being in every case agreeable. the Standard of Taste.. i) by distinguishing between the emotion communicated sympathetically and the emotion arising from perception of the coincidence of original and communicated passion. pp. 41. p. Abbe Jean Baptiste Du Bos. 5 1. Hume. 1947). I. 62. 276. Ibid." 262. Ibid. Francis Hutcheson. 2..

. 9. Ill. 315. pp. and Stanley F.. p. 9. . 1942). R. pp. Laocoon. ed.. Written with a View of Fixing the Fluctuating Ideas of Taste (London. 66. 1877 1753 and 1754). Read.. Treatise. xii. for some account of objections to Hume's theory from the school of sympathy. Even those moderns who admire the Analysis seem to do so because it can be 206-9) 4.. 2. note X. 330. 24-25. 265. 1933]. 1941. and Peter Quennell. 1937). November. P. Hume.) 6. for references. memory (Analysis [1955 ed. 2. with an Introductory Essay on Trends in Hogarth Criticism. A 67. 4 fF. M. 275). I give chapter as well as page references. xiii fL. pp. Chapter 4 See Joseph Burke. p. William Hogarth. A reproduced in Burke's edition of the Analysis.. intellectual taste.Notes 64. H.]. See especially Lessing. Several See Stanley E. A few of the general histories of aesthetics comment on the Analysis. construed to support some modern crotchet. Wasserman appears i. number of eighteenth-century aestheticians touch upon this problem. 283-307. I. Ibid. Read. 440-41 (cited infra. with the Rejected Passages from the Manuscript Drafts and Autobiographical Notes (Oxford: Clarendon Press. of Prints (years 3. 29192). Hogatth and Reynolds: A Contrast in English Art 1. to Pages 52-57 331 See Earl R. p. Hawkins. 5. XIV (Decem1947). 8. Wilenski finds Hogarth important because his three-dimensional line of grace "brings him at once in touch with the aesthetic attitude of our own time. and Stewart. 1943).. I. Hogarth's Progress (New York: Viking Press. i.. 36073. Marjorie Bowen (pseudonym of G. Preface. Theory (The William Henry Charlton Memorial Lecture. pp. Bosanquet (History of Aesthetic. Ibid. 1955). Division I. 6 Ibid. The Analysis of Beauty. Catalogue and Drawings in the British Museum. Long). 17641940 (Chicago: De Paul University. to agree that Hume's theory postulates an 65. "Of Tragedy." Essays. p. [i]. 7. V.. Philosophical Essays. In Joseph Burke's rather different interpretation of the tech- 10. Wasserman. V (April. 1941). "The Pleasures of Tragedy. Sandby's prints are described in F. 11. pp. London: Oxford." ELH. p. William Hogarth. in Works. . 496). criticizes Hogarth without having read him (cf. New York: D. A Bibliographical Study. Vol. Ibid. "Some Observations on William Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty. Stephens and E. ibid.. 1753). xxxvii xli). See also Joseph Burke's definitive edition of William Hogarth: The Analysts of Beauty. nical Ibid. the Cockney's Mirror (2d ed. the shell-view made no .. thus. Pt. the attitude behind Cezanne's landscapes and the Cubist movement . 8. 7. G. but none of them connect it with the conversion theory. pp. 4. ber. Inc.. (To facilitate reference to the editions of 1772 and after." HLQ. Ibid. p." (English Painting [London: Faber. p. Bibliography of Hogarth Books and Studies. 1955). Hume. Introduction. p. 78. Appleton Century Co. V. cit. jpoo are 1040.

h. Ibid. Analysis.. ed. ed. 15.. 11-12. the title-page ornament of the Analysis shows the serpentine line enclosed within a pyramid erected on a rectangular base. Presupposed by Hogarth is the likeness. 18-19." (p. essai sur la signification vii. forms the divers parts of the system into beauty but the ancients knew it . 20. were eager 8. p. 1944]. p. . pp. p. Ibid. See also the discussion from the debate with Aristippus (iii.. pp. to win (iii. p. Ibid.). Henri Bergson's theory of the comic in Le Rire. . distinction I. (Paris. . Xenophon explains how Socrates "helped those who by making them qualify themselves for the honours quotation is they coveted" i). 10. 1 Ibid. 9-15). . The pyramid exhibits most variety m fewest parts among straight-lined figures. two- (1753 ed. 6.. ed. 30. pp. 17. more or less elliptic.. See. vi. 8. the visit with Cleiton in iii.. F. x. Ibid. . cit. Ibid. Clough considers that reference of beauty to physiological causes contributed to breakdown of the classical system of objective reason and 24. of men's senses. 26. 28. cit. wherein Socrates argues that good proportion is relative to use (in. Analysis. Ibid. and Courtauld Institutes. Ibid.. 23. Burke. ed. 31. with Pistias the armorer.." XXIII [January. pp. cit. . Alcan. 87-88. cit. cit. the oval is preferred to the circle. 26. 9. p.. which comprised only linear abstractions. p. Ibid. ed. cit. Hogarth. Henry Greeks Fusseli's translation of his Reflections . p. 6. Wilson O. "The Country Dance. 29. 36). 259). 63. contrary to the preference of Hutcheson for the circle. 22.. in. 21. 16-17. not the difference.. cf. for instance. ." lends itself neatly to analysis in terms of mechanical associations. ed. my is 7). cit. 25. 1900). and the identification of useful and beautiful in iv. 8. p. 95. cit. Hogarth and Reynolds.j London.332 Notes to Pages 57-61 essentially part of the system." in on the Painting and Sculpture of the elliptical. Hogarth... ed. p. v. 21. both uniform and various: (ad ed.. 1 PQ open a way for subjective and individualistic claims" ("Reason and Genius. cit. VI garth's Theory of Art. and from every point changes its direction.. cit. 24. J." Journal of the Warburg (1943). 'Tis not in the power of Algebra to determine which line. Winckelmann's "Instructions for the Connoisseur. It remains doubtful whether this elliptical line Jias a jeverse curve. the ovoid to the oval. On the same principle. ed. ed. 25. for instance. I5I-53In Memorabilia 14. pp. however. 29.. 1 Hogarth.. 8. xii. du comique 38. Ibid. 14-15. cit. 10... xi. 1767): "The line which beauty describes is 'tis not to be described by a circle. xiv. and that to refer beauty to such causes was to remove it from the realm of subjective judgment. ed. Analysis. 19. Ibid. vi. 27. dimensional.. p. ed. . iv. ni. Such an inference contrasts nicely with HoWritten with a View of Fixing the Fluctuating garth's own title declaration "left y Ideas of Taste. Hogarth's print. and "A Classical Aspect of Ho13. 12.

reads "Leicester Fields 4th Aprill 1761 "Sr. sometimes in. 76.) which can be described by straight orthogonal lines. which I am sure you will think much better authority than any I can pretend to give you of my own. vhi.). 37. particularly as the subject of yours is so genteel a complement to me. p. and "such appearances of dimensions as are too intricately varied to admit of a description by lines" (Analysis. p. 19. The Living Age. letter to the Rev. CCCXIX (8th series. p. Analysis. /^/. XXXII. but I found it of it. A Herbert Mayo. cit. the only excuse I can make for the delay. xi. Analysts. British . MS is MS Hogarth. December 57980.S. 991.. Preface.. 74). &c. 40." limiting the second and more extensive idea . Hogarth. ed. Museum Additional 27. 33. who had suggested an application of as follows: Hogarth's theory to sound. to Pages 61-64 333 Burke (ed. 36. as I was told. Both extracts are printed also by Burke.Notes 31.. cit. ed. did it by notes very similar to those you have placed on the lines you have so obligingly communicated to me. start of (as height to breadth. The table foltaken from Egerton 3011. p. 69. Hogarth "P. is my endeavouring to add something of my own in confirmation of what you have so well advanced on the Rules of Beauty being applicable to sounds. 38. xi. and all is in order. p. L i8b. the table with slight differences in the transcription. Hogarth. "on surface. describing Mrs. my Woffington the actresses manner of speaking. 73zV. 1923). iv.). It may be conjectured from Hobasis of garth's reply that senting the sound. At the Chapter xi he distinguishes the two general ideas of form explained above. 68. Ibid. Ibid. I intend as soon as possible to publish a perhaps occur to I shall make some the subject. Mr.. cit. who once.. 39. 89) Hogarth reviews his procedure and identifies the first aspect of the with second "general idea" the measurement of contents by orthogonal lines the first general idea.. and subsequently divides the second into two aspects "general measurements" 40. cit. Mayo argued partly on the the visual notation repre- There is an apparent inconsistency in Hogarth's organization." as Analysis in which supplement to use of your observation together with what else may my me on is This Vol. Handel. ed. Accordingly. and sometimes out of tune. p. An better to drop own opinion of the matter and send you one of that great Master of Harmony. ix. lowing 35.. letter found an unsigned Item in 22. But farther on (p. 32. 49. 5 p. 34. your much obliged humble servant Win. xlviii. answer to the favour of your letter after so much time past since the receipt must seem somewhat unpolite. p. his discussion of both aspects is based on fitness as well as variety. Analysis (1753 ed. ed. I am Sr.

10. The analysis of the faculties carried out chiefly in the Essay on Genius-. II. 1759) containing the "Introductory had not seen this "Essay" Essay on Taste. Despite the length and importance of the additions (almost they have been entirely ignored by modern commentators on Gerard. 132-365 and see James McCosh. Gerard's principle as an anticipation of the theory of empathy. cit. De are to this edition. This edition omits the French authors. cit. 172. D'Alembert. See the letter to Mayo. ii. Professor of Divinity in Kings College. 333. Gerard.. J* Burke. 43 Chapter 5 with Three Dissertations . Essay on Taste. burgh. The observations of Holmes and No. McKenzie (Critical Responsiveness. p. 1780. p.. 1 60. An Essay on Taste. cit. Essay on Taste. to Part iv in the 1780 (third) edition. Edinburgh and London. ed. 12. ed. Gerard. . 227-29 and 467-73 for information on Gerard and the Aberdeen Philosophical Society. Scnbner. S. see in The University of Margaret Lee Wiley. cit. (London and Edin3. 8. Gerard. pp. cit. Ibid. iii. if. 1759. ed. not Lipps. D D. pp. Of the Standard 2. doubt. Ibid. F. For an account of the circumstances of composition of Gerard's two books. 162 63 n. no in thought.. 1890). p. To Which Is Now Added Part Fourth. I. iii. Ibid. 9 and iii. 164-65.. Aberdeen. 13637) sees 7. 1774). movement. p. memory. indeed. 4139 (March 18. An Essay on Genius... R. supra. 20 1 2. 41. pp. 4026 (Austin University of Texas. Introduction. Hogarth. . 4. Advertisement." Texas Publication* Studies in English.. Treatise. I. iii. De Voltaire." that Gerard very probably he had seen the treatise itself.. 42. however. I. 16970. Ibid. I93 2 )> 43 8 ~59of Royal Society of Arts. 1759. works wholly with ideas and impressions. on the Same Subject by Mr.. ed. pp. for Ibid. 6. p. pp. . by Alexander Gerard^ D. came so shortly after April of 1757. Essay on Taste. cit. The Third Edition. is 11. 5. London.334 of form. iii. Mr.D. n. and does not introduce the physiological is responses which are emphasized in the theory of empathy. Hogarth Hubbard are to be found in the Journal 44. xvii. . Imitative Nature of Poetry. that of Hume. 205. a careless confusion rather than an inconsistency ed.. iii. the LXXX. pp. 6. Mr. a third of the whole). 9. arising Notes from fitness for to Pages 65-70 to the nicer proportions. I. . ed. p. My references . Analysis. 142. This is. by Alexander Geiard 1. pp. An Essay on Taste. except for those Montesquieu. see ii. The Scottish Philosophy (New York. p. Note the resemblance to Hume. 12. Gerard wrote his Essay before Burke published the Sublime and Beautiful m book in May. The systematic context Gerard. and Reynolds.. No. pp. publication of Gerard's the second edition of Burke's (January. 1940). By Alexof Taste with Observations Concerning the ander Gerard. "Gerard and the Scots Societies. 3.

