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Ahmed Adel Ibrahim Mohamed SECTION: 1 B.N: 32
A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. Pumps fall into three major groups: direct lift.A pump is a device used to move fluids. such as liquids. and "ra#it$ pumps. di placeme!t. Their names describe the method for moving a fluid pump classifications :- . gases or slurries.
.Positive displacement pump A positive displacement pump causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it and then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe.
he relief valve can be internal or external. • • Rotary vane pump Rotary positive displacement pumps . A relief or safety valve on the discharge side of the positive displacement pump is therefore necessary. &owever due to a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases" a truly constant flow rate cannot be achieved. A positive displacement pump must not be operated against a closed valve on the discharge side of the pump" because it has no shut#off head like centrifugal pumps.g. the (endelkolben pump) or liquid ring vacuum pumps. Positive displacement types A positive displacement pump can be further classified according to the mechanism used to move the fluid' • Rotary-type positive displacement' internal gear" screw" shuttle block" flexible vane or sliding vane" circumferential piston" helical twisted roots (e. Linear-type positive displacement' rope pumps and chain pumps.Some positive displacement pumps work using an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. hus" positive displacement pumps are "constant flow machines". he pump manufacturer normally has the option to supply internal relief or safety valves. Reciprocating-type positive displacement' piston or diaphragm pumps. A positive displacement pump operating against a closed discharge valve will continue to produce flow and the pressure in the discharge line will increase" until the line bursts or the pump is severely damaged" or both. he volume is constant given each cycle of operation. he internal valve should in general only be used as a safety precaution" an external relief valve installed in the discharge line with a return line back to the suction line or supply tank is recommended. Positive displacement pump behavior and safety !ositive displacement pumps" unlike centrifugal or roto#dynamic pumps" will in theory produce the same flow at a given speed ($!%) no matter what the discharge pressure.
Reciprocating positive displacement pumps . As the rotor turns" the vanes trap fluid between the rotor and the casing" drawing the fluid through the pump. Advantages: $otary pumps are very efficient because they naturally remove air from the lines" eliminating the need to bleed the air from the lines manually.!ositive displacement rotary pumps are pumps that move fluid using the principles of rotation. he vacuum created by the rotation of the pump captures and draws in the liquid. )ecause of the nature of the pump" the clearance between the rotating pump and the outer edge must be very close" requiring that the pumps rotate at a slow" steady speed. $otary pumps that experience such erosion eventually show signs of enlarged clearances" which allow liquid to slip through and reduce the efficiency of the pump. $otary vane pumps # similar to scroll compressors" consisting of a cylindrical rotor encased in a similarly shaped housing. Drawbacks: !ositive displacement rotary pumps also have their weaknesses. Screw pumps # the shape of the internals of this pump usually two screws turning against each other pump the liquid. $otary positive displacement pumps can be grouped into three main types' • • • +ear pumps # a simple type of rotary pump where the liquid is pushed between two gears. *f rotary pumps are operated at high speeds" the fluids will cause erosion.
Simple hand pump &and#operated" reciprocating" positive displacement" water pump in .ahanovce" Slovakia (walking beam pump). Liquid flows into the pumps as the cavity on the suction side expands and the liquid flows out of the discharge as the cavity collapses. . 3iaphragm pumps # similar to plunger pumps" where the plunger pressuri4es hydraulic oil which is used to flex a diaphragm in the pumping cylinder. ypical reciprocating pumps are' • • !lunger pumps # a reciprocating plunger pushes the fluid through one or two open valves" closed by suction on the way back. his type of pump was used extensively in the early days of steam propulsion (12th century) as boiler feed water pumps. 3iaphragm valves are used to pump ha4ardous and toxic fluids. $eciprocating#type pumps require a system of suction and discharge valves to ensure that the fluid moves in a positive direction. he volume is constant given each cycle of operation. %ost reciprocating#type pumps are /duplex/ (two) or /triplex/ (three) cylinder. hese positive displacement pumps have an expanding cavity on the suction side and a decreasing cavity on the discharge side. he pumps can be powered by air" steam or through a belt drive from an engine or motor. !umps in this category range from having /simplex/ one cylinder" to in some cases /quad/ (four) cylinders or more. $eciprocating pumps are those which cause the fluid to move using one or more oscillating pistons" plungers or membranes (diaphragms). $eciprocating pumps are now typically used for pumping highly viscous fluids including concrete and heavy oils" and special applications demanding low flow rates against high resistance.o-ice#. 0urthermore" they can be either /single acting/ independent suction and discharge strokes or /double acting/ suction and discharge in both directions.
