The Construction and Flying of Kites ([c1909]) | Kite | Wood






California THE MANUAL ARTS PRESS PE^RIA. ILLINOIS .MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS Edited by Professor of CHARLES A. Illinois SERIES A NUMBER 1 THE CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES CHARLES M. Bradley Polytechnic Institute. MILLER Assistant Supervisor of Manual Training Los Angeles. Peoria. BENNETT Manual Arts.


Series B. The Reprints will be arranged in two series.TL n M MANUAL TRAINING The ing persistent REPRINTS. or such as supply needed data to students preparing to become teachers. it is believed that from time to time in the future the Magazine will publish articles which owing to their special value ought to be reprinted soon after they appear in the Magazine. as follows: Series A. numbers ought Moreover. To supply this evident need the Manual Training Reprints have been planned and will be issued at irregular intervals as the demand may warrant. of the demand for certain numbers Manual Train- Magazine has led to the conclusion that some of the articles in these to be reprinted. 3 284607 . Discussions having special permanent value. Illustrated articles of special practical value for class use.


him a means of stimulating sponta- neous effort in his pupils and has opened the lar way to a large field of simi- work. : E. They sire MANUAL to instruction in the manual arts stimulates in the pupils the de- have often encouraged pupils to bring home projects into the school. something which may be used to advantage by every school department in the land. M. training teachers generally believe that good school do construction work out of school. but they have seldom differentiated between problems especially adapted to school work and those which are preeminently is home problems. who started it skill." as he It has furnished to call it. must It is give his pupils encouragement and suggestions. made by Dr. to develop kite-making and organize the annual kite tournament which has been so remarkably successful during the past three years. But Some- even the wisest teacher. C. in order to insure the greatest value in such home work. Miller. when it comes. times he must even supply the motive to effort. here. Miller does not claim that Charles kite-making is M.INTRODUCTION. and nothing that we do calls forth more inventiveness. Mr. Moore. he does consider likes an especially good form of work for the school shop. Superintendent Los Angeles I regard our kite day as the best school undertaking that we have. systematic the school and reserved the spontaneous work for work in home problems. more Mr. and more of the spirit of clean sport. Yet such a differentiation teacher's influence practicable and it suggests a broadening of the pupils. The completeness of the success of the kite tournament is shown by the following statement of Public Schools. but it an excellent form of "home occupation work. C. Kite Day is a school festival which we all look forward to and which. California. this point of view with reference to home work that has led Miller of Los Angeles. It is a splendid institution. and the enrichment of the handwork of the late Sometimes the manual training teacher has been striving to stimupupils to spontaneous effort in school when he would have done better to have held the pupils down to organized. but very few teachers have attempted to direct and develop such outside work. is enjoyed by thousands of adults as well as thousands of children. has invented .

1909. we present his article published Volume X. Number 3. August 10. Miller and has added suggestions to teachers concerning the kite tournament. in if iller used* witlv such success. To this article Mr. number of the Manual Training Reprints." t :"\To enable lias . it as apwe have appended his account of the tournament of 1909 just peared in the Manual Training Magazine. as the first tjhe| ljUfitntoat ^nt*nin& Magazine.qther teachers and supervisors to profit by the data Mr. . -THE EDITOR.

KITE In The Chinese. but when . FIG. this amusement the people . he is tempted to try. Yankee invention Kite making and kite flying has received a great impetus the last few years as the result of the efforts of some of the boys who have "older 1 grown. to the small boy. All these developments have been of decided advantage craftsmanship. G. it may be a short time we may expect to see some wonderthat will far excel the Oriental. and "What anthat other boys have constructed them. both children and grown people. but made in two years by the boys safely predicted.many of of China and Japan are unquesjudging by the progress tionably far ahead of us in respects. THE CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. struction as well. come their way. that in ful aerial crafts of Los Angeles. California.' Men of science have found frail structures of the air. for boys keep their eyes but have developed considerable aerial open and are apt scholars when so they are tail . The kites of to-day are more scientific and more con- a boy sees they are possible to construct. flying dates back to very ancient history. interesting possibilities. have been flying kites for ages. some very practical uses These men have not only performed for the certain experiments by means of kites.A TOURNAMENT WINNER. and amputated this appendage. no longer limited to the English bow-kite with its long suspended they have turned kitedifficult of surgeon.

the also. but the needed is not mere weight. forms a ridge on the front surface. It is the same principle as the one employed by the rope walkers who and poise themselves by the use of fans. being sufficient to carry the kite through a temporary disturbance. Instead of the tight-covered surface. and as he works on temptation to these. The cross piece of the frame throws the vertical stick. we might work If we had a very steady breeze. new All boys that who have had some experience in kite flying probably know It takes the wind to make the kite go. The tail steadies the kite. suffi- an old saying. "It It is REPRINTS. plain-surface kite. the cover is bowed. A. Without going too deeply into the physics of the various problems of kite construction. Fig. vague perhaps at first. they don't quite know. and add just the right ballast here and there to make a partial success. like the keel of a bird. sometimes to failure. wants ballast to tackle." ciently used. The first canoes were hollowed out of logs and were round on the bottom. out the right attachment of bridle. A piece of lead suspended to a string It will not answer the purpose finds its will not give poise to a darting kite. called the spine. as by the pull drawn through its due to the resistance offers in being the air. not it The boys use a tissue paper tail for ballast. ful suggestions. and all such disturbances that a boy encounters in all kite-flying. and one not in the boy's work is good to put way. but very often to successconstruction and operation. but we must consider vertical position too quickly." In kite making the boy has an incentive to do some good. and this ward.MANUAL TRAINING other boy has done. its tail. The this tailless kite is must have some recompense for the loss of to be found is in its construction. so much by its actual weight. original thinking in working out plans already prepared. vision. cross-currents. hard. well for- a canoe. The projection of the spine to the front. Such a one would soon leave the uninitiated on but later there was a keel extending 8 wrong side the under side . whirls and calms. Just how. he will soon find he has about as foxy a problem as he He will soon discover that he needs ballast. or to the adjustment of a contrary breeze. and may be likened to the keel of put on loosely. the consideration of a few of the simpler ones may fly not be out of place. I can do. If a boy undertakes to a tightly stretched. It takes is much longer for a tail of this kind to drop to normal position and a constant balancer during that time. So much for kites with tails. pass before his mental which he pursues.

