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SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY
MULTISERVICE PROCEDURES FOR SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26
JUNE 1999 AIR LAND SEA APPLICATION CENTER
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES
QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST Decide to Survive!
S U R V I V A L Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, equipment. Use all your senses Remember where you are. Vanquish fear and panic. Improvise and improve. Value living. Act like the natives. Live by your wits.
1. Immediate Actions a. Assess immediate situation. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT! b. Take action to protect yourself from nuclear, biological, or chemical hazards (Chapter IX). c. Seek a concealed site. d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (Chapter V). e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information. f. Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving. g. Apply personal camouflage. h. Move away from concealed site, zigzag pattern recommended. i. Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment. j. Find a hole-up site. 2. Hole-Up-Site (Chapter I) a. Reassess situation; treat injuries, then inventory equipment. b. Review plan of action; establish priorities (Chapter VI). c. Determine current location. d. Improve camouflage. e. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand. f. Execute plan of action. Stay flexible!
Recommend inclusion of this manual in the aviator’s survival vest.
3. Concealment (Chapter I) a. Select a place of concealment providing (1) Adequate concealment, ground and air. (2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communications (LOC). (3) Listening and observation points. (4) Multiple avenues of escape. (5) Protection from the environment. (6) Possible communications/signaling opportunities. b. Stay alert, maintain security. c. Drink water. 4. Movement (Chapters I and II) a. Travel slowly and deliberately. b. DO NOT leave evidence of travel; use noise and light discipline. c. Stay away from LOC. d. Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s). e. Move from one concealed area to another. f. Use evasion movement techniques (Chapter I). 5. Communications and Signaling (Chapter III) a. Communicate as directed in applicable plans/orders, particularly when considering transmitting in the blind. b. Be prepared to use communications and signaling devices on short notice. c. Use of communications and signaling devices may compromise position. 6. Recovery (Chapter IV) a. Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans. b. Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear. c. Select best area for communications and signaling devices. d. Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOC. e. Follow recovery force instructions.
....................... II-12 Dry Climates.............. 5.......... II-11 Mountain Hazards ........26 FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50................................................................. 4........ See Appendix B for the scope.......................... Rhode Island Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base.............. I-3 Movement .............3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.................................. II-1 Navigation and Position Determination ..................26 U........ II-12 iii .. Alabama 29 JUNE 1999 Survival.... Virginia Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico.......................... I-1 Camouflage ........... 7............................................................. implementation plan.. 4............................... 2.................... II-1 Travel Considerations........ 2.............. II-12 Summer Hazards ............................... I-3 CHAPTER II NAVIGATION Stay or Move Considerations .......... and user information................................................. application..... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I 1.. EVASION Planning...........3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.......................... Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe................................ I-1 Shelters ...S..................... Evasion. purpose........ and Recovery Multiservice Procedures for Survival.. evasion........ 6............FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50........................ and recovery information........................................................ II-10 Ice and Snow Travel ... Virginia Navy Warfare Development Command Newport............................. 1...... 8................................................... Evasion......... 3............................ II-10 River Travel........................... and Recovery Note: This UNCLASSIFIED publication is designed to provide Service members quick-reference survival........ 3.................
....................................................... VII-7 CHAPTER VIII FOOD 1..................................... Chemical Conditions ............................................................ 3................................ V-9 Plant Medicine. 6................................. VII-1 3............................. Nuclear Conditions .................................... 3... V-15 Health and Hygiene ........................................................ IV-1 Recovery Procedures ......................................................................................................... VII-1 2........... VI-2 Shelters ............. VIII-1 2......... 5................................................ 2....................... A-1 PUBLICATION INFORMATION ........................................ VIII-11 CHAPTER IX INDUCED CONDITIONS 1.............................................................................................. IV-1 Site Selection..... Water Procurement ......... VI-3 Fires ... 2.............................. Biological Conditions .............. B-2 iv I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX A B ................................. Food Procurement........ 4................................ 2......................................... Food Preparation ............ II-13 10...................... V-1 Common Injuries and Illnesses..................... III-2 Responsibilities.............................................................. VI-1 Other Protective Equipment.................................. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING RECOVERY 1....................................... IX-1 2........................................................................ IX-7 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B THE WILL TO SURVIVE ........................... Open Seas .............. 3.......................................................................................... II-13 CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV 1................................................... VI-8 CHAPTER VII WATER 1. IV-1 Site Preparation ........................................................... 1............................... IX-6 3............................................................... VI-1 Care and Use of Clothing ..................... Radio Communications (Voice and Data).................................................................... Food Preservation ..................................... 4............ 1............................................................................. Signaling .................................... V-18 Rules for Avoiding Illness.............................................. V-18 CHAPTER VI PERSONAL PROTECTION Priorities ...................................9..................... Water Requirements ............................ IV-1 CHAPTER V MEDICAL Immediate First Aid Actions ..... 4....... Water Preparation and Storage..................... III-1 2............ Tropical Climates .. VIII-9 3.................................................
(5) Tobacco (odor is unmistakable). Camouflage patterns (Figure I-1): (1) Blotch pattern. (4) Being patient. d. (a) Coniferous areas (broad slashes). (3) Following your evasion plan of action. (2) Slash pattern. (3) Apply personal camouflage. (5) Drinking water (DO NOT eat food without water). (4) Designated area for recovery. b. (2) Using established procedures. 2. (a) Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas. or other cosmetics. (2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. (2) Shaving cream. (2) Selected area for evasion. Review the quick reference checklist on the inside cover. Basic principles: (1) Disturb the area as little as possible. Camouflage a. I-1 . Guidelines for successful evasion include(1) Keeping a positive attitude.Chapter I EVASION 1. (3) Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented). (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. Planning a. after-shave lotion. The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: (1) Scented soaps and shampoos. c. (7) Resting and sleeping as much as possible. (4) Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet). (6) Conserving strength for critical periods. Where to go (initiate evasion plan of action): (1) Near a suitable area for recovery. (c) Snow (barren). b. (b) Desert areas (barren). (8) Staying out of sight.
Camouflage Patterns c. and the under chin. dirt. (2) Ears. netting. I-2 . (4) Light colored hair. (3) DO NOT over camouflage. vegetation. Use scarf. neck. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. and charcoal. May use blotched and slash together.(b) Jungle areas (broad slashes). (b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. (2) Take advantage of natural concealment: (a) Cut foliage fades and wilts. or mask if available. collar. (3) Head. Personal camouflage application follows: (1) Face. (c) DO NOT select vegetation from same source. (3) Combination. Use a hat. change regularly. (c) Grass (narrow slashes). d. (4) Remember when using shadows. (d) Use stains from grasses. or coloration methods. Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net. they shift with the sun. The insides and the backs should have 2 colors to break up outlines. netting. Position and movement camouflage follows: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement. BLOTCH SLASH Figure I-1. hands. berries.
Use camouflage and concealment. b. Movement a. (b) With escape routes (DO NOT corner yourself). Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position.Secluded location (1) Choose an area (a) Least likely to be searched (drainages. (6) Ensure overhead concealment. etc. A moving object is easy to spot. 3. Break up the outline of the body. (c) With observable approaches. wind. bad weather. glasses. rank insignia. Remove unit patches. “V” of crotch/armpits. (2) Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges. name tags. (3) Restrict to periods of low light. Shelters a. (5) Never expose shiny objects (like a watch. ditches. etc. B . or reduced enemy activity. Locate carefullyeasy to remember acronym: BLISS.Irregular shape S . rough terrain.Small S . (5) Take the direction finding threat into account before transmitting from shelter.Low silhouette I .pens). I-3 . (3) Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons.) and blends with the environment. (4) Conceal with minimal to no preparation. 4. (2) Use the military crest. If travel is necessary (1) Mask with natural cover (Figure I-2).Blend L . or (6) (7) (8) (9) Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off. and rocks to keep from forming paths to site.
weapons. (b) LOOK for signs of human or animal activity (smoke. I-4 . (5) At irregular intervals (a) STOP at a point of concealment. aircraft. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. (d) SMELL for vehicles.). fires. roads. etc. animals.Figure I-2. troops. wire. aircraft. animals. troops. troops. buildings. tracks. Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. etc. vehicles. (c) LISTEN for vehicles. etc. Ground Movement (4) Avoid silhouetting (Figure I-3).
or grass. rocks. TRY NOT TO (a) Overturn ground cover. I-5 . Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel follows: (1) Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level. this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route. In snow country. (3) Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position. b. leaves. d. (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this. Break up the human shape or recognizable lines.Figure I-3. (2) DO NOT break branches. (4) DO NOT grab small trees or brush.) (5) Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping). (b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks. Avoid Silhouetting (6) Employ noise discipline. (c) Make noise by breaking sticks. check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted. c.) (d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back. and sticks. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel.
bend in road. Repeat for the second track. (Figure I-6). DO NOT touch fence.) leaving less evidence of travel. e. look for electrical insulators or security devices. etc. (d) Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs. align body parallel to tracks with face down. presenting as low a silhouette as possible (Figure I-4). Penetrate obstacles as follows: (1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury. go over the top. (c) Traveling during windy periods. etc. (Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it. I-6 . (2) Go around chain-link and wire fences. (7) Secure trash or loose equipmenthide or bury discarded items. (b) Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks to fill in. Next. If impractical. and snowdrifts. (Figure I-5) (5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads. cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion. Go under fence if unavoidable.(6) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by (a) Placing tracks in the shadows of vegetation. (3) Penetrate rail fences. (4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. downed logs. Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes. crossing at damaged areas.) (8) Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs. (e) Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old. shadows. rocks. passing under or between lower rails.