15. n. i.. Baillie. contrariety. who has lately analyzed it. Ibid. ed. cit. doubtless he 19. 3. [John] Baillie. 47. to Pages 70-75 on Genius. 1953)5 p. further necessary. 3. Ibid. p. criticize 13).. p. But this seems an error. and imagination order (which includes conception of design) Gerard. ed.. . 31. i.. without possibility of falling. In a footnote. Burke for resolving it entirely into the first. Essay on Taste. reHe holds uniformity no solves almost the whole of it into that principle. i. 33says "So great. whereas Hume analyzes all of these. 17. cit. 31.. 23.. 17. p. degree of quality. 3. pp. Gerard. relations are resemblance. pro- portion in quantity. 8. i. cit. Essay on Taste. 1 8. ed. Hume. It were easy to point out instances. cit. 3. 3. Gerard. Gerard criticizes Longinus for "resolving the sensation of sublimity into the last of these principles [self-glorification]. 14. compare with Hume. . coexistence. p. Essay on Taste. contrariety (which for Hume is merely a species of resemblance). ibid. p. Samuel Holt Monk (Augustan Reprint Society Publication No. without investigating the others.. Gerard illustrates the last of these three modes by citing the imitation of a beautiful original. Dr. but there is no question in such imitations of necessarily suggesting ideas from other senses. 32. ed.. 3-11. 43. 26. pp. Gerard divides his natural relations into simple not dependent on additional habits of the and compounded. Essay on Taste. than it is requisite to convey the idea of rest or motion. Treatise.. 7. i. Ibid. ii. Ibid. 27. p. nearly from the principles here assigned" in Baillie's essay (ibid. 8. causation. 19. p. The simple principles are resemblance. Ibid. Gerard. 209. 33.. ed.. would 20. and vicinity. 30. ii. for the natural For the philosophical relations. cause-and-efTect (involving a notion of power and necessary connection). iii.. 29. 170. ed. See all of ii. ed. see Essay relations. identity. cit. time-and-place. p. 335 10.Notes 13. 2.". Ibid. and Hume would consider coexistence only a modification of causation. 24. "is . Ibid. 2. 23. But here he goes too far. cit. An Essay on the Sublime. Gerard. 31. iii. 1 all cit. 8. 19. of which it is but a consequence . 6. universal causation. Gerard. i. Gerard is pointing out that an imitation of something beautiful may itself exhibit beauty (unlike representations of grandeur. Ibid. 13. II. 1 8. 147-84. p.. 28. 14. ed. . p. 2. and the uniformity of nature to be inexplicable intuitions. the complex relations are coexistence (involving a notion of substance and identity). His philosophical I. for Hume are causation. 22. Treatise. 32. Essay on Taste. Gerard acknowledges in a note that "most of the species of sublimity are explained." Gerard.. p. 21. 25. p.. not altogether without reason.. which are not grand in themselves).. Essay on Genius. that an ingenious artist. the uniformity of nature 5 he finds identity.. p. Ibid. ed. i. the power of variety in producing beauty. which p. cit. . Gerard's analysis differs in some particulars from Hume's. Los Angeles. 2. \\. 17-18. pp. Essay on the Sublime. .

The Sublime. Ibid. 34-3 5n). 216. 47. 64. 104-5." "Of the General Sources is. and that the three parts of tie treatise. The Essay on Genius as a of the Varieties of Genius. cit. Ibid. iv. iii. Appendix.. Gerard.. p. 182-83. 5. pp. iii. cit. p. 7&V. 46. 43. ed. pp.. ii. cit. 39. 3 7. ed. John Stuart Mill. 58. 51. Ibid. McKenzie (Critical Responsiveness. ed.). Essay on Taste. 42. p. "Gerard's Essay on Taste? Mar] MP.. ii.. Gerard.. (ist ed. 77-78. Ibid. ed. 56. which necessarily Gerard overlooks that what implies a mixture of uniformity" (ibid. "Of the Nature of Genius. Ibid. 207-8. Gerard.. p. pp. Chaps. 57. ed. one Grene.. whole. 53. 44. Ibid. I. The general plan of the book can perhaps be grasped by noting that genius itself is an efficient cause. Ibid. Ibid. 41... 96. 47. 3. 4... 184.. the modifications and compoundings of these faculties (formal cause). pp. and the ends which marshal these combinations and ties modifications into distinct species of genius (final cause). he terms "uniformity" includes also what Hogarth terms "simplicity. p. pp.. 2. 296-97) is also unaware of the fourth part of the Essay on Taste. 52. cit. i85n. Ibid. 7. p. Essay on Taste. 1 1 0. 9 ("Of the Physical. p. . ed. See especially the final chapter of Lord Kames's Elements of Criticism (and infra. 43- 35. 148. ed. iv. ed. 50. 5. 36. 2. 6. iv. pp... p. i. pp. ed. p.. Hogarth concedes the value of regularity in forms merely 34. A System of Logic. Ibid. 7. or Historical Method").. pp. 48. 42. p. 60..336 where uniformity is Notes studied. 38.. p. cit. 1943). 268. cit. XLI (August. p. ed. Ibid.)... cit. 45. (3d ed." and that decorative. 200. 59. pp. p. 54. Ratiocinative and Inductive. 25455). i. cit.). 119-20) and the Introduction to Richard Payne Knight's An Analytical Inquiry mto the Principles of Taste (and infra. "Of the Inverse Deductive. Essay on Taste. S4--55- i. 49-5 - 40. cit. Ibid. 283-84. not closely enough related to the present study to admit of its being treated here. 3i. or Concrete Deductive Method" and 58. 4549. Monk. Gerard. to it Pages 75-82 cannot have any degree of this effect though and he acknowledges that beauty resides only in a composed variety. Book and 10 VI. Ibid. cit." deal with the faculinvolved in genius (material cause)." and "Of the Kinds of Genius. pp. Essay on Taste (3d ed. 251. ed. pp.. Ibid. cit. I6td. 55. iL i. 89. 3. Ibid. p.

in Works. 59 (3d ed. 66. and accordingly remarks that certain proportions are alleged to be "the efficient cause of beauty" (ibid. Reynolds.. 1806). 7. "The Background (1660-1759)" (Unpublished Ph. 15. 4. Clarendon Press. as Kant was to do and as Hume had already 9. Critical Responsiveness. 1819). 3. James BoswelTs Lije of Samuel Johnson. I." Burke. concentrate most of his attention on the effect rather than on the 10. vi-vii. The Literary Works of Sir Joshua 3. m Burke appears 1756. Monk (The done. 141. London. April 12.D. 144) where in strict accuracy he should say "material cause." JEGP. he does. 88-89. pp. 67.. I. that work a change in the mind" (Subhme and Beautijul [text of the second edition]. Theodore McGinnes Moore. quoted by Wichelns. Preface. and which give pleasure or disgust on totally different . ed. differences of the first of Edmund Burke's TheUni- dissertation. "when I speak of 8. I.. 374. p. i. Principles of Taste. Sublime and Beautijul (ist ed. XXI (1922). in The Letters of David Hume.. p. that cause certain changes in the body. 1. 175). Kt. Greig (Oxford. 1759.. 220-24) gives a clear precis of Burke's argument. 11. and that he minimizes the transformations imagination effects with the data of sense in presenting images "which the senses could not possibly exhibit. T. J. Burke. 282n. 78. iii. London. pp. McKenzie. cause.. cit. or certain powers and properties in bodies. Hume to Adam Smith. p. pp. Burke himself uses the term "efficient cause" loosely. the Sublime and Beautiful early lish the Vindication. 1884).. Sir Joshua Reynolds. in Works. "although by the very nature of his reasoning. 645-61. "Burke's Essay on the Sublime and Its Reviewers. Introduction. Sublime and Beautijul. I. XXI (1922). 2. 2. and efficient cause. p. ed. Sublime and Beautijul.. I. Edmond Malone (5th ed. in Works. Ibid. Burke. ed. I only mean certain affections of the mind. He does not distinguish explicitly the object from the principles by which the object acts. iii." Sublime. I. Cornell The are related to the reviews of the and second editions of the Sublime and Beautijul first edition by Herbert Wichelns. refer beauty and sublimity to the perceiving mind alone. 303. Ibid. iv. perforce. 5. Gerard (Essay on Taste [3d ed. 1 2. A Vindication of Natural Society (London. in. it 1756) preceded from the press. pp. 1933). 98) sees Burke as an advance towards subjectivism: he cannot. 1757). "Burke's Essay on the Sublime and Its Reviewers. qualities of objects. 1932). p. 13." JEGP. but put to it have intended publication of off in order to write and pub- ory of the Sublime versity. ed.. Ibid. Y. 645. 6. The satire on Lord Bolmgbroke. An Analytical Inquiry mto the. in The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke [London: Oxford. 2-20. 4. Alexander Napier (London* George Bell & Sons. 14. 485. Discourse viii.Notes to Pages 83-86 337 Chapter 6 Richard Payne Knight. but considers that Burke is trying to explain away diversities of sentiment. iv. 68. I. I.]. 1906].

84. . pp. Analytical Inquiry. see sufra." To the phrase. 34. but the same etymological point was made in the first more briefly (ibid." remarking that "The sublime is a Gallicism. 36. See Burke. tique of the terrific sublime. I. either This passage was added in the second edition. Sublime and Beautiful. in Works.) 24. iv.. ii. and considers that the fear. 180. in Works. Ibtd. 26. Ibtd. I. 6. 92. I. Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language . i. supra. in I. pp. in Works. Ibid. has no longer any influence whatever. I. 67. 1-13. [4]. 1 6. Sublime and Beautiful. Ibid. 318-30 and through- out iii. i. sublime. Burke. in Works. I. ii ii. Burke. 121. 33. 112 and 114. 1 8.338 principles. 177. i. 17. in Works. /&/. 272-73 for an account of Richard Payne Knight's crii. Hutcheson's analyagrees with Burke's in finding agreeable objects which might be but are not now fearful. i. 3334." and continuing to the end of the section. 102. 29. in Works. "amazement" as "Such a confused apprehension as does not leave reason its full . Ibid." It is Notes to Pages 87-91 argument is certainly true that Burke's sketchy in dealing with imagination and judgment.. 30. I. Ibtd. 15. Works. tried to Hutcheson. Johnson is unilluminating on "sublimity" itself. Burke. 8. in Works. 7. I. is 2. Ibid. Works. this topic. Burke.. I. iv. 1 For Hutcheson. for Kames.." or lofty stile. i. might be remarked. i. 88. the passage be- ginning "Indeed terror in the ruling principle of the more openly or latently. I. p. I. excellence". Sublime and Beautiful. Burke. 38. i. i. once dispelled practically.. 2. .. ed. "awe" as "Reverential fear". 21.. i. in cit. Sublime and Beautiful. i. 31. i. 1516. Ibid. 7. 91. 1 1 5. i. 20. I. Sublime and Beautiful. 32. 102-3.. (3) "Loftiness of style or sentiment. local elevation". 17. all cases whatsoever. "the sublime. in Works. 181). in Ibid. it I. Cf.. iv. had show that horrid objects affect us unpleasantly only when sis through fear for ourselves or compassion for others reason or association makes us apprehend danger. 98. Sublime and Beautiful. iii. 6. in Works. 108. ii. Ibid. Works. 7. extreme fear. 37. I. (London. I. ii. (See Inquiry. 109. 14. force. iv. Knight.. in 176. 7. but now There are no changes in any of these definitions in later editions. Works. I. Ibid. 6. 27. in Works. 17. 22. 181. i. Works.. "The grand naturalized. 28. 1755) gives evidence of the connection of all these feelings with fear. He gives three meanings: (i) "Height of place. in 5. 19. pp. and infra. (2) "Height of nature. 74-75 for discussion of Baillie's and Gerard's views on pp. I. when the fear is removed by reasoning or experience. 99. I. "Astonishment" is defined as "Amazement 5 confusion of mind from fear or wonder"... 3." he assigns only the meaning. iv. 23. in Works. 91-92. in Works. in Works. infra. it contrasts with Burke's in that Hutcheson is not concerned with differentiating two modes of agreeableness. in Works. 4. pp. 35.. I. such objects may become pleasing. &c. 25. horrour".