*t is widely used on car engine oil pumps" and also in various hydraulic power packs.• • !iston displacement pumps # usually simple devices for pumping small amounts of liquid or gel manually. . 0luid is pumped around the outer periphery by being trapped in the tooth spaces. *t does not travel back on the meshed part" since the teeth mesh closely in the centre. $adial piston pump arious positive displacement pumps he positive displacement principle applies in the following types of pumps' • • • • • • • • • • • • rotary lobe pump !rogressive cavity pump rotary gear pump piston pump diaphragm pump screw pump gear pump &ydraulic pump vane pump regenerative (peripheral) pump peristaltic pump rope pump !ear pump his is the simplest of rotary positive displacement pumps. *t consists of two meshed gears rotating in a closely fitted casing. An example is the common hand soap pump.
Such pumps can develop very high pressure at quite low volumes. . his shaft fits inside a heavy duty rubber sleeve" of wall thickness typically x also. Progressing cavity pump (idely used for pumping difficult materials such as sewage sludge contaminated with large particles" this pump consists of a helical shaped rotor" about ten times as long as its width. As with other forms of rotary pumps" the clearance between moving parts and the pump7s casing is minimal.Screw pumps are a more complicated type of rotary pumps" featuring two or three screws with opposing thread 5# that is" one screw turns clockwise" and the other counterclockwise. Roots-type pumps 8amed after the $oots brothers who designed and invented it" this lobe pump works by displacing the liquid trapped between two long helical twisted rotors" each fitting into the other when perpendicular at 29:" rotating inside a triangular shaped sealing line configuration" both at the point of suction and at the point of discharge. his can be visuali4ed as a central core of diameter x" with typically a curved spiral wound around of thickness half x" although of course in reality it is made from one casting. he screws are each mounted on shafts that run parallel to each other6 the shafts also have gears on them that mesh with each other in order to turn the shafts together and keep everything in place. As the shaft rotates" fluid is gradually forced up the rubber sleeve. he turning of the screws" and consequently the shafts to which they are mounted" draws the fluid through the pump.
he fluid is contained within a flexible tube fitted inside a circular pump casing (though linear peristaltic pumps have been made). • Peristaltic pump <=9 3egree !eristaltic !ump A peristaltic pump is a type of positive displacement pump used for pumping a variety of fluids. Additionally" as the tube opens to its natural state after the passing of the cam (/restitution/) fluid flow is induced to the pump. Some applications are' • • &igh capacity industrial air compressors $oots superchargers on internal combustion engines. A rotor with a number of /rollers/" /shoes/ or /wipers/ attached to the external circumference compresses the flexible tube.his design produces a continuous flow with equal volume and no vortex.orporation7s hunderbolt. Plunger pumps . *t can work at low pulsation rates and results with gentle performance" more fit for some applications. As the rotor turns" the part of the tube under compression closes (or /occludes/) thus forcing the fluid to be pumped to move through the tube. A brand of civil defense siren" the 0ederal Signal . his process is called peristalsis and is used in many biological systems such as the gastrointestinal tract.
. . *n the suction stroke the plunger retracts and the suction valves open causing suction of fluid into the cylinder.hina as chain pumps over 1999 years ago" these pumps can be made from very simple materials' A rope" a wheel and a !?.ommonly seen in all areas of industry from shipping to processing" (ilden !umps" +raco" Sand!iper or A$@ are generally the larger of the brands. $ope . "ompressed-air-powered double-diaphragm pumps @ne modern application of positive displacement diaphragm pumps is compressed#air#powered double#diaphragm pumps. Lift is normally limited to roughly =m although heads can reach almost D99 !si. A lot of energy is wasted when the fluid is accelerated in the piping system. he suction and discharge valves are mounted in the head of the cylinder. ?ibration and /water hammer/ may be a serious problem. *n the forward stroke the plunger pushes the liquid out of the discharge valve. *n general the problems are compensated for by using two or more cylinders not working in phase with each other. Rope pumps 3evised in . pipe are sufficient to make a simple rope pump. hey are relatively inexpensive and can be used for almost any duty from pumping water out of bunds" to pumping hydrochloric acid from secure storage (dependent on how the pump is manufactured B elastomers C body construction).A plunger pump compared to a piston pump Plunger pumps are reciprocating positive displacement pumps. >fficiency and common problems' (ith only one cylinder in plunger pumps" the fluid flow varies between maximum flow when the plunger moves through the middle positions" and 4ero flow when the plunger is at the end positions. 0or this reason they have become extremely popular around the world since the 12E9s. hey consist of a cylinder with a reciprocating plunger in them. $un on compressed air these pumps are intrinsically safe by design" although all manufacturers offer A >A certified models to comply with industry regulation.
