IPA Phonetic symbols for English

1. [aj Open front unrounded vowel; also for open vowel
between front and back. First element of English
diphthongs in price, high, mouth, how

2. [oj Open back unrounded vowel; English father

3. [æj raised open front unrounded vowel; English trap, bad

4. [bj voiced bilabial plosive, English b

5. [oj voiced alveolar (sometimes: dental) plosive, English d

6. [o¸j voiced palato-alveolar affricate, English j

7. [drj voiced post-alveolar affricate, English dr

8. [ðj voiced dental fricative, in English father

9. [cj close-mid front unrounded vowel

10. [cj mid central unrounded weak vowel

11. [j mid central unrounded vowel, RP nurse

12. [fj voiceless labiodental fricative, English f

13. [gj voiced velar plosive, English ‘hard’ g

14. [hj voiceless glottal fricative, English h

15. [ijclose front unrounded vowel; English fleece [i:j; English
neutralization of [i:-ij, happy

16. [ij lax [ij, English kit

17. [jj voiced palatal approximant (semi-vowel), English y
in yet

18. [kj voiceless velar plosive, English k

19. [Ij voiced alveolar lateral, English l

20. [mj voiced bilabial nasal, English m

21. [nj voiced alveolar (sometimes:dental) nasal, English n

22. [pj voiced velar nasal, English ng

23. [oj first element of AmE diphthong in goat [ooj

24. [5j open-mid back rounded vowel; English north, thought

25. [oj open back rounded vowel; RP lot

26. [pj voiceless bilabial plosive, English p

27. [rj voiced post-alveolar approximant, English red

28. [sj voiceless alveolar fricative, English s

29. [jj voiceless palato-alveolar fricative , English sh

30. [tj voiceless alveolar (sometimes:dental) plosive, English t

31. [tjj voiceless palato-alveolar affricate, English ch

32. [trj voiceless post-alveolar affricate, English tr

33. [0j voiceless dental fricative, English th

34. [uj close back rounded vowel , English goose [u:j, English
neutralization of [u:-oj, thank you

35. [oj lax [uj, English foot

36. [vj voiced labiodental fricative, English v

37. [\j open mid-back unrounded vowel, English love

38. [wj voiced labial-velar approximant (semivowel),

English w

39. [zj voiced alveolar fricative, English z

40. [¸j voiced palato-alveolar fricative , in English measure

(Note: The 20 vowel phonemes are: [oj, [ij, [\j, [oj,
[cj,[æj,[cj,…

(The 24 consonant phonemes are: (p, b, t, d, k, g) plosives,
(o¸, tj) affricates, (j, w) semi-vowels, (ð, 0) dentals,
(m, n, p)nasals, (r, l) liquids, (I, v, s, z, j, ¸, h) fricatives. )

Plosives: p, b, t, d, k, g
Alveolars: t, d, z, s, l, n
Velars: g, p, k, w
Fricatives: ð, I, h, s, j, 0, v, z, ¸
Affricates: o¸, tj, or, tr Example: nutshell ['n\t jcIj. Note the
gap between t and j so that ‘tj’ here is not an affricate.
(plosive+fricative)

Clusters: dr, tr

Approximants: r, j, w

Semivowels: j, w

Voiceless: I, h, p, k, s, j, t, 0
Voiced: b, d, d¸, or, ð, g, I, p, r, j, m, n, v, z, ¸
Dentals: ð, 0
Nasals: m, n, p
Liquids: r, l


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