. and those of the reviewer in the Review." "imposing. in). I. in Works. 1810). XVI (May. ed. pleasing to the view. i. 181. 1810). 8. 156-57. 2048. H23 b 6. ii. \. 42. infra. p. very probably from Burke. 68) for discussion of beauty so far as 23133. in Works. Showy. .Notes 39. See Goldsmith's review. . iii. Thomas Twining's comments on Poetry. 6n. 275-76^ 54. Translated: with Notes . it means beautiful with dignity. iv. polished and engraved. pp. 1 6. ed. 43. Burke did not 57. Sublime and Beautiful. 3. 10. This is the very answer which Uvedale Price was later to give to Reynolds' see "An Introductory Essay on Beauty. iii. 5. beginning "Some who allow darkness to be a cause of the sublime . Analytical Inquiry. pp. 48. Burke. 201. cit. 158. iii. 192) may possibly be using Twining. depends on the sense of sight purely. 1794). in Works. 23. vii. I. Analytical Inquiry. I. 12. III. 159. I. 44. NIC. 656-58) suggests that Burke was answering the strictures of Arthur Murphy Critical 46. but makes both excellences into varieties of beauty (Hugh Blair. "specious" harks back to the Latin sfeciosus. III. A . 107-8. 2. 160. 45.0. . Picturesque Beauty." The closest Cf infra.. pp. . 24. II." is "i. Philosophical Essays (Edinburgh. iii." John- .. iv. 1361*1-8 and Poet. upon That Subject. Burke illusargument with the instance of a watch: the case. iv. Blair uses the same illustration (borrowed. iii. . Wichelns ("Burke's Essay on the Sublime and Its Reviewers. was added in the second edition. 6 (ed. it see i. XXI [1922]. Travel-. i. v. Cf. Sublime and Beautiful. 168. I. Sublime and Beautiful." Burke's Johnson comes 56. 47. cit." JEGP. 5. Burke was followed by Price in this use of "fine". ii. Dugald Stewart. 1789). to Pages 9195 339 Ibid. Sublime and Beautiful. 49. Burke. I. Price ("Introductory Essay on Beauty. . in Works. the mechanism is fit. Three Essays. note 61. i. 1 Knight. trates his I. iii." and "13. have the sanction of contemporary usage for this employment of "elegant. n. on Picturesque 52. in Works. 59-60. pp. Ibid. 50. are in his Aristotle's Treatise 450^34 51*5.. Knight. Monthly Review. 5. On . 26365. I. pp. Burke. (London. in 41. 7. London. pp. Idler papers in the Literary Magazine.. 1 Aristotle Eth." was added to the middle of iv. splendid. Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres. 53. Burke. Much of this discussion. and he himself fol55. It is here that Burke lays down the four rules of reasoning cited supra.. and On Sketching Landscape . See also Rhet. Johnson's Dictionary (1755) gives "ii. Burke. like so many points in Blair). pp. . including the rules. I. 5. with Remarks on the Ideas of Sir Joshua Reynolds and Mr. 138. in Essays on the Picturesque (London. Works. is beautiful. 4. . 4." prefixed to logue on the Distinct Characters of the Picturesque and the Beautiful . lowed usage in some measure. William Gilpin. (2d ed. in Works. Showy. Ibid. I. Applied to person. Subhme and Beautiful. cit." Essays on the Picturesque. 229-32. 4.. 187. 5. Dia. III. 366-67. 4805 Burke's reply. Burke. 2 5 7-5 8 . 51. "splendid. 59. in Works. 1757).

It does not appear to me conformable to usage to term warmth "beautiful. 214 from a passage added in the second edition.. 59. 64. 137-39." PMLA. I. Theory of Lord Kames ("Smith College Studies in Modern Lan1-4 [Northampton. Edmund Burke and His Literary Friends ("WashNo. has no connection with sight (or hearing) and therefore none with what is usually Softness. XXII (1907). in 2. Mass. Nos. 2. 172-73. London. beauty without grandeur. based on James Prior. 66. rather soothing than striking.. Life of ." none of which definitions implies regularity. 210. Treatise. 25. Critical Responsiveness. XXII (1907). 610. 1765. Stuttgart and Leipzig: G. in one. J. are dated 1762. 1886-1910). ." XXII." is appreciated as a visual and are both visual variation and smoothness tactile. iv. Pleasing with minuter beauties. I.. 72. Ibtd. 154. Critical The . I. 1763. 22 vols. eds. McKenzie. 1837). 73. "Burke among the Forerunners of Lessing. i. "Burke among the Forerunners of Lessing. Hume. History of Aesthetic. 62. edition. 138. 614." PMLA. and .. in 61. Chapter 7 editions. 60. Critical Responsiveness. v. Bosanquet. p. Ibid. Ibid. 1939]). there was also an unauthorized Dublin edition in 1772. 202. iii. and 1785. 614. I. 246. pp. in Works. has visual signs and felt to like sweetness of taste be beautiful. Ibid. p. 1860). Howard. Bryant." Burke. iii. Elegancy. 171. Works.: Smith College. K. XXII (1907). "Burke among the Forerunners of Lessing. Howard. though of itself tactile. 428." he gives "Beauty of art. I.. I. 5. 7. 9 [St. Lachmann and Franz Muncker (3d ed. 249. incidentally. 1769. but warmth gradual beauty. XVII (Leipzig. Howard. 67. v. Ibid. The guages. 1904). 24. Sublime and Beautiful. Language and Literature" Louis. this passage was added in the second 63. Gdschen'sche Verlagshandlung. Burke. Burke and His Literary Friends. pp. Johnson's definitions correspond. other sources. Edmond Malone (London. quoting from G. in PMLA. Works. p. 19. 207. 1774. those of bibliographical significance.340 son defines Notes to Pages 96-99 it "l. 9596. in Works. being only a pleasing organic sensation having a vague analogy with the beautiful. The Life of Oliver Goldsmith (2 vols. Works. quoting from Sir James Prior. to the sense Reynolds gives the term "elegant" when he contrasts it with the sublime. iv. 68. See the (incomplete) list of editions in Helen Whitcomb Randall's first six 1. E. Sublime and Beautiful. McKenzie." and for "Elegance. 1944. p. 195. 69. 202-6. in Works. Donald Cross Bryant.. 71. 70. 65. 58. 27. ington University Studies New Series. 234. I. II. Lessings samtliche Schriften. p.. as of 1940-41]).

). 9. xviii. and compare Elements of Criticism. ii. i. 15. cit. i.. pp. Lord Kames. cit. Appendix [Kames]. 5. definition 14. especially (ed. 26. ed. cit. to Pages 100105 341 [Lord Kames]. 19. p. ii. I.. ed. cit. ii. see his "Lord Kames and the Mechanist Tradition. however. For "substance" and "body" see definition 4 of the Appendix (III. sistent p. i (2d ed. iii. ed.. ed. 135. 1 432-33. cit. 505-8. ii. ed." as Kames . Ibid. p. Kames." and my own strictures turn on other 107-8. In interpreting the distinction between passion and emotion as a reflection of the difference between a practical and an aesthetic attitude towards objects. Ibid. ii. 7. ed. i. 21. My references to the Elements are to this second edition 4. 66.).. 137. p.. 3 (4 in 4th and later eds.. Randall.. 373. definition 243. 6 (7 in 4th and later eds. Hutcheson (Inquiry into Beauty and Virtue. tions in English^ (1942. 2. Essays. 1751). [Kames]. cit. Ibid*. is not there. ii. 1 This quotation is Appendix. 1763). 22.. 428-29) and Essays.. I. ed.) p. pp.Notes 3. Elements. Essays on the Principles of Morality and 'Natural Religion. 2. cit. 2327. 227. 2. cit. ii. 23.. ed. Elements. p. ed. ed. I. virtue may be either painful or pleasant in direct feeling. Kames. in definition 4. 12. see also Essays. I. and Appendix. Ibid.). 1 8. pp. I. 13. 5. Elements 3. 69. p. Ibid. 260.. ed. 7. 14043) had made a similar point about virtue. Monk (The Sublime. 20. 10. 6. I. 14. p. i. iii. found in the fifth and later editions only. cit. ii. 17-18.). ii. II. 14. 3. Edinburgh. cit. I. to the Elements.. 1943)? common sense and intuitive senses of the Scottish school are quite consistent with empiricism. ed. Introduction. 17. Ibid. (30! ed.." University of California Publica- 4 (Edinburgh... cit. I ff. cit. cit. 52 ff. ii. ed. 304-5. II. 13. Ibid. ii. Gordon McKenzie finds this position inconwith the professedly empirical character of Kames's philosophy. ed. unless otherwise specified. and aesthetic contemplation likewise can arouse pas24. Elements. p. I see in the criticism of Kames no "mixture of contradictory elements. that the matters. cit. Elements. iv.) pp. 113) reads into Kames's distinction a difference which sions as well as emotions. practical attitudes give rise to both passions and emotions. no. Introduction.. 16. p. 3. Elements. cit. 6. cit. Essays. Ibid. ed. I bid. 8. i. ii. (2d ed. 1 8. Ibid. 285. Elements.. 8. Kames. but all virtue is pleasant ("agreeable. 6. [Kames]. p. ii. I XIV consider. li. Kames.. 5 of the 11. Berkeley: University of California Press. Hutcheson had already noted the sympathetic emotion of virtue in the Essay on the Passions. Essays. ii. cit. Kames. Ill. 7379. ed.. 252. I. 244 ff. Introduction. Kames. 3. cit. cit. 25. especially (ed. Ibid.. Dedication. p. Kames.. 276.. I.. I. ed. 307. 3. I. 2.

There is first the claim of originality. however. Note the resemblance of the emotions 40. Kames's refutation of Hume's doctrine of impressions depends upon taking "impression" in an anatomical sense at which Hume would 27. 42. the contrariety of sympathy and comparison.. I. 275. 31. cit. 145* Compare Kames's confident assertion that "the distinction between primary and secondary qualities in matter. not having been unfolded by any writer. ed. 33. to be sure. Kames.. ix. I. x. viii.34-2 Notes say) in retrospective survey. cit. Ibid.).. Ibid.. 6.. cit. I. 252. xiv. I. cit. Ibid.. cit. pp. 35.. Ibid. Murray W. this chapter belongs 47. ed. cit. ed. 259. and that the sublime may be connected with the ludicrous in the mock-heroic. ed. 1946).. 31415. ed. cit. for deal with the expression of passion. Ibid. 8. II. I. 46. Ibid. and then the final cause is pointed out not only pointed out. Elements. as in the 43. but serves to illustrate the naturalness of such a distinction in the British psychologies. ed. Hume I. XLV (April. iii. Randall's account of the Elements seems to all three ment me good.. 252-53. 379-83. 276-77. true. The development of this principle illustrates rather amusingly two of Kames's crotchets.. Ibid. (3d ed.. 30. the basis of Bundy's attack is an antipathy to British empiricism which prevents him from following Kames's argu- . It is 334. cit. This distinction of primary and secondary relations note added to the third edition.. that the picturesque has connections with the ludi- genre painting of the Dutch school. p. Ibid. could have brought this controversy neatly under 41.. II. pp. 36-37. Ibid. with the following chapters on sentiment and passionate language.. 2) The chief difference is in placing the chapter on the external language of passion (xv) ." JEGP.." 32. Ibid. vi. n. 28. Ibid. li. Beauty has never. 34. KameSj Elements. crous. ed. This explication of the plan of the book corresponds pretty closely with that given by Randall (Lord Kames. any but an accidental connection with the ludicrous. 45. - have scoffed. ed. 3. p. . seems now fully established" (Elements. n... I. I. cit. Ibid. gives her book (and Lord Kames's) an excoriating review in "Lord Kames and the Maggots in Amber. cit. ed... Ibid. ed. 36. 39. 254. pp. though its effects are extensive" . clearly. iii. cit. II. I. 199-208. 348.. 270) 3 again. I think.. 37. cit. Ibid. hi.. and especially in the treatof organization and procedure. 30.. that this principle "lies still in obscurity. ed. 38. 227. 23. but the rather startling claim is made that "the final cause of this principle is an additional proof of its existence. Ibid. I. xi. iv.. 422-23. ed. cit.. II... Bundy. xi. 103. it to Pages observation is would The only incidental for Hutche- son. to their causes. is first made in a foot- 44. 29. ed.