Road Crossing I-7 . Rail Fences Figure I-5.Figure I-4.
I-8 . 1 may be electrified. Railroad Tracks WARNING: If 3 rails exist.Figure I-6.
(2) Using the Rate x Time = Distance formula. Navigation and Position Determination a. have a known destination. (3) Personal condition. Consider the following if you decide to travel: (1) Follow the briefed evasion plan. food. (4) Supplies available. d. (b) Man-made checkpoints. (3) Can reach water. shelter. (2) DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination. (3) Decide what equipment to take. Leave only when (1) Dictated by the threat. cache. (3) DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information. (3) Using information provided in the map legend. Stay or Move Considerations a.Chapter II NAVIGATION Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles. (4) Convinced rescue is not coming. and have the ability to get there. Determine your general location by (1) Developing a working knowledge of the operational area. (c) Previous knowledge of operational area. Consider the following for maps (in a combat environment): (1) DO NOT write on the map. (2) Determine which direction to travel and why. (2) Route of travel. (a) Geographic checkpoints. or destroy. 1. and/or help. Stay with the vehicle/aircraft in a non-combat environment. Leave information at your starting point (in a non-combat environment) that includes (1) Destination. b. II -1 . Note: These actions may compromise information if captured. 2. e. (4) Using prominent landmarks. c. (2) Are certain of your location.
North is halfway between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand. (b) Northern Hemisphere. (2) Using stick and shadow method to determine a true north-south line (Figure II-1). and west) by (1) Using compass.(5) Visualizing map to determine position. east. Stick and Shadow Method (3) Remembering the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west. South is halfway between the hour hand and 12 o’clock position. (c) Southern Hemisphere. Point hour hand at the sun. Figure II-1. (4) Using a wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction (Figure II-2). CAUTION: The following methods are NOT highly accurate and give only general cardinal direction. (a) Digital watches. II -2 . Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. south. b. Visualize a clock face on the watch. Determine cardinal directions (north.
To Determine North/South NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH MID POINT SOUTH MID POINT HOUR HAND HOUR HAND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE If on daylight saving time subtract one hour from actual time Figure II-2. •Connect marks to form an arc. •1-2 inch shadow tip device (a twig. (b) Start construction at sunup. II -3 . •Pen or pencil. •Mark tip of shadow every 30 minutes annotating the time. or match). end construction at sundown. nail. Note: The shortest line between base of shadow tip device and curved line is a north-south line. •Secure navigator on flat surface (DO NOT move during set up period).Using A Watch . •Indicate north with a drawn arrow. (c) Do the following during travel: •Hold navigator so the shadow aligns with mark of present time (drawn arrow now points to true north). Direction Using a Watch (5) Using a pocket navigator (Figure II-3) (a) Gather the following necessary materials: •Flat writing material (such as an MRE box). Do the following: •Attach shadow tip device in center of paper.
(b) Southern Cross is used to locate true south-north line. flat.1 week. Figure II-3. level nonmetallic surface. Orient the map by (1) Using a true north-south line (Figure II-5) (a) Unfold map and place on a firm. Figure II-4. II -4 . Pocket Navigator (6) Using the stars (Figure II-4) the (a) North Star is used to locate true north-south line. (d) Remember the navigator is current for approximately CAUTION: The Pocket Navigator is NOT recommended if evading. Stars c.
(c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information. Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line II -5 .(b) Align the compass on a true north-south line. •Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees). Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating dial compass N N N Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating dial compass Figure II-5. •Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees).
(b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees. 180 Figure II-6. Star indicates magnetic line on EVC Chart.(2) Using a compass rose (Figure II-6) (a) Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to your location. Map Orientation with Compass Rose II -6 .
(3) If there is NO compass. d. Route selection techniques follow: II -7 . e. (a) DO NOT use GPS for primary navigation. (3) Using point-to-point navigation. (d) Conserve GPS battery life. (2) Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass. (d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat). Determine specific location. (c) Select area providing maximum satellite reception. (b) Use GPS to confirm your position ONLY. (2) Triangulation (resection) with a compass (Figure II-7). (c) Check map orientation each time compass is used. (e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs. f. Figure II-7. (1) Global Positioning System (GPS). Use the compass for night navigation by (1) Setting up compass for night navigation (Figure II-8). (b) Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP). Triangulation (a) Try to use 3 or more azimuths. orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method.
Setting the Compass for Night Travel Luminous Line North Seeking Arrow Stationary Index 64 Bezel Ring Each click of the Bezel Ring equals 3 degrees. (c) Resume your route of travel. Heading of 300 degrees = 20 clicks right. Figure II-8. Heading between 0 and 180 degrees is divided by 3. (b) Measure distance by counting the number of paces in a given course and convert to map units. (3) Straight-line heading as follows: (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination. New sum is the number of clicks to the right from stationary index line. subtract heading from 360 then divide sum by 3. (a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle. (2) Dogleg and 90 degree offset (Figure II-9). Sum is number of clicks to the left of stationary index line. (b) Contour around obstacle to landmark. II -8 . Heading between 180 and 360 degrees. Compass Night Navigation Setup (1) Circumnavigation. EXAMPLES Heading of 027 degrees = 9 clicks left.
(5) Point-to-point is same as straight line. An individual’s pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain. day/night travel. Dogleg and 90 Degree Offset •One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground. (c) Use pace count in conjunction with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location. II -9 .N W E 90 0 180 0 90 0 S 1 80 360 0 90 0 original heading O bstacle original heading plus 45 to heading 0 90 0 m inus 45 0 from original heading Figure II-9. (4) Deliberate offset is (a) Used when finding a point on a linear feature (that is. road or river). or injured/uninjured condition. •Distances measured by paces are approximate (example in open terrain. (a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point. (b) On reaching a point. 1200 paces per kilometer [average]). (b) Intentionally navigated to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear feature. Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count. or example in rough terrain. 900 paces per kilometer [average]. establish another landmark and continue.
Take special care of feet (change socks regularly). (3) Rapids (DO NOT attempt to shoot the rapids). Pack equipment to prevent loss. Travel in forested areas if possible. lakes. (2) Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees). f. Maintain a realistic pace. and bogs if needed. k. River Travel River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. Use a pole to move the raft in shallow water. (5) Hazardous animals. Avoid overdressing and overheating. (2) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. lakes. d. Travel Considerations a. take rest stops when needed.3. II -10 . e. Use an oar in deep water. and unfordable rivers: (1) Circumnavigate swamps. b. b. Travel on trails whenever possible (non-combat). pack imbalance. d. Keep near shore. g. h. 4. Go around obstacles. bamboo. Watch for the following DANGERS: (1) Snags. not over or through them. j. i. etc. c. g. Pick the easiest and safest route (non-combat). Consider using a flotation device when crossing rivers or large/deep streams. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event of heavy rains.). e. c. f. a. (3) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. (4) Waterfalls. Consider the following for swamps. It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading). damage. Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less). log. Consider food and water requirements. Use flotation device (raft. and personal safety.
Obstacles to winter travel follow: (1) Reduced daylight hours (BE AWARE). (2) Deep soft snow (if movement is necessary. (4) If caught in an avalanche. DO NOT travel in (1) Blizzards. do the following: (a) Backstroke to decrease burial depth. (b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches). (2) Bitterly cold winds. (c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops. II -11 . Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted. a.5. Improvised Snowshoes (3) Avalanche prone areas to avoid: (a) Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater. (3) Poor visibility. Figure II-10. b. Ice and Snow Travel Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. make snowshoes [Figure II-10]).
8. Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. (5) Frozen water crossings. b. belly crawling. Travel at dawn or dusk on hot days. c. •Objects protrude through ice.) (1) Dense brush. •Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas. b. (c) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. •Snow banks extend over the ice. (2) Rough terrain.(b) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows. paragraph 3. •Rivers or streams come together. DO NOT travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available. items h through k. and unfordable rivers. (c) When crossing frozen water. (a) Circumnavigate swamps. Avoid areas prone to avalanches. Avalanche. In sand dune areas— (1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes. d. lakes. II -12 . (2) Swamps. (b) Travel in forested areas if possible. Mountain Hazards a. (a) Travel on trails when possible (non-combat). (a) Weak ice should be expected where— •Rivers are straight. Dry Climates a. (b) Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume. Follow the easiest trail possible (non-combat). Avoid low areas. or using snowshoes. distribute your weight by laying flat. lakes. (b) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. Summer Hazards (see page II-10. 7. (c) Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in the event of heavy rains. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided. Travel Considerations. c. 6. and bogs if needed. c. Flash floods. Lightning. avoiding— (1) Deep sandy dune areas.
