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Suy hao tn hiu trong si quang

Attenuation in Optical Fibers

Nguyn nhn gy suy hao

Hanoi University of Technology

Suy hao tn hiu ca si quang: Suy hao = Suy hao un cong + Hp th + Suy hao Tn x (attenuation = bending loss + absorption + scattering loss) H s suy hao:
L P(0) P(L)

Si quang

P(0): cng sut quang ti khong cch L=0 P(L): cng sut quang ti khong cch L
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Cng sut quang khong cch L:

P(L ) = P(0 )e
p 1

p L

H s suy hao theo n v 1/km:

( )
)

1 P(0 ) = ln km L P(L )
P(0 ) 10 1 4 , 343 = log = p km L km P (L )

H s suy hao theo n v dB/km:

dB

( )
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dBm refers to a ratio with respect to a signal of 1 mW

Bending Loss - Suy hao un cong


y l loi suy hao ph thuc vo mode sng V d: si quang un cong vi ng knh 32 mm s gy ra suy hao 0.5 dB Thay i ch s chit xut khc x n c th gim suy hao un cong, nhng s nh hng n nhng tnh cht khc ca si quang. Nguyn tc c bn gim thiu suy hao un cong l gim thiu bn knh un cong. Bn knh > 100xng knh v si (for short times). Vd: 13mm for 125mm cladding Bn knh > 150xng knh v si (for long times). Vd: 19mm for 125mm cladding

Bend loss versus bend radius

Microbending losses

y l mt c tnh ca si quang, di s iu chnh ca nh sn xut, c gi tr rt nh, thng c tnh vo suy hao tng.
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Bending Loss in Single Mode Fiber


Bending loss for lowest order modes

Mode Field distributions in straight and bent fibers

Microbending Loss Sensitivity vs wavelength

Graded-index Fiber

r n(r ) = n1 1 2 a

Vi r nm trong khong (0,a) v = 2 (Nu = , cng thc trn dng cho si SI) S mode c tnh theo cng thc:

M=

+2

(akn1 )

V 4

S mode s gim do suy hao un cong

N bent

2/3 3 + 2 2a + = N straight 1 2 R 2n2 kR


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Absorption - Suy hao do hp th


Hp th do li nguyn t trong cu to thy tinh (s khng hon ho ca cu trc nguyn t ca vt liu si: thiu ht phn t, cm nhm nguyn t mt cao) Hp th bn ngoi do nhng nguyn t khng sch trong vt liu thy tinh (ion chuyn tip kim loi nh ng, st, hay ion OH). V d:

ion kim loi mt 1 n vi phn t gy ra suy hao khong 110dB/km mt ion OH phi nh hn vi phn t c c suy hao nh hn 20dB/km

Hp th bn trong do cu to nguyn t c bn ca vt liu si. Bt ngun t:


Di hp th in t trong vng cc tm: Hp th cc tm gim theo hm m khi bc sng tng Di dao ng nguyn t trong vng gn hng ngoi
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Hp th do tp cht

Hanoi University of Technology

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Suy hao do tn x Rayleigh (~95%)


Tn x Rayleigh l hin tng nh sng b tn x theo cc hng khc nhau khi gp tp nh trong li si. Cc bc sng ngn b tn x nhiu hn cc bc sng di. Cc bc sng 800 nm c suy hao tn x Rayleigh cao nn khng dng trong TTQ. Cc bc sng 1700 nm hp th hng ngoi, c suy hao ln nn cng khng dng trong TTQ.

Hanoi University of Technology

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H s suy hao do tn x Reyleigh R


R = CR
CR: h s tn x Reyleigh V D: 850 nm c tn hao phn tn l 1300 nm c tn hao phn tn l 18% 1550 nm c tn hao phn tn l 9%

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4

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Ph suy hao ca si quang Silica SMF

Spectral loss of Single and Multi-mode silica fiber

Intrinsic and extrinsic loss components for silica fiber

Vi <1m: Tn x Rayleigh l ngun suy hao chnh trong si Vi >1m: Hp th hng ngoi chim u th trong suy hao tn hiu quang

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