Ibtd. 94 ff.. she has appealed from the as signs on our notions of beauty of moral traits rational to the imaginative Kames reduces all beauty to utility. and 23738. pp. . Elements (3d ed. Randall. Bundy takes Mrs. manner. editions..). 49." JEGP. 60. Ibid." Bundy alleges that Lord and propriety. Ibid. 249. and virtues.. Critical Responsiveness. ed. faculties. as comprehension of beauty. 5254). xv. The Sublime. 143). II. xxi. urging that the theory of emotion is not of much relevance to criticism. and that "each chapter is essentially a fresh start from a familiar point of view rather than a consequence of the material already presented" (Critical Resfonsiveness. p. 431. 207). McKenzie. congruity. cit. though not quite accepting this preposterous claim. California Publications in English.). 53. as penetrating "to the heart of the aesthetic problem of the century. and means of imitation. Montagu the "maggots in amber. 418-19.. See also Monk. xvi. Kames. But it must be emphasized that Kames's discussion of tragedy depends directly from his analysis of the passions. Ibid. "Lord Kames and the Mechanist Tradition. essentially a ("Lord Kames and the Maggots in Amber. 237. 55. pp. 1946]. and catharsis. I. pp. 51. letters reproduced by Randall (Lord Kames. Montagu's sprightly reply to Kames's revision of her remarks as 1 ironically devastating criticism. 13233 426. p. 1056. 52. Ill." and points out that Butcher's interpretation of Aristotle runs pretty close to Kames's (Lotd Kames. and to insinuate that Kames's eventual acknowl- edgement of her contribution in the fifth edition must have been dictated by her reader can judge for himself by reading the exchange of outraged protests. XLV [April. Gordon McKenzie also fails to see the force of Kames's organization. It was in this object.Notes to Pages 116-21 343 ments or grasping his conclusions. pp. p.. Ibid." as she playfully dubbed the insertions.) pp. merely elaborates the doctrine of the earliest (2d ed. Ibid. in the third Kames. xxii. 61. chapter on architecture and gardening that Kames inserted some notions on ornament supplied by Mrs. 50. Ill.. cit.. 58.. 245n. 235. XIV. does consider that Kames's treatment of tragedy is "remarkably faithful to Aristotle in own letter and in spirit. 4068. 54. The McKenzie. This remark. 247. thereby making all matter of the understanding" "beauty. ed.. ed. p. Aristotle's treatment is more self-contained and centers about the four causes 56. p." University of 57.). Murray W. cit.. 153. Yet Kames's greatest concern was to assert the prerogatives of direct perception against the overweening claims of ratiocinative analysis Bundy is led to describe Mrs. 48. xxv. though added only and subsequent editions. Elements. Ibtd. intrinsic well as relative. 295-96. 59. his Kames makes an effort to show that Aristotle's pity-and-fear correspond to notions. Montagu's rather conventional remarks stressing the influence of historical and religious associations ments in ornaments and the interpretation of ornaor other affecting circumstances. Ibid. 203. Ill. but these opinions are found very widely.

p. cit. n. pp. Richardson uses "sublime" to is mean "the most is good". Ibid. I. Ibid. the Son of Fingal. Blair apparently added the footnote references 4.. 6. edition of the Dissertation (London... 6. Ibid.. 26.. Blair. 11. p.. I. 34. 1790). Ibid. See Robert Morell Schmitz. Scottish Philosophy. 66. Ibid. 12. as the excellent the best of what literature this formula .. Ibid. 65. Ibid. .. p. Jessop. A 1012. I." See Jonathan excellent of what excellent. 74. N. Hume and the Blair.Y. 21. 31 Jan. 59. 1948) for details of Blair's life Blair (Morningside and works. Ibid. Crown Press.. on the Poems of Ossian. Ibid. iii. 15. Blair. p. to The Poems of Ossian ed. p. p.??. to and criticism of the Ossianic poems. 67. 20.. cit. ed. ii. I. pp. ed.. for painting. p. where he speaks of "rememberfirst ing" the books he had consulted in preparation of the lectures. 70.. images or sentiments. cit. 66. 56-57. for the Bibliography bibliography. 20.. Ibid. Ibid.. The first edition of the Lectures was published in 1783. minimize the scholarship supporting the semi-authenpp. iv. 1772. ticity of Ossian. 61-62. of David 7. 21. Ibid. Schmitz (Hugh Blair. the formula is "the greatest and most beautiful ideas conveyed to us the most advantageously.. London and Edinburgh. when preparing for publication see the Preface. 14345. Blair. p.. p. 8. cited by Schmitz (Hugh Blair. 38. Hugh Blair.. the 5. Lectutes on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres. 88-90. 9. II. 425. 4.?. 13. Lectures. 6970. p.. ed. Ibid. p. 1 Ibid. and T. 1763) was followed by a second (1765) containing important additions. (London.. iii. cit. Ibid. 28. v (4th ed. 14. Letter to Thomas a Percy. A Critical Dissertation appended 23. 42-60. Ibid. Lectures. 1790). 17. 1 3940. conveyed to us in the best chosen words" whether these words be plain and pointed or florid and heroic.344 Notes to Pages 12228 Chapter 8 1. cit. 15. Ibid. 1 8. p. from MS of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Heights. p... 25. ed. Ibid. Hugh i.. pp. 22. . 24. Hugh King's 2. H9~20n. p.. for becomes "the greatest and most noble thoughts. 56. 71. . 19) 3. 10. Ibid. 39. Schmitz. 8. Blair. is 27. 127-28) gives an account of Blair's part in the publication he is somewhat inclined See Schmitz. E. pp. 19.. p.

Ibid. in Poems of Ossian.. XXXII 6." 5.. in Poems of Ossian. 1 08. the only sense admitted for "pathetical. Thompson. pp. Kt. cit. II. p. ed. 1905). Dissertation. 34. pp. 46." There is no change in this definition through the successive even though Johnson himself used the word to mean "compassionate and tender. The discourses was first president. Ibid. 383-98. ed. 40. Blair. Lectures. Study in Method. "Reynolds and the Ambiguities of Neo-Classical Criti4. iv. "General and Particular in the 1953).. be consulted for somewhat fuller treatment both of A PQ. cit. ed. Dissertation. II. in 1797. Blair. p. of Sir Joshua Reynolds. S. 424. 23147.. Reynolds. cism.Notes Richardson. 43. Essay on the Theory of Painting. The Works of Mr. p. editions. is Much of what is generally treated of as the sublime heads. . Ibid.. they were published individually. of which Reynolds on ceremonial occasions from 1769 to 1790. Lectures. 45. This chapter "Of the Sub- lime" appeared first in full in the second edition of the Essay. Blair. 28384. Blair. the first seven were published together in 1778. 75. Ibid. together with the other literary works 1. 1773). 42. v. 124. 113-141 8. Eflbert] N. Poems of Ossian. Ibid.. XI (March. see especially his handled by Richardson under other treatment of "Grace and Greatness" (pp. Kt. Ibid. moving. Blair. XXXI (October. in Ibid. Michael Macklem. 93- 29. 426. Jonathan and 136. iv. 105. p. "The Discourses (1917). p. 37. 1 Chapter 9 were delivered to the Royal Academy. 73. (London: Seeley and Co. Blair. 102. p. II. Edmond .. Richardson (London. and the entire fifteen were edited by Edmond alone. pp. 365. 104. I." 36. 31. which may Reynolds and of the pertinent scholarship. however. pathetick" is "Affecting the passions 5 passionate.. in .. pp. M of Reynolds. 76." PMLA. 30. 40 and 179. 32. ed. 1725. 41. Dissertation. iv. The Literary Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds. p. pp. 108-9. Discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds: my article. 3. 44.. cit.. Discourses Delivered to the Students of the Royal Academy by Sir Joshua Reynolds.. I. to Pages 12834 345 An . I. 33. This chapter is adapted from 2. no.. 1952)..) . Lectures. Ibid. Ibid. p. Ibid. 38. 75~76. Roger Fry (ed. Blair." JAAC. 324. I... Lectures. cit. 9394.. 101. Ibid. 39. 35. ed. It is interesting to note that Johnson does not sanction the use of "pathetic" to refer to compassion and tenderness in his Dictionary.

XXI (February. vii. "The Tendency toward Platonism in Neo-Classical Esthetics. See the second chapter ("Likeness Generalized: Aristotle and Sir Joshua 17. 23-24. . 1945). 1943). .346 Malone ($th as Notes ed. Ibid. art scholars look for Reynolds' sources in Renaissance and eighteenth-century art critics. Discourse art. I PQ. passage from the seventh discourse (like the thirteenth discourse) refers taste to human nature. 1819). "Reynolds and the Ambiguities of Neo-Classical Criticism. XLI (November. 1 8. only in the mind. 385-86. to Pages 135-3$ II. 1943). Burke. Burke makes the same suggestion. first I is shall refer to this edition (pagination of the Malone editions but the almost identical) simply Works. 1939)* I13. 10. all 217. II. n. Discourses> p. 19415 London. the beauty of which we are in quest an idea that subsists general and intelit. while literary scholars search in Johnson and Edmund Burke 5 but almost all agree in tracing the inheritance back to Plato and/or Hilles. finds Count Algarotti's Essay on Painting (Englished 1764) to be the original of Reynolds' theory. ." PQ. [the] effect on the human mind" (ibid. as I here understand them. (Chicago: Packard. this is it is our business and to express.. in Aristotle. Again. New York: Columbia University Press. Even on the conventional theme of the moral influence of terms: Reynolds' statements are cast in characteristic "The Art which we to discover lectual.. 12. The distinctive traits of Aristotelian and Platonic thought. Reynolds. rules are "not to be determined comment on Reynolds. Contrast in English Art Theory 7. "Platonism and Reynolds. intention. 1 6. 155-56. 1952). 1949). . Clough. I. pp. Works.. 1944)? 3. pp. 12971. Wilson O. 135-36. (September. 204. v-xiii of the second edition. . XXIII (January. are set forth in Richard P. 281). Discourse xv." 1 1. McKeon's "The Philosophic Bases of Art and Criticism. Bellori's Idea of a Painter (translated in Dryden's preface to his translation of DuFresnoy's Art of Painting [pp. 121. 115. I take this analysis for granted here. Frederick Whiley on the other hand. like Hogarth. Hoyt Trowbridge. Oxford." ES. 6587 and (February. "Reason and Genius. Macklem. 14. Discourse xiii.). development of subjectivism in Hume. London. Fry (ed. Reynolds. 15. see The Literary Career of Sir Joshua Reynolds (Cambridge University Press. "On the Sublime" . p. Works. The Discourses are neatly analyzed in terms of the problems to which they are addressed by Elder Olson in his Introduction to Longinus. the sight never beheld nor . I.. 46-50. Reynolds. "Discourses on Art" . and taste. 1934). XXXI (October. 1716]) is repeatedly cited in this connection. 224-25. Discourse viii. 1944). November. . separated from . 1936). Hogarth and Reynolds: A (The William Henry Charlton Memorial Lecture. Reynolds") of her Retreat from Likeness in the Theory of Panting (2d ed. Note that this See McKeon's by narrow principles of nature. it is profess has beauty for its object. I. Joseph Burke. In general. 8. Louis Bredvold." MP." Sir Joshua ELH. is made to contribute to the in express contradiction to his announced 9. and Sir Joshua Reynolds. Discourse vii. 44.

see Richard P. there Ibid. PP. 29. 1934). 127). 31. I. I. Dugald Stewart. Or 20. 121." MP. 175. London. by a succession of art. Works. late.. II. Fry]. 142. . The letter is in Frederick Whiley Hilles. 204). see infra. moralists. and extend the views of the spectator. and which he dies at last without imparting.39-47). 6 (March 15. I. or nature. (August. 347 which an idea residing in the breast of the he is always labouring to impart. to the three ix. 90-93.. Ibid. 30. 35. painters. Discourse Ibid. "An Introductory Essay on Beauty. I. See Fry's Introduction to the third discourse (Discourses [ed. Discourse vi. Discourse have been The ii.Notes Has the hand expressed if it is to Pages 138-41 artist. does not lead directly to purity of manners.. Ibid. p. I. method here mooted.. 18182. Literary of Painting Career. general upon 21. Discourse vii. II. 1810). conclude in Ibid. 52 and Discourse xiii. On the question of . 25. 148-63. Philosophical Essays (Edinburgh. which are nature. no shift in orientation. I. II. terms beauty. 200. may. both and 28. which are general ideas. see Paul Goodman. 1806). Discourse xiii. art.. XXXIV 22. 7. may be so far diffused. I. or historians. and conducting the thought through successive stages of excellence. 27. which regulates and gives stability to every built works. 26. is Once again the discourses. I. The direct source of the passage appears to the Ancients of Franciscus Junius (see Hilles. Discourse i. 24. 1801). XXXI. that its be among if it may extend themselves imperceptibly into publick benefits.. and the means of bestowing on whole nations refinement of taste: which. Richard Payne Knight. Platonism. pp. For a study of the senses in which this term may be used. 32. pp. 23. 82 (November 10. till that contemplation of universal rectitude and harmony which began by Taste. ii. obviates at least their greatest effects depravation. Classicism. but which he is yet so far able to communicate as to raise the thoughts." (ibid. "there is "The but one presiding principle. . "Literary Criticism and the Concepts of Imitation in Antiquity. The McKeon. Discourse Ibid. and which. Observe that the three examples correspond modes of truth specified. 5. ed.. Reynolds." Journal of Philosophy. 9. i. live forever . Discourse iv. 33. 34. Ibid.. with Remarks on the Ideas of Sir Joshua Reynolds and Mr. 23. whether of poets. appeal to the mind.. 1929). by disentangling the mind from appetite." (Md. 112).. No. 7-8). 206-7. pp. An Analytical Inquiry into the Principles of Taste (3d ii. early Reynolds. 1-35. 294-95. p. p. I. again. infra. A Dialogue on the Distinct Characters of the Picturesque and the Beautiful (Hereford. I. Sir Uvedale Price. "are but different modes of expressing the same thing ." prefixed to his . Burke. 1936). ." Reynolds declares.. 53. 32. Works. vi. upon That Subject. Letters of Sir Joshua Reynolds (Cambridge University Press. Idler "No. "Neoand Romanticism. Discourse 19. . . 1759). Virtue" (ibid. Discourse iii. as it is exalted and refined. and cf. .