(6) Remain stationary until the storm is over. they may indicate a pitfall or trap. the enemy uses the trails also. If a sandstorm occurs (1) Mark your direction of travel. (3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. Avoid obstacles like thickets and swamps. (5) Protect the eyes. b. Part the vegetation to pass through. 10. Avoid grabbing vegetation. (2) Where a low pass goes over a range of hills. Find trails— (1) Where 2 streams meet. 9.(2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. (Sail aids in making landfall. Travel only when it is light. e. Sea anchor may be adjusted to make use of existing currents. (4) Cover the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth. Open Seas a. c. (4) Construct a shade cover/sail (Figure II-12). (2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps. Tropical Climates a. f. Using winds (1) Pull in sea anchor. (2) Inflate raft so it rides higher. (2) Sit low in the raft. b. (3) Sit up in raft so body catches the wind. it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). (2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel. (3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter. e. (4) Exercise caution.) II -13 . d. While traveling trails (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails. (3) DO NOT sleep on the trail. DO NOT climb over logs if you can go around them. Using currents (1) Deploy sea anchor (Figure II-11).
Figure II-11. Making landfall. (2) Greenish tint in the sky (in the tropics). Sea Anchor Deployment Figure II-12. (3) Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray reflections) (in the arctic). Indications of land are (1) Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky where all other clouds are moving. Shade/Sail Construction c. II -14 .
(9) In high surf. face it and submerge. (b) Lie as close to the surface as possible. (6) Directional flights of birds at dawn and at dusk. (a) Swim forward on the back of a wave.(4) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (b) Find a place where waves smoothly rush onto the rocks. (5) Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if thrown from raft. (a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks. (5) The odors and sounds. Swimming ashore (1) Consider physical condition. (a) Odors from swamps and smoke. (7) Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves (waves are generally in sets of 7. (12) After selecting a landing site (a) Face shoreward. (b) When the seaward wave approaches. from smallest to largest). (4) Remain in raft as long as possible. (2) Use a flotation aid. (b) Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride. work shoreward in the next trough. (c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point further down shore. d. (11) Select a landing point. (b) Assume a sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects. (b) Roar of surf/bird cries coming from one direction. (3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall. (10) If caught in the undertow of a large wave— (a) Remain calm and swim to the surface. (c) After it passes. (8) In moderate surf. (6) Wear footgear and at least 1 layer of clothing. II -15 . (a) Swim shoreward in the trough between waves.
(b) Using paddles to maintain control. (c) Deploying a sea anchor for stability. (3) Land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land if possible. (1) Use paddles to avoid sharp edges. f. (3) Keep raft inflated and ready for use. (2) Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in front of you causing poor visibility. (4) Head for gaps in the surf line. (2) Store raft away from the ice edge. and disintegrating flows are dangerous (ice can cut a raft). Rafting ashore (1) Select landing point carefully. II -16 .e. Icebergs. (4) Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows. CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral. small flows. (5) Penetrate surf by— (a) Taking down most shade/sails.
(3) Follow plans/orders for on/off operations. (5) Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum). then as directed in applicable plans/orders. d. (4) DO NOT ground antenna (that is finger on antenna or attaching bolt.Chapter III RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING Inventory and review the operating communications and signaling equipment. Listening (use reception times in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces). (2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve battery use. Use data burst if available. Transmissions. If no immediate contact. Combat. c. vegetation. (1) Ensure locator beacon is operational. (2) Keep it with you to supplement radio communications.). g. Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). etc. (2) Face recovery asset. f. Radio Communications (Voice and Data) a. (6) Move after each transmission (ONLY in combat. (7) If transmitting in the blind. Make initial contact as soon as possible or as directed in applicable plans/orders. (8) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding. e. Non-combat. space blanket. (1) Turn off locator beacon. instructions of all 1. (3) Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (Figure III-1). if possible). b. III-1 . ensure a clear LOS towards the equator. (1) Use concealment sites (combat) that optimize line of site (LOS).
Pyrotechnic signals.100% 91% 91% 60% 31% 24% 41% 65% Signal Strength/ Operator Orientation 1% Top cone of silence 30-50% 900 30-50% 100% Main lobe Main lobe 100% 30-50% 90 0 30-50% Bottom cone of silence 1% Cut-away Sideview of Antenna Power Distribution Figure III-1. (1) Prepare early (weather permitting). Radio Transmission Characteristics 2. (2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces. III-2 . (3) Extend over raft's edge before activating. Signaling a.
(3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (Figure III-3). stomped grass). Signal mirror (Figure III-2). Figure III-2. Note: Produces one residual flash when turned off. (b) Natural use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area (rocks. (1) Use as directed by recovery forces. signal paulin. (2) Use as directed by recovery forces. consider filters and shields. (3) Conserve battery life. Sighting Techniques Note: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass. Strobe/IR lights. (2) Location. d. Pattern signals (use as directed in applicable plans/orders). (b) Provide concealment from ground observation. c. (1) Prepare early. (3) Cover when not in use. (1) Materials: (a) Manmade (space blanket. parachute). use only with confirmed friendly forces. brush. III-3 .b. branches. (a) Maximize visibility from above. (2) If no radio.
(5) Contrast (use color and shadows). Size and Ratio (4) Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners).Figure III-3. (1) DO NOT waste in rough seas or fast moving water. (6) Pattern signals (Figure III-4). Signal Key e. Figure III-4. (2) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping. Sea dye marker. (3) May be used to color snow. III-4 .
whistle. and weapons fire). Non-combat considerations: (1) Use a fire at night. voice. (Figure III-5) (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon. Smoke Generator III-5 . (2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light smoke). Figure III-5. (4) Use audio signals (that is.f.
(4) Signal devices available. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes (in combat). be prepared to report— (1) Enemy activity in the recovery area. size. 2. IV-1 . ground.). Assess evidence of human activity at/near the site (in combat). especially on sloping or uneven terrain. Site Preparation a.). Responsibilities a. Prepare signaling devices (use as directed or as briefed). (2) Secure weapons and avoid quick movement. a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery. etc. If no radio.Chapter IV RECOVERY 1. Locate area for landing pick-up. Mentally review recovery methods (aircraft. Locate several concealment sites around area (in combat). (3) DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. Recovery Procedures a. Assist recovery force in identifying your position. Pack and secure all equipment. c. flat and level). Stay concealed until recovery is imminent (in combat). d. if practical (approximately 150 feet diameter. Follow recovery force instructions. Maintain communication with recovery forces until recovered. Site Selection a. (3) Number in party/medical situation. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery vehicle. free of obstructions. b. b. (2) Recovery site characteristics (slope. d. For a landing/ground recovery— (1) Assume a non-threatening posture. b. 4. b. 3. Establish radio contact with recovery forces (if possible). c. obstacles. c. c. etc. e. Be prepared to authenticate as directed in applicable plans/orders. boat. Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers.
(8) Use a thumbs up. For nonhoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment)— (1) Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits (Figure IV-3). For hoist recovery devices (Figures IV-1 and IV-2)— (1) Use eye protection. Figure IV–1. Rescue Strap IV-2 . (6) Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors. Follow crewmember instructions. if available (glasses or helmet visor). (7) DO NOT become entangled in cable. (3) Sit or kneel for stability while donning device. (5) Ensure cable is in front of you. (9) Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation. vigorous cable shake. or radio call to signal you are ready. (2) Allow metal on device to contact the surface before touching to avoid injury from static discharge. (4) Put safety strap under armpits. (10) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue vehicle. e. (2) Follow the procedures in "d" above.d.
Figure IV-2. Forest Penetrator IV-3 .
Step 1 Step 2 Figure IV–3. Fixed Loop IV-4 .
Determine responsiveness as follows: (1) If unconscious. 1. (c) Open the airway by lifting the chin (Figure V-1).Chapter V MEDICAL WARNING: These emergency medical procedures are for survival situations. Immediate First Aid Actions Remember the ABCs of Emergency Care: Airway Breathing Circulation a. (b) Roll victims onto their backs. (2) If no response— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. Chin Lift V-1 . and feel for air exchange. Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible. listen. (d) Look. Figure V-1. arouse by shaking gently and shouting.
(f) If breaths still blocked. You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. (g) Sweep with finger to clear mouth. (b) Elevate the wounded area above the heart. (5) If breathing difficulty is caused by chest trauma. V-2 . (j) With open airway. Treat Chest Injuries. (4) If victim is unconscious.(3) If victim is not breathing— (a) Check for a clear airway. •Place a fist between breastbone and belly button. remove any blockage. (d) Fill victim’s lungs with 2 slow breaths. start mouth to mouth breathing: •Give 1 breath every 5 seconds. reposition airway. Control bleeding as follows: (1) Apply a pressure dressing (Figure V-2). refer to page V-7. (e) If breaths are blocked. but breathing— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. (h) Try 2 slow breaths again. paragraph 1d. try again. continue (c) through (f) until successful or exhausted. give 5 abdominal thrusts: •Straddle the victim. (b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway). (2) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use direct pressure over the wound. •Thrust upward to expel air from stomach. b. (c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed. •Check for chest rise each time. (i) If the airway is still blocked. (b) Cover victim's mouth with your own. you may shorten and secure the object. For travel. CAUTION: DO NOT remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway.
Figure V-2. Application of a Pressure Dressing V-3 .
