GLASS AND CERAMICS

Name of glass Fused glass

Properties
Very high softening point ( 1700 ºC ) hence highly heat – resistant Transparent to ultraviolet and infrared light Difficult to be made into different shapes Does not crack when temperature changes ( very low thermal expansion coefficient ) Very resistant to chemical reactions

Chemical composition SiO2 (99%) B2O3 (1 %)

Uses Telescope mirrors, Lenses, optical fibres and laboratory glass wares

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Soda lime glass


• • Borosilicate glass

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Low softening point ( 700 ºC ) hence does not withstand heating Breaks easily Cracks easily with sudden temperature changes ( high thermal coefficient of expansion ) Less resistant to chemical reactions Easy to make into different shapes Quite high softening point ( 800 ºC ) hence it is heat – resistant Does not crack easily with sudden change in temperature Transparent to ultraviolet light More resistant to chemical reactions Does not break easily

SiO2 (70%) Na2O (15%) CaO (10%) Others (5%)

Bottles, window – panes, light bulbs, mirrors, flat glass, glass – plates and bowls. ( The most widely used type glass)

SiO2 (80%) B2O3 (15%) Na2O (3%) AI2O3 (1%)

Laboratory apparatus, cooking utensils, electrical – tubes and glass pipelines.

Lead glass

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Low softening point ( 600 ºC ) High density High refractive index Reflects light rays and appears sparkling

SiO2 (55%) PbO (30%) K2O (10%) Na2O (3%) AI2O3 (2%)

Decorative items, crystal glasswares, lens, prisms and chandeliers

THE DIFFERENT TYPES, COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES AND USES OF GLASS

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