if the kite is not well balanced. from is other air as some there must then get by pushing way. in Fig. down deep kite. does the same. The same and true with a box kite. The windmill fan turns at an angle to the breeze. so foxy The secret. FIG. and very soon recover equilibrium. lies in the proper shap- ing and balancing of the kite in its construction. and the use of keels or balancers sufficient to give additional poise in times of special disturbances. 9 . C. and would carry it on away with it but for the fact that there The air usually a boy attached to the other end of the anchor line. the air will pass too much to one side or the other. as shown by the congestion of arrows. as well a plain one. a proper tilting of the kite's surface to the breeze. The force of gravity has all the while to be overcome. that he would stand on his head. tapers at the top and bottom. thing that causes the wind- What makes mill to turn . but he said the grandpa proved It lacked poise somewhere. so the tailless. if it may be called a secret. then. A. B. and compression means resisa double meaning: tance but that resistance is nearly all on the under side of the kite and is ward and most of the air to escape . flyers. and the surface of the kite FIG. The keel is someis times projected straight out from a flat surface. C will help to demonstrate this principle. behind. Just so with the not square to the front or to the rear. Fig. and if the bridle should not be well adujsted the kite will dodge and dive sufficient to try the and cut up antics most patient. has a tendency to push the obstacle out of the way. but in addition to the lifting power. But the thickening of the arrows has it means compression. just so much more of a lifting force.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. into the water The boat the best of all which gave greater poise. is The attachment of the bridle so cause is such as to throw the upper part far for- by the under route. Kites with their keels will ride a rather turbulent atmosphere. One boy tried to make a "Foxy Grandpa" kite. C. Fig. The air moving against the kite. FIG. in poise Box kites have vertical or oblique surfaces that keep the kite tail without the assistance of the kite rise? this is or special keel. B.


the sticks should be lashed together with string. For very large running from 6 ply to 72. It comes in all colors. with a few rounds between the sticks and around the other windings. basswood pine. as there will be more sagging on one side than the other. however. rice paper. The seine twine. is bamboo excellent. not only but in the way it is put on. kite-line. although larger sheets. A string. string should be about twice as strong as the kite usually pulls in order 11 . to give support to the paper. For box kites and large surface plain kites. for if the string breaks !! For small kites of about three feet a four-ply cotton string is about as good as well twisted cotton string is much to be preferred to a hemp any. care must be taken to avoid getting the goods on the kite too much on the bias. a very important part of the construction. called a "shake. in bending for forms. it Some pre- fer silk." It is of uniform thickness and is split into sticks or ^2 inch in width. size. redwood shingle. as it comes in rather small sheets in this part of the country. Sometimes a light wood of large dimensions is is preferred to heavier wood of smaller considered a very satisfactory wood. they should diagonally in both directions. The framework. covering is See Fig. small rope and wire are used.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. should be light and tough. D. ) ( For folding kites see the bibliography at the end of this The string is an essential part. In the large-sized kites. is inexpensive and durable. and some don't. article. possible to get is With large tailless kites. it Southern California breezes. but split it is bamboo for body construction lacks suffi- very serviceable. If a good grade in the material used The of tissue paper is used. but not for bows in tailless kites. but yellow Spruce and white cedar are very good. Some frames have been made of aluminum tubing. lining cambric is very serviceable. In lashing two pieces together. because is squeezes the pocketbook too hard. is a very serviceable The kites. grades of tissue paper. -f^ about as nailing weakens the be wound stick. In the plain kite. to tighten the whole lashing. little stiffening. In California the boys use a three-foot cient stiffness. a network of string some- times strung over the surface to be covered. makes a very satisfactory covering for our There is a great deal of difference in the is A much stronger paper the Japanese or Chinese it is which usually has to be pasted together. Probably more kites are covered with tissue paper than any other material. A flimsy covering not as good as one with a In draw- ing on the cloth cover. which is usually made of wood.