Ibid. 38. Ibid. Discourse v. wish-fulfillment Criticism. vii) gives neither Johnson nor Burke credit for aid in composing the discourses. 112. 5 supports Reynolds sense of "elegance". 383-98) involves no real opposition. I. Discourse viii. Elegancy" is defined soothing than striking. I. I. 46. 156.. since Reynolds does not regard this as a major distinction. Ibid. Discourse vii. The revisions with which John- son and Malone touched up the first are analyzed in an exhaustive collation of texts printed editions of the individual discourses by Lauder Greenway. 57. chap. Ibid. Discourse is 142-43). "i. Discourse xv. 155. Discourse xiii. 39. impatient of being circumscribed and the PQ. Discourse viii.. I. in the Discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds (New York. I. 92. Louis. 358. Privately printed. Pleasing with as "Beauty of art. Discourse xi. 264. to that spark of divinity which we have within. Discourse iii. 49. much (Literary Career. II. Ibid.. 204-5. beauty without grandeur.?. or goes under . Discourse xiii. Discourse vi. Discourse vi. 45." and "Elegance.. 41. II. 59.. 47. XXXI 56. Works. 1952]. "The 9. "On Taste. Discourse Ibid. 53~54. Discourse xi. Donald Cross Bryant." PMLA. Discourse xv. Ibid. 43. world which pent up by is about us" (ibid. 51. 1 53. I. XXXII (1917). Discourse vi. 55. the distinction of wish-fulfilling idealization of the actual from the transcendent Ideal (which Macklem stresses in "Reynolds and the Ambiguities of Neo-Classical xiii. 50. Ibid. 44. 1 1 1. Alterations .. I. p. 1936) Greenway's conclusion is that the revisions concerned only minutiae of style Reynolds.. I. I. "elegant" is minuter beauties. 199. 43. It is Reynolds' thought. Reynolds.. II. wrote his own discourses. I. II. patent that in apprehension of the Ideal . ii. Bryant merely follows Thompson on this aesthetic point. 188-89. Ibid. Discourse 42. I. 48... Discourse xv. 55. Ibid. rather Reynolds. Ibtd. Ibid. in Works. 124 and 282n. II. Thompson. 40. II. 52.. 145. 675 Reynolds. 26-27. the numerous similar passages are trivial. Chapter iii of Bryant treats of Burke's relations with Reynolds. 172. defined. Johnson's Dictionary (1755) 36.y Discourse iv. Edmund Burke and His Literary Friends ("Washington University Studies New Series." [October. Notes to Pages Reynolds.. II.?. in short..) Discourse viii. 206-7. II. are not addressed to the gross senses 5 but to the desires of the mind. Ibid. Works. I... 5 8. 113-18. II. Ibid. Works. Language and Literature" No. Discourse v. I. Reynolds. Ibid.. 201. 60. Ibid. 54. Discourses of Sir Joshua Reynolds. St.. Wotks. 45. Ibid. Edmund Burke." Sublime and Beautiful. Reynolds speaks of "whatever partakes of fancy or caprice. 86. ff. Ibid." 37.348 35. 1939) pp. 276. 128-29. Hilles vii. Works. The arts "in their highest province.

I think. 85). viii. 499b). 132. of Criticism that "in that are explained most of the words I have given. EdinThe Works of Thomas Reid .. "though not so ancient as the Grecian. Discourse i. p. i.. with his" (Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man. 49 ib. 63. Reid observes of Kames's Elements [i. Ibid. Robbins. II. I. 12. I. historical] truth" (ibid. Discourse xin.. Discourse xiii. Reynolds. 1788). pp. with which the Artist is more concerned than with absolute [i. p. 147. Ibid. 1880]. Monk.e. in pursuing the grandeur of his design" (ibid. 10. II. Ibid. An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of taste (Edinburgh. 64. viii. viii. which again does not touch upon taste. The early Common Sense 2. 2050-2063. I postrequires a chaste gravity discussion of Reynolds' views on the picturesque. 37). Gothic architecture. I. Discourse iv. 38. Methodologically.. on which I have . I. in Works. 30). p. p. 8. i. agrees.e. Ibid. I. work. Intellectual Powers. Reid does do Locke at least the justice to say that his doctrine on secondary qualities "is not so much an error in judgment as an abuse of words" (Intellectual Powers. when English aesthetics had run stale its promising start in Addison and Shaftesbury. 7. for been making the most part. Alison are. I. 8.. own Reid. Robbins' point of view is clear in the remark that "in the objects. An Inquiry into the Reid. David O. I. is more so to our imagination. Even Stewart criticizes Reid for. Reid's psychology last after few decades of the eighteenth century. in Works... burgh Maclachlan and Stewart. and in any case. ed.Notes to Pages 147-51 349 the denomination of Picturesque" (ibid.. 49ob. 4903. Thus. in Works. Human Mind on the Principles of Common 9. is 1764) does not treat of aesthetic or its completed in the Essays on the Active Powers of Man (Edinburgh. 138). 49oa~b. editor's note. in assuming . Gerard and . 61. closer to Hume. i. i. Intellectual Powers. II. Works. 62. 492a. No. p." JAAC. 224b. on the whole. which above pone all other media the grand style. Discourse v. until I treat his correspondence with Gilpin (infra. to explain away some of the implications of the language used by all men. the "just foundation in nature" can certainly not be taken as guaranteeing the validity of a distinction. Ibid.. I. however. Reid stands out by contrast his and in 5. 3. Ibid.. in Works. Sense. I. philosophical terms] observations.. y Discourse x. . "The Aesthetics of Thomas Reid. throughout the tenth discourse the picturesque serves to set off effects inappropriate to sculpture. 199201). p. 6. I. (Spring.. 1942). 2303). Reid himself is obliged. right as an original thinker" (ibid. The painter "must sometimes deviate from vulgar and strict historical truth. The Sublime. Reid. vii. 5 4. I. Chapter 10 1. Ibid. 11. however. in Works. in Sir William Hamilton [8th ed. 127. and the explication Appendix. 4.

. i. Reid is not at all points consistent in appreciation of 32. 493a. in 5 (Spring. viii. V.. also the New Annual Register (1790). 4983. Ibid. in Works. Hamilton (Edinburgh. The Letters of Robert Burns. viii. Reid. 4940. 4. 9-10. I. Reid. I. 2.. 21. Stewart. 495b. Elements. 4983. p.. See 2. Ibid. 15. Ibid. 22. Chapter 1. 321. p.. 161. Works. n 8-19. p. p. in Works. often laying it can always bear in a "greater stress on the structure of speech. 361-73. 4983. viii. pp." JAAC. Ibid. Letter to Alison of February 3. Edinburgh. V. in Works. Monthly Review. 26. Intellectual Powers. 1891]. 19. ed. 31. Ibid. Being Outlines of the History of Aesthetics [New York: Scribner. it cannot be made consistent with Reid's system. 5. 4.. 5osb. 1790. i. 29. I. in Works. 203. IM. Works (8th p. and plants often exhibits the nicest Stewart. I. in Works. 27. 213) 1927). 1553. Intellectual Powers. III (Enlarged Series. No. 502b. p. in Works. p. Intellectual Powers. Philosophical 4. viii. 154). 3. I. 20. Grace one majestical (grand) the other familiar (beautiful). 30. Essays. viii. Reid.. Philosophical Essays. Ibid. than . Intellectual Powers. in Hamilton's edition of Reid's 89. in Works. Robbins.. 17. 37-38. I.. Works. 5033. 2. 89b. Francis detects a "delicate irony" in "degenerate teaching" of the this letter. William Knight (The Philosophy of the Beautiful. i. /&. V. 498b. H. 5.. p. Allen (Boston Houghton. p. ed. in Works. 50ib. Reid. the beauty of contrivance. 73*V. 1877). 1 8. 23. IV (1791). 1942). He notes that poisonous animals and plants are dis- agreeable to the eye. Ibid. in Works. . 24. ed. in I. p. II. and is perhaps inclined to see such irony too easily. 497b. 3.. 5. 13. viii. Letter to Alison of February 3. 4963. viii. 7zV. Ibid. fluries. but Knight takes little stock in the associationists.. 507b.. for the poisonousness of such animals adaptation to the ends of the species. Ibid. I. 33. 28. 1790. 1880). 2. philosophical argument" (Philosophical Essays. 25.?. Ibid. 1 i.. 1790). p. a generalization which appears to me (despite the authority of Linnaeus) false but true or false. 4. 2. "The Aesthetics of Thomas Reid. This is the letter discussed sufra. p. 5O3b. 14. 7&^. 34. is of two sorts.350 Notes to Pages 151-58 too unqualifiedly that language is the express image of thought.. 3. p. 6. III..

. 3. 27. 5.. 2. Alison. 4. Ibid.. cit. 23.. Bosanquet applies his principles rigidly and without insight except to the schools from which he sprang. Essays. xiv. p. But in any case. cit.. and subsequently expanded the review into the article "Beauty" for the Encyclopaedia Britannica supplement of 1816. Ibid. 69. 13-14. i. 441. Hutcheson and Kames 14. I.. 2.. for it presupposes that philosophers avoid postulating special and appropriated faculties. I. for Alison central. 176-77. i. S. ed. 2. i. Essays on the Nature and Principles of Taste (4th ed. Ibid. p. cit. Ibid. 3.. xi. Alison also uses "picturesque" in the ordinary sense of 21.Notes 5. Ibid.. xxv. 2. James McCosh. I. 28.. Conclusion. 2. I. I.. 11. to Pages 158-67 Review for 351 Jeffrey reviewed the Essays in the Edinburgh May of 1811 (XVIII. II.. cit. Edinburgh. cit. 18. 1-46). i. Ibtd. i. 157.. 43. 2.. His advocacy was like that of most enthusiastic disciples 6. 2. cit. 24. Ibid. ed. 1815). History of Aesthetic. Archibald Alison. Ibid. in these terms. Ibid. i. But of course Alison and the other philosophical critics were much concerned with distinguishing the relevant from the accidental in association. I.) Ibid. ed. J. I. cit. proportions. 22.. 411. 56. I. i. and sounds all are inherently pleasing. 6. 9. This important point in the outline is omitted in the first edition. cit. 8 1. p. i. and with Hume Alison was familiar. cit.) Ibid. for questions of logic are independent of history. I. The Scottish Philosofhy (New York: Scribner. ed.) Ibid. I. I.) i. 20.. ed. 311. cit. 119. "beauty is a gorgeous robe spread over certain portions of the true and the good (ibid. "fit for painting" 6. cit. Bosanquet errs gravely in applying his system Bosanquet.. in short. 25. I. i. xiv. Alison's distinction between these two classes of theorists is weak.. Ibid. A to Alison. cit. 4. i.. p. Ibid. 172. 2. ed. I...) I see ii. Mill's no objection to analyzing the argument of Alison in the terms of canons of induction. 1 fall. 26. 8. with the artists and amateurs. and that other beauties reducible to mathematical ratios land us in the moral good. i.. II. p. i. When McCosh tells us that certain colors. I. ii.. ed. xviii-xxi. I. 172. ed. ed. it is clear that we can expect no very sympathetic insight into a literal and p.. p. . 13. see ibid. 161. i. Conclusion.. ed. i. ed. 7. 297). Ibid. 4. Ibid. 3. 2. 10. Mill's canons bear a close relation to Hume's rules for judging of causes and effects. cit. Conclusion. 2. Ibid. 1890). this discussion was added in the second edition. p. pp. ed. Introduction. cit. 12. 19. 78. associational theory.. it altered the doctrine while spreading it. xxiii. xiv. ii. 15. ed. 2. 17. i. was treating the very problems which Bosanquet regards as employing throughout the very contrary (form and expression) on which Bosanquet's history is based. 2..) i. i. that. I. Ibid.. ed. 4. [article on Stewart].