Figure V-3.(3) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use a pressure point between the injury and the heart (Figure V-3). Pressure Points V-4 . (b) Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before checking to see if bleeding has stopped.
an attempt to SLOWLY loosen the tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after application. •Ensure bleeding has stopped •Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation. (c) Use a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long. Use ONLY when severe. uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. (b) Follow steps illustrated in Figure V-4. •Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case bleeding resumes. CAUTION: The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is UNLIKELY and NO medical aid is available. (f) DO NOT cover the tourniquet. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb. A band at least 3 inches (7. (d) Tighten only enough to stop arterial bleeding. (g) If rescue or medical aid is not available for over 2 hours. Before loosening— •Ensure pressure dressing is in place. V-5 .5 cm) or wider is best. (a) Apply tourniquet (TK) band just above bleeding site on limb. (e) Mark a TK on the forehead with the time applied.(4) If a limb wound is STILL bleeding— CAUTION: Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure.
Figure V-4. bayonet or scabbard through the tourniquet knot. SQUARE KNOT 2. 3. Pass a stick. Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding. Tie with a square knot. 4.1. Application of a Tourniquet V-6 . Wrap a wide band around the injured limb.
•DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim.) (1) Identify by one or more of the following: (a) Pale. fast pulse. d. Treat chest injuries. may create bloody froth as air escapes the chest. (6) Place very weak or unconscious victim on side. and sweaty skin. (a) Remove wet clothing. V-7 . as necessary. (d) Shelter from the elements. (d) Lift untapped side of dressing as victim exhales to allow trapped air to escape. (c) Anxiety or mental confusion. (b) Tape airtight material over wound on 3 sides only (Figure V-5) to allow air to escape from the wound but not to enter. This occurs when chest wall is penetrated. may cause victim to gasp for breath. (4) Maintain normal body temperature. The flail segment is the broken area that moves in a direction opposite to the rest of chest during breathing. It may be present with or without visible injury. (b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway. •DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag. (c) Monitor breathing and check dressing. Results from blunt trauma when 3 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places. (Shock is difficult to identify or treat under field conditions. (b) Give warm fluids. (a) Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material. (3) Treat underlying injury. cool. (1) Sucking chest wound. (d) Decreased urine output. (b) Fast breathing and a weak.c. (2) Flail chest. (2) Maintain circulation. (c) Insulate from ground. this will— (a) Allow mouth to drain. may cause sucking sound. (5) Place conscious victim on back. Treat shock.
(b) Have victim keep segment still with hand pressure. but necessary to prevent the possible development of pneumonia).Figure V-5. • Tape pad to site • DO NOT wrap tape around chest. (1) Control bleeding. (a) Encourage deep breathing (painful. (2) Remove watches. Sucking Chest Wound Dressing (a) Stabilize the flail segment as follows: • Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site. e. and constrictive clothing. Treat fractures. jewelry. (3) If fracture penetrates the skin— V-8 . (c) Roll victim onto side of flail segment injury (as other injuries allow). and dislocations. (3) Fractured ribs. (b) DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs. sprains.
NOT in straight position. constrictive clothing. (12) Wrap with a compression bandage after cold therapy. (c) Compression. (a) DO NOT use continuous cold therapy. 2. parachute cord. (2) Remove watches. (b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water. (11) Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold application. (6) Improvise a splint with available materials: (a) Sticks or straight. opposite leg. (b) Apply dressing over wound. (c) Avoid cooling that can cause frostbite or hypothermia. (8) Keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing the joints on both sides of the fracture. stiff materials from equipment. (7) Attach with strips of cloth. Common Injuries and Illnesses a. CAUTION: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position. (10) Apply cold to acute injuries. (b) Ice. (d) Elevation. (9) Use RICES treatment for 72 hours. (5) Splint in position found (if unable to straighten limb). jewelry. immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint. (e) Stabilization. (a) Rest. (14) Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury site. (15) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if swelling occurs because bandage is too tight. (1) Cool the burned area with water. (13) Elevate injured area above heart level to reduce swelling.(a) Clean wound by gentle irrigation with water. (a) Use immersion or cool compresses. Hand should look like it is grasping an apple. (b) Body parts (for example. V-9 . (b) Repeat 3 to 4 times per day. (4) Position limb as normally as possible. Burns. etc. If fracture is in a joint. arm-to-chest).
burning sensation. (6) Avoid moving or rubbing the burned part. charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed. seizures. (a) Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye.) (8) Change dressings when soaked or dirty. improvise a small swab.) (b) Treat by patching affected eye(s). Eye injuries. (c) Use cool compresses to reduce pain. Moisten and wipe gently over the affected area. sweating. and cardiac arrest can occur. (c) If foreign body is STILL not removed. (1) Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen).(3) DO NOT remove embedded. (b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation. b. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt [if available] to each quart of water. (a) Rest in shade. (1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty. (b) Drink water. CAUTION: Handle heat stroke victim gently. Figure VI-2. cool skin). fast pulse). (3) Heat stroke (victim disoriented or unconscious. and possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure). patch eye for 24 hours and then reattempt removal using steps (a) and (b). V-10 . moist. (4) Cover with sterile dressings. •Check after 12 hours. (See Chapter VI. (a) Rest. (c) Protect from further heat exposure. Shock. (2) Heat exhaustion (pale. (2) Foreign body in eye. page VI-3. (5) DO NOT use lotion or grease. c. Heat injury. Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt per quart. (b) Drink water. (a) Prevent with improvised goggles. skin is hot and flushed [sweating may or may not occur]. (7) Drink extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss from burns. •Replace patch for another 12 hours if not healed.
Remember to cool the groin and armpit areas. fingers. DO NOT thaw frozen tissue. (b) Frostnipped areas rewarm with body heat. •Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to— • •Numbness that progresses to— • ••Waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot glide freely over a joint. sleeping bags. • •Insulate from above and below. jerky movements go to— ••••Coma. V-11 . (Avoid overcooling. (2) Hypothermia— (a) Is a progressive injury. sluggish thinking go to— • ••Muscular rigidity with blue. difficulty speaking. breathing. •Put on dry clothing (if available). repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. (c) Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require medical treatment.) (b) Maintain airway. respiratory and cardiac failure. Cold injuries: (1) Frostnip and frostbite— (a) Are progressive injuries. If body heat WILL NOT rewarm area in 15 to 20 minutes. and toes are affected first. DO NOT rub frozen tissue. •Prevent further heat loss.(a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim). (b) Protect victim from the environment as follows: •Remove wet clothing. then frostbite is present. • •Cover top of head. nose. puffy skin. or shelter. d. CAUTION: In frostbite. •Warm with blankets. • Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks leads to— • •Violent shivering. and circulation. •Ears.
etc. warm. (b) Minimize activity. Skin becomes wrinkled as in dishpan hands. armpits. Snakebite. to improve circulation. (1) Immersion injuries. (e) Keep area dry. and open to air. Keep feet protected. (a) Remove constricting items. Rewarming of victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside of a sleeping bag is a survival technique but can cause internal temperatures of all to drop. (b) Pat dry. (2) Saltwater sores. e. (c) Dry socks and shoes. CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. Skin tissue damage. (1) Nonpoisonous. and around • •Avoid causing burns to skin. (d) Loosen boots. DO NOT use your mouth to create suction. CAUTION: This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situations where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available. (2) Poisonous. V-12 . (a) Avoid walking on affected feet. f. (c) DO NOT cut the bite site. Avoid overly rapid rewarming which may cause cardiac arrest.. (d) DO NOT open or squeeze sores. (c) Use antiseptic (if available). (a) Change body positions frequently. cover with a dressing. Clean and bandage wound. (f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments. •Warm central areas before extremities. (d) Clean bite with soap and water. Skin tissue will be sensitive. DO NOT rub. • •Place heat packs in groin.neck. cuffs. (b) Keep sores dry.
(e) Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage (Figure V-6). The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow but not arterial flow. Check for pulse below the overwrap. (f) Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion. (g) Treat for shock (page V-7, paragraph 1c). (h) Position extremity below level of heart. (i) Construct shelter if necessary (let the victim rest). (j) For conscious victims, force fluids. g. Marine life. (1) Stings. (a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release). (b) Remove jewelry and watches. (c) Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin. (d) Apply a steroid cream (if available). (e) DO NOT rub area with sand. (f) Treat for shock; artificial respiration may be required (page V-1, paragraph 1a). (g) DO NOT use urine to flush or treat wounds. (2) Punctures. (a) Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as victim can tolerate). (b) Cover with clean dressing. (c) Treat for shock as needed. h. Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy). (1) Wash with large amounts of water. Use soap (if available). (2) Keep covered to prevent scratching. i. Infection. (1) Keep wound clean. (2) Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to prevent or treat infection. (3) Change bandages as needed.
Figure V-6. Compression Bandage for Snake Bite
j. Dysentery and diarrhea. (1) Drink extra water. (2) Use a liquid diet. (3) Eat charcoal. Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal particles with water. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins.) k. Constipation (can be expected in survival situations). (1) DO NOT take laxatives. (2) Exercise. (3) Drink extra water. 3. Plant Medicine a. Tannin. (1) Medical uses. Burns, diarrhea, dysentery, skin problems, and parasites. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing. (2) Sources. Found in the outer bark of all trees, acorns, banana plants, common plantain, strawberry leaves, and blackberry stems. (3) Preparation. (a) Place crushed outer bark, acorns, or leaves in water. (b) Leach out the tannin by soaking or boiling. •Increase tannin content by longer soaking time. •Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants. (4) Treatments. (a) Burns. •Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea. •Apply compress to burned area. •Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain. (b) Diarrhea, dysentery, and worms. Drink strong tea solution (may promote voiding of worms). (c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections). Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and promote healing. (d) Lice and insect bites. Wash affected areas with tea to ease itching. b. Salicin/salicylic acid. (1) Medical uses. Aches, colds, fever, inflammation, pain, sprains, and sore throat (aspirin-like qualities). (2) Sources. Willow and aspen trees (Figure V-7).