(3) cylindrical. meet emergencies. or they may be compounded. Constructions belonging to kitology. A saw is used to make the cuts. wireless aerials. around and d. but each may be used in tan- A I. FIG. shows the best way to let in the string at the end of the sticks of the framework. and with the saw-cuts as indicatd above at the end Start by tying string around top of spine at a. each large in itself: A. photographic ap- paratus. Draw it fairly tight through a and tie again. B. but not exactly kites in themselves. As soon as they are equal. and B features. can be subdivided as follows: kites. It is possible (2) triangular. This should not be Now. measure and secure be and cd. A kites. and many other appliances. F. the spine at one-fifth the Tb FIG. pass b in this illustration is a little higher than d. Directions for stringing a tailless will present our might be of value here. Box kites. the bow in the middle. are the messengers. at the lower corner.MANUAL TRAINING to REPRINTS. c. E. as shown on Plate I. as the knife kite is liable to split the wood. Fig. (1) kites with (3) figure B may be divided thus: tails. We will first separate them into two general classes. Fig. signaling devices. We framework with two pieces lashed together. wind securely b and d. b. Some kind up the modes of a classification of kites seems necessary before taking of construction. F. of each stick. (2) tailless (1) square or rectan- gular. distance from the top. 2. 5. as the spine may be bent. FIG. so. E. We now measure and make ab exactly equal to ad. take string and Now See Fig. as shown on Plate Fig. Plain-surface kites. to combine not only the dem. (4) tetrahedral. for the spacing of ab and ad will not necessarily bring be equal to cd. 12 . and a string soon loses in strength if it is allowed to get wet more so. D. if it is not thoroughly dried afterward. 7 of Plate I. parachutes. Remember your string is as only as strong as its weakest point. and Plate II. Fig.

CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. '' Bo* Keet \ 13 . 7a~t Mess Tu/o or more it /ca.(tons of G-rotl -s/>/es.

we must consider the bridle. which should add much to the beauty of the structure. See Fig. two sticks of the star are long to cross the crescent.) The tail is long and is made of short pieces of paper folded or rolled up. and both with or without the fringe. The construction English bow-kite was quite a familiar figure to our fathers. making a hexagonal cover just to the string shown by the dotted line. See Fig. admits of considerable variety. each point of the be a star within a star. The or cover extend over the entire figure. The kite considered the most artistic by a very competent set of judges at last year's tournament was a large six pointed star kite with fringe. beyond the large circle in the card board discs used on the tails little are not sufficient balancers. Attach another . Fig. The circles of the small lower kite should extend a If order to allow good lashing. Take a string long enough to reach from b to c with enough slack to reach out about half tr height 01 the kite away from 14 the kite. of. Kites with tails have a representation in the group on Plate III. to a small The doth can be used) with long tassels on the ends. The pointed star kite also has three sticks of equal length. giving strength to the five whole structure.MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS. 1. they can be made double. Before leaving this group. band around of this be the of a circular kite would addition opment light the outside for the support of a fringe. I. Plate III. is simple and can be easily understood from the drawing. PLAIN-SURFACE KITES. piece of cloth usually is found on the end. contrasting color. The horiA further develzontal stick can be bowed a little to good advantage. The two tails are of heavy cord (twisted heavier than the horizontal. The (The horizontal stick may be omitted. Japanese rectangular kite shown at the top of Plate III is made The vertical and two oblique sticks should be entirely of split bamboo. or there may is Again. sticks The circular kites need little explanation. A crescent frame made of split bamboo. The enough star and crescent is a production of one the school boys. H. but the horizontal should bow a little the upper one more than the lower. They must be securely lashed together at the point of crossing. and smaller stars of contrasting colored papers on the inside. running down one at the tip end. star may be of i kite. G. may may be made. The tail was made up of a graded series of duplicate kites. A The may star kite. Let us show the attachment of a bridle to a hexagonal kite. See photograph. and tied about the middle with the string of the tail.

15 . Of us>~tn /ica.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES.</if <5^// ^e m boo *. PL AT Kites. ma. ur/f/i tatl-s r. Kt-i/ect /" f\ awes are Jr "G ^"~2h-.cfe.

and from that to the bottom. bow and bottom of the spine. They cannot fasten the pieces together and attach bridles carelessly with hope for success. and above illustration. H. Fig. end of the bow. is that just reaches the end of the bow. It has one long The bridle will be attached spine and two bows. Tailless kites are most popular with the boys nowadays. Don't said to be it has to have a tail. See that a e is the same length as b e. but when two long graceful lines float out parallel to each other. the kite is would extend from a to c and from b to d in the The two strings must be played out equally until well up. or may be compounded. you get a very pleasing effect. but should be to the made long enough to reach from the top fog is the length of the bridle. Bring the two strings together at e about one-fourth of the distance above the center. instead of crossing. The bridle is sometimes attached to the two ends of the is spine. The tailless is a very easy flyer and works well in tandem. above the five-pointed The kite would have a little different bridle. but all unite a in their at- must be tached to the kite string or anchor line center. anchor lines are sometimes used for the purpose of performTwo separate bridles are then necessary. I. sometimes the upper end attached where the bow and spine are lashed together. but each operation must be carefully measured and worked. star FIG. as they sway proud of his tail. back and forth in the varying breezes. The Japanese great many points bridle. Plate a compound kite of two tailless. 1. upper 16 at the crossing of the . Plate I. In Fig. and attach the kite-string at this point. sticks. The fox Surely many kites are made more beautiful by the trailing of a long tail.MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS. then by skillful manipulation cast aside a kite just because many beautiful tricks may is be attempted. of equal length to a and d. FIG. 2. 2. and be attached to the anchor above the center of the Two ing kite tactics in the air. The bridle string of the from the top two sticks would meet two strings from the lower end of the line same kite. The anchor line is attached to the point I.