Critical Responsive- See Monk. Hume would (as I think) see no impossibility in the production of emotions by material resemble those properties. 4. 31. . 6. II. 309). cit. Ibid. (Intellectual Powers. 411-12. earth and heaven') The living fountains in itself Of beauteous and sublime . 6 (4th ed. ed. pp. Conclusion.. 30. 481-83). Akenside is often regarded. 36. 6.).. of mind. ed. following the earlier 2d). .. The Sublime. Essays. Ibid.. 2. contiguity. mind alone (bear witness. or the sensations from the former the emotions raised by the latter. Hutcheson and Reid point up are treated above. ii. 6. ness. 71. Alison and the "Platonists" that There is so little in common between Among the moderns. 38. Alison. McKenzie. cit. Bk. But the context of this enigmatic utterance suggests that the meaning may be merely this: that all beauty and sublimity have their origin in the mind of God and their highest expression in the mind of man which is not at all equivalent to Alison's position that particular material qualities are beautiful or sublime only as signs of particular mental qualities... as by Reid is difficult to differences. original is in small capitals. ii. 46. II. is in large and small capitals. 40. p. p. ed. pp. pp. Alison. and cause-and-effect 34 as the categories of all spontaneous association. a few words on Akenside may be ventured. ii. 35. as having the expression of mind when he cried.).. VI. p. "Mind. Shaftesbury and Spence need not be examined here." another usage foreign to In addition to these differences in terminology. ii. In this first properties to qualities which the body assumes in response to mental dispositions. 39. XXVII (October. p. II. 32. pp. He speaks of "association in the proper sense" i. sufra. I. the Active and Moral Powers of Man.e.. cit. Essays. 423. 411. The original 6. 42. 11. ii. in Works. 416. or the original and unanalyzable resemblance of certain sensations and emotions (as of the sensation of gradual descent and the emotion of decay. 41. See Reid's letter to Alison. contains . ii. 412. 6. Ibid. Alison suggests that the analogy of mental and material either the properties may be of two kinds analogy of inanimate matter with mind through the resemblance of material ii. Martin Kallich. &c." (The Pleasures of Imagination [London. 413.352 29. nor does he employ the terms "idea" and "impression" as Hume does. accidental association in contradistinction to "experience. The differences between the two lists are easily accounted . cit I. I. asserted that matter is beautiful only as 5033) and by Stewart (Philosophy of 5. account is found in 417-23 (condensed). ed. The list. Essays (ist ed. 6. Ibid.. 315 Alison does not employ resemblance. Notes to Pages 168-70 415-16. Ibid. Alison. 417. ed. cit. An I. 148-53. in Works. 1744].. 155. II. viii. 6. 1948). I. Alison. "The Meaning of Archibald Alison's -Exaiyj o# Taste" PQ. i. 33. or of silence and tranquillity. 189. Essays.. 37. and not wholly identical 179-87. Essays. nor would he emphasize that qualities of matter may Hume. it Alison.

ed.. 60. II.. cit. cit. 329.Notes for: the early list is to Pages 171-81 353 of the causes of association between matter and mind. ii. 2. 6.. 3. Essays. Christopher Hussey. ii. II.. 5 5. Monk. p. 58. 154. cit. 48. ed. Ibid. II.. 3. i. 6. p. ii." Nonetheless. 2. ed. p. 327-28. 78. ed. 358. ii. ii. 1927). II. Setting aside the inaccuracies of Hussey's account. I.. 4. Ibid. cit. Ibid. cit. Ibid. ed. I. 43.. Ibid. II. cit. ed. 57. 207. 4. p. ii.. cit. I. 3. ii.. I. II.. 4. ed. it is precisely a psychology of emotion that is most imperatively required to complete Alison's system. 90-9 1 . ii. cit. I. ii. 6. ii. 6 1. 1 cit. II. 45.. Ibid. 3. II. and events can hardly be overstated. 64. i. Ibid. ii. 2. ii. in the most real sense a structure of emotions rather than of ideas. ed.. 2. 6. pp.. 62.. 162) that the "importance of Alison's perception that because literature is primarily emotional. 3. 6. 75. ed. cit. 2.. II. Ibid. 319 ff. 2. XXVIII 59. cit. Ibid. 3. viii. 2. 299. 212-13. 6. cit. xv.. p. II. i. cit.. 66. 375.. is great part of the beauty of composition a beauty of design. 258-60. 4. 76. Alison. ii. Essays. 4. ii.. i.. Alison. 367. natural beauty 49. Ibid. I.. ed. 6. 226. ed. .. Essays. 2. is 54. ed. 2. 15.. 135-36. 387. cit. 56. cit. ii. 5. 52. 297. Analysis of Beauty. II.. Essays. ed. 4. 73.. Ibid. personalities.. 4. I.. 436-38. 5. 2. II. 2. I. ed. ii. p. ed.. Ibid." PQ. 380. II. 5. "The Meaning of Archibald Alison's Essays on Taste. 252. 4. 60. 2. 2.. 2. Ibid. I. 67.. 46. The Picturesque' Studies in a Point of View (London: Putnam. cit. Kallich. 69. ed. cit. 68. cit. 74. 4.. ed. Ibid. 51. Ibid. 63. ed. 4. cit. chap. 3. Introduction. 6.. 294.. literary form 50... ed. Ibid. 70. ii. Ibid. Critical Responsiveness. A of course relative rather than Hogarth. 247-48. pp.. McKenzie. Ibid. 6. cit. ii. p. 65. Ibid. 202. Alison. 6. Ibid. 77. I. I. I must remark the unhappy moral position in which he places us that of theologians conspiring to suppress what is known to be true for the sake of what is groundless but indispensable. II. 2. 290. Ibid.. 37-38 (condensed). I. 5. ii. Ibid. cit. cit. I.. Alison.. ed. 5. 6. ii. ed.. Ibid. The Sublime. II. 71... the later of the classes of such associations... 1948). ii. 2. 44. Ibid. 268. Ibid. i. 2. 47. ed. 424. cit. 53. 2.. McKenzie declares (Critical Responsiveness. 189. 72. 2. ed. ii... my italics. (October. II. 442. 165. II. cit. II. 3.. ii. ed.

5. see the letter to Caryll of December 21. or adorn a Muse. (second first The . Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds. with ev'ry grace: The lovely babe was born his Such was form art. the sense The to be (OED to the contrary) "graphic. scene 2 of The Tender Husband." in lhad too (final note to Book X. Applied to allegorical painting. gether with the Lives o] the Most Eminent Painters See Act IV. (London. These Ensigns of war. the third in the sixth (1785). (London: Dean and Son." not "fit for painting. 1712 (The Works of Alexander Pope. "picturesque" can mean 51. Murray. bryden. London. the English Cities Picturesque Antiquities of p. 1830). is again used to refer to illustrate The example given from Reynolds to the third definition does not." Picturesque representation of love. not to an imitation. 1819). . in his translation. Malone (5th position. 1871]. is the literal use of "picturesque" to mean "in a picture. unhappily. p. View delineated. support it. "pictorial" as com- For Pope. "Each nobler symbol classic Sages use. 2. "vivid" as representation of idea. with good description or delineation. 24. when they show Their utmost on naked loves bestow. What is of chief interest in this definition. [William Aglionby]. . 1 68 5).354 Notes to Pages 185-86 Chapter 12 1. ed. VI [London: J. ed. ca. two of these definitions appeared in the first edition of the Dictionary (1755). for Reynolds clearly refers to a real scene." Note that in the second definition. a picturesque representation of a landscape.." a use which does not often recur. or Rites divine. 178)." (3) prospect [as noun]: "5. in thy work with dignity may shine. ." See Mason's DuFresnoy in The Literary III. [v]. eds. manner. "picturesque" allegorical painting. . Johnson's definitions are: graphically: "In a picturesque (1) (2) Love [as noun]: "n. as painters. It is of interest to note 3. . Painting Illustrated in Three Dialogues . The isolates in DuFresnoy's De Arte Graphtca ("Of Picturesque Ornament") reads." to mean "picturesque" I judge 4. To. Croker and Elwin. See the references to Carel van Mander's Het SchiUer-Boeck . 1783 manner of the grand twenty-third axiom he style. first note to Book XVI) use the passages "as distinctly conceived and presented as a picture. William Mason uses "picturesque" to refer to the allegorical that as late as . however. of peace. a usage quite anomalous at that late date. John Britton. To mark a virtue.

ad. .159*0The Expedition 9. not . 107 Langhome's edition was first published in 1765). . 1618) and Het groot Schdder boek (2d ed. XII.. 14. R. . he "A word Robert S. "pictorial" in his Dictionary (1755). regard asymmetrical adornments as "Pictoresque" (Egerton 3011 f." (The Poetical Works of William Colhns [London: William Pickering. 1830]. London. . Lectures. 4-5. p. author of A Review of The Landscape. . . Classi(Oxford: Clarendon Press. of which more hereafter. Amsterdam. p.. See also Blair's treatment of Picturesque Description (Lectures. . 259 of chap. 6. Richard by "malerisch. Haarlem. but elegant and useful. 188-89. . (i4th Deel." in (ed. 19. 1945). An Essay on Harmony. Burke. 15. quoted from The Analysis of Beauty. by Peltzer. 17. "alludien" (Dutch "aloud" "very old"). xxii of part one of the third book of the First Part. 1785]). 1675). 46. I. p. The Picturesque. Drake." Gazette des Beaux-Arts. Sandrarts Academie contains another glossed ... not adopted by other writers. John Langhorne. In Twelve . Hussey. Ibid. . XXVII (January. its place is later taken first draft of The Analysis of Beauty Painters. the discussion is of pastoral poetry. 8. UAcademie Todesca delta Architectura Scultura et Pictura: oder Teutsche Academic der edlen Bait. cit. 1796). as reprinted in A. cal.?. "produced by remarks. "Picteresque" occurs in tion. p. 1795) and of Planting and Rural Ornament (rev. 1902). XV 13." uses a form which implies the contrary etymology: "The characteristics of modesty and chastity are extremely happy and feinturesque. (Munich: G. p. 203. "Baroque Afterpiece: The Picturesque. in The Works of Tobias Smollett (New 10. 7. "Pictorial. 17. Joachim von Sandrart.. (Niirnberg and Frankfurt.. 12. xxxix." Citing an instance from Sir Thomas Browne. xxi. 134. "Schilderachtig" is not given in any German dictionary. 56. 121. A Didactic Poem (London. in a note to the first of Collins' "Persian Eclogues. Dr. I take [London. Blair. 174). SPE Tract No.. assigning the meaning. sec. Peltzer's Joachim von Tad 6. Wylie Sypher. (before 1753).?. York: George D.Notes edition of the first to Pages 186-91 to 355 Gerard de Lairesse's part.. 1936). 1 Ibid. Sonnets . p. 1740) in Woordenboek der Nederlandsche 's Gravenhage and Leiden. pp. 16. cit. . 1925). a painter. Picturesque. 111. the same form is used regularly by Nathan it that it reflects Price's view of the etymology. Italian Landscape p. Edmond Malone Johnson lists 11. ed. as cited in Man waring. . Ibid.. Sproul. 1923). ed. ed. Literary Works of Reynolds. ed.).und Mahlerey-Kunste . The passage Dutch word." Hogarth assures us in the MS MS still Polwhele finds the sonnet especially adapted to "the more pictoresque Objects of Life" ("Advertisement" to his anonymous Pictures jrom Nature. 6ob." Bridges. The only writer known to me who uses the form "picturesk" is William Marshall. Ill. Grotesque. as It Relates Chiefly to Situaand Buildings (1739). 2 vols. Hirth.Bild. of Humphry Clinker. Romantic.