(1) Medical uses. and stings. Fruit of the papaya tree (Figure V-7). (4) Treatments. (b) Brew tea from leaves. burns. (a) Gather twigs. (a) Use sap to tenderize tough meat. and dysentery. (a) Chew on twigs. (4) Treatments. buds. buds. (3) Preparation. •Crush the plant or stems. c. (c) Use warm. (b) Gather milky white sap for its papain content. There are over 200 plantain species with similar medicinal properties. (a) Make cuts in unripe fruit. •Hold in place with a dressing. (1) Medical uses. diarrhea. sores.(3) Preparation. Papain. moist poultice for aches and sprains. Common plantain. (3) Preparation. •Make a pulpy mass. (c) Make poultice of leaves. meat tenderizer. Itching. (b) Prepare tea as described in paragraph 3a(3). and minerals. (a) Brew tea from seeds. (c) Use poultice to treat cuts. (a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery. wounds. vitamins. stings. (b) Eat ripe fruit for food. or cambium layer (soft. and a food source. (b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat. The common plantain is shown in Figure V-7. (2) Source. (c) Make poultice. Digestive aid. d. or cambium for symptom relief. (2) Source. moist layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen. (4) Treatments. abrasions. (b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals. V-16 . (c) Avoid getting sap in eyes or wounds. •Apply pulpy mass over injury.
(1) Medical uses. (b) Use plant for food. (2) Source. inflammations. and an excellent food source. (a) Pound roots into a pulpy mass for a poultice. burns. vitamins. boils. sores. Cattail ground level edible rootstalk D. Typical Aspen leaf edible young leaf shoot C. (4) Treatments. (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked). Cattail plant found in marshes (Figure V-7). Common Cattail. A. (b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes. Typical Willow leaf 6-16 inches tall edible pollen B. (c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute. (3) Preparation. (a) Apply poultice to affected area. Wounds. and minerals. Papaya . Useful Plants V-17 E.e. Plantain Figure V-7.
and clothing. bleach. etc. (d) Gargle with salt water to help prevent sore throat and aid in cleaning teeth and gums. Rules for Avoiding Illness a. dry. Dry wet clothing as soon as possible. V-18 . (3) Cleanse mouth and brush teeth. Clean all eating utensils after each meal. b. (2) Wash clothing and use repellents. or loamy soil as soap substitutes. h. d. Health and Hygiene a. Exercise daily. ticks. (a) Use hardwood twig as toothbrush (fray it by chewing on one end then use as brush). Purify all water obtained from natural sources by using iodine tablets. g. c. Locate latrines 200 feet from water and away from shelter. and massage. b. Try to get 7-8 hours sleep per day. c. fleas. sand. Wash hands before preparing food or water. (d) Use adhesive tape/mole skin to prevent damage. (b) Use single strand of an inner core string from parachute cord for dental floss. Eat varied diet. (4) Clean and protect feet. (1) Minimize infection by washing. (Use white ashes. (c) Use clean finger to stimulate gum tissues by rubbing. (a) Change and wash socks (b) Wash. e.4. Stay clean (daily regimen). (1) Check body for lice. (c) Check frequently for blisters and red areas. or boiling for 5 minutes. Prevent and control parasites. netting. f. 5. Prevent insect bites by using repellent. (a) Check body regularly. (3) Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment. (b) Pick off insects and eggs (DO NOT crush).) (2) Comb and clean debris from hair.
b. 2. b. NOT drinking water. c. then accomplish individual tasks accordingly. (3) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment). (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia. (2) Remove wet clothing and rewarm by fire. (2) Procure water. (2) Procure food. Priorities a. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire. First 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria. (1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities. When fully clothed. d. the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas. g. Avoid overheating. (2) Use a hat to regulate body heat. (4) Build Fire. (1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature. If you fall into the water in the winter— (1) Build fire. VI-1 . Wear loose and layered clothing.Chapter VI PERSONAL PROTECTION 1. Evaluate available resources and situation. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration in hot climates. Never discard clothing. Care and Use of Clothing a. Dampen clothing when on the ocean in hot weather. (1) Use salt water. e. (2) Layers create more dead air space. f. Second 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct necessary tools and weapons. (3) Establish multiple survival signals. Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities (dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire). c.
(2) Wash clothing whenever possible.. vines. over the instep.h. VI-2 . (1) Fluff before use. (1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on the ground. i. (6) Secure by rope. (c) Tape. one at a time. etc. Other Protective Equipment a. or tuck into other layers of material. If no fire is available— (1) Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available). (3) Break ice out of clothing. (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture. Improvised foot protection (Figure VI-1). Sleeping bag. especially at foot of bag. (b) Safety pins. j. (1) Cut 2 to 4 layers of cloth into a 30-inch square. Examine clothing frequently for damage. (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze. (5) Fold side corners. tape. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces its insulation qualities). (3) Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner. (2) Fold into a triangle. (3) Repair when necessary by using— (a) Needle and thread. Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear (4) Fold front over the toes. 3.
(3) Avoid natural hazards: VI-3 . (2) Available food and water. dry moss. and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots). dry grass. Figure VI-2. Figure VI-3. b. a. (2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing. leaves. Used to protect from sand.(3) Improvise with available material. Sun and snow goggles (Figure VI-2). Sun and Snow Goggles c. Gaiters 4. Gaiters (Figure VI-3). (1) Near signal and recovery site. or similar materials. bark. Shelters Evasion considerations apply. Site selection. snow. insects. (1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions. etc.
(4) Location large and level enough to lie down in. b. VI-4 . Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain. (1) Immediate shelters. Snow Cave. Types. (3) Thermal A Frame. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4). your snow shelter is too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping. (Figures VI-5 through VI-7). Note: As a general rule. Cold climates require an enclosed. insulated shelter. (b) Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters. (a) Snow is the most abundant insulating material. (b) Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas. Snow Trench. (c) Avalanche areas. unless you can see your breath. Figure VI-4. Immediate Shelters (2) General shelter.(a) Dead standing trees.
Figure VI-5. Thermal A Frame Figure VI-6. Snow Trench VI-5 .
c. Shelter construction. (1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind. VI-6 .Figure VI-7. Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8). elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects. Tropical/wet climates require enclosed. White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material). a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required. (a) If natural materials are used. (b) For thermal protection. See Figure VI-10 for an example. Snow Cave (4) Shade shelter. (a) To reduce the surface temperature. (5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). (2) Cover with available material. the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches). arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one.
Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter Figure VI-9.Figure VI-8. Elevated Platform Shelter Figure VI-10. Shingle Method VI-7 .
etc. (9) Sand and rocks. or dry moss. e. broad leaves. (7) Grass and sod. (4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag. or during inclement weather. (2) Boughs. damp. and oxygen. or parachute material. Fires CAUTION: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire. (2) Use fires at dusk. VI-8 . (3) Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking. Evasion considerations: (1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke. • Use additional layers in heavy rain. Bed construction. (6) Boughs. d. Fire building. such as flares (last resort). (1) Heat sources: (a) Matches or lighter.• Stretch as tight as possible • Use a 40–60 degree slope. b. leaves. ground using— (1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats. (b) Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and metals until a good spark is produced). (d) Concentrated sunlight (use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors). (8) Snow. poncho. (e) Pyrotechnics. dry moss. blankets. The 3 essential elements for starting a fire are heat. Shelter construction materials: (1) Raft and raft parts. fuel. dawn. a. Construct a bed to protect from cold. etc. (c) Sparks from batteries.— (b) If using porous material like parachute. 5. (3) Blankets. (2) Vehicle or aircraft parts. (5) Bark peeled off dead trees.
(f) Friction method (Figure VI-11). Without prior training, this method is difficult to master and requires a lot of time to build the device.
Figure VI-11. Friction Method Note: If possible, carry a fire-starting device with you. (2) Fuel is divided into 3 categories: tinder, kindling, and fuel. (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting the fire.) (a) Tinder. Tinder must be very finely shaved or shredded to provide a low combustion point and fluffed to allow oxygen to flow through. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer, saturate with Vaseline, Chapstick, insect repellant, aircraft fuel, etc.) Examples of tinder include— • Cotton. • Candle (shred the wick, not the wax). • Plastic spoon, fork, or knife. • Foam rubber.
•Dry bark. •Dry grasses. •Gun powder. •Pitch. •Petroleum products. (b) Kindling. Kindling must be small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder. Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn. (c) Fuel. Examples of fuel include— • Dry hardwood (removing bark reduces smoke). • Bamboo (open chambers to prevent explosion). • Dry dung. c. Types. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses. (1) Tepee fire (Figure VI-12). Use the tepee fire to produce a concentrated heat source for cooking, lighting, or signaling.