Let the line out until the second is 300 feet or so away. which it is will do as soon as relieved of the load of string. unless tails are used so whether tails are . The bow was broken in the middle. then the fourth. The bridle may loop from one end of the upper bow to the lower end. ing says 30 feet or A In flying the tandem. all small boy came to me one day with a broken heart. some three hundred or more feet. so an extra keel was added that gave poise and made a strong puller of it. but when the latter are attached. Plate I. 4. and should have a very loose covering. large is compound kite has no very great advantage over other is forms. shown in the illustrations or not. on the left-hand gave some trouble one day. The 3. as shown. with one spine and two bows. then put up a No. 2 on an extra line about 100 feet or more. 3. A A aging words soon brought back the smile. 1 to mount higher. 1. and tie this to the main line. Fig. as in Fig. but it is also the most difficult. lift the string it is and allow No. Plate II self-explanatory. be attached in different ways. and it was few encourbecause another boy had broken the bow of his kite. and so on.MANUAL TRAINING Fig. Fig. with another string from its exact center to the lower end of the spine. REPRINTS. The result is shown in the upper corner. the drawmore for the extra line of each kite. 5 of the same plate. third Kites can be put up to a great height in this way. Plate I. as shown in Fig. Spe- 18 . m h are put on. they probably will be needed. The curves split bamboo and are fastened before a k g pulling tailless kites. and attach the third. The three to the left are small boys* The middle one modification. 3 of Plate I Figure Kites. but an interesting experiment. so an extra stick was lashed to the back. The per. is a very satisfactory attachment. for the second. is one of the strong r g and a c b and h d b are made of makes a beautiful kite and flies well. The illustration is given a little to the right. but an hundred First put up a kite on the main line feet and upward is much better. the strings at m and k drav them down into the upper curves. The tailless kites as a rule* are not strong pullers. a beginning of a modificais tion of this class. leaving the spine well raised. lower bow of this kite should not be bent quite as is much as the up- The spacing as essential in this. The construction of figure kites one of the most interesting developments on the amusement side of the whole problem. and a little manipulation brought out as good a sailing kite as there was in the neighborhood. and so on.

or by the use of a brush. I. so a side of the cover. strip pasted over the string to the back thus securing the string to the cover. as it would be as unlimited as nature itself. ankles home. can be modified to suit the occasion. The owl may be made of tan paper with dark brown markings. it is Here a chance of some good observation is A little different method pasting necessary here. see Fig.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. but much more is done by a skillful running of string from one part of the framework to another. but he is not any than some other boys are with their bridle should be attached to the wrists. out with dark paper cut to shape. There are two books by this author that are very worthy Beard's book. Apply the bridle at a b c d. sticks also to the Each arm sticks stick should be securely lashed to both leg where they cross each other. for he is too broad for the height to balance without one. and if carefully made. framework that comes nearest to the center line may be best in some cases. so stow it away. The boy more obedient duties at kite in the flying." and "The OutHandy Book. Reed is is to form the outline of the head. the The bridle jshould be attached to both kite should fly without a tail. feet. cific directions or comment cannot be given to each. The arm and used top of the head. so a glance at a skeleton here and there will Much of the detail must be brought be as much as we can accomplish. A re- light yellow butterfly with dark markings makes a showy The verse is also true. This hint will 'be useful T many times. Tlv attention. A while in others the object will be. The suggestions for the boy kite on Plate was found in D. to approach the outline. at times. The body of the butterfly can >c made of a stiff piece of paper. in nature study. of recommendation V door "American Boy's Handy Book. beetle is so near like the owl that it will not require separate . C." Many interesting figures are worked out in kite The two books named should be in every home where there are forms. as impossible to get the irregular outline is by turning over the edges. hands and Some very for pretty butterfly kites have been made. Sometimes a of out with a stiff to is some small depiece paper pieced figure carry tail of the outline. The bat will surely need a tail. restless boys. kite. ends of the spine and both ends of the upper bow. The two horizontal pieces should be bowed. The antennae of light wire or small reed. at the same time leaving the irregular edge free.

c a . PLATE V. BUTTERFLY Dark brou un't/% light spots.MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS.


Plate III. It necessary to have these open spa as air vents. one at each end. construction of the banner kite is the is same as Fig. Los Angeles. I. Boyle St. kites with the addition of propelling is Reference to Plate IV should convince one that there ample opportunity for variety in this class. K. struct these carefully them without be possible to conThe tails should be in the shape of anchors when used. The K. construction of the balloon kite tail. balloon should be dark This has never been tried to my 512 knowledge. tion. j. 4. The second general division has more than ordinary interest these days. Plate VI. given on Plate The basket and cords take the place of a The S. running lengthwise. The braces of FIG. most important of the The latest air ships are kites of large dimensions. combining compound box and plain apparatus. the square or rectangular being perhaps the most familiar. BOX KITES. as out of this group has been developed the air ship inventions. one in each Two corner. with an open space is L:"ween ? them. The The color. The winding is to prevent splitting when size for the is suddenly wrenched by a whirl of wind. are very about the construction given in the I believe it will tails. brace should be cut to fit the corner piece. and four short ones used as braces. REPRINTS. The braces should be just long enough between the kite A ' . The brownies make interesting kites. enough to fly and dark hulls. Cal. ship kites with white sails The one to the right is "Outdoor Handy Book. It consists of a light bands of paper or cloth surround the kite.MANUAL TRAINING The beautiJttl. too. K. are fitted in about half the depth as the cell. shown in Fig. good long sticks is -f^x^x 34 inches set diagonally in the corner as shown in Fig. are hard to fly. so he who succeeds with it may send word to the writer. The square kite is only square in cross sec- framework of four long sticks. 'Lone cortr called a cell. The baftu is and space enclosed Cirdof FIG.." by Beard. but like Foxy Grandpas.


