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Final de MARX

Final de MARX

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John Brentlinger's Final exam Fall 1988 David Mertz John



I found a few of my papers, but not all of them.

I am giving to I could

you a fresh copy of all my papers along with those which find with comments.



The fourth

s on Peuerbach


itsel f with, among other A proper dialectic contradictions in

matters, the nature of dialectic understanding. understanding addresses itself to the immanent

the real concrete,

rather than merely

the contradictions


this real concrete and its ideological manisfestations religion. Yes, the self as part of the system

-- such as is

of religion

alienated from the self in concrete practical activity -- but this process of alienation Feuerbach's because critique is not explained by Feuerbach, only noticed. of religious life is not truly dialectical, transcendental, and not yet

his understanding

is still


Let me explain, briefly, this difference between transcendental immanent qui te critique. that Feuerbach of must pretend activity


to take a perspective in order to see the




between it and religious activity -- he must treat

concrete activity as one indivisible object, and religious activity as another. From his viewpoint it may be seen that these

is of this concrete productive structure of concrete activity. More than critique is at stake in the fourth II thesis. this contradictions as Marx writes in the fourth thesis. but since nothing may be seen can be given for critique. or . thesis. we -must after change its structure activity and to contradictions eliminate its seen. rather than at this reality from the outside. however. enough to examine the internal structure activity." productive activity may has be After an immanent critique of concrete been made. Marx makes an immanent concrete activity. and finds contradictions not merely between it and ideological immanent insofar activity. no real explanation why this contradiction He looks from within structure far enough exists. internal to concrete activity. of which religious but he was not materialist life was a distorted reflection. concrete activity must be "revolutionized in practice. activity. that of variable capital. Marx actually analyzes the within it. is to change it. Nothing The goal of capital else is important for it. as Marx states. whether that of money.-----~-------------------~-------------- activities contradict one another. the phi losophers the point. that of fixed capital. This critique as it looks wi thin the basic material reali ty." Question 6: is its reproduction and expansion. and may see the internal Feuerbach was materialist activi ty was the of this concrete to assume that concrete productive basic reality. in various ways. have only As he writes interpreted in the eleventh the world. it cares not what form it takes.

hypothesis is proportional the labor time incorporated Marx accepts this. all the commodi ties consumed by a For in a day may have required However. this defini tion. But by what means may capital so expand? It does so by taking the form of one particular commodity. that of labor-power. laborer is. four hours of labor for their production. and long-term observation value': of the world is derived the so-called 'labor theory of to namely. Out of of Smith and Ricardo. It cares not what human has. then. is the labor time necessary the labour time necessary for the reproduction of the laborer. that the value of a commodity into the commodity. In order to understand of capi tal. or as a definition In particular.i. less than by the labor of the laborer to whom the laborexample. but are not .whatnot. this same laborer may be able to labor That labor time which of the commodities Those four eight hours in a day (or twelve or sixteen). defined as mean is. in the tradition price. nor for what as it reproduces consequences this reproduction in as and expansion just so long commodities itself and it is realized expands as rapidly possible. is not though whether as an empirical altogether labor-power clear. (or eight or twelve) in which the laborer works. The value of labor-power the value produced power given belongs. the value of the commodity for its production -. in capitalist production. we must Value how this commodity first understand allows for the expansion notions of the value and surplus-value. exceeds which hours the time necessary laborer consumes for the production produces the surplus-value.e.

Question 7: and 'reality' are. labor time and labor-power Labor is concrete particular acti vi ty. which.necessary reproduce purchased. in the production surplus value. grasping not existing the reality of theories one or 'Appearance' opposites -. Labor-power the capacity or potential which a laborer has to labor. particular It Labor time is labor considered in abstraction from the or days. measured only in hours. under capi talism. than usually better given worse another. universally becomes a commodity. This use-value -.and also to utilize labor time. only which creates is labor value opposed to labor which produces use-values. and clarified. as I have written. always assumes Labor which of time is already an abstraction is made not merely from labor. under capitalism.some theories or descriptions others are only its appearances. However. at that. minutes. time. forms. or the world. for and the reproduction capital. but an abstraction but also in the real in thought process capitalism. -as is form it takes. those the descriptions by Marx are better him. of As labor long as as a class serve may to be of expand labor-power and the associate labor utilized itself. the only commodity owned by laborers. capital may expand Perhaps should activity the distinction be briefly between labor. producing capacity. than given by the vulgar economists a greater piece of the reality who preceeded of capitalism Marx describes than do the vulgar . producing value. descriptions Certainly. in fact.

in reality. and beauty. by of production in which in which labor time particular pointing see." which cornmocli ties enter into. ratios. form. that Marx the reality of capitalism. hides still more. interaction exchange.economists. while the vulgar economists only its appearance. A commodi ty appears. while revealing whole arrangement something.e. disguises the full form of social interaction It is not quite "value" which that which lies is the commodity. sight. is a place where Marx distinguishes way. and in Capital is that of at Its Here fetishized first commodi ties. One particular appearance discussed wri tes.. and is utilized. Again. "A commodity appearance is some simply to them is therefore a mysterious because in it the social character character of men's labour appears as an objective The forms of stamped upon the product of that labour. commodities It hides the are given a Marx. we may say. analysis shows that it is. underneath revealed itself ratios. easily understood. However. systematicity in some sense." and reality thing. process. a very queer thing. trivial thing. the appearance of value in the form of the commodity itself. Inasmuch describes describe as and he does so with greater this is so. a very Marx . exchange to the realities the reality of the production that allows commodities LIS allows us to in certain still. true that nothing by this property --i t is a reali ty appears in the commodity at certain commodi ties exchange and this reality is revealed by the appearance of value. but simultaneously to see a great deal more about . i.

is still hidden of of by Marx's analysis Slirely. he may be said. reality. where only .but insofar in Marx than to them. the in is in -. in the vulgar to reveal economists. they see comparison appearance.capitalism.for example. a key as role less determination the exchange lise-value. something social creating hidden which had been hidden in the other appearance. which commodities plays -.

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