Figure VI-12. Tepee Fire (2) Log cabin fire (Figure VI-13). Use the log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat, to dry out wet wood, and provide coals for cooking, etc.
Figure VI-13. Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires (3) Sod fire and reflector (Figure VI-14). Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from a fire. Build fires against rocks or logs. CAUTION: DO NOT use porous rocks or riverbed rock—they may explode when heated.
Figure VI-14. Sod Fire and Reflector
These are very efficient. Improvised Stove VI-12 . Dakota Fire Hole (5) Improvised stoves (Figure VI-16). Figure VI-16.(4) Dakota fire hole (Figure VI-15). Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations. Figure VI-15.
(b) Drainages and low-lying areas. (a) Abundance of lush green vegetation. DO NOT drink— (1) Urine. (2) Fish juices. lakes. (5) Alcohol. (4) Sea water. or an illness increases water loss. • Lowers body temperature. • Causes minor cold injury to lips and mouth. (e) Bird flight in the early morning or late afternoon might indicate the direction to water. (2) Precipitation (rain. heat. Note: Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration. b. (4) Ground water (when no surface water is available) (Figure VII-2). Exertion. Water Requirements Drink extra water. sleet) (FigureVII-1). snow. VII-1 . (a) DO NOT eat ice or snow. and springs). (3) Subsurface (wells and cisterns). Water Procurement a. (5) Snow or ice. • Induces dehydration. (3) Blood. (d) Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near. injury. 2. (c) “V” intersecting game trails often point to water. dew.Chapter VII Water 1. (6) Melted water from new sea ice. Minimum 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid level. Water sources: (1) Surface water (streams.
Water Indicators VII-2 .Figure VII-1. Water Procurement Figure VII-2.
• Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers. Table VII-1. Figure VII-3.(b) Melt with fire. (d) Use a water generator (Figure VII-3). (b) Precipitation. • Speed the process by adding hot rocks or water. (c) Melt with body heat. (a) Water available in survival kits. (c) Old sea ice or icebergs (Table VII-1). • Place between layers of clothing. • Use waterproof container. • DO NOT place next to the skin. • Drink as much as possible. • Stir frequently to prevent damaging container. Old Sea Ice or Icebergs OLD SEA ICE NEW SEA ICE Bluish or blackish Milky or grey Shatters easily Does not break easily Rounded corners Sharp edges Tastes relatively salt-free Tastes extremely salty VII-3 . Water Generator (6) Open seas. • Collect dew off raft.
color. cut off 6 inches of opposite end. • •Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water. • • For evasion situations. • • Pour into hand to check smell. • • Produce most water at night. •Leaning Tree. (a) All open sources previously mentioned. Leaning Tree •Banana plants. Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime. • Old bamboo. and taste to determine if drinkable. • • Cut bark (DO NOT use milky sap). • Vines (Figure VII-5A). Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (Figure VII-4). cut as large a piece of vine as possible (cut the top first). • • DO NOT touch vine to lips. Figure VII-4. • • If juice is clear and water like. VII-4 . • • When water flow stops. •Water trees (avoid milky sap).(7) Tropical areas. bore into the roots and collect water. • • Tap before dark. water will flow again. •Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture. • •Shake and listen for water. (b) Vegetation.
• •Cut out entire section to carry with you. •Beach well. • Green bamboo (Figure VII-5B). Beach Well VII-5 . Figure VII-6. • •Filter and purify. Along the coast. Water Vines and Green Bamboo CAUTION: Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea). Figure VII-5 A and B. obtain water by digging a beach well (Figure VII-6).
(8) Dry areas. Vegetation Bag (c) Transpiration bag (Figure VII-9). •Water will taste like the plant smells. (a) Solar still (Figure VII-7). (b) Vegetation bag (Figure VII-8). •Water bag must be clear. Figure VII-7. Solar Still Figure VII-8. VII-6 .
(1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/ transpiration bags. Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal). Figure VII-9. (a) Boil at least 1 minute. (2) Purify all other water. Purification. Transpiration Bag Figure VII-10. VII-7 .(d) Seepage basin (Figure VII-10). b. Water Preparation and Storage a. Filtration. Seepage Basin 3.
(2) Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to kill bacteria. use a clean. (1) If water cannot be purified. To prevent contamination. Potable Water. cold. (1) Trash bag. Storage.(c) Water purification tablets. obtain water from a clear. c. covered or sealed container. (2) Prophylactic. to aerate. (4) Flotation gear. Follow instructions on package. and fast running source (if possible). (b) Pour from one container to another to improve taste VII-8 . d. (3) Section of bamboo. clean.
Food Procurement a. (b) At ant and termite mounds.Chapter VIII FOOD 1. Figure VIII-1. VIII-1 . and roosting areas). (1) Snares— (a) Work while unattended. (1) Mammals can be found where— (a) Trails lead to watering. (c) On ponds. Fishing Locations (4) Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide. and slow moving streams. feeding. lakes. and bedding areas. (b) Listening for bird noises (indication of nesting areas (3) Fish and other marine life locations (Figure VIII-1). (5) Insects are found— (a) In dead logs and stumps. (2) Birds can be found by— (a) Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon (leads to feeding. b. (b) Droppings or tracks look fresh. watering. Procurement techniques. Sources and location.
•Use a figure 8 (locking loop) if wire is used (Figure VIII-3). •Mouth of dens (Figure VIII-2). preventing reopening. •Avoid disturbing the area. and the animal’s escape. VIII-2 . • Make noose opening slightly larger than the animal's head (3-finger width for squirrels. • To construct a squirrel pole (Figure VIII-4) use simple loop snares. (d) Placement of snares (set as many as possible). feeding. fist-sized for rabbits). Figure VIII-2. • •Once tightened.(b) Location: •Trails leading to water. the wire locks in place. •Use materials that will not break under the strain of holding an animal. and bedding areas. •Use funneling (natural or improvised) (Figure VIII-5). Snare Placement (c) Construction of simple loop snare.
Squirrel Pole Figure VIII-5. Funneling VIII-3 . Locking Loop Figure VIII-4.Figure VIII-3.
(2) Noose stick (easier and safer to use than the hands). (See Figure VIII-7 for fishing procurement methods. (3) Twist stick (Figure VIII-6). Procurement Devices (4) Hunting and fishing devices.met. (b) Spear. (f) Trap. line. (a) Insert forked stick into a den until something soft is (b) Twist the stick. (d) Pole. (e) Net. Figure VIII-6. and hook. VIII-4 . (c) Slingshot. (c) Remove the animal from the den. binding the animal's hide in the fork. it may be dangerous.) (a) Club or rock. (d) Be ready to kill the animal.
•Flabby skin. (d) DO NOT secure fishing lines to yourself or the raft. •Flesh that remains dented when pressed. (f) DO NOT eat fish with— •Spines. (g) DO NOT eat fish eggs or liver (entrails). (b) Avoid reaching into dark holes. (i) Avoid cone-shaped shells (Figure VIII-8). •Unpleasant odor. (h) Avoid all crustaceans above the high tide mark. Procurement Methods (5) Precautions: (a) Wear shoes to protect the feet when wading in water. (c) Kill animals before handling. Animals in distress may attract the enemy.Figure VIII-7. VIII-5 . •Sunken eyes. slimy gills. •Pale. (e) Kill fish before bringing them into the raft.
(l) Avoid disease carrying insects. such as— •Flies. •Scorpions.Cone shell Warning! These snails can sting and cause acute pain. Cone-Shaped Shells of Venomous Snails (j) Avoid hairy insects. paralysis. •Ticks. •Mosquitoes. Terebra shell Figure VIII-8. for example: •Centipedes. •Poisonous spiders. VIII-6 . blindness and possible death in a few hours. (k) Avoid poisonous insects. the hairs could cause irritation or infection. swelling.
and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis). (a) Milky sap (dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable). (b) Test only 1 part of 1 plant at a time. or black spurs. purplish. Even after testing food and finding it safe. (e) Bulbs (only onions smell like onions). (h) Old or wilted leaves. (1) Selection criteria. leaves. these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. nausea.c. (g) Beans. (a) Before testing for edibility. (2) Avoid plants with the following characteristics: Note: Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants. Prickly pear and thistles are exceptions. however. fine hairs. (i) Plants with shiny leaves. Bracken fern fiddleheads also violate this guideline. (b) Spines.) requires more than 24 hours to test. VIII-7 . or cramps. Plant Foods. (j) White and yellow berries. these guidelines may help determine edibility. or seeds inside pods. Each part of a plant (roots. (d) Umbrella shaped flowers (hemlock is eliminated). test all others before eating. (Aggregate berries such as black and dewberries are always edible.) (k) Almond scent in woody parts and leaves. eat in moderation. Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants: Note: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and choose to try an unknown plant. (c) Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea. stems. bark. ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time and effort. (f) Grain heads with pink. Two good examples are green apples and wild onions. DO NOT waste time testing a plant that is not abundant. etc. bulbs. (c) Mushrooms and fungus.
test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist. test the part raw before eating. (2) Separate the plant into its basic components (stems. smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. roots. If no ill effects occur. (6) During testing. (1) Test only 1 part of a plant at a time. VIII-8 . NEVER ASSUME a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw. thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes (DO NOT SWALLOW). place the plant on your tongue and hold it for 15 minutes. rinse out your mouth with water. The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. Wait another 8 hours. touch a small portion (a pinch) to the outer surface of your lip to test for burning or itching. (12) If no ill effects occur. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. (3) Smell the food for strong acid odors. Remember. Test procedures. the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. (10) If there is no reaction. If any ill effects occur during this period. (4) DO NOT eat 8 hours before the test and drink only purified water. If any ill effects occur. (9) If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip. take NOTHING by mouth EXCEPT purified water and the plant you are testing. (8) Before placing the prepared plant in your mouth. Some plants have both edible and inedible parts.d. (11) If nothing abnormal occurs. induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture. (7) Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it. eat ¼ cup of the same plant prepared the same way. and flowers). buds. The sap or juice should contact the skin. (5) During the 8 hours you abstain from eating. swallow the food and wait 8 hours. CAUTION: Test all parts of the plant for edibility.