24 . They are not comin class in a and but not tandem. kites. Shallow notches notches to necessitate their being sprung into place. kites. M. year by using body will be inclined the same amount. they may connecting string. It is easy to see that rolled into small space and is very serviceable. the it two hems. difficulty V/////A W///A FIG. should be cut in the long sticks to receive the braces. which is not true of other box. The making lifting of box kites requires more real construction. Bell until can be made of any size.MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS. and the other two glued as Such a kite can be even spacing that otherwise would be hard to get. bibliography. L. no great and by reference to the be should encountered. The can be some head tailless kites throughout. when dry gether. The two 1 inch edges should quire a strip 64 inches long plus inches so wide to allow for have a /2 inch hem. edge of the long shown in Fig. and their power is greater. but the tetrahedral has been developed by Dr. by themselves. but many articles We start with two sticks two sticks can be brought toshown in Fig. cannot leave the kites proper without mentioning the dragon are a series of plain surface kites. L. The triangular box kite can be compounded to quite it an extent. They side and sometimes at the bottom should all be the same length between kites. should be turned back like a side to give strength to the fast to the outside first as hem and pasted down with a string inThe cloth or paper should be glued edge. M. the strip would need to be 10 inches. will suppose to be of cloth. and the cell should be 9 ] The . all the sec- tions of the on kite has discs for the last The Chinese draga successful but plan was adopted very body kites. The pounded. FIG. DRAGON I KITES. the have been writen on this phase of the subject. directions cannot be given for all the box kite class. the kite to be covering we 16 inches square. with a number of adjustable planes for guiding purposes. If paper is used. The Chinaman devised a set of harness to make a lot of single kites pull together. It will refor seam. This gives an sticks. belong be at the top and or whatever called. so that when the head is tipped to the proper angle. traces. Some of the aeroplanes have a number of square cells in a series.

This year we used a beam for the yacht and a wire nail bent into the shape of a hook for the release of the sail. but it is not large enough in diameter the drum. inspire any boy to work hard to win success. Very light splinters of bamboo with tassels of tissue paper on the ends. show what was accomplished' by a lad twelve years old with a kodak on a kite string. Nicholas for should October. The "Yacht Race We ent mechanism last year for our yachts. larger with the lower part of the covering (best of cloth) left loose and longer than the kite. The drawings of reels should require no special direction. the See operate Chinese dragon kite.'be elastic. which blows back in the breeze like a beard. The centipede kite is about the same in construction. The may consist of a rod about the width of the body kite. can be used as balancers. so this must be built up. stick A broomfor makes a very good rod. in the Clouds. sented. with ] streamers floating out behind. body kites. A dragon kite with a 3 ft. FIG. so that when the sail is released it will pulled down quickly. The signaling and experiments in photography have been well forth in articles given in the bibliography. It will require a sturdy boy or two to a "American Boy's Handy Book" for the such monster. spacing between kites. For this reason it is cut in irregular shapes. 1900. thus expediting the return. head and 2 ft. All the way from 6 to 15 body kites tail piece may be used with about 2 /2 ft. N FiG. like an apron. Figs. Some of the boys have attached light . but used a little differit is no easy matter to make a successful yacht. 0. extending a few inches to the outside of the kites. but there is still room for im- provement. set Two photographs here pre- and O." by Nugent in St.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. will prove very satisfactory. 25 . These should be very carefully spaced. N.

All the participants were not registered. . knowledge developed in a manual training course working out own problems by himself. 1907. 1. 27. Lorrimer. Mimeograph sheets were posted in each school with drawings similar to those presented here. that might be used in a similar way. The tournament is brought about for the purpose of recognizing the efforts and success of the home occupation. Festival of the Lantern Kites Amer. . 2.. Lit.. ing The boys got their ideas. 19. The home kite undertaking occupation.. 10. greater success.. messengers. Cur. might be said about the streamers.. 1902. Franklin Kite Experiments with Modern Apparatus Frost Pop. and 216 registrations were made. March. Sci. 1903. June 1. The air seemed full of kites It was a big and little. fore. The is encouraged through the schools. for use as suggestions. Cent. Wise.. Craze About Kites Competition of Kite Flying Sci. Bell. 8. etc. N''?ent. June Nic. 1901 Tindal. Experiments by A. but is a construction is not carried on in the manual is training shop. and the exhiwas worth going to see. Construction of Kites Sci. 6.. The tournament of 1908 was a much Fully five thousand people were present. Supp.. 9. May. but The boy in uses his his used as a supplement to shopwork. June 13. King (Tetrahedral) Sci. Jan. Bell Sci Amer. July. Amer. strong and curious. but 39 schools were represented. 1907.. reach boys through this sport. Mo. Roth. Supp. 1907. 1903 . 1907. 5. 1903. Bell. 31:739. Circus on a Kite String Experiments with Kites St. 1902. G. 11. and many teachers have been able to that they were not able to understand be- The are kite problem is seasonal. Overland. Much tion. Lit. Amer.. bition sight to be remembered. what would otherwise be Many mothers have expressed their approval of the undertaking. June. Exploration of the Atmosphere at Sea Sci Excursion with Kites Cur.. wireless opera- but we will close with just a word on the purpose and plan of the work. The tournament of 1907 was recorded in the MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE of December. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF KITES IN PERIODICAL LITERATURE.MANUAL TRAINING REPRINTS. 26 . 7. May 2.. There many similar projects having as great variety as this one. and worked them out duridle hours. 4. 3. 32:78.