.FDG #mpulse pumps he pulser pump *mpulse pumps use pressure created by gas (usually air). $ydraulic ram pumps Airlift pump vs. Airlift pumps # run on air inserted into pipe" pushing up the water" when bubbles move upward" or on pressure inside pipe pushing water up. +eyser pump A hydraulic ram is a water pump powered by hydropower. (see below) !ulser pumps # run with natural resources" by kinetic energy only. *t functions as a hydraulic transformer that takes in water at one /hydraulic head/ (pressure) and flow#rate" and outputs water at a higher hydraulic#head and lower flow#rate. *mpulse pumps include' • • • &ydraulic ram pumps # uses pressure built up internally from released gas in liquid flow. *n some impulse pumps the gas trapped in the liquid (usually water)" is released and accumulated somewhere in the pump" creating a pressure which can push part of the liquid upwards. he device uses the water hammer effect to develop pressure that allows a portion of the input water that powers the pump to be lifted to a point higher than where the water originally started. he hydraulic ram is sometimes used in remote areas" where there is both a source of low#head hydropower" and a need for pumping water to a destination higher in elevation than the source.pump efficiency has been studied by grass roots organi4ations and the techniques for making and running them have been continuously improved.
onversion of added energy to increase in kinetic energy (increase in velocity) . 3ynamic pumps differ in that they can be safely operated under closed valve conditions (for short periods of time). hese types of pumps have a number of characteristics' • • .entrifugal pump . "entrifugal pump . elocity pumps A centrifugal pump uses a spinning /impeller/ which has backward#swept arms 3ynamic pumps can be further subdivided according to the means in which the velocity gain is achieved. his conversion of kinetic energy to pressure can be explained by the 0irst law of thermodynamics or more specifically by )ernoulli7s principle. his increase in energy is converted to a gain in potential energy (pressure) when the velocity is reduced prior to or as the flow exits the pump into the discharge pipe. !ositive displacement pumps physically displace the fluid6 hence closing a valve downstream of a positive displacement pump will result in a continual build up in pressure resulting in mechanical failure of either pipeline or pump. Rotodynamic pumps (or dynamic pumps) are a type of velocity pump in which kinetic energy is added to the fluid by increasing the flow velocity.ontinuous energy .onversion of increased velocity (kinetic energy) to an increase in pressure head • @ne practical difference between dynamic and positive displacement pumps is their ability to operate under closed valve conditions.*n this situation" the ram is often useful" since it requires no outside source of power other than the kinetic energy of flowing water.
entrifugal pumps are typically used for large discharge through smaller heads. he fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller" flowing radially outward or axially into a diffuser or volute chamber" from where it exits into the downstream piping system. .entrifugal pumps are most often associated with the radial flow type. $adial flow pumps operate at higher pressures and lower flow rates than axial and mixed flow pumps.@pen ype . he fluid enters along the axial plane" is accelerated by the impeller and exits at right angles to the shaft (radially). A%ial flow pumps Axial pump (propeller in pipe) .entrifugal pumps are the most common type of pump used to move liquids through a piping system. . Radial flow pumps @ften simply referred to as centrifugal pumps. &owever" the term /centrifugal pump/ can be used to describe all impeller type rotodynamic pumpsFHG including the radial" axial and mixed flow variations. .entrifugal !ump *mpeller A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure and flow rate of a fluid.