2. 2. brain. and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation. you may not be able to cook. ripe fruits. •Avoid rupturing the intestines. (1) Mammals. During evasion. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin. 3. a. tongue. Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants. liver. and eyes. Food Preparation Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound. (d) Unused or inedible organs and entrails may be used as bait for other game. and kidneys) and all meaty parts of the skull. Figure VIII-9. •Remove the intestines. Butchering and skinning. (b) Wash when ready to use. •Open the abdominal cavity. is the best indicator of ripeness. remove it from the bones. (c) If preserving the meat. •Save inner organs (heart. Small Game Skinning VIII-9 .CAUTION: 1. Softness. rather than color. Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. (a) Remove the skin and save for other uses. Cook underground portions when possible to reduce bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. (a) One cut skinning of small game (Figure VIII-9).
(c) Skin or pluck them. (The rest is edible. (b) Insert knifepoint into anus of fish and cut open the belly. (a) Skin. and scavenger birds. b. (6) Fruits. (a) Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after it is caught. CAUTION: Dead insects spoil rapidly. cook food. freshwater fish. (3) Fish. (d) Remove gills to prevent spoilage. (d) Skin scavengers and sea birds. (4) Birds. (c) Remove entrails. VIII-10 . (1) Boiling (most nutritious method of cooking—drink the (a) Make metal cooking containers from ration cans. (b) Protect from flies. head with 2 inches of body. (b) Drop heated rocks into containers to boil water or broth).(2) Frogs and snakes. (a) Wrap in leaves or pack in mud. berries. CAUTION: To kill parasites. (2) Baking. and internal organs. thoroughly cook all wild game. Cooking. Saltwater fish may be eaten raw. DO NOT save.) (b) Recommend cooking grasshopper-size insects. snails. (b) Discard skin. and most nuts can be eaten raw. mussels. crawfish. (5) Insects. (b) Bury food in dirt under coals of fire. (a) Remove all hard portions such as the legs of grasshoppers or crickets. (a) Gut soon after killing. clams.
(b) Roast thinly sliced meat and insects over a candle. •Crushing and pouring water through. Keeping an animal alive. c. however. boiling water is sometimes best. Some nuts (acorns) must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. repeat process until palatable. and taste the plant.(3) Leaching. (1) Long term. •If bitter. Use one of the following leaching methods: (a) First method: •Soaking and pouring the water off. VIII-11 . (2) Short term. Refrigerating. (b) Earth below the surface. c. (4) DO NOT use pitch woods such as fir or pine. •Discarding water. (3) Remove fat. (c) Wrap food in absorbent material such as cotton and re-wet as the water evaporates. Food Preservation b. pour off water. (a) Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool in summer months. is cooler than the surface. (1) Use salt to improve flavor and promote drying. they produce soot giving the meat an undesirable taste. Cold water should be tried first. (b) Second method: •Boil. (4) Roasting. (b) Frozen food will not decompose (freeze in meal-size portions). (a) Food buried in snow maintains a temperature of approximately 32 degrees F. (a) Shake shelled nuts in a container with hot coals. 3. Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food. (2) Cut or pound meat into thin strips. particularly in shady areas or along streams.
Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the meat cool. DO NOT store food in the shelter. (b) Wrap pieces individually. (1) Wrapping food. (b) Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation. (c) Place meat inside the pack for carrying. it attracts unwanted animals. (3) Packing meat on the trail. (2) Hanging meat. (d) Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. (b) Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects. (c) Ensure all corners of the wrapping are insect proof. crabs. (a) Hang meat in the shade. and shrimp in wet seaweed. Protecting meat from animals and insects.d. VIII-12 . (d) Carry shellfish. e. (a) Use clean material. (a) Wrap before flies appear in the morning.
(3) Avoid detection and capture. BIOLOGICAL. (a) Seek existing shelter that may be improved (Figure IX-1). Nuclear Conditions CAUTION: Radiation protection depends on time of exposure.Chapter IX INDUCED CONDITIONS (NUCLEAR. (1) FIND PROTECTIVE SHELTER IMMEDIATELY! (2) Gather all equipment for survival (time permitting). Protection. AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS) 1. a. Immediate Action Shelter IX-1 . Figure IX-1. distance from the source. and shielding.
Parachute or other suitable material Wind Enough room to work 3 Feet Minimum Figure IX-2. •Cover with available material. Improvised Shelter IX-2 .follows: (b) If no shelter is available. dig a trench or foxhole as •Dig trench deep enough for protection. then enlarge for comfort (Figure IX-2).
3 or more feet of earth. b. (6) Foxhole 4 feet deep (remove topsoil (2) Storm/storage cellars within 2 feet radius of foxhole lip). or underground sources are safest. and rest. sleep. Keep handkerchief/cloth over mouth and nose. give close attention to fingernails and hairy parts. (3) Culverts. (a) Water sources (in order of preference): •Springs.8 inches 2. Radiation Shielding Efficiencies (5) Leave contaminated equipment and clothing near shelter for retrieval after radioactive decay. (6) Lie down. Allow no more than 30 minutes exposure on 3d day for water procurement. SHELTER SURVIVAL: Keep contaminated materials out of shelter.3 inches 3. •Water in pipes/containers in abandoned buildings. RADIATION SHIELDING EFFICIENCIES Iron/Steel Brick Concrete Earth . Substance: (1) Water. Present minimal profile to direction of blast. Good Weather: Bury contaminated clothing outside of shelter (recover later). wells. SHELTER: Pick.0 inches 2. Bad Weather: Shake strongly or beat with branches.8 inches Snow 20. DO NOT wring out! PERSONAL HYGIENE: Wash entire body with soap and any water. keep warm. 5 minutes unsheltered is maximum! (4) Basements. IX-3 . Rinse and /or shake wet clothing. Priority: (1) Cave or tunnel covered with (5) Abandoned stone/mud buildings. DO NOT look at fireball! Remain prone until blast effects are over. as soon as possible.2 inches Wood (Soft) 8. DO NOT smoke! 4-6 3-7 8 DAILY RADIATION TIME TABLE for NO RATE METER 9-12 2-4 hours exposure per day Complete isolation 13 Normal movement. No Water: Wipe all exposed skin surfaces with clean cloth or uncontaminated soil. Brief exposure (30 minutes maximum) Brief exposure (1 hour maximum) Figure IX-3. Fallout/dusty conditions--keep entire body covered. Improvise goggles.7 inches Cinder Block 5. •Snow (6 or more inches below the surface during the fallout).(4) Radiation shielding efficiencies (Figure IX-3). Additional thickness added to any amount of thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS: Fall flat.3 inches One thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. Cover exposed body parts.3 inches Ice 6.
ponds. •Water from below the surface (DO NOT stir up the IX-4 . wash and wipe containers before use. pools. (2) Food. •Skin carefully to avoid contaminating the meat. (b) Water preparation (Figures IX-4 and IX-5). apples. •Before cooking. etc. •Smooth skinned vegetables. (a) Processed foods (canned or packaged) are preferred. •Shells of all eggs (contents will be safe to eat). Wash and remove skin. •Avoid animals that appear to be sick or dying. etc. •Purify all water sources. •Aquatic food sources (use only in extreme emergencies because of high concentration of radiation). turnips. etc.). •Filtering through earth removes 99 percent of radioactivity. fruits. •Plants whose edible portions grow underground (for example. (b) Animal foods.•Use a seep well. •Cook all meat until very well done. •Streams and rivers (filtered before drinking). or above ground plants that are not easily peeled or washed. •Lakes. water). cut meat away from the bone. (c) Avoid. potatoes. leaving at least 1/8 inch of meat on the bone. •Edible portions growing above ground that can be washed and peeled or skinned (bananas. •Milk from animals. •Discard all internal organs.). carrots. (d) Plant foods (in order of preference).
Filtration Systems.Figure IX-4. Filtration Systems. Settling Water IX-5 . Filtering Water Figure IX-5.