Meteorological Phenomena on Mountain Summits Sci. Amer. 1903. 53:48. Lit. Amer. Kite as a Life Saver at Sea Engineer Mag. 46:359. 48.. 36:278. 29:582. July Meteorograph Construction and Operation Sci.. 13. Adams. Bell Tetrahedral Princip'e in Kite Pop. 6. Picturesque Chinese Kites Sci. 27 . 21. 1904.. Hargrave Box Kite and Tetrahedral Compared Amer. 1904.. Geog. Soc. April. Sept. May 10. 1907. Amer. Beasley. June 27. June 3. Amer. also Nat. 36. 1900. G. Photography from Kites 38. Scientific McClure. Arts. 1907. 58:1026. 1900. 55:150.. 24. 27.. Dec. 30:43. Tetrahedral Kites of A. Kite Flying in the East Cur.. Nich. Kite Principles in Aerial Navigation Sci. Marvin. 10. 32:66.. 27. Varney. 12. Worn. 20. Sept.. Scientific Kite Scientific Kite Flying Flying Century... Modern Kite and Government Experiments Outing. Claudy. Traction by Kites. June 1903. 16. 1906.. Lit. Kite Flying. Supp. Construction Sci.. Amer. Amer. Dec. Zah. Ferguson. Feb. Baden-Powell. Oct. . Supp.. Folding Malay Kites Sci. Millett. June. 1905. Hunter. 13. Amer. International Kite Ascensions International Kite Flying Contest Amer. Sci. Moffett. 1903 29. 1906 47. Marvin. 78:576. Feb. 30.. 1903.. Kite Flying as a Fine Art World Today. Claudy. Eddy.. Independent. 5. Dec. Kite Balloon. Century. 13. Kites and Meteorological Observations Nat. 41. Oct.-Sci. 19. Kite Flying in Life Saving Operations Sci. 18. April Tetrahedral Kite. 11. Tetrahedral Kite in. 32. Kite Flying in 1897 Pop. 28. 6:379. 21. 148:241. 1903 Grosvenor. Mar. F. June . V. 1904. 17.. Scientific Kite Spec. Supp. 26. Woglom.. 1903. Oct. 1904. Amer. 43.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. New and Observation Kites Invented by Sci. Amer. 50. Amer. 31. July 25. Sci. Aug. 1907. Kite in War and Peace Chaut. Kites in the Service of Meteorology Nature. Their 23.. 49.ur. Oct. 35. 39. Captive Nat. Ser- viss... Clayton. Briggs.. 21. 1900. 33. Cody 13. 1903. TTr ireless Telegraphy Sci. Supp. Tailless Kites. July. 46.. Kite in Meteorological Research J. 1903. 1901. 34.. 45. 7:213. 15. Use in Meteorological Observations at Sea Sci. 3. Sci. Rotch. Amer.. Com. How to Make Kites and Flying Gigs Sci. 1907. 31. 20. How Made Outlook. Apr. 22.. Franklin Inst. 40. 1907. Kites.. Sci. Supp. Welsh. Oct.. Amer. Flexible Bridles on Kites 14... Scientific Kite Flying Signaling with Kites Nich. Amer. Amer. Home 10. Oct.. Theory and Practice Jo. Supp. April. 29. St. Amer.. 32:86.. Sci. 1907. Sci. 37. 42. 1900. 1900. Eddy. 41. Observation War Kites Sci.. 9. S. Scientific Kite Flying St. 25.

Rotch. the superintendent c. Supp. Some six weeks or tht irector i should send out the announcement. Nugent.. 1901. WINDMILL KITE TOURNAMENT OF 1909. a co in each room. It is not ne sssary to have a manual training system to start kite construction. Oct. If the occupation is enT couraged in selected schools. April 18. so before^ the tournament. 1900. Dec. Nat. 53.. 12:543. 63:108... In case there no manual training supervisor. S. War Kites 54. At least on" copy of k instructions should be sent to each school. Oct.. Nic. 11:55. Work with Kites by U. REPRINTS. 21-28. Weather Bureau Nat.. Yacht Race in the McClure. of the instructions could be placed . training is would naturally be the best one to act as director. in Meteorological Observations 1903.MANUAL TRAINING 51. Baden-Powell. Use Mag. - In organizing a kite tournament some one person should take the The supervisor of manual responsibility of the undertaking as a whole. Sci. 13. 1900. Geog. In "Los Angeles four or more copies were and they had hard wear. sent to each school. 52. Clouds St. Amer. THE KITE TOURNAMENT. B.*v appoint some one especially interested in boys' sports. * own material and do the work at home. In special be ripped out in the ' u boys get their the sticks c may manual training room.