There was a second edition in 1794. Rough . Three Essays... pp. Essay u$on Prints . fourth (1792). 6. the third (1781). which includes On the Author's Mode of Executing ples cluded in Five Essays. 7.. .). p. Rivington. the Other.. 9. The evidence for Gilpin's authorship of this small work is in Templeman's Gilpn. Master of the Picturesque Vol.). The first edition and the second (also An 1768) are anonymous. to a clownish figure" (ibid. The succeeding definition is of "Picturesque grace. 21. and For biographical. pp. and historical information about Gilpin Kis writings. p. and in 1879 and 1887 (edited by Francis George Heath) .). on Picturesque Subjects. London. further editions appeared in 1794 and 6. Templeman for details of the bibliography. 33-35 (external) and 117-28 (internal). between which and diminutives there is no relation. Sketches.. and a third was in5. 4. ii. 1792. 8. Templeman's The Life and Work of William and Vicar of Boldre ("Illinois Gtlfin (1724-1804).. in 1834 (edited by Sir Thomas Dick Lauder).. A Dialogue u^on the Gardens of the Right Honourable The Lord Viscount 2.. in which it is not our purpose to engage" (ibid. and J. (London. [Dedication]. we which recommend them more to our admiration than our love" 5-6n). 1808. Ibid. is given. bibliographical. Ibid. cit. 1748 (later eds..356 Notes to Pages 192-94 Chapter 13 1. with a Poem on Landscape Paintalso the second edition of Two Essays: One. on the contrary. On the Princi- on Which They Are Composed (London. and he argues vigorously against Burke's notion of the dimmutiveness of beauty. p. ed. cit. 13. Two volumes. consult William D. fifth (1802) carry Ibid. ing (London. in which latter place precis 3. at Stow in Buckinghamshire. London. 1749 and 1751). Gilpin doubts Burke's doctrine that smoothness is the most considerable source of beauty. Seeley. p. Ibid. . i. either in nature. 11. Ibid. p. cit. Three Essays (2d ed. Ibid. 4.. 1804). 14. [3] the opening sentence. p. 12. i. or in representation. Buckingham. in a picture. an agreeable form given. Printed for B." versity of Illinois Press. the Diferent Kinds of Prints. Ibid. . 6-7. . ed. 119. 3 and 45 Urbana: UniLiterature. 1808). . (ibid. and the author's name.. The Picturesque. an extensive pp. 17. and the Characters of the Most Noted Masters . Nos. excludes seek for terms. Consult Gilpin.. 1939). and scientific discussion. Containing Remarks ufon the Principles of Picturesque Beauty. 1791. i. Gilpin declines the inquiry into "the genet al soutces of beauty. p. p. 2. ed. 10. them: and in the description of figures. 15. 19. and Studies in Language XXIV. 17. Ibid. p. Cobham. (ist ed. 6." as leading "into a nice. Gilpin. p. 1768). possessed of that species of beauty. contending that there is "a beauty. 3 ) London. 1 Quoted by Hussey. . but which. sold by J.

Gilpin.. 168-69. 608. ed. "which the imagination only can translate. ii.. 43. Three Essays. cit. pp. 1925).. p 30. pp. 30. this transaction. Gilpin. pp. cit.. 606. Three Essays Ibid.. 51-52. 5758 rough sketch. but terms was written after the 1791 letter to William D. iii. 271). Monk treats of "sublime travel" in The Sublime. London. (London.. 87. Reynolds uses the picturesque to . Ibid. II. explaining the unpicturesqueness of the mule (ibid. J. Templeman. Three Essays...?.) p.. 33. pp. i. 39.. and connects with an alleged striving for individual standards of taste in the later eighteenth century. 46. 41.. p. 37. ed. A than a finished work of 35. it Gilpin. pp. ii. XLVII Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds . ii. 28. pp. II. 83-127. pp. 27. Ibid. 1932). Leslie 38. 36. ed. pp. Forest Scenery.. Landscape m Eighteenth Century England (New Oxford. Ibid. 35-36. 1808). The subject of picturesque travel has been handled by Elizabeth Italian Wheeler York* Man waring. the concluding sentence of the essay." 48. cit. cit. Taylor prints the letter. cit. (letter to Reynolds). 22. The Picturesque. 142) suggests that this formation of general ideas enables the picturesque traveler to set up his own standards of beauty.Notes 1 to Pages 195201 357 8. 203-32. 31.. Three Essays. Ibid. and makes many observations pertinent to the present subject. Leslie and Taylor. 28. 23. 43. Ibid. but surely it would be more natural to see general ideas and typical forms as opposed to personal and idiosyncratic taste. Gilpin. 175. 32. pp. cit. p. 40. 24. 167-200.. Gilpin. p. Gilpm. art.. 3437. ed. and by Hussey. ii. Ibid. p. Gilpin. set off In the tenth discourse (1780)." remarks Gilpin in II. "Sir (November. 134-40) . 36. should be marked strongly with some peculiar character. see Charles Leslie and Tom Taylor. 29. Ibid. 20 21. i.. Three Essays. 606-7. pp. 26-27. 49-50. Three Essays. 26. 446it a "paper" and appears to think that it Gilpin. Reynolds. Ibid. Templeman (Gilpin. Gilpin own note of thanks on pp. For an account of Joshua Reynolds on the Picturesque. see MLN. ed. 27. cit. U> 606-8." is more apt to raise this enthusiasm 33. and which leads (as I think) to the further evolution of picturesque theory. ed. Templeman gives an extensive precis of the earlier parts Gilpm's essay (Gilpin. and Taylor. 43. Forest Scenery (3d ed. which of the most considerable philosophic importance. Ibid. 1865). p. 19. of is Gilpin. pp. . . p.. p. Three Essays. prints Reynolds* reply and his 42. 26. Murray. p. 25. II.. it Gilpin. 3435. Ibid. "To make an object truely picturesque. Reynolds. Hutcheson's principle is fitted to an analogizing system and (as Gilpin indicates) does not readily admit discrimination of kinds of beauty. II. but he wholly ignores this section. ed. 34.

The case is analogous in ethics. I. on the Application of the Practice As Well As the Principles of Landscape-Painting to Landscape-Gardening. As . A Letter to H. Prefaced by an Introductory Essay on Beauty. Essay. This volume consists of three essays: "An Essay on Artificial Water. The Compared with the Sublime and the Beautiful. 2d ed. p. Bart. Price. i. Burke upon That Subject (Hereford. 9.. for the Purpose of Improving Real Landscape (3 vols." "An Essay on the Decorations near the House. "Works". . Gilpin. Works. 5. 1810). 7. and." 37. 44.. As Compared with the Sublime and the Beautiful. their of the in and grants scope painting sculpture difficult for sculpture to exhibit animated action or the passions. 234. represent. An Essay on the Picturesque . 1795). Repton*s Letter to Mr. in Price. Intended As a Supplement to the "Essay on the Picturesque? to Which Is Prefixed Mr. 3. . &c. I. Chapter 14 1. are both modes of ill-will. 1798)... Hereford. Ibid. I refer to i. in Works." "An Essay on Architecture and Buildings. (Edinburgh and London. and are most by pointing 9. to their different causes. for instance. but considers effects inappropriate to sculpture. Essay. Price (London. . Ibid. 1842). II. Esq. 8. that the picturesque may be given definition in exttnso as that which painting can. . 4. by Sir Thomas Dick Lauder. Dialogue ("Introductory Essay on Beauty"). in Answer to the Objections of Mr. the 1794 volume. I have used the 1810 edition. on the Use of Studying Pictures. 1796. p. . and on the Use of Studying Pictures. and Much Original Matter. i. Price. All these were gathered together with a few additions and alterations into Essays on the Picturesque. in Works. 10.. simply "Essay. I.. pp. 221. . II. Essay. 1801). a medium which that when this effect is nonetheless achieved such statues will be preferred (Three Essays. i. I] London. Vol. Price. 9. An Essay picturesque works are: on the Picturesque. Ibid. Knight. Repton. 3. I refer to as as I. 40. The works included in this 1810 edition are found again in Sir Uvedale Price on the Picturesque: with an Essay on the Origin of Taste.358 Notes to Pages 201-5 can tolerate only the grand difference between essential no style. with Remarks on the Ideas of Sir Joshua Reynolds 6f Mr. Forest Scenery. in Works. and sculpture can not. Uvedale Price. III. Works.. II (London. I. which as it appears in the 2. for the Purpose of Improving Real Landscape ([Vol. Works. 203. 88-89. envy and easily differentiated revenge. i. vi-vii. in Works. 6. 1798. 212-13. 1794). 13).. As Connected with Scenery. Ibid. in 92-93. 2d ed. 3 4. Works. 46-47. This position is in interesting contrast with the remark of Uvedale Price only two years later.5 London." A Dialogue on the Distinct Characters of the Picturesque and the Beautiful. i. It is noteworthy that Gilpin recognizes that it is more He imitations.

to leave 20. pp. not to perplex it. is sure 1 8. effects (ibid. whenever it prevails. 247. [a 1*] Universite de Paris. he will be continually contradicting himself. in Works. but the effort was "sophistry. in Works. III. in Works. 82 [November 12. Price. i.Jacques Mayoux urges that Payne Knight's The Landscape for the time considered beauty to be in the perceiver rather than in the object perceived. 9. and of character" as picturesque. by a partial excites and nourishes curiosity" (ibid. 1759]). and finds it distasteful: "there is nothing more prejudicial to the grandeur of buildings than to abound in angles: a fault obvious in many. I. i. in diversity of composition.Notes 1 1 . and that their difference was merely verbal: "It will readily appear that these two great critics differ so widely merely from attaching different meanings to the word beauty. pp. 15. I. 2. i. but in that of their 23.. of which the true end is to relieve the eye. Intricacy Price defines as "that disposition of objects. 19. 44. 1932). Price attempted to establish an ob- jectivism. and owing to an inordinate thirst for variety. I. as objectivism must always be" (The Picturesque. 3. ii. And "variety. 23. 3. Itakan Landscape. Price. often in the highest degree sublime" (ibid. II. in Works. which. III. Payne Knight also makes the observation that Reynolds and Burke pointed to different aspects of the beautiful. 78). 5. together. in Works. 9. undulation of a curve. 1 7. i. Dialogue ("Introductory Essay on Beauty"). ibid. I. remark that his work "has a savage grandeur. 3. Dialogue ("Introductory Essay Price. 75). Architecture and Buildings. 22. Works. No. p. though accompanied by the 24.. in Works." ideas like the notion that beauty exists objectively. which is the only just criterion of propriety in speech" (Analytical Inquiry. too. and uncertain concealment. xiii xiv and xv-xvi. 21. I. see Richard 6. . 22). 1 i. 239. 21 1 ff. 237-38. the etymology and its implications are out at length. has misled some commentators into making Salvator a type of the picturesque (see Miss Manwaring. both equally departing from that general use of the term. which. I. Paris: Les Presses Modernes. 10. 247. does not consist in the diversity of separate objects. 82. to if Pages a critic 20510 359 "a Reynolds declares that pretends to measure beauty by particular gradation of magnitude. For Hussey.. "On on Beauty"). 286). I. Ibid. Works. when combined ii. 67). Works. Price. 213- 13. the one confines to the sensible. p. i." in Works. 213-14 and 365-66. 49. Burke mentions one trait of the picturesque in remarking on the cruciform plan of churches. and find at last that the great mother of nature will not be subjected to such narrow rules" (Idler. and the other to the intellectual qualities of things. Price. Jean. which.. present in the 1794 edition. p. "On Architecture and Buildings. . drawn true taste" (Sublime and Beautiful. or whatever other conceit of his imagination he shall fix on as a criterion of form. 14. 14. in Works..." in Works. p. II. Essay. Neither of these passages was very little Price. II. Ibid. or direction of a line. in . Price. first Payne Knight et le ptttoresque: Essai sur une 'phase esthetique (These pour le doctorate es-lettres presentee . and he finds Price to be "un esprit peu clair et tout engage dans les idees regues. 126). Price's mention of Salvator 2. Essay.

about 1830. "On Water. rocks.. peut-etre oserait-il proclamer que le beau c*est le laid. Price. . 51-52 and iii. Ibid. to such as are smooth. Essay. 26.. from picturesque because 55). Price. 34." in Works.' sublime. p. his paintings employ freshly beautiful colors. farthest from beauty. Guido 4. and excite different ideas. Price. of Gilpin . pp. new" (Picturesque Antiquities of the English Cities. 127-28). grass. I cannot approve of his compound term 'Picturesque Beauty. It tells against any is literal identification any rate. One may be said to designate old. The words are of dissimilar import. development of picturesque landscaping "First comes the recognition that a garden-scene. in 29-30. may resemble a picture. perfect. Whilst one the other applies designates objects that are rough. Burke. 65. or may even perhaps be reminiscent of some particular landscape painting. Second conies the comprehension that a scene in a garden contains many of the characteristics which. Mayoux's beauty is not the specific beauty of the writers of the eighteenth century. who of beauty and picturesqueness. Tintoretto I. and (especially) ill. i. 40. in Works. 78-83.360 Notes to Pages ghet) picturesque. Ibid. 30. This association became a common"With all due deference to the high authority place. 2-5 on proportion. and water upon a canvas" (Horace Walfole. the seeing eye of a painter would notice. in Works. Price. broken. Essay. i. I.. avec 1'unite de plaisir esthetique" (Richard Payne Kmght et le pttoresque. Third comes the realization that an original scene m may be composed in a garden out of the simple elements of landscape trees. Works. 39. 28. 33. i. 1943]. and Caspar "Poussin" (Duin history and portrait. in Works. in landscape. i. pp. Ibid. I. I. Gardenist would compose a picture [Princeton: Princeton University Press for University of Cincinnati. Sublime and Beautiful. writes. Salvator sublime. fresh. in Works. Correggio and 25. I. 23 on elegance and speciousness. 32. at given to finding divided souls in writers. 14. p. Ibid. H). clean. 69.. 35. 3. 37. Artificial i. Isabel W. nature. 98. Chase gives a plausible account of the 36. 189. 6. Rubens a curious exception: eminently picturesque in other particulars. Britton. or p. Works. Essay. says that "comme les preromantiques. Sublime and Beautiful. 38. 203. S'il etait romantique. 9. Price. 31. 12-13. Essay. Price est une ame partagee. the great Romans and Florentines are and Veronese picturesque. ficoutons le proclamer avec insistence que le laid peut fort souvent etre pittoresque. in i. p.. flowers. Salvator is here employed to distinguish beautiful he stands on the sublime side of picturesqueness. as well as a scene in nature. 29. 27. regular. 69-70). Works. 3. i. et 1'harmonie serait rtablie dans son ame. II. Claude is beautiful. 188.. rugged. 1 5. i. in beautiful. Works. Essay. i. 41. Essay. as a painter shrubs. is 127.. 2. 4. Mayoux. 3. Ordinarily. p. Price. the other young. I. I. iii. Burke. ruinous. Price. Ibid. pp.