Clues which may alert you to a biological attack follow: (1) Enemy aircraft dropping objects or spraying. (3) Burns. (e) Prevent additional exposure. loss of hair. and roof of mouth frequently. (3) Wash hair and body thoroughly with soap and water. (4) Unusual substances on the ground or vegetation. (c) Cover with clean dressing. Self-aid: (1) General rules: (a) Prevent exposure to contaminants. (a) Time is required to overcome. (b) Use antibacterial ointment or cleaning solution. (5) Clean teeth. fatigue. (2) Wounds. (b) Cover with clean dressing. and muffled explosions. (c) Drink fluids. (b) Rest. (4) Radiation sickness (nausea. (2) Breakable containers or unusual bombs.c. sick looking plants or crops. (3) Smoke or mist of unknown origin. 2. diarrhea. (d) Drink liquids. (2) Bathe as soon as the situation permits. (a) Clean affected area. (d) Watch for signs of infection. radiation burns). tongue. (c) Rest. b. weakness. (b) Use personal hygiene practices and remove body waste from shelter. avoid fatigue. (4) Clean thoroughly under fingernails. (a) Clean affected area. IX-6 . particularly those bursting with little or no blast. Biological Conditions a. vomiting. gums. Protection from biological agents follow: (1) Use protective equipment. (d) Maintain food intake.
(6) If traveling. etc. b. Protection against chemical agents follows: (1) Use protective equipment. etc. orange. trenches. and skin covered. (5) Construct shelter in a clear area. (4) Feel. Some agents appear as a mist immediately after shell burst. If in doubt. Chemical Conditions a. ground. (1) Smell. or red smoke or mist. IX-7 . (4) Keep food and water protected. Survival tips for biological conditions follow: (1) Keep your body and living area clean. or skin and/or moisture on the skin are danger signs. Many agents are colorless: (a) Color. (3) Keep nose. Presence of sick or dying animals. choking. dark patches on leaves. Detecting. (d) Solid. Yellow.c. (7) Wildlife. difficult breathing. (b) Liquid. 3. (6) General indications. tall grasses. away from vegetation. Tears. Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed. eyes. ditches. Muffled explosions are possible indications of chemical agent bombs. gullies. (a) Exit contaminated area by moving crosswind. Strange taste in food or water indicates contamination. Oily. Most solid state agents have some color. mouth. Irritation to the nose. (b) Select routes on high ground. (c) Avoid cellars. Many agents have little or no odor. (d) Avoid woods. (2) Sight. (3) Sound. (c) Gas. boil food and water for 10 minutes. with entrance 90 degrees to the prevailing wind. and bushes as they tend to hold chemical agent vapors. coughing. travel crosswind or upwind (taking advantage of terrain to stay away from depressions). (2) Avoid contaminated areas. itching. valleys. (5) Taste. dizziness. (2) Stay alert for clues of biological attack.
(4) DO NOT use plants for food or water in contaminated areas. (1) If a chemical defense ensemble is available— (a) Use all protective equipment. Warm water. (b) Follow antidote directions when needed. Self-aid in chemically contaminated areas. Tips for the survivor: (1) DO NOT use wood from a contaminated area for fire. or animals). (2) If a chemical defense ensemble is not available— (a) Remove or tear away contaminated clothing.). •Neutralizing. c. handkerchief. foreign odors. Burying. d. dead fish. (c) Improvise a breathing filter using materials available (T-shirt.(e) Decontaminate body and equipment as soon as possible by— •Removing. (3) Keep food and water protected. IX-8 . etc. Pinch-blotting. fabric. (b) Rinse contaminated areas with water. •Destroying. (2) Look for signs of chemical agents around water sources before procurement (oil spots.
depression. responsible for my actions. anger). I will trust in my God and in the United States of America. anxiety. forgetfulness. guilt. (2) Taking care of your buddy. Preparation— (1) Know your capabilities and limitations. death. environment. and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. illness. (c) Favoring persistency in overcoming failure. Strengthen your will to survive with— (1) The Code of Conduct. A-1 . and cohesiveness promote high morale: (a) Preventing panic. 1. withdrawal.Appendix A THE WILL TO SURVIVE ARTICLE VI CODE OF CONDUCT I will never forget that I am an American fighting for freedom. good organization. fatigue. hunger. and propensity to make mistakes). (3) Faith in America. (2) Keep a positive attitude. (5) Thoughts of return to family and friends. isolation). Group dynamics of survival include— (1) Leadership. (4) Reassuring and encouraging each other. (3) Develop a realistic plan. carelessness. (5) Combat psychological stress by— (a) Recognizing and anticipating existing stressors (injury. (4) Anticipate fears. (c) Identifying signals of distress created by stressors (indecision. Psychology of Survival a. (b) Attributing normal reactions to existing stressors (fear. boredom. (d) Facilitating formulation of group goals. (2) Pledge of Allegiance. (4) Patriotic songs. (3) Working as a team. (b) Creating strength and trust in one another. c. b.
With other survivors— (1) Identify or appoint a religious lay leader. (b) Organizing according to individual capabilities.(5) Influencing factors are— (a) Enforcing the chain of command. (4) Never give up. Spiritual Considerations a. (2) Those who have failed you. k. (4) Pray for protection and a positive outcome. Remember scripture. or hymns. repeat them to yourself and to your God. e. (3) Ask for God’s help. f. h. (2) Give thanks that God is with you. 2. (3) Hope comes from a belief in heaven and/or an after-life. (3) Share scriptures and songs. Forgive— (1) Yourself for what you have done or said that was wrong. Trust. (2) Love for family and self. Praise God and give thanks because— (1) God is bigger than your circumstances. (2) God will see you through (no matter what happens). clergy. Pray for your God’s help. (c) Accepting suggestions and criticism. or others. (1) Faith and trust in your God. j. wisdom. A-2 . strength. and rescue. Meditate. Identify your personal beliefs. Collect your thoughts and emotions. d. Use self-control. b. l. Remember past inner sources to help you overcome adversity. i. (5) Try to have worship services. (4) Pray for each other. Worship without aid of written scripture. (2) Discuss what is important to you. (1) Talk to your God. verses. g. (3) Never lose hope. c.
(7) Encourage each other while waiting for rescue. (b) Praise your God.(6) Write down scriptures and songs that you remember. remember— (a) Your God loves you. A-3 .
and curricula as follows: Army. Implementation Plan Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility (OPRs) will review this publication. and recovery information. and recovery information. The Army will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Army training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commander. Purpose This publication provides Service members a quick reference. 2. pocket-sized guide on basic survival. 4. Distribution is in accordance with the Department of Army Form 12-99-R. 3. validate the information. evasion. Scope This UNCLASSIFIED multiservice tactics. weatherproof.Appendix B Publication Information 1. Application The target audience for this publication is any Service member requiring basic survival. regulations. evasion. US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). and reference and incorporate it in Service and command manuals. B-1 . techniques. and procedures publication is designed to assist Service members in a survival situation regardless of geographic location.
We encourage recommended changes for improving this publication. Distribution is in accordance with Air Force Instructions 33-360. The TRADOC-MCCDC-NWDC-AFDC Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the joint participation of the approving Service commands. User Information a. Distribution is in accordance with Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures Desk Guide and Navy Standing Operating Procedures Publication 409. will likewise be incorporated in revisions to this document. Changes in Service protocol. This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine. Send comments and recommendation directly to— B-2 . Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC). b. Air Force units will validate and incorporate appropriate procedures in accordance with applicable governing directives. command and control (C2) organizations. ALSA will review and update this publication as necessary. US Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC). Key your comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each recommendation. c. The Marine Corps will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Marine Corps training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commanding general. Air Force. The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy doctrinal and training publications as directed by the commander.Marine Corps. appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications. and procedures. Distribution is in accordance with Marine Corps Publication Distribution System. facilities. 5. responsibilities. personnel. Navy.
VA 23665-2785 DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902 E-mail: email@example.com Air Force HQ Air Force Doctrine Center ATTN: DJ 216 Sweeney Boulevard Suite 109 Langley AFB VA 23665-2722 DSN 754-8091 COMM (757) 764-8091 E-mail Address: afdc.mil ALSA ALSA Center ATTN: Director 114 Andrews Street Langley AFB.firstname.lastname@example.org.Army Commander US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATDO-A Fort Monroe VA 23651-5000 DSN 680-3153 COMM (757) 727-3153 Marine Corps Commanding General US Marine Corps Combat Development Command ATTN: C42 3300 Russell Road Quantico VA 22134-5001 DSN 278-6234 COMM (703) 784-6234 Navy Commander Navy Warfare Development Command (Det Norfolk) ATTN: ALSA Liaison Officer 1530 Gilbert Street Norfolk VA 23511-2785 DSN 262-2782 COMM (757) 322-2782 E-mail: email@example.com B-3 .
USN Commander Navy Warfare Development Command TIMOTHY A.This publication has been prepared under our direction for use by our respective commands and other commands as appropriate. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center This publication is available on the Army Doctrinal and Training Digital Library (ADTDL) at http://155. RHODES Lieutenant General. J. USA Commander Training and Doctrine Command J.217. E. SMITH Rear Admiral. KINNAN Major General.58. ABRAMS General. . USMC Commanding General Marine Corps Combat Development Command B. JOHN N.58.
By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force: TIMOTHY A.S. HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army 9916744 DISTRIBUTION: Active Army. KINNAN Major General. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center *Supersedes: AFPAM 36-2246. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 311368. requirements for TM 55-1680-351-10.FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50. SHINSEKI General. Army National Guard. United States Army Chief of Staff Official: JOEL B. and U.3 *AFTTP(I) 3-2. 1 March 1996 Air Force Distribution: F .26 29 JUNE 1999 By Order of the Secretary of the Army: ERIC K.
MARINE CORPS: PCN 14400006800 .
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