should not be too near the tournament as the boys do not want to exhibit their kites then for fear they may be torn or that someone else may get their ideas and copy them. c. if there is in the building. sec- Each school might have a but it ' 'try-out" week before the tournament. animal. b. that has plenty of room. Bulletin boards designating where the various feats are to take place. Most artistic kite. The street car out of it. Group flyer. work in barns. best boy kite. Group Bird. they sight. more than other The feats. . d. The work one principal of the school is the proper person to encourage the of that school. registration should be taken at the various schools by the prin- The cipals the director the day preceding the tournament and should be turned in to the same evening. e. Los first Angeles started with eight the first year. and thirty in four groups the third year. When the boys get to cellar work in real earnest for contest. reels. and are also very serviceable in keeping back the crowds from some of the contestants. b. a. a. A company gets good returns few policemen have a quiet- ing effect on boys with inclinations to do mischief. 29 . Choose a place for the tournament that is free from wires. sixteen in three groups the ond year. seconded by the It is manual training teacher. that is open to the breeze and is accessible to car service. of insect kite. down some place out of in the air the last No t kites for the tournament may be looked for week. See the street car officials that the car crews may give the kindest con- sideration to the kite boys.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. good policy to use the principals and manual teachers to training teachers as judges as they will do get out a good representation. best invention. These boards should be placed high enough well above the heads of the spectators. are of to be much service. SUGGESTIVE PROGRAM FOR THE FIRST TOURNAMENT. tournament should not be loaded down with too many Perhaps eight or ten would be enough for a beginning. e. Reels may be used to wind in. suspended banners. highest strongest puller (to be tested by spring scales) II. It is quite difficult to get a complete regis- tration on the tournament grounds. I. c. so should be very considerate. String must be measured before the tournament) . best decorated kite. quarter mile dash (in which a boy lets out 1320 feet of string and winds it in again. d.

for The simple ones are of kite much tion better the study of the main principles construc- Until some ability has been acquired.MANUAL TRAINING It REPRINTS. work. too. all seems best to so plan the tournament that as it the kites may re- main up during the afternoon. away and our 30 fears but by three o'clock some of were removed. chairman of athletic sports committee.. would strengthen a bond The start the foregoing sketch and notes on kite-making give enough to w ork r of construction. but stops short of complete details. but leave something for the boys to work out for themselves. Then. he does not recognize and flying. The ginning. some of the boys brought their lunch and were on the grounds by eight in the morning. and the director. to be kept until the next tournament. changing to a southerly direction in the afternoon. from a northerly direction in the The tournament be- gan at about 2 o'clock. are It is much possible that a silver to the school cup might be used to good advantage as a trust winning the greatest number of points. the kite flyer cannot properly diagnose a case of kite delirium. but the social gathering of the schools and the learning to abide by the judges' decision are valuable assets to the year's. the kites of one entry pulled will probably be impossible to get down if all to give way to another. LOS ANGELES KITE TOURNAMENT. . would up-to-date kite for their it own pleasure and the encouragement of of fellowship wonderfully. If principals or instructors. boys should be encouraged to select the plain kites at the bethe tendency being just the opposite. signed by the superintendent. The is article is intended for suggesion. there is a much better showing the kites can remain up all the time. The Third Annual wind was morning School District was held April Kite Tournament of the Los Angeles City It was a glorious day but the 3. There was not sufficient breeze at the beginning to support the large kites and it looked quite discouraging. quite uncertain. The greatest good derived from the planning of the kites and the construction of the same. simple defects. and may give up a good some grown up boys who are acting as make an the boys. bition of skill at the tournament. 1909. kite that is nearly a success. these kites only pulling about 2 the kites began to break Ibs. Simple little diplomas. recognizing superior exhiappreciated by the victors.

Simple diplomas stating the feat in which the contestant excelled were given to the victors. Electricity will probably be used for a simi- lar purpose next year. Larger kites and tion tempted than heretofore. CALIFORNIA. . A number of girls entered this year but do not like to compete with the boys except in artistic make-up and decorative features. 31 were genteel and happy. is hard pressed and so a place will be given for spirit of the fifth grade and The and all whole occasion was excellent no bitter strife of one school with another each child enthusiastic about the whole affair. shape and energy were exhibited. to wag One example of the sort is enough to start a whole new field of possibilities. while excited. ARTISTIC KITE TOURNAMENT OB 1909. the thousands of children. printed with brown ink on a light tan paper. in. A more complex construction were atgood start was made on trussed construc- Many are planning its One kite had a windmill inside frame which gave motor power to work a lever which caused a head above the kite. The l diplomas were 5 /2 x 8^2 in. The boy too under. The interest is ever increasing with both the children and the parents and a great assembly was present to witness the contest. to secure a prize next year.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. so a numsmall ber of feats exclusively for girls will be added next time. and interest did not cease with the tournament.. SECOND PRIZE. It was a magnificent sight when all the various creations of color. LOS ANGELES.

some getting mixed up. is At first. Nat Stockwell of the of place. as well as the rest. however. In a race. but when it the scales pulled 34 pounds while the other registered but 28 pounds. is now to that. were applied one This coma was found that one had Only two 400 feet yachts were in condition at the time for the race. The ing. Very soon three kites were far in the lead. See! one is at the . yonder winding in now another is windwind in. excitement too great to even yell. Perhaps the most exciting feat was the quarter mile dash. In nearly every case there is a very willing submission to the decision of the judges. so the children are learning valuable lessons for life in their own contests. one wins and the others must lose. The and to say that the boys per- crowd about the boys shut spired freely off all breeze putting very mildly. now to this side. the simpler kites with inexpensive materials are superior to the opposite. kites one winding in a little over a yard at each turn . some members is of the family will be very indifferent. Each boy was to start his kite. There was a prolonged yell about first this time. Here comes the first one right is down with a bang on the heads of the spectators. Each boy was entitled to one Policemen kept the helper and they were timed by one of the judges. Now one nearly overhead! Noisy? It No. father. 1320 reel feet of string. larger boys try for the difficult feats of skill and strong pullkites Two seemed almost alike. not allowed to remain there. ten entries but seven started . then left one of the kites kept breaking away so the one where the sail was tripped and the yacht spun made its down to ascent of its proud of to owner. making suggestions. 32 . The second follows hard after. making the round trip in about 2^2 minutes. they are being pulled unmercifully. catches his kite way out and snap goes the string! The other two are working his string and is . a boy works on his kite for a month or more. and Sometimes they turn out in full force to see Bobbie win the prize. one failing to carry all the string. but by the time the kite finished. and so the race is over. to their limit. and Elgin is McNarry it Union Avenue School had won McKinley Avenue second. etc. soon after starting to tree. parison brought out further study in which curve that the lighter puller did not have. crowd back from the lines.MANUAL TRAINING Many of the REPRINTS. Out the string was all measured and handed the boys at the time for starting. up the the mount is in the sky. end of ing in in the third. play out and when it was all out he could attach it to a and wind it in as fast as possible. but is dragged right into the reel.