44. Ibid. "On Architecture and Buildings. but George Mason in An Essay on 46. a change which Mayoux shows to be imaginary. 1795) and William Windham. 56. and ends by suggesting a compromise. 206. and it is academic to discuss which was the originator. so as to throw a deep shadow over the wall beneath it." in Works. and other journals of art and aesthetics offer many studies of architecture as it appears in painting.. p. pp. effect from every other point" ("On Architecture and II. 44 of 347-48 (note to p. presuppositions about the route along Appendix. 55. Price disposes of the alternative altogether by observing that "whatever constitutes a good fore-ground to the view jtom the house. p." in Works. The Architectural Review. 18-19. Price.) 1794 ed. Mr. (1795)]). 304. 398). and well projected. Design Gardening (2d ed. Decorations near the House. London. Mayoux outside in or that from the inside out. the roof of a cottage be well formed. 7677). pp. of 1776. I. the pages of the Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes.. his judgment is simply a consequence of his which aesthetic sensitivity must develop. 287-88. Buildings. below). des vieux yardins italiens. 247. Price. 607. 349-50 (note to p. 51. II. at the risk of diminishing the comfort of the poor inmates" (Price on the Picturesque. argue with Price on this point. Sir Thomas Dick Lauder. I. in a "Letter to Humphry Repton" (printed. in order to add to the picturesque effect. in Works. in Leslie and Taylor's Reynolds. m Not only Repton (of whom 238. have equally a good II. I do not conceive that it will be necessary to thatch it. 53. 42 of 1794 ed. Price. a tile roof covered with thatch a species of fakery with which Price would have had little sympathy.. 45. p. All of them imagine Price to be supporting a more radical position than he really is..). will. 47. in Works. of Price's. The Burlington Magazine. 181) traces a change in Knight's views on this subject. remarks that "if 54. Of course Price and Knight had shared their tastes for years before either published. 49. and Gilpin are all warmly humanitarian.Notes 42." in Works. Price. II. Ibid. Ibid*. 103-4. pp. to Pages 21521 361 Letter to Gilpin. in an Appendix to Repton's Sketches and Hints on Landscape Gardening [London. 43. II. 269-70)." in Works. This use of painting is by no means an eccentricity 52. autour de la maison. Hussey (The Picturesque. Essay. n. Essay. "On Architecture and Buildings. "On "On Artificial Water. II. Price. other passages of the Essay Price leads a reaction towards the overlooks this evidence in declaring that "Knight fut le premier Mayoux le style. qu'apres Knight" that the Italianate style was truly as in Here old style. when Hussey insists upon the inhuman objectivity of the picturesque viewpoint. without the author's name. picturesque (Knight. in editing this passage. Price. I. Ibid. statesman and friend of Payne Knight. It is remarkable that Gil- ." that osat regretter qui "Price ne s'en apergut. generally speaking. pp. enter with much subtlety upon the question whether the picturesque improver is to concern himself with the view from the Price." Works. Lauder seems tempted to the opposite view. 50. via Mason. Hussey and M. 131-32. 48. Knight.

of which below. Bosanquet. Payne Knight. Esq.. His published works consist largely of extracts and illustrations drawn from the reports. 1806). p. Fragments on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening. Including Some Remarks on Grecian and Gothic Architecture. Collected from Designs and Now in the Possession of the Diferent Noblemen and Gentlemen. p. To Which Are Added. This work includes Relates to Palaces Manuscripts in Possession of the Diferent Noblemen and Gentlemen. with . feste une espece de psittacisme" Ibid. de entierement viole. 1803). the Whole Tending to Establish the Respective Arts (London. All of my The Landscape Gardening and Landscape Repton. p. 66. for Whose Use They Were Originally Written. 67. et manitelle sort que femploi du mot par lui devient . 60. John Adey Repton.362 pin's notion is Notes to Pages 221-24 a naive anticipation of the sophisticated and "metaphysical" theory of R. for Whose Use They Were Originally Written.. Repton. Assisted by His Son. Some Observations on Its Theory and Practice.. Observations for Sketches and Hints on Landscape Gardening. Collected from Various 1808). 59. F. Knight. This letter was reprinted Appendix of Sketches and Hints. Chaffer 15 I.. By H. Repton. which he prepared for the estates on which he was consulted. Architects (London. the Grecian and Modern Styles: with Some Remarks on the Introduction of Indian Architecture.A. 55 of 58. 70) .S. (London. Inquiry into the Changes of Taste in Landscape Gardening. 1794). 356 (note to p. Esq. p. Humphry Repton (17521818) was a prolific writer. Esq. 57. 6 1. [1795]). "remarquons que Price acheve Fabaissement du Beau. Ibid. ed.). . of the Art An Inquiry into the Changes in Architecture. with the Assistance of His Sons. 1794 59 of 1794 ed. pp. in the Possession of the Different Noblemen and Gentlemen. 62. Ibid. London. Being His Entire Works on These Subjects. references are taken from the following edition of Repton's Works: Architecture of the Late Humphry A New Edition. Mayoux. 1805. as It and Houses in England. Including the Castle and Abbey Gothic. (ibid. 64 and "Tout d'abord. p.A. Including a Defence Fixed Principles m An (London. Esq." . 252.S. Collected from Various Manuscripts. (London. F. 3. 1816).). The Whole Tending to Establish Fixed Principles in the Art of Laying Out Ground (London. By H. Gilpin. Jfohn] Adey Repton. stresses Mayoux. A History of Aesthetic. and G[eorge] S[tanley] Repton. commence par Burke. "Red Books" as he called them. the Whole Tending to Establish Fixed Principles in the Respective Arts.. Designs for the Pavilion at Brighton: Humbly Inscribed to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. the Mixed Style of Gothic. p. The major works are these: A as a footnote to the Letter to Uvedale Price. Templeman. 2d ed. 360 (note to p. Including Some Remarks on Grecian and Gothic Architecture. Whose Use They Were Originally Made. Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening.

Ibtd. Knight's attack & another on yours including my printed Letter in which I had softened some passages before the pleasure of seeing your last work [the Letter to Re$ton\" 9. in 1794. in Works. See the report on Endsleigh. 1 XCVI p. 105." The Architectural Review. Appendix.S. 106. both attack pseudo-rivers. v. in Works. he says. Messrs. 127.?* 105. i. xxvii. in a work which has long been out of print" (ibid. Sketches vii. Boydells in 1794" (Works. speaks of the lapse of "seven years" since the Sketches-. a Systematic Analysis. p. Repton. in Works. p. 4. supposing this to have been written in 1802 (the dedication to the King is dated December 31. 133. and I think that the influence of Kames's remarks on gardening has not been sufficiently remarked. in Works. 146. 15. 1802). pp.0). Notes. In the Advertisement to the Inquiry into the Changes of Taste in Land7. p. Repton. Repton. F. . 234-37. in Works. 90. Fragments. and Hints. Repton.L. 234. x. on the other hand. 184.. pp. 111-14. which has long been all printed & only waits the colouring of some plates to be published" one "Appendix on Mr. Ibid. Repton. 13. Nikolaus Pevsner. work. And in the concluding pages of Fragments. xxxiii. Sketches and Hints. 12. Repton does not attribute the idea of a winter garden to Lord Kames. Fragments. pp. p. p. Designs. p. however. 376. Repton reviews his life as an improver and recollects the time "when I first appeared before the public.. Repton mentions adding to his "great 8. p. 1 9. Repton declines to publish a new edition of Sketches and Hints. Repton. Repton p. By J[ohn] C[laudius] Loudon. Theory and Practice. iii. 1 8. his last work. in Works. 604) quoting from Sketches. Works.. Ibid. xxxiv. . Price and Knight. 57276. pp. Appendix. 323). Preface. 207. 1 6. .Notes to Pages 22430 363 an Historical and Scientific Introduction. 10. Repton. 5. p. in Works. 20. 18792) shows a tendency towards compartmentalization of the gardens. The Advertisement to Theory and Practice. Theory and Practice.. Letter to Price. a Biographical Notice. incidentally. 11. p. Theory and Practice. and Sketches and Hints. and a Copious Alphabetical Index. (November. 14. pp. of which. p. 22.. Fragments. 17. in Works. Letter to "Price.. Preface. 3. pp. "The Genesis of the Picturesque. p. two hundred and fifty copies were "published by 6. scape Gardening (1806). p. In the letter to Price so dated. Ibid. 84-85. 29. in Works. 162. 104. vi. Repton. in Ibid. 2. in Works. . (London. in Works. attributes this phrase to Price. Even some of the early reports manifest a leaning in this direction 5 the very early work at Bulstrode (Theory and Practice. vii. 23. in Works. 125. in Works. in Works. in Works. Repton. 589. in Works. Works. Repton. he does frequently refer to Kames. 525-36. Sketches and Hints. I had Repton. 21. we are just able to get Sketches into 1795. 1944). p.

Letter as to Price.. xiii. 28. . pp. viii and xxxiv. (Price reprints Repton's this edition. in Works.364 24. Works. Repton. Works." The. 45* xii. li. quote from III. Letter to Price. It Repton. Sketches and Hints. p. 3. Repton. 146-49. London's introduction to his Loudon is not just in denying to Repton credit for which Loudon himself developed so much more fully. p. in Works. which Repton thinks Price stole from him. 365-66. 603. pp. in Works.. the list is repeated in 33. 36. 222. III. 1946). 457-59. p. script) Repton. in. See this style originating also (besides the standard histories of gardening) H. in v. in Works. Sketches and Hints. 82. 27. viii. in Works. Letter 2. Letter to Re f ton. 34. Introduction. and I Works. p. 4n. 3. Designs. Designs. ix. 362n. pp. vi. p. Appendix. 29. Inquiry. Theory and Practice. p. in Works. in Works. 38. of Refton. "Fragments. 365. 31. similar remarks are found throughout was this book. in Works. Repton. in Works. 48. pp. 43. Ibid. Theory and Practice. in Works. 47. 365. p. is Rene Louis Girardm. xii. 26. Chapter 16 1. in Works. 355-56. this idea 5657. in Works. Appendix. in Works. whose De la composition des (Paris. 30. xxvii. ix. 530. see also Sketches and Hints. in lb%d+. in Works. Repton. 56. p. in Works. 46. 58-59 (et sfarstm). Price. Repton. in Works. Repton. Ibid. pp. vii. xxxiii. III. See Repton. Theory and Practice. and 595. in Repton. Repton. in Works. 113. p. Repton. 42. his own. 44. p. Repton. Theory and p. pp. Practice. 32. p. p. Ibid. in Price. 277. faysages . 41. 58992. 228n. xxxiv. in Works. 40. Viscomte de Ermenonville. p.) xxxvi. See (one instance of many) Sketches and Hints. in Works. Repton. Sketches and Hints. Clark. 37. 385. Repton. . in Works. "Parks and Works XCIX (February. in Works. pp. III. Fiagments. in Works. 25. 525. p. pp.) Price. 277-78. 4. prolegomenon to 62-63. Sketches and Hints. F. 98. "Fragments. pp. Fragments. Designs. 105-6. Repton. in Works. 39. in Works.) xxvii. 1795 (bound in with the Newberry . see ibid. Wotks. datecj In a conciliatory (manu- February 5. Works. vii. Repton. The French author Repton. Architectural Review. 467. 29 and 30. 575. letter to Price. Sketches and Hints. Repton. pp. Pelargoniums. Designs. 96. Letter to Re-pton. xv. 49~56. p. Clark attributes the gardenesque style to Repton's influence. 35. p. in Price. p. Repton. in Works. "Fragments.