hey include any type of pump powered by a steam engine and also pistonless pumps such as homas Savery7s" the !ulsometer steam pump or the Steam inIection pump. his low pressure sucks in fluid and propels it into a higher pressure region. &owever the use of modern engineering materials coupled with alternative engine configurations has meant that these types of system are now a cost effective opportunity. &i%ed flow pumps %ixed flow pumps" as the name suggests" function as a compromise between radial and axial flow pumps" the fluid experiences both radial acceleration and lift and exits the impeller somewhere between 9B29 degrees from the axial direction. he exit angle of the flow dictates the pressure head#discharge characteristic in relation to radial and mixed flow. As a consequence mixed flow pumps operate at higher pressures than axial flow pumps while delivering higher discharges than radial flow pumps. )team pumps Steam pumps have been for a long time mainly of historical interest. Axial flow pumps operate at much lower pressures and higher flow rates than radial flow pumps. 'ductor-(et pump his uses a Iet" often of steam" to create a low pressure. *n microfluidics" valveless impedance pump have been fabricated" and are expected to be particularly suitable for handling sensitive biofluids. he hydraulic ram is also sometimes referred to as a gravity pump. hey may be likened to a propeller spinning in a length of tube. *n a valveless pumping system" no valves are present to regulate the flow direction. he fluid is not accelerated but instead /lifted/ by the action of the impeller. %eanwhile" the embryonic vertebrate heart begins pumping blood long before the development of discernable chambers and valves. . alveless pumps ?alveless pumping assists in fluid transport in various biomedical and engineering systems. !reviously small steam engines have not been viable because of escalating inefficiencies as vapour engines decrease in si4e. he fluid pumping efficiency of a valveless system" however" is not necessarily lower than that having valves. 0or instance" blood circulation in the cardiovascular system is maintained to some extent even when the heartJs valves fail.Axial flow pumps differ from radial flow in that the fluid enters and exits along the same direction parallel to the rotating shaft. *n fact" many fluid#dynamical systems in nature and engineering more or less rely upon valveless pumping to transport the working fluids therein. !ravity pumps +ravity pumps include the syphon and &eron7s fountain B and there also important qanat or foggara systems which simply use downhill flow to take water from far#underground aquifers in high areas to consumers at lower elevations. $ecently there has been a resurgence of interest in low power solar steam pumps for use in smallholder irrigation in developing countries.
>arly applications includes the use of the windmill or watermill to pump water. !umps are used throughout society for a variety of purposes. )ecause of the wide variety of applications" pumps have a plethora of shapes and si4es' from very large to very small" from handling gas to handling liquid" from high pressure to low pressure" and from high volume to low volume.FEG @ne sort of pump once common worldwide was a hand#powered water pump" or 7pitcher pump7.Applications %etering pump for gasoline and additives. Pumps as public water supplies 0irst >uropean depiction of a piston pump" by accola" c. Priming a pump Liquid and slurry pumps can lose prime and this will require the pump to be primed by adding liquid to the pump and inlet pipes to get the pump started.1HK9. Although such community pumps are no longer common" the expression /parish pump/ is still used. oday" the pump is used for irrigation" water supply" gasoline supply" air conditioning systems" refrigeration (usually called a compressor)" chemical movement" sewage movement" flood control" marine services" etc. *t would be installed over a community water well that was used by people in the days before piped water supplies. *n parts of the )ritish *sles" it was often called /the parish pump/. *t derives from the kind of the chatter and conversation that might be heard as people congregated to draw water . Loss of /prime/ is usually due to ingestion of air into the pump. he clearances and displacement ratios in pumps used for liquids and other more viscous fluids cannot displace the air due to its lower density.
his pump is mainly used on surface applications where the pumped fluid may contain a considerable amount of solids such as sand and dirt. hese pumps are basically multistage centrifugal pumps and are widely used in oil well applications as a method for artificial lift.from the community water pump" and is now used to describe a place or forum where matter of purely local interest is discussed. &owever" scarcity of spare parts for these type of pumps in some regions of Africa has diminished their utility for these areas. A hand pump opens access to deeper groundwater that is often not polluted and also improves the safety of a well by protecting the water source from contaminated buckets.F2G )ecause water from pitcher pumps is drawn directly from the soil" it is more prone to contamination. he challenge is selecting the appropriate mechanical seal arrangement and support system to ensure maximi4ed seal life and its overall effectiveness. . win screw pumps are often used when pumping conditions contain high gas volume fractions and fluctuating inlet conditions. 7Twin Screw (Positive Displacement)' he twin screw pump is constructed of two intermeshing screws that force the movement of the pumped fluid. !rogressive cavity pumps are single# screw types typically used in shallow wells or at the surface. Progressive "avity Pumps +Positive Displacement. A rotodynamic pump with one single shaft requiring two mechanical seals.Fcitation neededG *ypes and features of multiphase pumps $elico-A%ial Pumps +"entrifugal. he head can be simplified as the number of feet or metres the pump can raise or lower a column of water at atmospheric pressure. his pump utili4es an open#type axial impeller. As the name indicates" multiphase pumps and their mechanical seals can encounter a large variation in service conditions such as changing process fluid composition" temperature variations" high and low operating pressures and exposure to abrasiveCerosive media. %odern hand operated community pumps are considered the most sustainable low cost option for safe water supply in resource poor settings" often in rural areas in developing countries. 0our mechanical seals are required to seal the two shafts. he buffer tank breaks the energy of the liquid slug" smoothes any fluctuations in the incoming flow and acts as a sand trap. 'lectric )ubmersible Pumps +"entrifugal. -uffer *ank A buffer tank is often installed upstream of the pump suction no44le in case of a slug flow. )pecifications !umps are commonly rated by horsepower" flow rate" outlet pressure in metres (or feet) of head" inlet suction in suction feet (or metres) of head. hese pumps are usually specified when the pumped fluid is mainly liquid. his pump type is often referred to as a /!oseidon !ump/ and can be described as a cross between an axial compressor and a centrifugal pump. *f such water is not filtered and purified" consumption of it might lead to gastrointestinal or other water#borne diseases. !umps like the Afridev pump are designed to be cheap to build and install" and easy to maintain with simple parts.