g. Balloon ascension (endurance) operations. (beauty). kites . snapping off a post. Bird kite. Artistic kite. e. e. decorated kite. Yacht race. kite. may be cautious how they handle w ire r kite lines near The program a. One quences. also instructive for next year's construction. Man (over d. Strong puller 3^ feet) . b. . the kite broke loose he became confused and got tangled fell.CONSTRUCTION AND FLYING OF KITES. flyer. let the wire drop across the trolley wire. f. Kite antics. Parachutes. Wireless d. High a. This is reported that others trolley systems. Best h. event looked very serious for a time but had no serious conse- A lad had entered the wireless competition and had plans. Group (under 3 f. The boy claims he did not have any bad effects from the schock. A gust of wind. b. c. AN OLD BICYCLE BROUGHT INTO SERVICE IN THE LOS ANGELES TOURNAMENT. kite. Balloon ascenkite. Insect kite. Quarter mile dash. c. he had aluminum wire to a for a conductor from his kite laid good and had the ground wire attached snapped his kite loose and water hydrant. II. as kite . Photograph from Dragon Aeroplane g. . A real glider was brought on by one and of the boys. When wire. Group Star kite. 33 . of the tournament \\as as follows: b. Real glider. however. in his The current was sufficient to stun him and he As soon as he was removed he revived and was taken home immediately. I. c. / T 2 feet) g. An attempt was made to glide for a short distance but a gust of wind caught the aeroplane and forced one corner to the ground. d. Group sion III. it was very inter- esting at the time. Strong puller e. Suspended figures. f. Animal a.

Quick f. Smallest box kite. construction of kite. Windmill kites. Kites with moving Best invention. c. 34 . parts. a. Reels. c. Smallest plain kite. REPRINTS. b. but the colors are missing. A few of the winners are shown by the photographs. a very important feature in the kite's appearance. g.MANUAL TRAINING Group IV. d.

with brass fasteners. in heavy paper covers. Board covers. planes and their use. This book consists of 32 plates of working drawings suitable for use in grammar and high schools and 24 pages of text.00. w. Each of these figures an Essentials of Woodworking. The book is illustrated by more is than one hundred figures. by following skill. interest and taste of the pupil. including ten plates of working drawings. developisometric Each problem given ments. covers. with numerous pen drawings by Edwin V. grinding and whetting. construction and finishes. problems involving tangents. planes of projection. This is illustrated a comprehensive textbook on woodworking tools. $1. paneling. The book covers simple projection straight lines and circles. By CLINTON SHELDON VAN DEUSEN. Problems in Furniture Making. At Home and in School. but not to take the place of. With drawings made by Fred D. It work in wood. and door construction. Even without a teacher a bright boy. including laying-out tools and their use. Each plate is a working drawing. and the subjects usually included in a grammar and first-year high school course. I The book Tools and elementary processes. Crawshaw. Price. $1. revolution of solids.00. may acquire considerable a safe guide for farmers' boys as well as for city boys.Books on the Manual Arts Beginning A in full Woodwork. $1. and Its bound in purpose is to furnish teachers of classes beginning mechanical of simple. Price. saws. Lawrence. with a large heavy paper covers drawing number These have been selected with reference to the formation of good habits in technique. $1. book illustrated by Edwin Victor Lawrence. wood. including a great amount of information common joints. Problems in Woodworking. to supplement. useful articles suitable either for school or this home problems. that should be given to a student along with his of models. lettering and working drawings. 75 cents. 20 cents extra. is This book consists of 80 plates and a few explanatory notes. scraping. 35 . sandpapering. original drawing made expressly for this book. GRIFFITH. boring tools. the II Simple joinery. materials and processes. By CHARLES A. and clear description in detail of the fundamental processes of elementary benchwork This description is given through directions for making a few simple. rabbeting. chisels. form work. By IRA s. intersections. or problem in bench work that has been successfully worked out by boys in one of the grades from seven to nine inclusive. Board Price. Many of the problems can be worked out in various ways according to the individual ability. laying out duplicate parts. CRAWSHAW. MURRAY. and fastening parts. Problems in Mechanical Drawing. contains three parts. and little is especially well suited for use in rural and village schools in which the teacher has had but experience in the use of woodworking tools. Ill Wood and wood-finishing. the interest of the pupils. including chapters on design.00. It is faithfully. Price. convenient collection of good problems ready to place in the hands of the pupils. Price. The book does not contain a course may be used with any course. projection. 1 Board covers. By FRED D. is unsolved and therefore in proper form to hand to the pupil for solution. A forty plates By M. 20 cents extra. and notes on the problems. practical problems. including directions for making elementary cabinet work involving drawer construction.00. BENNETT. the instruction given by the teacher. 20 cents extra. It consists of bound in heavy paper covers with brass fasteners.

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