g. 0or the fluid imparting the work on the pump (i. &owever a more simple equation relating only the different energies in the fluid" known as )ernoulli7s equation can be used. !ump efficiencies tend to decline over time due to wear (e.e. solutions to the 8avier#stokes for the particular pump geometry)" or by testing. he total pressure may have gravitational" static pressure and kinetic energy components6 i.e.e. *n general" this is governed by a series of simultaneous differential equations" known as the 8avier#Stokes equations. !ump performance data such as this is usually supplied by the manufacturer before pump selection. 0or centrifugal pumps" the efficiency tends to increase with flow rate up to a point midway through the operating range (peak efficiency) and then declines as flow rates rise further. *n the water industry and for pharma applications SS <1= is normally used" as stainless steel gives better results at high temperatures. Pump material he pump material can be Stainless steel (SS <1= or SS <9H)" cast iron etc. .) 0or a typical /pumping/ configuration" the work is imparted on the fluid" and is thus positive. hus the power relationship is between the conversion of the mechanical energy of the pump mechanism and the fluid elements within the pump. a turbine)" the work is negative power required to drive the pump is determined by dividing the output power by the pump efficiency. *ts value is not fixed for a given pump" efficiency is a function of the discharge and therefore also operating head. increasing clearances as impellers reduce in si4e). Pumping power he power imparted into a fluid will increase the energy of the fluid per unit volume. he efficiency of the pump will depend upon the pump7s configuration and operating conditions (such as rotational speed" fluid density and viscosity etc. O is the pump efficiency" and may be given by the manufacturer7s information" such as in the form of a pump curve" and is typically derived from either fluid dynamics simulation (i. 0urthermore" this definition encompasses pumps with no moving parts" such as a siphon. Pump efficiency !ump efficiency is defined as the ratio of the power imparted on the fluid by the pump in relation to the power supplied to drive the pump. &ence the power" !" required by the pump' where L! is the change in total pressure between the inlet and outlet (in !a)" and M" the fluid flowrate is given in mN<Cs.0rom an initial design point of view" engineers often use a quantity termed the specific speed to identify the most suitable pump type for a particular combination of flow rate and head. energy is distributed between change in the fluid7s gravitational potential energy (going up or down hill)" change in velocity" or change in static pressure. *t depends on the application of the pump.
!ump selection is done by performance curve which is curve between pressure head and flow rate" with power supply also taken care of. hey should be individually tested to ensure they are in the appropriate range" and replaced or prepared as appropriate. !umping stations should also be tested collectively" because where pumps can run in combination to meet a given demand" it is often possible for very inefficient combination of pumps to occur. Another method is thermodynamic pump testing where only the temperature rise and power consumed need be measured . *n water supply application" which are usually fitted with centrifugal pumps" individual large pumps should be P9 # E9Q efficient. 0or example. See !ump station manager !umps are readily tested by fitting a flow meter" measuring the pressure difference between inlet and outlet" and measuring the power consumed. !umps are normally available that run at K9 &4 or =9 &4.@ne important part of system design involves matching the pipeline head loss#flow characteristic with the appropriate pump or pumps in order to operate at or close to the point of maximum efficiency. it is perfectly possible to have a large and a small pump operating in parallel" with the smaller pump not delivering any water" but merely consuming energy. Pump testing o minimise energy use" and to ensure that pumps are correctly matched to the duty expected pumps" and pumping stations should be regularly tested. !ump efficiency is an important aspect and pumps should be regularly tested. hermodynamic pump testing is one method.
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